Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An mRNA metabolic process that distinguishes a normal STOP CODON from a premature stop codon (NONSENSE CODON) and facilitates rapid degradation of aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.
If the amount in the sample is below an instrument's range of measurement, the method of addition can be used. In this method a ... micro total analysis system (µTAS) or lab-on-a-chip). Microscale chemistry reduces the amounts of chemicals used. ... including mRNA and associated fields; lipidomics - lipids and its associated fields; peptidomics - peptides and its associated ... Often the amount of material in the solution being analyzed may be determined. Most familiar to those who have taken chemistry ...
The number of seizures is inversely correlated with the amount of RNA editing. Human GluR6 pre-mRNA editing is increased during ... Significant amounts of both edited and non-edited forms of GluR6 transcripts are found in the adult brain. The receptor is 90% ... The pre-mRNA of GLUR6 is edited at amino acid positions 567, 571, and 621. The Q/R position, which gets its name as editing ... The type of RNA editing that occurs in the pre-mRNA of GluR6 is Adenosine to Inosine (A to I) editing. A to I RNA editing is ...
Third, cells use many other mechanisms to regulate proteins in addition to altering the amount of mRNA, so these genes may stay ... Second, many of the genes code for proteins that are required for survival in very specific amounts so many genes do not change ... Expression profiling experiments often involve measuring the relative amount of mRNA expressed in two or more experimental ... Genes contain the instructions for making messenger RNA (mRNA), but at any moment each cell makes mRNA from only a fraction of ...
The mutations disrupt splicing of the RELN mRNA transcript, resulting in low or undetectable amounts of reelin protein. The ... Furthermore, radial glia express the same amount of ApoER2 but being ten times less rich in VLDLR. beta-1 integrin receptors on ... Reduced reelin mRNA prefrontal expression in schizophrenia was found to be the most statistically relevant disturbance found in ... conducted the study in which RELN mRNA and reelin protein levels were measured in rat prefrontal cortex following a 21-day of ...
Biotin and retinoic acid increase GCK mRNA transcription as well as GK activity. Fatty acids in significant amounts amplify GK ... The amount of glucokinase can be increased by synthesis of new protein. Insulin is the principal signal for increased ... Although most of the glucokinase in the body is in the liver, smaller amounts in the beta and alpha cells of the pancreas, ... As G6P is consumed, increasing amounts of ATP initiate a series of processes that result in release of insulin. One of the ...
In genetics, transcriptional amplification is the process in which the total amounts of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules from ... This increase in the amount of gene product may result in a decreased doubling time. Transcriptional amplification has been ... Additionally, global measurements of mRNA or total mRNA per cell can also uncover evidence for transcriptional amplification. ... At the subset of genes expressed in a given cell, the transcribing activity of RNA Polymerase II results in mRNA production. ...
... the amounts of mRNA species change and will be produced N>P>M>G>L proteins. During their synthesis the mRNAs are processed to ... end of the genome RNA to start mRNA synthesis again. This process will results concentration gradient of the amount of mRNA ... mRNAs for N protein can always be produced and accumulate in high amounts with every termination of transcription. After the ... Also, mRNAs accumulate according to the order of protein sequences on the genome, solving the logistics problem in the cell. ...
Through this mechanism, there is a mild deficiency in normal β mRNA and production of small amounts of anomalous β mRNA. The ... As the amount of fetal hemoglobin decreases and hemoglobin S increases, a mild hemolytic anemia appears in the early stage of ... The βE mutation affects β-gene expression creating an alternate splicing site in the mRNA at codons 25-27 of the β-globin gene ... Also, this hemoglobin variant has a weak union between α- and β-globin, causing instability when there is a high amount of ...
... for using peptide and protein microarrays is firstly because mRNA transcripts often correlate poorly with the actual amount of ... Microfluidics refers to systems that manipulate small ( µL, nL, pL, fL) amounts of fluids on microfabricated substrates. ... In cDNA microarrays, mRNA from cells are collected and converted into cDNA by reverse transcription. Subsequently, cDNA ... Thirdly, some bodily fluids such as urine lack mRNA. A protein microarray consists of a protein library immobilized on a ...
Large amounts of the maternal mRNA are destroyed at this point, either by proteins such as SMAUG in Drosophila or by microRNA. ... During blastulation, a significant amount of activity occurs within the early embryo to establish cell polarity, cell ... These two processes shift the control of the embryo from the maternal mRNA to the nuclei. A blastula is a sphere of cells ... The mid-blastula transition is also characterized by a marked increase in transcription of new, non-maternal mRNA transcribed ...
Since Rev is continuously shuttled between the nucleus and cytoplasm, small amounts of the protein are able to impact many mRNA ... There is a decrease in Rev production when Rev protein levels are higher than is necessary for the given amount of HIV-1 genome ... The export of fully spliced mRNAs (early, regulatory genes) occurs in the same manner as the normal export of cellular mRNAs. ... where it is involved in the export of unspliced and incompletely spliced mRNAs. In the absence of Rev, mRNAs of the HIV-1 late ...
... as well as the limited amount of DNA extracted from a single cell. Due to scant amounts of DNA, accurate analysis of DNA poses ... To target larger non-poly(A) RNAs, such as long non-coding mRNA, histone mRNA, circular RNA, and enhancer RNA, size selection ... May 2009). "mRNA-Seq whole-transcriptome analysis of a single cell". Nature Methods. 6 (5): 377-82. doi:10.1038/NMETH.1315. ... A typical human cell consists of about 2 x 3.3 billion base pairs of DNA and 600 million bases of mRNA. Usually a mix of ...
Although microarray studies can reveal the relative amounts of different mRNAs in the cell, levels of mRNA are not directly ... can be complicated by the fact that relatively small changes in mRNA expression can produce large changes in the total amount ... It is sometimes used to refer to all RNAs, or just mRNA, depending on the particular experiment. It differs from the exome in ... Because it includes all mRNA transcripts in the cell, the transcriptome reflects the genes that are being actively expressed at ...
PCR supplies these techniques with high amounts of pure DNA, enabling analysis of DNA samples even from very small amounts of ... Quantitative PCR or Real Time PCR (qPCR[26], not to be confused with RT-PCR) methods allow the estimation of the amount of a ... Quantitative PCR for example, can be used to quantify and analyze single cells, as well as recognize DNA, mRNA and protein ... The amount of virus ("viral load") in a patient can also be quantified by PCR-based DNA quantitation techniques (see below). ...
They say mRNA vaccines take less time to develop and make, than protein or whole-virus vaccines.[22][23] ... The scientists measured the amount of antibodies and guessed it would be enough to fight off the SARS-CoV-2 virus if the mice ... The scientists said it would be easy to make large amounts of vaccine and large numbers of microneedle arrays to use on people ... In mid-May 2020, a company called Moderna said they tested their mRNA vaccine in forty-five people and eight of them produced ...
transcription - the process of making messenger RNA (mRNA) from a DNA template by RNA polymerase ... turn on and off-genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount ... Not only do transcription factors control the rates of transcription to regulate the amounts of gene products (RNA and protein ... factors are critical to making sure that genes are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount, ...
Trace amounts of theophylline are also found in brewed tea, although brewed tea provides only about 1 mg/L,[17] which is ... A small amount of theophylline is one of the products of caffeine metabolic processing in the liver.[1] ... conversion of pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in COPD and asthma via cAMP-PKA pathway and suppresses COL1 mRNA, which ... Trace amounts of theophylline are also found in guarana (Paullinia cupana) and in kola nuts cola (plant) [18] ...
If large amounts of ethanol are present, then large amounts of NADH are produced, leading to a depletion of NAD+. Thus, the ... LDHBx is generated by translation of the LDHB mRNA, but the stop codon is interpreted as an amino acid-encoding codon. In ... This lack of a functional subunit reduces the amount of enzyme formed, leading to an overall decrease in activity. During the ... LDH is a protein that normally appears throughout the body in small amounts. Many cancers can raise LDH levels, so LDH may be ...
For elution, an excess amount of a compound able to act as a metal ion ligand, such as imidazole, is used. GST has an affinity ... Nucleic acids function to trap mRNA, DNA, rRNA, and other nucleic acids/oligonucleotides. Protein A/G method is used to purify ... Boronate affinity chromatography consists of using boronic acid or boronates to elute and quantify amounts of glycoproteins. ... These chromatographic processes are known as periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC). The resin costs per amount of ...
In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA.[17] ... RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior to translation to protein. ... the highest gradient is most likely nearest the start site because it was single stranded for the longest amount of time).[17] ...
"AMOUNT OF LACTOSE IN MILK PRODUCTS". food-intolerance-network.com. Food Intolerance Network. 21 November 2013. Archived from ... Bacteria in the colon can metabolise lactose, and the resulting fermentation produces copious amounts of gas (a mixture of ... for research applications such as mRNA measurements, a specialist laboratory is required. ... Lactose is found primarily in dairy products, which vary in the amount of lactose they contain: *Milk - unprocessed cow's milk ...
Other factors, such as cell type, concurrent stimulation of other cytokines, or the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can ... Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other bacterial products, and Interleukin-1 (IL-1). In the ...
Common symptoms of the flu such as fever, headaches, and fatigue are the result of the huge amounts of proinflammatory ... November 2012). "Protective efficacy of in vitro synthesized, specific mRNA vaccines against influenza A virus infection". Nat ... In healthy adults it is modestly effective in decreasing the amount of influenza-like symptoms in a population.[106] In healthy ... cellular mRNA and using the released nucleotides for vRNA synthesis and also inhibiting translation of host-cell mRNAs.[78] ...
Throughout the history of the NIH, the amount of funding received has increased, but the proportion to each IC remains ... OMB determines what amounts and research areas are approved for incorporation into the President's final budget. The President ... one receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine and the other receiving salt water injections - and will continue until there have been ... institutes under the aegis of the NIH did not comply with the time and amount requirements specified in appropriations statutes ...
The process of synthesizing a protein from an mRNA template is known as translation. The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and ... The development of such tools has been driven by the large amount of genomic and proteomic data available for a variety of ... Bruckdorfer T, Marder O, Albericio F (February 2004). "From production of peptides in milligram amounts for research to multi- ... mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms then process the pre-mRNA (also known as a primary transcript) using ...
The test result is currently reported as a specimen ratio of PCA3 mRNA to PSA mRNA. Although not a replacement for serum PSA ... thus affects the amount of MSMB protein synthesized and secreted by epithelial cells of the prostate.[33] ... and prostate cells sacrifice enormous amounts of energy (ATP) in order to accomplish this task. Prostate cancer cells are ... PCA3 mRNA is expressed almost exclusively by prostate cells and has been shown to be highly over-expressed in prostate cancer ...
The release of small amounts of cyt c leads to an interaction with the IP3 receptor (IP3R) on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ... Measuring the amount of cytochrome c leaking from mitochondria to cytosol, and out of the cell to culture medium, is a ...
Voluntary nutrients may be shown if present in significant amounts. Instead of Daily Values, amounts are shown as percent of ... The amount of folate given is depleted by rapidly dividing cells (cancer) quickly, so does not negate the effects of ... RNA transcription and subsequent protein synthesis are less affected by folate deficiency, as the mRNA can be recycled and used ... No common side effects are known.[4] Concerns exist that large amounts of folic acid might hide vitamin B12 deficiency. Folic ...
Specifically, this method covalently links proteins of interest to the mRNAs encoding them, then detects the mRNA pieces using ... the chain-terminator method used fewer toxic chemicals and lower amounts of radioactivity than the Maxam and Gilbert method. ... "Amount and distribution of 5-methylcytosine in human DNA from different types of tissues or cells". Nucleic Acids Research. 10 ... The mRNA may then be amplified and sequenced. The combined method was titled IVV-HiTSeq and can be performed under cell-free ...
... mRNAs) or cause degradation of mRNAs.[14] In hybrid plants, most miRNAs have non-additive expression (it might be higher or ... The massive efforts to study the human genome in detail have produced extraordinary amounts of genetic data. Although we still ... the greater on the whole is the amount of stimulation … These differences need not be Mendelian in their inheritance … To avoid ...
... a small amount is excreted in urine, and a small amount is found in saliva.[69] ... When used several hours before sleep according to the phase response curve for melatonin in humans, small amounts (0.3 mg[67]) ... presence of LINE-1 fragment in a cDNA clone and pineal mRNA". DNA and Cell Biology. 12 (8): 715-27. doi:10.1089/dna.1993.12.715 ...
... small amounts of oxidation products are formed due to the oxygen trapping of an allylic radical intermediate at positions 13 ... HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. The two 15-HETE stereoisomers have intrinsic biological activities ... "Expression of a mitogen-responsive gene encoding prostaglandin synthase is regulated by mRNA splicing". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) ...
After consuming a fulfilling amount of blood, the female starts its digestion, which requires three to four days. Females are ... Lutzomyia Longipalpis, like most other blood-sucking organisms, ingest large amounts of blood in a single meal. A female ... Studies involving isoenzyme electrophoresis, genetic polymorphism assessments of DNA and mRNA, cytogenetics, analysis studies ...
The test result is currently reported as a specimen ratio of PCA3 mRNA to PSA mRNA. The PCA3 test attempts to help decide ... thus affects the amount of MSMB protein synthesized and secreted by epithelial cells of the prostate. While fewer studies have ... and prostate cells require enormous amounts of energy (ATP) to accomplish this task. Prostate cancer cells are generally devoid ... PCA3 mRNA is expressed almost exclusively by prostate cells and has been shown to be highly over-expressed in prostate cancer ...
This alteration, in combination with a smaller amount of mRNA substrate, collectively contributes to a reduction in the net ... These analyses were carried out under state 3 metabolic conditions, that is, non-limiting amounts of substrate and cofactors to ... This results in a reduced level of both pre-mRNA and mRNA pools (the latter being a substrate for protein translation) for ... Also, the average amount of work done on the bicycle ergometer was more than doubled on Skylab 3, with all crewmembers ...
This typically leads to anemia due to an inadequate amount of serum iron being available for developing red blood cells. When ... The tumor tissue appeared to be overproducing hepcidin, and contained large quantities of hepcidin mRNA. Removing the tumors ... smaller amounts are synthesised in other tissues such as fat cells. Hepcidin was first discovered in human urine and serum in ...
There was a downregulation of PHOT1 mRNA in the presence of light, but upregulation of PHOT2 transcript. The levels of mRNA and ... The amounts of PHOT1 and PHOT2 present are different depending on the age of the plant and the intensity of the light. There is ... a high amount of PHOT2 present in mature Arabidopsis leaves and this was also seen in rice orthologs. The expression of PHOT1 ...
Comparison of different input amounts:. 10 pg-10 ng of Human Brain Total RNA was used as input for the SMART-Seq v4 Ultra Low ... Excellent Metrics Across RNA Input Amount. The SMART-Seq v4 Ultra Low Input RNA Kit for Sequencing produces libraries that ... Improving the Sensitivity of Ultra-Low Input mRNA-Seq. SMART-Seq v4 Ultra Low Input RNA Kit for Sequencing. *Powered by SMART ... Sequencing metrics are consistent across RNA input amounts. 10 pg-10 ng of Human Brain Total RNA were used to generate cDNA ...
If the amount in the sample is below an instruments range of measurement, the method of addition can be used. In this method a ... micro total analysis system (µTAS) or lab-on-a-chip). Microscale chemistry reduces the amounts of chemicals used. ... including mRNA and associated fields; lipidomics - lipids and its associated fields; peptidomics - peptides and its associated ... Often the amount of material in the solution being analyzed may be determined. Most familiar to those who have taken chemistry ...
The amounts of mRNA for LH beta subunit, FSH beta subunit, alpha subunit, growth hormone, and prolactin were measured in the ... Hamernik, D. L. ; Kim, K. E. ; Maurer, R. A. ; Nett, T. M. / Progesterone does not affect the amount of mRNA for gonadotropins ... Hamernik, D. L., Kim, K. E., Maurer, R. A., & Nett, T. M. (1987). Progesterone does not affect the amount of mRNA for ... This effect, however, is not due to a decrease in the steady-state amount of mRNA for LH beta or alpha subunits. ...
Effects of starvation and refeeding on PDP1 and PDP2 protein and mRNA amounts in rat heart. A: Upper panel: Autoradiograph of ... Effects of starvation and refeeding on PDP1 and PDP2 protein and mRNA amounts in rat kidney. A: Upper panel: Autoradiograph of ... Effects of diabetes and insulin treatment on PDP2 protein and mRNA amounts in rat heart and kidney. A: Quantitative changes of ... Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on PDP2 protein amount and mRNA abundance in rat heart and kidney.. Induction of ...
mRNA amounts were normalized to 18S rRNA. (H and I) qPCR showed that the MCP-1 level is elevated significantly in both retina ... 6C, P , 0.01). D-JNKi treatment also reduced the amount of VEGF and F4/80 positive cells in the neovascular tissue (Figs. S3 ... The relative amounts of transcripts were compared with those of 18S mRNA and normalized to untreated samples by the ∆∆Ct method ... 4H). However, only a very moderate increase in MCP-1 mRNA was detected in both retina and choroid in Jnk1−/− mice (Fig. 4I). ...
Actin was used as a control for mRNA amount.. FIG. 23. shows the release of VEGF protein. Competitive ELISA for quantification ... The culture medium may be replenished with the reagent every couple of days in amounts so as to keep the concentration of the ... shows VEGF mRNA levels. Neurospheres were cultured in a defined medium in the presence of EGF and FGF. Using RT-PCR, the MRNA ... GADPH expression served as quality control of the mRNA.. FIG. 22. shows Flk-1 mRNA levels. Left. Neural stem cells from the ...
The amount of mRNA encoding polyubiquitin 1 (mubg1) is unchanged. Lls1 mRNA (lls1) is absent in the mutant. (C) HPL ... Only extracts from senescent wild-type leaves produced substantial amounts of pFCC-1 in the in vitro assay (Fig. 3F). ... Thus in vitro, the intermediate, RCC, does not accumulate to substantial amounts in the absence of RCCR, indicating that RCC is ... Expression levels were normalized to the levels of mRNA encoding the actin 2 protein (48). Sag12 encoding a senescence-specific ...
The determined amounts of mRNA molecules are compared. A test sample of tissue which contains less of the mRNA molecules than ... The amount of specific mRNA molecules in a test sample of tissue suspected of being cancerous and in a human tissue which is ... The determined amounts of mRNA molecules are then compared. A test sample of human tissue which contains more of the mRNA ... and 15 The determined amounts of mRNA molecules are compared. A test sample of human tissue which contains more of the mRNA ...
The amount of hTAS2R38 mRNA is only 62% of the hTAS2R1 mRNA, although the difference is not statistically significant. The ... To verify these results and to determine the total amounts of mRNAs present in human gustatory tissue, we performed ... mRNAs of all 25 hTAS2R genes were detected within individual, stained cells that are located in taste buds (Fig. 2 A). Both the ... Human TAS2R mRNA is present in a subset of α-gustducin-expressing cells. Dual-color in situ hybridization was done using a ...
... mRNA) in the nucleus. However, the cytoplasm contains normal alpha1 mRNA; therefore, reduced amounts of structurally normal ... Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Orthopediatrics, Inc. ...
A) Changes in AChE activity; (B) Corresponding AChE mRNA (538 bp) amounts; (C) Actin expression (259 bp). DZN, diazinon; CPF, ... The magnitude of the effect is due to the amount of blocked receptors, which depends on the body mass of the target organisms. ... These are the basis of a number of pesticides and insecticides used worldwide and poured into the environment in the amount of ... In this moment AChE, that has been synthesized in great amount and stored inside the cortical granules and other membranous ...
Amount of mRNA per cell type. Healthy donor peripheral blood was obtained through the blood transfusion center in Lausanne. ... to account for different amounts of mRNA in different cell types and enable meaningful comparison with flow cytometry and IHC ... correspond actually to the fraction of mRNA coming from each cell type, rather than the cell proportions. As the mRNA content ... and observed that cancer cells had similar amount of mRNA than B, NK and T cells (Figure 1-figure supplement 2B). We thus used ...
relationship with p35 amounts in various cell lines. A substantial reduced amount of mRNA and p35 amounts was noticed after ... 3-UTR, amount of binding sites with a free of charge energy smaller sized that ?20.0 kcal/mol., amount of binding sites. ... the amount of transcript shifts through the polysomal towards the subpolysomal mRNA small fraction after transfection with pre- ... We discovered that the 3-UTR of individual harbours putative focus on sites for 20 different miRNAs (Desk 1). The amount of ...
Changes in mRNA abundance usually alter the amount of the corresponding protein, so processes that alter mRNA levels such as ... The last major hurdle to an entirely wireless world is to be able to efficiently transfer reasonable amounts of power. One way ... nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and exosome-mediated mRNA decay (EMD). We are interested in identifying and studying mRNAs ... One way cells regulate genes is through degradation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) molecules. mRNA molecules are copies ...
Kapa Stranded mRNA-Seq Kit, Kapa mRNA HyperPrep Kit and Illumina TruSeq Stranded mRNA Kit. The input RNA amount and number of ... Generate the highest yields of high quality libraries, with a broad range of input amounts: *10 ng - 1 µg Total RNA (polyA mRNA ... mRNA Magnetic Isolation Module), Illumina TruSeq Stranded mRNA Kit, Kapa Stranded mRNA-Seq Kit and Kapa mRNA HyperPrep Kit. ... mRNA Magnetic Isolation Module), Illumina TruSeq Stranded mRNA Kit, Kapa Stranded mRNA-Seq Kit and Kapa mRNA HyperPrep Kit. ...
mRNA in various tissues was assessed by real-time PCR at time 9. mRNA amounts in the tiny intestine on time 9 post-tamoxifen ... Liver-specific deletion of does not have any influence on ER tension but leads to a reduced amount of plasma triglycerides and ... Importantly, little intestine Lpcat3 insufficiency has a very much bigger influence on plasma lipid amounts than that of liver ... however, not various other lipid amounts. Furthermore, there is absolutely no significant lipid deposition in the liver organ. ...
This mRNA will multiply enormously, producing very large amounts of spike protein. This spike protein, because it is in very ... "Experts" all over the world, however, related this concern by saying that the amount of genetic instructions in the male and ... But potentially there are other mRNAs in there, which if injected into the body will instruct the body to make all kinds of ... Doctors warn of possible transmission of the spike protein created by the injected mRNA to unvaccinated people. by GreatReject ...
Silencing in C6 led to a reduced amount of 955977-50-1 IC50 the mRNA coupled with a loss of the mitochondrial glutamate carrier ... their mRNA amounts are equivalent in the mind (Fiermonte et al., 2002). Furthermore, the Kilometres and Vmax beliefs of GC1 are ... The mRNA appearance degree of GC1 is certainly greater than that of GC2 in lots of tissues, notably liver organ, pancreas and ... 3.9 mol/min/g of proteins, respectively, Fiermonte et al., 2002). In the light of their mRNA level expressions and kinetic ...
and mRNA amounts had been assessed by qPCR after 4?h of treatment. The cell viability was dependant on CellTiter-Glo after 13?h ... Supplementary Materialssupplementary Amount legends 41419_2018_524_MOESM1_ESM. * Post author By siamtech ... mRNA oscillated with top in 90?min (Fig * To assess the multifunctionality of CD8+ memory T cells in the hours following VV-GP ... Supplementary Materialssupplementary Amount legends 41419_2018_524_MOESM1_ESM. contrast, necroptosis induced by direct ...
F1 had the greatest amount of MBP mRNA, B6 the least, and D2 an intermediate amount. F1 again had the greatest amount of MBP ... By using a 32P‐labelled cDNA probe for myelin basic protein (MBP; pMBP‐1) the amounts of RNA coding for MBP present in the ... F1 had the greatest amount of MBP mRNA, B6 the least, and D2 an intermediate amount. F1 again had the greatest amount of MBP ... F1 had the greatest amount of MBP mRNA, B6 the least, and D2 an intermediate amount. F1 again had the greatest amount of MBP ...
Graphs depict typical relative mRNA amounts from three natural replicates normalized to two guide genes. Dark asterisks ... Amount 1J; Supplementary Amount S14). Nevertheless, JQ1 treatment didnt increase Compact disc15 in cells (Amount 1J; ... Graphs depict typical relative mRNA amounts from three natural replicates normalized to two research genes. Dark asterisks ... Amount 1J; Supplementary Amount S14A). Pursuing 24?h of treatment with JQ1, cell surface area protein degrees of Package ...
CD28 costimulates TCR-induced IL-2 output by increasing steady condition IL-2 mRNA amounts. In purchase to establish if the ... Even so, it is essential that lively Ras alone without any 309913-83-5stimulation was able to induce the maximal amount of ... Genuine-time RT-PCR was then done about time to figure out the kinetics of IL-2 mRNA decay. As demonstrated in Figure 5C, both ... As revealed in Determine 4B, constitutive Ras signaling by yourself was able to increase glucose uptake to amounts very similar ...
In accordance with control (PBS) cells, MET reduced the amount of practical cells (Fig.?3a) and reduced cyclin D1 (mRNA amounts ... TATA-binding proteins mRNA was utilized as the normalization control for mRNA amounts in b. Data (mean SEM) are from three 3rd ... and evaluated for particular mRNA amounts by QPCR. TATA-binding proteins mRNA was utilized. ... a, b Cells had been treated with MET (60?M) for 2?h and 24?h and evaluated for particular mRNA amounts by QPCR. Cells treated ...
NEDD8 in the shRNA group was significantly suppressed in both mRNA and proteins levels (Amount?3). Therefore, a highly ... Amounts of colonies and cells in the shNEDD8 group were decreased in comparison to handles significantly. C,D, Knocking down ... Level of tumors in the shNEDD8 group was significantly smaller sized than that of handles (Amount?8A). Then, metastatic tumors ... Knocking down of NEDD8 induced significant inhibition of cell proliferation ( 0.05 Open up in another window Amount 4 Slicing ...
We come across that extrinsic stimuli may accelerate ICP4 kinetics without increasing ICP4 mRNA or proteins amounts. The ... document amount 84-02.04.2016.A395). All tests were performed. ... ICP4 mRNA change: CGCGGAGACGGAGGAG). Comparative mRNA degree of ... accelerated ICP4 kineticsdespite unchanged steady-state ICP4 mRNA or protein levelcorrelate with an increase of HSV-1 ...
Our outcomes claim that miR-205 downregulate s the appearance of MLL-AF4 at both mRNA and proteins amounts. Evidence can be ... Reduced amount of MLL-AF4 transcript amounts induces apoptosis and impairs cell proliferation.3,4 Therefore, targeted ... of focus on mRNAs (messenger RNAs), or by directing mRNA degradation.5 Mammalian miRs can control several cellular features, ... and recovery of their amounts may represent a potential healing approach to the treating MLL-AF4 ALL.11 Utilizing a luciferase ...
P19 uterocalin mRNA amounts had been higher in dioestrus than in oestrus on the initial 24?h of irritation. Neutrophils and ... Remedies and procedures had been accepted by the College or university of Melbourne Pet Ethics Committee (Acceptance Amount: ... these studies claim that hormone amounts affect the immune system response within the equine uterus. As susceptibility to PMIE ...
mRNA-vaccines do not change your DNA. This is patently BS. In general they instruct some cells to produce a part of the COVID- ... PCR doubles the amount of genetic material with each cycle run. Buy enough cans of alphabet soup and youve got the ... Technicians choose sensible amounts of cycles and if the result isnt convincing enough there will be secondary tests (antigen ... The mRNA vaccine also contains syncytin-1 a protein necessary for placental development (but also present in sperm). Will the ...
mRNA-vaccines do not change your DNA. This is patently BS. In general they instruct some cells to produce a part of the COVID- ... PCR doubles the amount of genetic material with each cycle run. Buy enough cans of alphabet soup and youve got the ... Technicians choose sensible amounts of cycles and if the result isnt convincing enough there will be secondary tests (antigen ... The mRNA vaccine also contains syncytin-1 a protein necessary for placental development (but also present in sperm). Will the ...
mRNA-vaccines do not change your DNA. This is patently BS. In general they instruct some cells to produce a part of the COVID- ... PCR doubles the amount of genetic material with each cycle run. Buy enough cans of alphabet soup and youve got the ... Technicians choose sensible amounts of cycles and if the result isnt convincing enough there will be secondary tests (antigen ... The mRNA vaccine also contains syncytin-1 a protein necessary for placental development (but also present in sperm). Will the ...
... both at proteins and mRNA amounts. Further, miR326-overexpressing HepG2 cells demonstrated more level of sensitivity to DOX ... C) Amount of CSPs per cell after 24 h treatment with DMSO, 50 M Noc, or 200 M CK666; 182 CSPs DMSO, 119 Noc, 156 100 M CK666, ... The amount of HRF per eyesight was also counted for the transgenic [Fig.?5(c)] and the wild-type [Fig.?5(d)] mice. With the ... Neither the amount of HRF nor their quantity correlated with the age of the mice, for either combined group [data shown in Figs ...
No amount of smoke or mirrors can hide what hes done during his presidency. Racists will vote for the guy and those of us who ... The mRNA vaccine has become the tool by which the medical community intends to rein in the virus. There appears to be a large ... Making sure adequate amounts of absentee ballots are present and that the needed manpower to mail and count the results is ... The ultimate stamp of approval: "Ill bet my life on it." There you be… We all took a leap of faith when lining up for mRNA ...
Needlessly to say, depletion of CABYR-a/b elevated the appearance of DR5 at both mRNA and proteins amounts in cells (Amount ?( ... Amount 3 Knockdown of CABYR-a/b induces the appearance of DR5 Deletion of CABYR-a/b boosts p73 appearance and reduces YAP S127 ... Application: Removal and reduction of excessive amounts of complement fixing immune complexes in SLE and other auto-immune ... Amount 3CC3D). Strikingly, the common price of apoptosis in A549 cells was proven to boost by three-fold in shRNA cells in ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
Small amounts of phylloquinone and menaquinones-4 are also found which originate from the milk used. The amount and mixture of ... 2) UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... It seems difficult to know the best source of K2, how to get adequate amounts in the diet, and to test if one is, or is not, ... Unfortunately, the total amount of vitamin K2 and the various menaquinones in beef liver is uncertain, as only lone small study ...
  • COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of transcriptome-wide mRNA expression resulted in a set of 40 genes, which all harbored binding motifs in their promoter sequences for the transcription factor, NF-κB, which is known to be associated with drug resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we examine how mRNA transcript levels of a sample of genes differ in hybrids relative to the inbreds from which they were derived. (genetics.org)
  • Identification of differentially expressed genes using minute amounts of RNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • In comparison with exosomal mRNAs in CSF from four patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 543 genes were significantly changed, as represented by CUEDC2. (springer.com)
  • Recent Advances: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators that interact with multiple target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) coordinately regulating target genes including those involved in controlling mitochondrial function, redox state, and inflammatory pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • Using this strategy, the RNA amounts of individual genes were determined, and therefore the results are dependent on both gene expression and the half-life of the transcripts. (asm.org)
  • The results demonstrate that mRNA levels for individual genes are not uniformly distributed throughout biofilms but may vary by orders of magnitude over small distances. (asm.org)
  • Starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes cause decreases in PDP2 mRNA abundance, PDP2 protein amount, and PDP activity in rat heart and kidney. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since the Xtr is also present both in oocytes and spermatocytes and its amount increases immediately after spematogenic cells enter into the meiotic phase, this protein was also predicted to act during meiotic progression. (wiley.com)
  • A similar translational regulation was observed in oocytes injected with a reporter mRNA, which was composed of an enhanced green fluorescent protein open reading frame followed by the 3′ untranslational region (3′UTR) of XL-INCENP mRNA. (wiley.com)
  • FMRP regulates Mdm2 mRNA stability, and loss of FMRP resulted in elevated MDM2 mRNA and protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on large-scale data for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (protein and mRNA abundance, translational status, transcript length), we investigate the relation of transcription, translation, and protein turnover on a genome-wide scale. (mcponline.org)
  • We elucidate variations between different spatial cell compartments and functional modules by comparing protein-to-mRNA ratios, translational activity, and a novel descriptor for protein-specific degradation (protein half-life descriptor). (mcponline.org)
  • Recent publication of high-throughput data of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 1 - 3 ) opens the possibility to analyze the relationship between protein abundance, mRNA levels, and translational status on a genome-wide scale. (mcponline.org)
  • Often mRNA abundance is used as a surrogate for protein amounts. (mcponline.org)
  • Previous studies either could not find a correlation between protein and mRNA abundance ( 4 ) or the correlation was only weak ( 5 - 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Greenbaum and coworkers ( 7 ) discuss three potential reasons for the lack of a perfect correlation between mRNA and protein levels: i) translational regulation, ii) difference of in vivo protein half-lives, and iii) the significant amount of experimental error including differences with respect to the experimental conditions. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition to these translation-related mechanisms, selective degradation of proteins (protein turnover) regulates the cellular protein levels and affects the observed correlation between protein and mRNA abundance ( 14 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In this article, we explore the premise that protein levels are mainly determined by the corresponding mRNA levels, and we show to what extent translational regulation and selective degradation obliterate a perfect correlation between mRNA and protein abundance. (mcponline.org)
  • Our focus lies on post-transcriptional regulation of protein amounts measured under standard log-growth conditions. (mcponline.org)
  • For different compartments and functional modules we investigate to what extent protein levels are determined by the three factors mRNA concentration, translation rate (ribosome density and ribosome occupancy), and protein specific degradation. (mcponline.org)
  • The value of analyzing protein-mRNA correlations for different functional modules and pathways has been noted previously ( 7 - 9 ). (mcponline.org)
  • We demonstrate that the quality of protein-mRNA correlations varies among different cellular compartments and functional modules, and we quantify the contribution of post-transcriptional steps, including protein turnover, to the observed expression regulation of proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • The protein PCA3 and its associated mRNA are present at low levels in normal prostate tissue. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The results show that the amounts of gfp mRNA were greatest in the top zones of the biofilms, and that gfp mRNA levels correlated with the zone of active green fluorescent protein fluorescence. (asm.org)
  • And what we're seeing further is women who are around vaccinated women having this same experience, which raises the suspicion that not only is that mRNA causing the body to continuously produce spike protein, but it's continuously excreting spike protein through breath, saliva, skin, and who knows where else. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • In these targeted replacement (TR) mice, amounts of ApoE protein in the frontal cortex and hippocampus varied in a genotype-dependent fashion. (alzforum.org)
  • The authors took these data as evidence that reduced E4 levels account for the lower amounts of total ApoE protein in E3/4 compared with E3/3 mice. (alzforum.org)
  • Dynabeads® Oligo(dT) 25 can be used to produce subtracted cDNA probes for screening and isolation of rare, differentially expressed mRNAs. (thermofisher.com)
  • Instead of eluting the captured mRNA off the beads, the bead-bound oligo-dT sequence is used to prime cDNA synthesis to produce a solid-phase cDNA libraries specific for a particular cell type or tissue (1-11). (thermofisher.com)
  • The subtracted mRNA is left in the supernatant after magnetic separation of bead-bound subtractor cDNA with captured common mRNA, and the subtractor beads can be reused. (thermofisher.com)
  • After the final hybridisation step, the subtracted specific mRNA is reverse transcribed to radio-labelled cDNA and used to screen cDNA libraries (5, 10) or for cDNA cloning (9). (thermofisher.com)
  • An alternative approach is to create immobilized cDNA libraries from both target and subtractor mRNA (2, 4). (thermofisher.com)
  • In order to reduce inconsistencies between the datasets, we compiled a new reference mRNA abundance dataset and we present a novel approach to correct large microarray signals for a saturation bias. (mcponline.org)
  • Our method integrates novel gene expression profiles from each major non-malignant cell type found in tumors, renormalization based on cell-type-specific mRNA content, and the ability to consider uncharacterized and possibly highly variable cell types. (elifesciences.org)
  • EXO-DEPTs-but not undirected EVs-plus CNOB caused near-complete growth arrest of orthotopic BT474 xenografts in vivo , demonstrating for the first time EV-mediated delivery of functional exogenous mRNA to tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2. A method for inducing the in situ proliferation or differentiation of neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells located in a neural tissue of a human, the method comprising administering an amount of PDGF-BB of between 0.5 ng/kg/day to 500 ng/kg/day, to the neural tissue to induce the proliferation or differentiation of the neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells. (google.com)
  • The mRNA for dystrophin is found mainly in muscle tissue and in the brain. (newscientist.com)
  • Exosomes are a subset of extracellular vesicles 30-200 nm in diameter secreted from cells, which contain functional mRNAs and microRNAs. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that Xtr regulates the translation of XL-INCENP mRNA through its 3′UTR during meiotic progression of oocyte. (wiley.com)
  • Genome-wide analyses predict that FMRP regulates many mRNAs ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In genetic studies, loss of mbf1 function enhanced a Polycomb phenotype in Polycomb group mutants, and was accompanied by a significant reduction in E(z) mRNA expression. (biologists.org)
  • Using a genetic approach in Drosophila , we show that cytoplasmic Mbf1 ensures Polycomb silencing by protecting E(z) mRNA from degradation by Pcm. (biologists.org)
  • The prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test detects genetic material (messenger RNA (mRNA)) that is produced only by the prostate. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Experts" all over the world, however, related this concern by saying that the amount of genetic instructions in the male and female reproductive system was so small that it would not be so bad. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • To date, there is no available method to analyze exosomal mRNAs comprehensively in human CSF. (springer.com)
  • The team has now succeeded in amplifying the entire coding sequence of dystrophin mRNA from blood cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Traditional procedures often are technically demanding and labor-intensive methods that require large amounts of mRNA and might give rise to falsely positive and unreproducible results. (thermofisher.com)
  • When the difference between the subtractor and the target mRNA population is small, large amounts of target-specific mRNA may be difficult to obtain and the PCR-based method of Lambert (11) would be more appropriate. (thermofisher.com)
  • Incubation of human platelets with thrombin in vitro resulted in the release of large amounts of VEGF. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 15 Further, incubation of human platelets with thrombin resulted in a release of large amounts of VEGF 121 and VEGF 165 . (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, a pcm mutation suppressed the Polycomb phenotype and restored the expression level of E(z) mRNA, while pcm overexpression exhibited the Polycomb phenotype in the mbf1 mutant but not in the wild-type background. (biologists.org)
  • Irrespective of phenotype, only the minor part of total PDGF A mRNA consisted of the long variant in ASMCs, while endothelial cells produced 40% of total PDGF A as the long form. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus in vitro , the intermediate, RCC, does not accumulate to substantial amounts in the absence of RCCR, indicating that RCC is metabolically channeled ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that cells appearing in atherosclerotic lesions, such as ASMCs, endothelial cells, and monocytes/macrophages, expressed mRNAs for both PDGF A and B chains in vitro, with the highest expression in endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of ApoE mRNA, however, did not significantly differ in cortical and hippocampal samples across E2/2, E3/3, and E4/4 mice, implicating post-translational mechanisms in the differing ApoE levels observed between the various genotypes. (alzforum.org)
  • The levels of aprA mRNA showed stratification, with the largest amounts in the upper 30-μm zone of these biofilms. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that Mbf1 buffers fluctuations in Pcm activity to maintain an E(z) mRNA expression level sufficient for Polycomb silencing. (biologists.org)
  • The amounts of mRNA for LH beta subunit, FSH beta subunit, alpha subunit, growth hormone, and prolactin were measured in the other half of each pituitary. (elsevier.com)
  • Hypothalamic content of GnRH, number of receptors for GnRH, pituitary content of gonadotropins and mRNA for LH beta subunit, FSH beta subunit, alpha subunit, growth hormone, and prolactin were not affected (p greater than 0.05) by treatment with progesterone. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we examined the amount of various transcripts in hybrid and inbred individuals (B73 and Mo17) to determine whether the quantities of specific messenger RNAs were additive or nonadditive in the hybrids. (genetics.org)
  • We show that CD1c-DC lack significant amounts of active cathepsins (Cat) S, L, and B as well as the asparagine-specific endopeptidase, the major enzymes believed to mediate MHC class II-associated Ag processing. (jimmunol.org)
  • Results show successful detection of both miRNAs as well as for the mRNA from the same eluate. (qiagen.com)
  • Here, we show that Drosophila Mbf1 associates with E(z) mRNA and protects it from degradation by the exoribonuclease Pacman (Pcm), thereby ensuring Polycomb silencing. (biologists.org)
  • Results showed that for lung and liver tissues, C T values were lower after purification using the miRNeasy FFPE Kit, indicating that higher amounts of miRNA were purified than when using phenol-chloroform extraction. (qiagen.com)
  • Results showed that C T values were lower after purification using the miRNeasy FFPE Kit, indicating that higher amounts of miRNA were purified than when using the kit from Supplier A. (qiagen.com)
  • The results demonstrated that the amount of acpP mRNA was greatest in the top 30 μm of the biofilm, with little or no mRNA for this gene at the base of the biofilms. (asm.org)
  • The main purpose of this study is to established the methodology of comprehensive analysis of exosomal mRNAs in CSF by a highly sensitive next-generation sequencing. (springer.com)
  • This test measures PCA3 mRNA and PSA mRNA in the first urine sample collected following a digital rectal exam (DRE) . (labtestsonline.org)
  • The PDGF A chain occurs as two isoforms due to alternative mRNA splicing of exon 6. (ahajournals.org)
  • CBTM-2 could impact future long-duration missions by establishing a therapeutic approach to preventing or reducing the amount of muscle loss that occurs during long-duration space flight. (nasa.gov)
  • EXO-DEPT treatment specifically enabled HER2-overexpressing BT474 cells to convert CNOB into MCHB in actinomycin D-independent manner, showing successful and specific delivery of HChrR6 mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is also produced in increased amounts by prostate cancers but can be increased in a number of benign conditions as well. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Thus during weight loss or gain there are concurrent changes in the amount of both subcutaneous and visceral fat. (hindawi.com)
  • PCA3 is present in increased amounts (over-expressed) in about 90% of prostate cancers . (labtestsonline.org)
  • If the amount of mRNA is limited or the two mRNA sources are very similar, the material might be insufficient for several rounds of subtraction to be performed, or the material remaining for screening purposes might be insufficient. (thermofisher.com)
  • They also showed that the per-allele amount of ApoE3 was similar in E3/4 and E3/3 mice, as was the amount of ApoE4 per allele in E3/4 and E4/4 animals. (alzforum.org)
  • It is impractical and unpleasant to take samples of muscle tisue, but tiny amounts of dystrophin RNA also exist in about 1 in 1,000 cells in other tissues. (newscientist.com)
  • On proliferation, ASMCs and endothelial cells upregulated PDGF A mRNA. (ahajournals.org)
  • We successfully established the methodology of comprehensive analysis of exosomal mRNAs in human CSF. (springer.com)
  • The signatures of CSF exosomal mRNAs were then compared between four normal healthy donors and four sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients to identify disease-related biomarkers. (springer.com)
  • DNA library construction from small amounts of RNA using paramagnetic beads and PCR. (thermofisher.com)
  • 1. A method of treating a patient with Parkinson's disease or Parkinsonian disorders comprising administering PDGF-BB in vivo directly to the central nervous system of said patient, wherein the PDGF-BB is administered in an amount of between 0.5 ng/kg/day to 500 ng/kg/day. (google.com)
  • 3. A method of increasing the number of dopaminergic neurons in a patient suffering from Parkinson's disease or Parkinsonian disorders comprising the step of infusing the central nervous system of said patient with an amount of PDGF-BB of between 0.5 ng/kg/day to 500 ng/kg/day to increase the number of dopaminergic neurons. (google.com)
  • For our previous ultra-low input mRNA-seq kit (the SMARTer Ultra Low Input RNA Kit for Sequencing - v3 ) we streamlined the protocol by removing a purification step, resulting in higher yield, and introduced a polymerase (SeqAmp DNA polymerase) better able to amplify GC-rich targets, increasing the representation of these transcripts. (clontech.com)
  • Also, position coverage analysis revealed that most detected mRNAs retained their integrity throughout their full-length in CSF exosomes. (springer.com)
  • This manageable amount of material can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. (newscientist.com)
  • But potentially there are other mRNAs in there, which if injected into the body will instruct the body to make all kinds of proteins that we don't know about yet. (beforeitsnews.com)