Amorphophallus: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Philodendron: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. As a houseplant it sometimes poisons children and animals.Arum: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. The name derived from ar (fire in Arabic) due to the irritating sap. Flower is a spathe.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.PortugalFossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Oleaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Nobel PrizeVitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Awards and PrizesWine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.MarylandNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Ornithogalum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains cholestane glycosides (CHOLESTANES).Opuntia: A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.Sansevieria: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains steroidal saponins.Sedum: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for RHODIOLA.Euphorbia: A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.Paramecium caudatum: The most widely distributed species of PARAMECIUM. It is elongated and possesses a bluntly pointed posterior.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Sleep Medicine Specialty: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)Independent State of Samoa: An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.Samoa: A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)Petrosia: A genus of SPONGES in the family Petrosiidae, characterized by an ectosomal triangular or polygonal reticulation of spicule tracts or single spicules.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.WyomingDiethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.

Peroxynitrite scavenging activities of aromatic compounds isolated from Konnyaku, Amorphophallus konjac K.Koch. (1/18)

(+/-)-5,5'-Dimethoxysesamin, erythrinasinate, indole-3-carbaldehyde, (7R,8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, cis- and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, serotonin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde have been found in tobiko, a food by-product, and evaluation of their peroxynitrite scavenging activities has been done. Among these compounds, serotonin, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid showed stronger activities than that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) at 200 microM.  (+info)

Effects of konjac extract on insulin sensitivity in high fat diet rats. (2/18)

AIM: To evaluate the effects of konjac extract (KE) on insulin sensitivity in insulin resistance (IR) rats induced by high fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Wistar rats were fed on HFD for 4 weeks, then treated with KE 1.5, 3.0 g/kg/d and metformin (Met) 0.1 g/kg/d for 4 weeks, respectively. The effects of KE on intake of food and drink, body weight, and excretion were investigated. Serum insulin was measured by double-radioimmunoassay. Blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured by enzyme methods, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Tissue glycogen was determined by modified anthracene ketone method and tissue TG by glycerin phosphor sour oxidation enzyme method. Insulin sensitivity was measured by modified glucose-insulin tolerance test (K value). RESULTS: HFD caused IR after 4 weeks (K value: 5.2+/-0.9 vs 8.3+/-0.7, P<0.01), the levels of blood insulin, TG, and LDL-C increased, while HDL-C, glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle decreased. The storage of TG in liver and skeletal muscle increased. After HFD rats were treated with KE 1.5 and 3.0 g/kg/d for 4 weeks, respectively, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) was decreased from 6.4+/-0.4 to 6.05+/-0.26, 6.0+/-0.3 (P<0.01). Serum TC, TG, LDL-C were decreased, while HDL-C/TC was increased as compared with HFD rats. There was no significant effect on insulin level. KE 1.5, 3.0 g/kg/d, and Met 0.1 g/kg/d could improve insulin sensitivity (K values were 6.1+/-0.5, 5.9+/-0.6, and 6.5+/-0.8 vs 5.2+/-0.9, P<0.05), elevate glycogen, and decrease TG in liver and skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: KE could promote glycogen syntheses and adjust blood lipid metabolism so as to improve IR in HFD rats.  (+info)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Konjak flour and powdered Hijikia fusiforme. (3/18)

This is a report of a patient with occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) caused by Konjak flour and powdered Hijikia fusiforme. A 56-year-old man had worked as a Konnyaku manufacturer for 38 years, and suffered from dyspnea on exertion. Konnyaku is a paste made from Konjak flour, powdered Hijikia fusiforme, quicklime, and powdered scallop shell. The diagnosis of HP was confirmed immunologically by the detection of serum precipitins to powdered Hijikia fusiforme, and by the positive result of in vitro lymphocytic proliferative response for Konjak flour using peripheral blood lymphocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Konnyaku manufacturer's lung.  (+info)

Unusual metaxylem tracheids in petioles of Amorphophallus (Araceae) giant leaves. (4/18)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Petioles of huge solitary leaves of mature plants of Amorphophallus resemble tree trunks supporting an umbrella-like crown. Since they may be 4 m tall, adaptations to water transport in the petioles are as important as adaptations to mechanical support of lamina. The petiole is a cylindrical shell composed of compact unlignified tissue with a honeycomb aerenchymatous core. In both parts numerous vascular bundles occur, which are unique because of the scarcity of lignified elements. In the xylemic part of each bundle there is a characteristic canal with unlignified walls. The xylem pecularities are described and interpreted. MATERIAL: Vascular bundles in mature petioles of Amorphophallus titanum and A. gigas plants were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. KEY RESULTS: The xylemic canal represents a file of huge metaxylem tracheids (diameter 55-200 microm, length >30 mm) with unlignified lateral walls surrounded by turgid parenchyma cells. Only their end walls, orientated steeply, have lignified secondary thickenings. The file is accompanied by a strand of narrow tracheids with lignified bar-type secondary walls, which come into direct contact with the wide tracheid in many places along its length. CONCLUSIONS: The metaxylem tracheids in A. petioles are probably the longest and widest tracheids known. Only their end walls have lignified secondary thickenings. Tracheids are long due to enormous intercalary elongation and wide due to a transverse growth mechanism similar to that underlying formation of aerenchyma cavities. The lack of lignin in lateral walls shifts the function of 'pipe walls' to the turgid parenchyma paving the tracheid. The analogy to carinal canals of Equisetum, as well as other protoxylem lacunas is discussed. The stiff partitions between the long and wide tracheids are interpreted as structures similar to the end walls in vessels.  (+info)

A novel method for measuring dissolution kinetics of pulverized konjac flour. (5/18)

The aim of the current study was to explore a novel method for measuring hydration and dissolution kinetics of the pulverized konjac flour (PK flour) from Amorphophallus albus using RVA-3D+ Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA; Newport Scientific Pty Ltd., Australia). The results showed that RVA was a reliable fast technique for determining the hydration curve of PK flour. The test conditions determining the hydration curves were optimized at the concentration of PK flour with 1.0%, test temperature at 30+/-1oC, stirring speed at 160 RPM (Revolution Per Minute), and test time of 16 min. An empirical exponential model has also been established to describe the dis-solution kinetics of PK flour at the concentration of 1.0%: eta= 161.9343.EXP (-2.1522/tau) (R2=0.9762) Where tau is the test time (min); eta is the viscosity of the hydration process (RVU) of PK flour. The results also showed that a significant difference among the hydration curves of 1.0% PK flour when dispersed in distilled water and in different concentrations of sucrose aqueous solution.  (+info)

Soluble fiber viscosity affects both goblet cell number and small intestine mucin secretion in rats. (6/18)

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Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus Roxb. tubers. (7/18)

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the extracts. Silymarin was used as a standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract was found hepatoprotective more potent than the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity was also screened and found positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.  (+info)

Chemical identity of a rotting animal-like odor emitted from the inflorescence of the titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum). (8/18)

The titan arum, Amorphophallus titanum, is a flowering plant with the largest inflorescence in the world. The flower emits a unique rotting animal-like odor that attracts insects for pollination. To determine the chemical identity of this characteristic odor, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analysis of volatiles derived from the inflorescence. The main odorant causing the smell during the flower-opening phase was identified as dimethyl trisulfide, a compound with a sulfury odor that has been found to be emitted from some vegetables, microorganisms, and cancerous wounds.  (+info)

  • Amorphophallus (from Ancient Greek amorphos, "without form, misshapen" + phallos, "penis", referring to the shape of the prominent spadix), commonly known as Zaminkand, is a large genus of some 200 tropical and subtropical tuberous herbaceous plants from the Arum family (Araceae), native to Asia, Africa, Australia and various oceanic islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amorphophallus (family Araceae ). (theplantlist.org)
  • Cellular ultrastructure and crystal development in Amorphophallus (Araceae). (uptodate.com)
  • This study focuses on the distribution and development of raphides and druses during leaf growth in ten species of Amorphophallus (Araceae) in order to determine the crystal macropatterns and the underlying ultrastructural features associated with formation of the unusual raphide groove. (uptodate.com)
  • A runner-up is Amorphophallus gigas, which is taller, but has a somewhat smaller flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amorphophallus variabilis 'DARK GIANT SLUKA' makes numerous annual offsets, which means it is easily propagated by rhizomatous propagules / pups. (titanumseeds.com)
  • Spring sap rises in the awesome Amorphophallus again and inconcupiscent safaris (di)vert heavy next breeding season lorry loads from Tooting. (aroid.org)
  • Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshop on Genetic Resources of Traditional Vegetables in Africa (Nairobi, 29-31 August 1995) Amorphophallus abyssinicus in West African plants - A Photo Guide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amorphophallus plants always captivated my interest, because the emerged leaf looks like an alien tree. (davesgarden.com)
  • In fact, had I been the explorer who discovered the first specimen of Amorphophallus , I might have named it Trikladophyllum because each leaf has three primary "branches", or divisions. (davesgarden.com)
  • Amorphophallus vary in leaf size, texture and color. (davesgarden.com)