Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.ChloraminesGlutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Diamide: A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).F2-Isoprostanes: Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Isoprostanes: A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.PeroxidasesBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Inbred C57BLNitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Oxypurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.MethemoglobinModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.SmokeChlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ferricyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Eosinophil Peroxidase: A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.HydroquinonesNitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sulfenic Acids: Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Benzene DerivativesGlucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Protein Carbonylation: The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The amount of compound used during experimentation should be limited to 2 mmol. It also poses a potential moderate fire hazard ... It is also a powerful oxidant. It has been banned from transport in the United States by the US Department of Transportation. ...
When cells are exposed to oxidants, they need excessive amounts of the antioxidant cofactor NADPH. In the cytosol, NADPH is ... Oxidant-treatments cause an inactivation of GAPDH. This inactivation re-routes temporally the metabolic flux from glycolysis to ...
This mechanism produces trace amounts of ozone and other oxidants as by-products. Most ionizers produce less than 0.05 ppm of ... Unlike ionizers, ozone generators are intended to produce significant amounts of ozone, a strong oxidant gas which can oxidize ... Although high concentration of ozone is dangerous, most air ionizers produce low amounts (< 0.05 ppm). The noise level of a ... small amounts of NOx. Because of the nature of the ionization process, ionic air purifiers tend to generate the most ozone.[ ...
Its dysfunction releases excessive amount of oxidants that, in turn, injure hepatic cells. Activation of some enzymes in the ... In an overdose, a large amount of NAPQI is generated, which overwhelms the detoxification process and leads to liver cell ...
The chewable form of Flintstones Complete contains higher amounts of vitamins and minerals than the gummy version. As well, the ... Vitamin E is a potent anti-oxidant in the body. Vitamin E deficiencies leads to neuromuscular, vascular and reproductive ...
... with shallows rich in oxidants and depths poor in oxidants; and, the ancient lake provided many different types of microbe- ... in the amounts of methane in the atmosphere of the planet Mars; as well as, detecting Martian organic chemicals in powder ... large amounts of water continued to be lost. On June 1, 2017, NASA reported that the Curiosity rover provided evidence of an ...
Others, such as some polyphenols and flavonoids, may be pro-oxidants in high ingested amounts. Nondigestible dietary fibers ...
Adding minute amounts of oxidants or reducing agents alter the post-mix handling characteristics of dough. Lecithin, ... Calcium iodate, an oxidant, is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration generally recognized as safe or GRAS source of calcium. ... ISBN 3-527-31689-2. Yamada, Y.; Preston, K.R. (1994). "Sponge-and-dough bread: Effects of oxidants on bread and oven rise ... Elkassabany, M.; Hoseney, R.C.; Seib, P.A. (1980). "Ascorbic Acid as an Oxidant in Wheat Flour Dough. I. Conversion to ...
... clean terminal oxidants in conjunction with catalytic amounts of chromium reagents produce only small amounts of metal ... However, undesired side reactions mediated by stoichiometric amounts of the terminal oxidant may occur. Luzzio, F. A. Org. ... E)-Enones form in greater amounts than (Z) isomers because of chromium-mediated geometric isomerization. (8) Suitably ...
In anaerobic respiration, weak oxidants like sulfate and nitrate serve as oxidants in the place of oxygen. Generally, in ... This strategy results in the waste products H2O and CO2 being formed in different amounts at different phases of respiration. ... Whereas in aerobic respiration the oxidant is always oxygen, in anaerobic respiration it varies. Each oxidant produces a ... Aerobic respiration is thus very efficient because oxygen is a strong oxidant. Aerobic respiration proceeds in a series of ...
There is only a small amount of ATP in cells, but as it is continuously regenerated, the human body can use about its own ... These damaging oxidants are removed by antioxidant metabolites such as glutathione and enzymes such as catalases and ... These genetic modifications usually aim to reduce the amount of energy used to produce the product, increase yields and reduce ... Nucleotides are made from amino acids, carbon dioxide and formic acid in pathways that require large amounts of metabolic ...
It can act as an oxidant, to induce the formation of methemoglobin. Methemoglobin in turn can sequester cyanide as ... A very small amount is added to some perfumes. It is also used recreationally as an inhalant drug that induces a brief euphoric ...
... which is used in catalytic amounts. The manganese atom transfers an oxygen atom from chlorine bleach or similar oxidant. The ... Also, the amount of catalyst used was no more than 15% of the amount of alkene used in the reaction. The degree of ...
Under normal pH conditions, an excess of 3 stoichiometirc amounts of ketone catalyst are needed due to a high rate of ... Solubilities of olefin organic substrate and oxidant (oxone) differ, and thus a biphasic medium is needed. The generation of ... Decomposition of reagents is bimolecular (second-order reaction rate), so low amounts of oxone and catalyst are used. The ... At basic pH conditions greater than 10 (pH 10.5) substoichiometric amounts (0.2-0.3) are needed for epoxidations, lowering the ...
After an hour, the spirals were weighed again and the amount of copper dissolved by ammonium persulfate was recorded. This ... Persulfates are used as oxidants in organic chemistry. For example in the Minisci reaction Airborne dust may be irritating to ...
Anti-microbial, anti-malarial, anti-oxidant, and anti-diabetic compounds have been isolated and identified from C. rotundus. ... The plant is known to have a high amount of carbohydrates. The plant is known to have been eaten in Africa in famine-stricken ...
... with shallows rich in oxidants and depths poor in oxidants; and, the ancient lake provided many different types of microbe- ... in the amounts of methane in the atmosphere of the planet Mars; in addition, organic chemicals were detected in powder drilled ... large amounts of water continued to be lost. On October 8, 2015, NASA confirmed that lakes and streams existed in Gale crater ...
When luminol is sprayed evenly across an area, trace amounts of an activating oxidant make the luminol emit a blue glow that ... The investigator sprays a solution of luminol and the oxidant. The iron in blood catalyses the luminescence. The amount of ... Luminol can detect the small amount of blood present in urine, and can be distorted if animals' urine is present in the room ... The intensity of the glow does not indicate the amount of blood or other activator present, but only shows the distribution of ...
Chromium(VI) can enter the environment directly or oxidants present in soils can react with chromium(III) to produce chromium( ... VI). Plants have reduced amounts of chlorophyll when grown in the presence of chromium(VI). Chromium oxidation during ...
It is a catalytic system using N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMO) as stoichiometric re-oxidant for the osmium tetroxide. It is ... Prior to this method, use of stoichiometric amounts of the toxic and expensive reagent osmium tetroxide was often necessary. ... 2-glycols using tertiary amine oxides as the oxidant". Tetrahedron Lett. 17 (23): 1973-1976. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)78093-2 ...
Nitroxides may also be used in catalytic amounts in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of a terminal oxidant. The first ... 4) One-electron oxidants, such as copper(II), operate via a more complex mechanism involving dioxygen as the terminal oxidant. ... The mechanism of oxidation of the nitroxide radical depends on the terminal oxidant employed. Two-electron oxidants, such as ... Because this reaction consumes base and active oxidant, two equivalents of base and oxidant are necessary under weakly basic ...
Use of a higher catalyst loading, larger amount of the co-oxidant, and addition of two equivalents of water. In this situation ... The catalytic cycle is maintained by adding a stoichiometric amount of a co-oxidant such as N-methylmorpholine N-oxide or ... Ruthenium tetroxide is a highly aggressive oxidant, but its one-electron reduced derivative is a mild oxidizing agent for the ... TPAP is expensive, but it can be used in catalytic amounts. ... as new catalytic oxidants for alcohols". J. Chem. Soc., Chem. ...
By controlling the amount of oxygen reacting with the bread products, it acts to promote optimal taste and texture. It is also ... Sodium stearyl fumarate is a form of fumaric acid, acting as a dough conditioner, oxidant and wheat flour treatment agent in ... Regarding the amounts of sulfites found in buscuit dough, the Canadian government has regulated how much is permitted in dough ... Dough is typically made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, and sometimes includes yeast or other ...
United Stirling, in Malmo, Sweden, are developing an experimental four-cylinder engine using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant in ... General Motors have undertaken a considerable amount of work on advanced Stirling cycle engines which include thermal storage ...
The procedure uses dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the oxidant, activated by the sulfur trioxide pyridine complex in the presence ... without formation of significant amounts of dimethylsulfide as a side product. The following example from the total synthesis ...
Typical strong oxidants (source of "O" in the above reaction) include potassium permanganate or a Cr(VI) compound. Milder ... With water (hydration) gives geminal diols, which are usually not formed in appreciable (or observable) amounts ...
These powerful oxidants may damage the lungs if they are produced as part of the inflammatory response in asthma. The aim of ... We conclude that eosinophil peroxidase produces substantial amounts of hypobromous acid in the airways of stable asthmatics. ... Although this highly reactive oxidant is a strong candidate for exacerbating inflammatory tissue damage in the lung, its role ...
3. Acute toxicity of chlorine-produced oxidants (CPO) to the marine invertebrates Amphiporeia virginiana and Eohaustorius ... A small amount does appear to get past the carbon to the RO waste water, but it does not get through the RO membrane and DI ... The maximum allowed by the EPA is 4 ppm-Cl , and some water supplies target 2-4 ppm-Cl . The amount seen at the tap will also ... and it also facilitates comparison to chlorine and other oxidants. So 1 mg/l of monochloramine would be reported as 0.69 ppm-Cl ...
Brownlee NR, Huttner JJ, Panganamala RV, Cornwell DG: Role of vitamin E in glutathione-induced oxidant stress: methemoglobin, ... reported amount of water drank per day, divide by the body weight at 36 weeks follow up. Some variables such as age, water ... relation to amount and source of drinking water consumed in early pregnancy. Epidemiology. 1998, 9: 126-133. 10.1097/00001648- ...
High amount of Anti-Oxidant. Contains Lutein for eye health. Free of Iron and Copper. European packaging. Each tablet is ... High amount of Anti-Oxidant. Contains Lutein for eye health. Free of Iron and Copper. European packaging. Each tablet is ...
Project Amount: $613,894 RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter Health Effects (1999) RFA Text , Recipients Lists Research Category: ... Acute Cardiopulmonary Responses to Fine Particulate Pollution and Copollutant Oxidant Gases in Los Angeles. EPA Grant Number: ... Title: Acute Cardiopulmonary Responses to Fine Particulate Pollution and Copollutant Oxidant Gases in Los Angeles. ... and a ubiquitous oxidant gas (NO2 at 0.4 ppm), and determine whether they act additively or synergistically when combined. An ...
Project Amount: $613,894 RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter Health Effects (1999) RFA Text , Recipients Lists Research Category: ... Final Report: Acute Cardiopulmonary Responses to Fine Particulate Pollution and Copollutant Oxidant Gases in Los Angeles. EPA ... Title: Acute Cardiopulmonary Responses to Fine Particulate Pollution and Copollutant Oxidant Gases in Los Angeles. ... Perform controlled exposures of human volunteers to urban ambient particulate matter (PM) in combination with a common oxidant ...
Ultra Anti-Oxidant Ultra Anti-Oxidant is a potent antioxidant dietary supplement that includes not only antioxidant vitamins ... Amount per serving. Vitamin A (100% as Beta-Carotene) 10,000 IU 200%. Vitamin C 250mg 417%. ---(Ascorbyl Palmitate/Calcium ... Ultra Anti-Oxidant. Ultra Anti-Oxidant is a potent antioxidant dietary supplement that includes not only antioxidant vitamins ... Ultra Anti-Oxidant is a potent antioxidant dietary supplement that includes not only antioxidant vitamins such as Vitamin A, C ...
Oxidant IVC Supplements Tablet Lutein and Zeaxanthin Vitamin C and E Antioxidant Protection MT8S by IVC Supplements - IVC ... Anti - Oxidant IVC Supplements Tablet Lutein and Zeaxanthin Vitamin C and E Antioxidant Protection MT8S Anti - Oxidant IVC ... Anti - Oxidant IVC Supplements Tablet Lutein and Zeaxanthin Vitamin C and E Antioxidant Protection MT8S ... Anti - Oxidant IVC Supplements Tablet Lutein and Zeaxanthin Vitamin C and E Antioxidant Protection MT8S ...
Anti-Oxidant Formula with Resveratrol, 60 Capsules, 4 Organics at VitaSprings. Find more product information on Resvera Youth ... Amount Per Serving Vitamin A (as acetate) 2500 IU Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) 30 mg Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) 400 IU ... Powerhouse Anti-Oxidant Formula. *Resveratrol Super Fruit Complex. *Dietary Supplement. A highest-grade resveratrol super anti- ... oxidant anti-aging supplement provides defense against free-radical damage, boosts immune function, and provides crucial ...
Massive amounts of chemical compounds (,Triple,Anti-Oxidant,Liver,Formula,,a,Proactive,Approach,to,Dealing,with,Environmental, ... Triple Anti-Oxidant Liver Formula, a Proactive Approach to Dealing with Environmental Toxins, is Now Available for a ... Massive amounts of chemical compounds (6.5 billion pounds) are released into the environment each year, including toxic metals ... Massive amounts of chemical compounds (. http://www.bio-medicine.org/inc/biomed/medicine-news.asp. http://feeds.bio-medicine. ...
The amount of proline was determined by spectrophotometer at 515 nm. Serum prolidase activity was measured by the method ... Total Oxidant Status. Total oxidant status (TOS) in cases, control-1, and control-2 were , , and μmol H2O2 Equiv./L, ... Thus, total oxidant status was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls (. ). Significantly increased TOS was ... Measurement of Total Oxidant Status (TOS). Reagent 1 and 2 were prepared. Reagent 1: 114 mg of xylenol orange and 8.18 gm of ...
However, the C-terminal cysteines were a target for the oxidant H2O2; it induced inter-subunit links, reducing the amount of ... Reducing conditions decreased the relative amount of Ads2 from 11% ± 5% to 0.2% ± 0.1% and the relative amount of AdsH from 22 ... Oxidant regulated inter-subunit disulfide bond formation between ASIC1a subunits. Xiang-ming Zha, Runping Wang, Dan M. Collier ... Oxidant regulated inter-subunit disulfide bond formation between ASIC1a subunits. Xiang-ming Zha, Runping Wang, Dan M. Collier ...
Deva Vegan Astaxanthin Super Anti-Oxidant is an antioxidant formula that has been shown to be up to 500 times more powerful ... Amount per Serving. % Daily Value. Astaxanthin. 4 mg. *. * Daily Value Not Established ... Deva Vegan Astaxanthin Super Anti-Oxidant is an antioxidant formula that has been shown to be up to 500 times more powerful ... Vegan Astaxanthin Super Anti-Oxidant is rated 5.0 out of 5 by 6. ... Vegan Astaxanthin Super Anti-Oxidant. Item: DEV007 * Derived ...
That means they can provide positive responses when present in small amount [56]. In this regard, the type and duration of ... C. K. Sen, "Oxidants and antioxidants in exercise," Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 675-686, 1995. View at ... Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Beneficial Roles of Exercise-Induced Production of Reactive Species. Elisa Couto Gomes,1 Albená ... I. M. C. M. Rietjens, M. G. Boersma, L. D. Haan et al., "The pro-oxidant chemistry of the natural antioxidants vitamin C, ...
Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee have the same amount of anti-oxidant. It has a group of compound called quinones. It ... It took quite a long time before the image was reverse a little from shocking evidence that coffee is rich in anti-oxidant. ... The anti-oxidants called chlorogenic acid and tocopherols are the properties found in coffee and magnesium. Another compound, ... Anti-oxidant was free radical scavengers. It prevents and repair those damaged cells caused by them. ...
TTA + Fish Oil - Fat Burning Superfats or Hepatoxic Pro-Oxidants? Why You Better Avoid Large Amounts of Omega-3 and ... Moreover, I strongly caution against a similar injudicious (ab-)use of large amounts of TTA especially over longer periods of ... Labels: anti-oxidant, cholesterol, DHA, diabetes, EPA, fish oil, health, high fat diet, lipid oxidation, liver, lose fat, ... The miniscule amount of 0.365% TTA, which would be equivalent to a daily intake of ~912.4mg of TTA for someone consuming ...
Budget Amount *help. ¥3,900,000 (Direct Cost: ¥3,000,000、Indirect Cost: ¥900,000). Fiscal Year 2016: ¥650,000 (Direct Cost: ¥ ... which rapidly and efficiently catalyzed the oxidation of alkanes with m-CPBA as an oxidant to show high A/K ratio, large ...
Budget Amount *help. ¥6,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,600,000). Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥2,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,400,000). Fiscal ... An attempt to use carbon dioxide as a diluent and oxidant in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to stirene was carried out ... OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OF HYDROCARBONS USING CARBON DIOXIDE AS AN OXIDANT. Research Project ...
Selenium concentration of Finnish foods: Effect of reducing the amount of selenate in fertilizers. Agric. Sci. Finland 4: 377- ... anti-oxidant GSH-Px pro-oxidant ryegrass selenium SOD tocopherol This revised version was published online in June 2006 with ... it was a pro-oxidant, enhancing the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products. The antioxidative effect was associated with ...
Amount Per Serving / % DV **. Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) 120 mg / 200%. Green tea extract (concentrated source of polyphenols ... Advanced Anti-Oxidant complex w/ Green Tea, Lutein & More 60s: Bottle / Capsules: 60 Vegetarian Capsules. ...
Compare Estee Lauder DayWear Anti-Oxidant Beauty Benefit Cream SPF 35 prices, specs, user reviews, and more. ... Read our review of Estee Lauder DayWear Anti-Oxidant Beauty Benefit Cream SPF 35, winner of Best BB Cream Overall. ... Well notify you whenever the price drops a significant amount!. All Best Picks for Best BB Cream Overall ... Estee Lauder DayWear Anti-Oxidant Beauty Benefit Cream SPF 35. Add to MyBests Ranked: Best BB Cream Overall. ...
It contains significant amount of protein and fiber, which maintain stable sugar levels in the body.. Anti-oxidant and anti- ... In terms of anti-oxidants, kale is the best green leafy vegetable on the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) chart ... Kale contains significant amount of lutein and zeaxanthin, which maintain normal vision and promote eye health by protecting ... Amongst carotenoids, significant amounts of lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-carotene are found in kale. 100 gms kale provide a ...
The amount of compound used during experimentation should be limited to 2 mmol. It also poses a potential moderate fire hazard ... It is also a powerful oxidant. It has been banned from transport in the United States by the US Department of Transportation. ...
Gives just the right amount of hydration. I usually put it on at night and just dab the extra serum on after taking the mask on ...
When cells are exposed to oxidants, they need excessive amounts of the antioxidant cofactor NADPH. In the cytosol, NADPH is ... Oxidant-treatments cause an inactivation of GAPDH. This inactivation re-routes temporally the metabolic flux from glycolysis to ...
  • Oxidant molecules can cause cellular damage, dysfunction, and disease, but also play crucial roles in homeostatic maintenance of healthy cells and tissues ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The oxidant compounds react with various different chemical or biological contaminants in contact the protective layer, thereby deactivating, destroying or devitalizing the contaminants. (google.ca)
  • In atmospheric science, they pack a powerful punch against pollutants: when oxidants chemically react with pollutants and greenhouse gases, they cleanse these pollutants from the atmosphere by altering them into biologically useful or easily dissolved agents, such as carbon dioxide or nitrates. (rochester.edu)
  • Several studies have demonstrated that elderly people require a greater amount of amino acids to maximize the anabolic response to a meal as compared to young people (1,2). (brinkzone.com)
  • In addition, while previous studies have focused on modification of extracellular and transmembrane domains of ASIC1a, many oxidants are generated intracellularly, where they can also modify proteins ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • The modification of proteins by oxidant species with a coupled alteration in function allows cells to sense oxidants and, therefore, to influence biological responses ( 4 - 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cysteinyl thiols in proteins can undergo posttranslational modifications in the presence of oxidants that are important initiators of redox signaling ( 7 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • These strong oxidants can oxidize proteins, especially thiol proteins, ribonucleic acids as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Some of the findings of this study are counterintuitive, the researchers said, because vitamin E is a fat soluble micronutrient and, in theory, should be available at increased levels in people who are overweight and eat large amounts of fatty foods. (eurekalert.org)
  • In response to sun-induced elastin damage, the body produces large amounts of enzymes called metalloproteinases. (umm.edu)
  • Scientists at The University of Manchester have helped to identify that the presence of large amounts of seaweed in coastal areas can influence the climate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our new data provide a biological explanation why we can measure large amounts of iodine oxide and volatile halocarbons in the atmosphere above kelp beds and forests. (eurekalert.org)
  • The role of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic oxidant stress was evaluated using the iNOS inhibitor l -iminoethyl-lysine ( l -NIL). (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that LPS-induced nitric oxide generation can result in oxidant stress in the liver, and that inhibitors of iNOS may offer some protection in LPS-induced hepatic toxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Oxidant-induced apoptosis positively correlated with cellular Aβ production, being the highest in cells that were stably transfected with APP Swedish KM670/671NL double mutation. (diva-portal.org)
  • An attempt to use carbon dioxide as a diluent and oxidant in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to stirene was carried out over an activated carbon supported iron catalysts (Fe 17 wt %) at 773-973 K,CO2/ ethylbenzene=50-70mol/mol and W/F=30-120 g h/mol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2-7 As a result, a great advance has been achieved recently in catalytic (asymmetric) epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions using synthetic iron and manganese catalysts and aqueous H 2 O 2 as an environmentally benign oxidant in the presence of carboxylic acid as an additive. (rsc.org)
  • Therefore organically produced fruits and vegetables may be included in you diet to support adequate amounts of this trace mineral in your body. (infobarrel.com)
  • Selenium exerted dual effects: At low concentrations it acted as an antioxidant, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, whereas at higher concentrations, it was a pro-oxidant, enhancing the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products. (springer.com)
  • A number of gemstones contain significant amounts of manganese and often derive their color from the element. (geology.com)
  • Taking into account the importance of the daily amount of vitamin C consumed by human body as food supplement, the researchers tried to introduce a selective, sensitive and accurate method to measure vitamin C in medical products based on its antioxidant properties. (nanotech-now.com)
  • But given that the amount of resveratrol we gave in the present study equals several bottles of red wine daily, we can conclude that 250 mg resveratrol as a supplement is not a good thing when training. (health24.com)
  • Even small amounts of UV radiation trigger the processes leading to skin wrinkles. (umm.edu)
  • Lavender oil is the most potent form, and even small amounts of it (0.25% or less) are problematic. (beautypedia.com)
  • However, if eaten in small amounts is never harmful. (infobarrel.com)
  • Research has long revealed the heart-healthy benefits of eating small amounts of chocolate, says registered dietician Nancy Copperman, director of Public Health Initiatives at the North Shore-LIJ Health System in New York. (cnn.com)
  • The chemical hazards are a function of several interrelated factors, including the amount of energy (heat) produced, how fast it is produced, and the thermal absorption and heat transfer properties of the system. (unt.edu)
  • In the case of green tea and cat's claw, the cytoprotective response exceed their inherent ability to interact with the injurious oxidant, suggestive of actions on intracellular pathways regulating cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, selective inhibition of NO synthesis from iNOS lessens the degree of oxidant stress, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO is a major player in the development of oxidant stress in the kidney after LPS administration. (aspetjournals.org)