Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A coordinated international effort to identify and catalog patterns of linked variations (HAPLOTYPES) found in the human genome across the entire human population.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Color of hair or fur.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform computations (e.g.[19]). Hodgkin and Huxley's original model only employed two voltage-sensitive currents (Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse under certain conditions through the axolemma), the fast-acting sodium and the inward-rectifying potassium. Though successful in predicting the timing and qualitative features of the action potential, it nevertheless failed to predict a number of important features such as adaptation and shunting. Scientists now believe that there are a wide variety of voltage-sensitive currents, and the implications of the differing dynamics, modulations, and sensitivity of these currents is an important topic of computational neuroscience.[20] The computational functions of complex dendrites are also under intense investigation. There is a large body of literature regarding how different currents interact ...
The earliest use of secular Sunday Schools by the radical movement began in Great Britain in the early 1830s, when adherents of Robert Owen and Chartism opened Sunday training schools for their children.[1] These schools continued to operate until sometime in the decade of the 1850s, fizzling out with the decline of the early radical movement.[1] For a generation, no such schools existed in Great Britain. Only in 1886 did Socialist Sunday Schools begin to reemerge in Great Britain.[1] The institution was popularized by Mary Gray in 1892, a member of the Social Democratic Federation, who ran a soup kitchen for the children of the dock strike. Her aim, on realising they had little or no education, was to influence and educate them and make them aware of their socialist responsibilities and provide what was lacking in their day schools. She started the first Sunday with only one other besides her own two children but twenty years later there were approximately one hundred and twenty schools ...
The following is the 2009-10 network television schedule for the five major English-language commercial broadcast networks in the United States. The schedule covers primetime hours from September 2009 through May 2010. The schedule is followed by a list per network of returning series, new series, and series canceled after the 2008-09 season. PBS is not included; member stations have local flexibility over most of their schedules and broadcast times for network shows may vary. NBC stripped The Jay Leno Show weeknights at 10 pm Eastern/9 p.m. Central, but removed it after the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics. The CW eliminated its Sunday night programming block and returned that time to local affiliates; it returned to programming Sunday nights in the 2018-19 season.[1] After three years as a network, MyNetworkTV became a syndication programming service, and therefore not recognized as a network.[2] Fox announced its schedule on May 18,[3] followed by ABC and NBC on May 19,[4][5] CBS on May 20[6] ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
The Kingkiller Chronicle takes place in the fictional world of Temerant, a large continent of which the known part, called the Four Corners of Civilization, is divided into several distinct nations and cultures. Much of the world follows a religion similar, though not identical, to medieval Christianity. Coexisting alongside the mortal world is the realm of The Fae, a parallel universe inhabited by supernatural creatures which can move between the two realms only when the moon is full. Magic exists in Temerant, too, but obeys a well-defined set of rules and principles that can only be exploited by those who have trained in its professional and scientific use. As the novel begins, the reader hears an old storyteller speaking of a famous old wizard called Taborlin the Great, who was captured by evil beings called the Chandrian. Escaping them, Taborlin fell from a great height-but since he knew the "Name of the Wind", he called it and the Wind came and set him down safely. In later parts of the ...
One variant of the portrait by Meynnart Wewyck in 1510 by Rowland Lockey from the late 1590s shows her at prayer in her richly ...
Google Books and may be particularly helpful if you want to verify citations in Wikipedia articles, because they often enable you to search an online version of the book for specific words or phrases, or you can browse through the book (although for copyright reasons the entire book is usually not available). Important: Google Books and provide valuable information about a book, but they might not give you the specifics you need. Consult the resources below for other ways to locate the source. ...
After the process of affinity maturation in germinal centers, plasma cells have an indeterminate lifespan, ranging from days to months. Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell.[5] Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes, cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface.[4] However, continued exposure to antigen through those low levels of immunoglobulin is important, as it partly determines the cell's lifespan.[4]. The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as cytokines, received from the T cell during differentiation.[6] Differentiation through a T cell-independent ...
... s are active dogs and need and enjoy consistent mental and physical challenges; well-trained Irish Terriers may do well at a variety of dog sports, such as dog agility. The Irish Terrier is full of life, but not hyperactive; it should be able to relax inside the house and be roused to full activity level quickly.. Irish Terriers are good with people. They have a highly developed sense of loyalty and it is important that they have a strong responsible leader, for whom they have natural respect. Most Irish Terriers love children and tolerate rough-housing to a certain extent. Irish terriers need exercise; do not get one if you are not prepared to walk it. They enjoy training, new tasks are easily mastered with food and toys working equally well as motivation. Irish terriers have less of an eagerness to please people than some other breeds but have mental ability and enjoy puzzle solving. They respond best to consistent, reward based training from a relaxed, authoritative person. As ...
The United States federal executive departments are the principal units of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. They are analogous to ministries common in parliamentary or semi-presidential systems but (the United States being a presidential system) they are led by a head of government who is also the head of state. The executive departments are the administrative arms of the President of the United States. There are currently 15 executive departments. The heads of the executive departments receive the title of Secretary of their respective department, except for the Attorney-General who is head of the Justice Department (and the Postmaster General who until 1971 was head of the Post Office Department). The heads of the executive departments are appointed by the President and take office after confirmation by the United States Senate, and serve at the pleasure of the President. The heads of departments are members of the Cabinet of the United States, an executive ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] This gene belongs to the homeobox family of genes. The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. Deletions that remove the entire HOXD gene cluster or the 5' end of this cluster have been associated with severe limb and genital abnormalities. In addition to effects during embryogenesis, this particular gene may also play a role in adult urogenital tract function.[7] ...
Notes: Values are mean ± SD or range. ER RBA = Relative binding affinity to estrogen receptors of rat uterine cytosol. Uterine weight = Percentage change in uterine wet weight of ovariectomized rats after 72 hours with continuous administration of 1 μg/hour via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. LH levels = Luteinizing hormone levels relative to baseline of ovariectomized rats after 24 to 72 hours of continuous administration via subcutaneous implant. Footnotes: a = Synthetic (i.e., not endogenous). b = Atypical uterotrophic effect which plateaus within 48 hours (estradiol's uterotrophy continues linearly up to 72 hours). Sources: See template ...
The announcement pages for the respective versions offer more details as to the exact changes. Reunion 12 was updated[1] in May 2018. New features include a new Duplicate Check, further improvements to syncing with Reunion's mobile app "ReunionTouch" for iOS, a new Citations List, improvements to Sorting, and a number of other upgrades. Reunion 11 was announced[2] in April 2015. New features include better syncing with Reunion's mobile app, Book creator to automatically generate PDF books, improved editing, and "on-the-fly" relationships identification. Reunion 10 was announced[3] in May 2012. New features include web searching, mapping of places, a tree view, a nav bar and a sidebar, image dragging from a web browser, side-by-side matching and merging people, and graphic relationship charts. Reunion 9 was announced[4] on March 2007. This version became a universal binary Cocoa-based application, which runs under OS X. New features include Unicode support and a less "modal" design, allowing ...
According to the most popular variant, popularized by the 15th-century historian Jan Długosz,[28] Wanda, daughter of King Krak ...
Nitcholas (aka Nitch, 1895-1951) and Delia Drinkard (née McCaskill, 1901-1941) who had eight children - sons William (1918-2003), Hansom (b. 1924), Nicky (b. 1929-1992), and Larry (1931-2012), and daughters Lee (1920-2005), Marie (1922-2007), Anne (1927-2003) and Emily "Cissy" (b. 1933).[1] The Drinkard surname, although gained through a Native American ancestor, has British origins with a meaning that alludes to the running of water.[2] Nitcholas Drinkard was born to a part Dutch, part African-American, mother Susan Bell Drinkard (née Fuller, b. 1876) and a full Native American father John Drinkard Jr. (b. 1870).[1] He descended from a family of African-American landowners in Blakely, Georgia where three of his children were born. The Drinkards owned a substantial amount of farmland during a time when it was unusual for blacks to own large portions of land. The asset was gradually depleted as small portions of the land were sold, over time, to resolve the continued legal troubles of a close ...
The book proved to be extremely popular and a national bestseller in the years immediately following its release, and at least 13 printings of the book were published in the first six months of publication. Public reaction to the book was very strong. Many people were shocked at the extent of food contamination and drug side-effects, and 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, along with several other books of a similar nature, were published during a period when a new consumer movement emerged.[7] It is often cited, along with American Chamber of Horrors by Ruth De Forest Lamb, as being one of the key catalysts for increased government regulation over food and drugs in the United States which led to the passage in 1938 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.[8][9] The book was also the subject of strong opposition from several quarters-not just vested interests such as the drug companies, but also from the medical fraternity. The book was frequently criticized for being sensational propaganda, and many ...
You are receiving this message because a technical change may affect a bot, gadget, or user script you have been using. The breaking change involves API calls. This change has been planned for two years. The WMF will start making this change on 30 June 2015. A partial list of affected bots can be seen here: This includes all bots that are using pywikibot compat. Some of these bots have already been fixed. However, if you write user scripts or operate a bot that uses the API, then you should check your code, to make sure that it will not break. What, exactly, is breaking? The "default continuation mode" for action=query requests to api.php will be changing to be easier for new coders to use correctly. To find out whether your script or bot may be affected, then search the source code (including any frameworks or libraries) for the string "query-continue". If that is not present, then the script or bot is not affected. In a few ...
... increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the ...
On January 20, the Portland Winter Hawks defeated the West All-Stars 4-3 in Portland, Oregon with a crowd of 3,106.. On January 21, the East All-Stars defeated the Prince Albert Raiders 6-3 in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan before a crowd of 1,475.. ...
... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[2][3][1] While its exact mechanism of action is not well characterized,[2] it is believed to be an NMDA receptor antagonist,[4][5] but also promoting the synthesis of dopamine.[6] Because it provides additional benefits relative to existing treatments, it probably does not precisely mimic the mechanism of an existing known treatment.[6][7] ...
Engine displacement is an important factor in the power of an internal combustion engine. Thus a 2000cc engine would typically be more powerful than an 1800cc engine, but that assumes a similar air-fuel mixture is used. If, however, via a turbocharger as an example, the smaller engine uses an air-fuel mixture with higher energy density, then it might be able to produce more power than the larger one burning a less energy dense air-fuel mixture. Unfortunately turbochargers are both complex and expensive. Thus for high-horsepower/high-torque engines a fuel that creates a more energy dense air-fuel mixture is preferred, because a smaller and simpler engine can produce the same power. With traditional gasoline and diesel engines the energy density of the air-fuel mixture is limited because the liquid fuels do not mix well in the cylinder. Further, gasoline and diesel fuel have autoignition temperatures and pressures relevant to engine design. An important part of traditional engine design is ...
Trees now believed to have been infected with this pathogen were reported dying in large numbers in Poland in 1992,[13] and by the mid 1990s it was also found in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.[14] However, it was 2006 before the fungus's asexual stage, Chalara fraxinea, was first described by scientists, and 2010 before its sexual stage was described.[13] By 2008 the disease was also discovered in Scandinavia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Germany, Austria and Switzerland.[15] By 2012 it had spread to Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg,[16] the Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Britain and Ireland.[17][18] There are few official figures available, but the disease has caused a large-scale decline of ash trees across Poland,[19] and the experience there suggests that in the long term "15 to 20 per cent of trees do not die, and show no symptoms."[20] In 2012, the disease was said to be peaking in Sweden and Denmark, and in a post-decline (or chronic) phase in Latvia and Lithuania.[9] The ...
... s emerged in the United States in the 1970s[1] as one means of remedying racial segregation in public schools, and they were written into law in Section 5301 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Authorization.[2] Demographic trends following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education US Supreme Court decision revealed a pattern later characterized as white flight, the hypersegregation of blacks and whites, as the latter moved to the suburbs.[3][4] At first, districts tried using involuntary plans which involved court-ordered attendance, the busing of children far from their homes, and building closer schools to achieve the required balance. Later, voluntary school integration plans were developed. One approach that educators within the public school system came up with was open schools. During the Open Schools movement of the 1970s, several ideas designed to influence public education were put into practice, including Schools without Walls, Schools within a School, Multicultural ...
Yeesh! This reads as if it were written by the Ministry of Propaganda-which, of course, is what the USIA was, Edward R. Murrow or no Edward R. Murrow.. "Public diplomacy..." what gobbledegook. "To understand, inform and influence foreign publics in promotion of the national interest." Drop the word "understand" and you have a definition of the word "propaganda.". OK, I added a first paragraph which acknowledge's the relative truthfulness of the USIA's material while making sure that the word "propaganda" is not missing from the article. Dpbsmith 04:18, 14 Dec 2003 (UTC). P. S. The dictionary defines propaganda as "The systematic propagation of a doctrine or cause or of information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause.". P. P. S. I can't say I had actually encountered the euphemism "public diplomacy" before. I ran across this page because I mentioned the USIA in a note in an article on MIT and was checking the link. But further investigation confirms my ...
In computing, telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, an error correction code, sometimes error correcting code, (ECC) is used for controlling errors in data over unreliable or noisy communication channels.[1][2] The central idea is the sender encodes the message with a redundant in the form of an ECC. The American mathematician Richard Hamming pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first error-correcting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code.[2] The redundancy allows the receiver to detect a limited number of errors that may occur anywhere in the message, and often to correct these errors without retransmission. ECC gives the receiver the ability to correct errors without needing a reverse channel to request retransmission of data, but at the cost of a fixed, higher forward channel bandwidth. ECC is therefore applied in situations where retransmissions are costly or impossible, such as one-way communication links and when transmitting to multiple receivers in ...
Some mammals are omnivores and display varying degrees of carnivory and herbivory, generally leaning in favor of one more than the other. Since plants and meat are digested differently, there is a preference for one over the other, as in bears where some species may be mostly carnivorous and others mostly herbivorous.[35] They are grouped into three categories: mesocarnivory (50-70% meat), hypercarnivory (70% and greater of meat), and hypocarnivory (50% or less of meat). The dentition of hypocarnivores consists of dull, triangular carnassial teeth meant for grinding food. Hypercarnivores, however, have conical teeth and sharp carnassials meant for slashing, and in some cases strong jaws for bone-crushing, as in the case of hyenas, allowing them to consume bones; some extinct groups, notably the Machairodontinae, had saber-shaped canines.[34] Some physiological carnivores consume plant matter and some physiological herbivores consume meat. From a behavioral aspect, this would make them omnivores, ...
In the western world, finger foods are often either appetizers (hors d'œuvres) or entree/main course items. In the Western world, examples of generally accepted finger food are miniature meat pies, sausage rolls, sausages on sticks, cheese and olives on sticks, chicken drumsticks or wings, spring rolls, miniature quiches, samosas, sandwiches, Merenda or other such based foods, such as pitas or items in buns, bhajjis, potato wedges, vol au vents, several other such small items and risotto balls (arancini). Other well-known foods that are generally eaten with the hands include hamburgers, pizza, chips, hot dogs, fruit, and bread.[3] Dessert items such as cookies, pastries, ice cream in cones, or ice pops are often eaten with the hands but are not, in common parlance, considered finger foods. In East Asia, foods like pancakes or flatbreads (bing 饼) and street foods such as chuan (串, also pronounced chuan) are often eaten with the hands. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
In 1927, Arya Samaj was established in Singapore in a shophouse in Rowell Road.[1][2][3]. In 1942 till 1945, during the Second World War the activities of the Arya Samaj was interrupted by the Japanese occupation of Singapore.[2][3]. In 1963, the Arya Samaj movement's present building at Syed Alwi Road was opened by Mollamal Sachdev, whose family gave generously to the building fund.[2][3]. In 2014, on 1 and 2 November, Arya Samaj Singapore celebrated International Arya Conference (Hindi: अंतर्राष्ट्रीय आर्य महा सम्मलेन) to mark the 101 years of Arya Samaj movement.[4]. In 2015, inaugural International Yoga Day (Hindi: अंतर्राष्ट्रीय योग दिवस) was celebrated by the Arya Samaj.[5]. ...
In 1853, Elinor met Thomas Jackson, then a professor at the Virginia Military Institute, at her father's home in Lexington. Jackson was a frequent visitor to the Junkin home; the shy young professor and the old college president were united by common interests in theology and Presbyterian doctrine, and Elinor and Jackson both taught at the Presbyterian Sunday school in Lexington. Suddenly their friendship changed into love, and they became engaged. But Elinor's older sister Margaret was very jealous of their relationship, and the engagement was broken off on her behest. It resumed again, however, with Margaret's reluctant blessing, and George Junkin married Elinor and Jackson in August 1853.[1] [2] Her sister Margaret was the second wife of VMI founder John Thomas Lewis Preston, who served with Thomas Jackson on the VMI faculty, and served on Jackson's staff during the American Civil War.[3] ...
Information on H3N2 Variant Influenza A Virus - CDC ... Influenza A H3N2 variant viruses (also known as "H3N2v" viruses ... CDC Reports Fifth U.S. Human Infection with a Variant Flu Virus for 2021 Friday, June 4, 2021 ... Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called "variant" viruses when they are found in people. ... Reported Infections with Variant Influenza Viruses in the United States ...
This rapid increase in cases has been linked to a different version-or variant-of the virus that causes COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). ... Variants in the United States. We are monitoring multiple variants; currently there are six notable variants in the United ... Sometimes new variants emerge and disappear. Other times, new variants persist. Multiple variants of the virus that causes ... These variants seem to spread more easily and quickly than other variants, which may lead to more cases of COVID-19. An ...
encoded search term (What are variant migraines in children?) and What are variant migraines in children? What to Read Next on ... What are variant migraines in children?. Updated: Aug 15, 2019 * Author: William C Robertson, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: Amy Kao, MD ...
... also known as the B.1.525 variant, in two foreign nationals who had flown in from the United Arab Emirates, says Health ... "The Nigerian variant too may cause increase in transmissibility as well as possible reductions in immune response, " he said. ... Since then, a total of 360 sequences of this variant can be found in GISAID (a global science initiative and primary source for ... He said the Nigerian variant, B.1.525, was first detected in the United Kingdom and Nigeria last December. ...
... in the brain and spinal cord.Signs and symptoms of the AB variant become apparent in infancy. Explore symptoms, inheritance, ... AB variant is a rare inherited disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells (neurons) ... Mutations in the GM2A gene cause GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant. The GM2A gene provides instructions for making a protein ... Because the AB variant impairs the function of a lysosomal enzyme and involves the buildup of GM2 ganglioside, this condition ...
Genome-wide association scans reveal increased risk for smokers who carry rare variants in BRCA2, a gene more commonly ... In contrast, a variant in CHEK2 (rs17879961) was associated with reduced risk for lung cancer (OR = 0.38, P = 1.27 x 10-13). ... Now, as a new genomic study shows, a rare variant of the BRCA2 gene is associated with increased risk for squamous cell lung ... "This variant confers one the strongest associations found to date for cancer among those identified by genome-wide association ...
Variant). Learn where to read it, and check out the comics cover art, variants, writers, & more! ...
... or a copycat variant, has become more pernicious because it can now spread automatically to USB sticks. ... CryptoLocker Ransomware Variant Includes More Pernicious Features By: Robert Lemos , January 06, 2014 ... The variant claims to use a stronger form of encryption, RSA-4096, but in reality, uses a weaker version, RSA-1024. The ... A new variant of the file-encrypting ransomware known as CryptoLocker has begun spreading using a dangerous new feature: self ...
Studies show the new variant became more common in California as cases there surged. The coincidence has researchers wondering ... Three previously identified variants have been termed "variants of concern" because each contains clusters of mutations that ... These variants can become a problem if theyre better at infecting humans and if they create defenses against vaccines. ... NEW: on a press call now, the Santa Clara County health officer said the COVID-19 variant rising in CA was found in the Kaiser ...
... plasmacytoid variant, microcystic variant, micropapillary variant, nested variant, and small cell type. These variants of ... Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was first reported by Stern [1, 2]. The first reported case of nested variant of ... Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification ... It is important to keep in mind nested variant of urothelial carcinoma as a unique histologic variant which should not be ...
Resolving variant-to-function relationships is a key challenge faced by human geneticists. A new study combining statistical ... with cell-type-specific functional annotations advances the understanding of the regulatory consequences of genetic variants ... Resolving variant-to-function relationships in hematopoiesis. *Manuel Tardaguila1. & *Nicole Soranzo. ORCID: ... Resolving variant-to-function relationships is a key challenge faced by human geneticists. A new study combining statistical ...
Gene Variant Could Influence Antidepressant Suicides in Men. While most people respond favorably to antidepressants, a small ...
Silver fox: Silver fox, (Vulpes fulva), red fox of North America in that colour phase when the fur is black with interspersed silver-tipped hairs. See
in the type of asthma called cough-variant asthma, severe coughing is the main symptom. there can be other causes of cough such ... What are the symptoms of cough-variant asthma?. ANSWER In the type of asthma called cough-variant asthma, severe coughing is ...
Variant). Learn where to read it, and check out the comics cover art, variants, writers, & more! ...
Curious about gene mutations and how they impact health? Learn how different mutations affect health and development.
Immunogen = synthetic peptide representing the sequence of the C2 splice variant. Specificity. NMDAR1 splice variant insert C2 ...
This particular variant of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized... ... This particular variant of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by the presence of subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules, ... Ginsberg, M.H., Genant, H.K., Yu, T.F., Mc Carty, D.J. Rheumatoid Nodulosis: an unusual variant of rheumatoid disease. ... A relatively benign rheumatoid variant. Arch Intern Med 1981, 141, 615-619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... has said that the new variant of the coronavirus found in the United Kingdom recently can be detected by the polymerase chain ... As part of the preventive measures toward the new virus variant, Azis urged the government to trace Indonesians and foreigners ... THE Indonesian Medical Associations (IDI) Covid-19 task force head, Zubairi Djoerban, has said that the new variant of the ... He further said that the newly found Covid-19 variant would not hamper efforts to develop Covid-19 vaccines. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The alpha+M variant of HbA, in which the normal N-terminal valine of the alpha chains is preceded by a methionine residue, was ... The kinetics of the reactions of CO with the alphaV1M and alpha+M variants are similar to those for HbA. The equilibria of ... coli expressed hemoglobin was also combined with normal human beta chains and hemin to form the alphaV1M variant. ...
... comprise the osteosarcoma variants, which are the subject of this article. ... encoded search term (Osteosarcoma Variant Imaging) and Osteosarcoma Variant Imaging What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... comprise the osteosarcoma variants, which are the subject of this article. The variants are a heterogeneous group of ... Osteosarcoma Variant Imaging. Updated: Jul 05, 2016 * Author: Geoff Hide, MBBS, MRCP, FRCR; Chief Editor: Felix S Chew, MD, MBA ...
... the governments chief spokesman says.The mutant variant, known as E484K, has been found in 91 cases in the Kanto area of ... Japanese health authorities have found more than 90 cases of a new variant of the COVID-19 virus, ... The mutant variant, known as E484K, has been found in 91 cases in the Kanto area of eastern Japan and in 2 cases at airports, ... The variant is believed to have come from overseas but is different from those that originated in Britain and South Africa, ...
Bad news is I got BBB and ? Brugada variant. Would wpw changed into Brugada variant? What is Brugada variant? Especially the ... Bad news is I got BBB and ? Brugada variant. Would wpw changed into Brugada variant? What is Brugada variant? Especially the ... Is flecainide can cause Brugada variant? What is the different of Brugada and Brugada variant? Thanks for your reply. ... Is flecainide can cause Brugada variant? What is the different of Brugada and Brugada variant? Thanks for your reply. ...
German researchers believe a specific genetic variant is linked to Internet addiction. The same genetic variation has been ... Genetic Variant Linked to Nicotine, Internet Addiction. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... Nauert PhD, R. (2018). Genetic Variant Linked to Nicotine, Internet Addiction. Psych Central. Retrieved on May 23, 2019, from ... German researchers believe a specific genetic variant is linked to Internet addiction. The same genetic variation has been ...
Home » News » Genetic Variant Heightens Risk for Bipolar Disorder. Genetic Variant Heightens Risk for Bipolar Disorder. By Rick ... "Further work is needed now to learn more about the biological processes that NCAN is involved in and how NCAN variants disturb ... Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Genetic Variant Heightens Risk for Bipolar Disorder. Psych Central. Retrieved on November 21, 2018, from ...
However, researchers havent yet confirmed whether this variant is a harmless change or a risk factor for cancer. The variant ... Over time, variants get reclassified as to whether theyre mutations or just normal variations," notes Cristina Nixon, M.S., ... If many relatives are tested and found to have the same variant, then it may be responsible for the increased cancer risk in ... "Ive called people to give them updated information, and they had forgotten they even had a variant! But I have others who get ...
... In addition to standard design FNL flanged housings, variants are also available. Variants include housings ... 1). This housing variant can be supplied on request and is identified by the designation suffix V, e.g. FNL 511 AV.. fig. 1 ...
intron_variant. A transcript variant occurring within an intron.. splice_donor_variant. A splice variant that changes the 2- ... variant, initiator_codon_variant, incomplete_terminal_codon_variant, stop_lost, stop_retained_variant, stop_gained, NMD_ ... upstream/downstream of gene: upstream_gene_variant, downstream_gene_variant *5 or 3 UTR: 5_prime_UTR_variant, 3_prime_UTR_ ... A sequence variant located in the intergenic region, between genes.. upstream_gene_variant. A sequence variant located 5 of a ...
It is sometimes forgotten that in the story of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease there is ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease BMJ 2001; 322 :841 ... First suggested by their temporospatial association and the distinctive features of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the link ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy caused variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, most probably through adulteration of cooked meat ...
  • Further analysis indicated the presence of all the reported mutations corresponding to this variant, " he said. (
  • Dr Noor Hisham said this includes protein spike mutations E484K, Q677H, F888L and a similar suite of protein deletions seen in the UK variant, B.1.1.7. (
  • Mutations in the GM2A gene cause GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant. (
  • The successful individual will work in a multi-disciplinary environment and assist in the classification of genetic variants (mutations) related to hereditary cancer syndromes. (
  • I believe variant refers to the different types of gene mutations affecting SCN5A. (
  • Over time, variants get reclassified as to whether they're mutations or just normal variations," notes Cristina Nixon, M.S., LCGC, a licensed certified genetic counselor with the Cancer Risk Assessment and Genetics Program at Main Line Health in Pennsylvania. (
  • The Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome (BSAS) variant of the congenital human HOXA1 syndrome results from autosomal recessive truncating HOXA1 mutations. (
  • Using the mBDA technology, we can monitor the DNA profile in cancer patients to not only watch for changes in existing mutations, but also identify new resistance variants in real time,' said Dr. Ping Song , lead author of the study, Senior Research Scientist at Rice University , and a Senior Scientific Consultant at NuProbe. (
  • A rapid test that detects coronavirus variants with dangerous mutations could be used to tell people which variant of the virus they are carrying. (
  • From identifying known cancer-causing mutations to making sure novel variants implicated in cancer don't go unnoticed - our technologies help you get to the heart of cancer faster! (
  • The D614G variant appears as part of a set of four linked mutations that appear to have arisen once and then moved together around the world as a consistent set of variations. (
  • Security researchers say that the Cryptolocker ransomware, or a copycat variant, has become more pernicious because it can now spread automatically to USB sticks. (
  • Men are more likely to be devoted and loyal husbands when they lack a particular variant of a gene that influences brain activity, researchers announced yesterday -- the first time that science has shown a direct link between a man's genes and his aptitude for monogamy. (
  • German researchers believe a specific genetic variant is linked to Internet addiction. (
  • However, researchers haven't yet confirmed whether this variant is a harmless change or a risk factor for cancer. (
  • The variant remains on a "watch list" as researchers collect information to determine whether or not people who have it are at increased cancer risk. (
  • Researchers identified the same gene variants in older African-Americans that they had found in older people of European ancestry. (
  • Further analyses are needed in order to uncover more rare genetic variants that may increase the risk of schizophrenia, the researchers note, but the current research has made a strong start. (
  • The researchers went on to show that the new variant does not have the same effect on the risk of other types of stroke which include bleeding in the brain (haemorrhagic stroke). (
  • A landmark study led by King's College London, University of North Carolina and Stanford researchers identifies the first genetic variant for anorexia nervosa and reveals that there may also be metabolic underpinnings to this potentially deadly illness. (
  • Researchers found no evidence of an association between the variant and increased disease severity, with 36% (72 out of 198) of B117 patients becoming severely ill or dying, compared with 38% of those with a different strain. (
  • In the study, published in today's Molecular Psychiatry, researchers inserted three variants of the dopamine D4 receptor into cells and into mice so that they could investigate differences in biological activities. (
  • The researchers found that the D4.7 variant, unlike its D4.2 and D4.4 counterparts, was not able to interact with the short version of the dopamine type 2 (D2S) receptor to reduce glutamate release in a brain region associated with impulsivity and symptoms of ADHD in humans. (
  • The variants were also significantly associated with remission, at P =0.000095 and P =0.00034, respectively, the researchers said. (
  • In the September issue of Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, the researchers' report that a variant in LINGO1, a gene involved in neuronal survival, is the first proven evidence of a common genetic component in the development of both disorders. (
  • In this study, researchers sought to validate an earlier finding from scientists in Iceland that a genetic variant in LINGO1 was linked to an increased risk of developing essential tremor. (
  • The researchers have now used the same strategy to identify more genetic variants associated with brain structure and IQ. (
  • The researchers also found that some of the variants are associated with intelligence , in that individuals carrying them performed several points better on standardized IQ tests than others. (
  • The researchers used a 'highly sophisticated method' that simplifies the statistics involved by identifying gene networks rather than individual variants, says human geneticist Silvia Paracchini of the University of St. Andrews in the United Kingdom, who was not involved in the study. (
  • It is most common in the U.S. among persons of Asian or African descent, but its genetics is complex and researchers have struggled to identify which gene variants and combinations cause some children to develop the disease. (
  • To evaluate this, a team of researchers led by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Santa Fe, NM, tracked global patterns of the G614 variant and performed experiments in cells. (
  • To confirm this in vitro, the researchers performed cell studies using forms of viruses with either the original (D614) or new (G614) variant of the spike protein. (
  • The researchers found no link between the new G614 variant and disease severity, which they assessed using data on hospitalization for COVID-19. (
  • The researchers were able to show that the regulatory variant indeed modified the effect of the coding disease-causing variant, consistent with expectations based on the large-scale data collections. (
  • Writing in the February 17 JAMA Neurology, researchers led by Matthew Harms at Washington University in St. Louis, report that people harboring a copy of the TREM2 variant R47H face more than double the odds of developing ALS. (
  • The researchers then turned their attention to case-control studies - comparisons of patients ('cases') against healthy volunteers ('controls') - to see whether genetic variants in the LTA4H region affected susceptibility to mycobacterial infection in humans, examining patients in Vietnam with a particularly dangerous form of TB known as meningeal TB, and patients in Nepal with leprosy. (
  • When the researchers combined the data from the studies, they found that children with autism were about 20 percent more likely to have inherited the thymine variant from their mothers than from their fathers. (
  • Researchers in Singapore have discovered a new variant of the COVID-19 coronavirus that causes milder infections, according to a study published in The Lancet medical journal this week. (
  • The application uses accurate, curated biological content from the Ingenuity Knowledge Base, plus many additional sources of variant-level content, to help researchers studying genetics and disease biology to quickly sift through millions of variants and identify causal variants based on known relationships with pathways, genes, biological processes, and diseases. (
  • HOUSTON , May 3, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- NuProbe Global, a genomics and molecular diagnostics company specialized in ultrasensitive sequencing assays, announced research demonstrating the ability to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in DNA with a variant allele frequency (VAF) of ≤0.02% using a sequencing depth of only 250x. (
  • So even though single nucleotide variants can be called with high accuracy, existing SV algorithms lack that power. (
  • The presence of the gene variant, or allele, also seems predictive of whether men get married or live with women without getting married. (
  • A record in this table represents a variant for an allele. (
  • An allele can have multiple variants. (
  • We identified an allele, termed KL-VS, containing six sequence variants in complete linkage disequilibrium, two of which result in amino acid substitutions F352V and C370S. (
  • He also tweeted that the P.1 variant "has responded very well to the J and J vaccine and all data supports a full response to the mRNA vaccines. (
  • Six transcript variants of mlf1 mRNA, with more than 2000 bps, are analyzed by focusing on the autocorrelation of each distribution. (
  • Furthermore, normal breast epithelium as well as breast cancer tissue contains alternatively spliced ER mRNA variants where single or multiple exons are skipped. (
  • It is still unclear if any or all of the ER mRNA splicing variants are translated in vivo, and if a change in the balance of ER variants could effect tumor development and progression to hormone-independent growth. (
  • Manitoba's chief public health officer Dr. Brent Roussin says virus variants are common with mRNA viruses like the novel coronavirus. (
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a prion disease that was first described in 1996 in the United Kingdom. (
  • It is sometimes forgotten that in the story of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease there is but one incontestable fact, that bovine spongiform encephalopathy is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (
  • First suggested by their temporospatial association and the distinctive features of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the link has since been proved by their equally distinctive and shared biological and molecular features. (
  • Work on experimental pathology carried out for over 10 years indicates that the biological properties of the BSE agent, responsible for the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), are particular. (
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a type of prion disease that can cause death. (
  • In recent years, questions have been raised concerning the potential risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD - a rare but fatal brain infection) for recipients of plasma- derived clotting factors, including United States (US) licensed Factor Eight (pdFVIII), Factor Nine (pdFIX), and other plasma-derived products such as immune globulins and albumin. (
  • The gene predictions selected here will be used to determine the effect of each variant on genes, for example intronic, missense, splice site, intergenic etc. (
  • Two splice variants have been found for this gene. (
  • Splice variants of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates opioid actions, have unique pharmacological properties and anatomic distributions that make them attractive candidates for therapeutic pain relief. (
  • The gene, mcr-1 and its variants, including mcr-1.6 all need to be monitored closely because of their resistance to polymyxin antibiotics, generally, and to colistin, in particular, said Kan. A particular concern is the possibility that new variants on any of these mcr-1 genes could result in increased resistance to colistin. (
  • To answer this question, scientists based at the New York Genome Center (NYGC) and Columbia University have delved into large genomic datasets to find an explanation for variable penetrance, that is, variability in the signs and symptoms of diseases caused variants in protein-coding genes. (
  • Conversely, in cancer and autism patients, we observed an enrichment of penetrance increasing haplotype configurations for pathogenic variants in disease-implicated genes, providing evidence that regulatory haplotype configuration of coding variants affects disease risk. (
  • NEW YORK - An international team has combined genome sequencing and genome-wide association analyses to track down high-penetrance, monogenic contributors to primary immunodeficiency (PID), along with common variants contributing to the heterogeneous conditions, within and outside of the genes implicated in monogenic forms of disease. (
  • The Nigerian variant too may cause increase in transmissibility as well as possible reductions in immune response, " he said. (
  • The increase in transmissibility associated to the variant was already causing alarm, because the more people the virus infects the more people will suffer serious illness and the risk of death. (
  • Through March 1, 2020, the G614 variant was rare outside of Europe, but the end of March it had increased in frequency worldwide," they wrote. (
  • Data from our trials of the ChAdOx1 vaccine in the United Kingdom indicate that the vaccine not only protects against the original pandemic virus, but also protects against the novel variant, B.1.1.7, which caused the surge in disease from the end of 2020 across the UK," said Andrew Pollard, Chief Investigator on the Oxford vaccine trial. (
  • The variant, which likely came from Wuhan, China, was detected in a cluster of infections that occurred from January to March 2020. (
  • A new study combining statistical fine-mapping with cell-type-specific functional annotations advances the understanding of the regulatory consequences of genetic variants associated with variations in blood-cell traits. (
  • Intelligence runs in families, but although scientists have identified about 20 genetic variants associated with intelligence, each accounts for just 1% of the variation in IQ scores. (
  • Earlier this year, Thompson and his colleagues reported that they had identified genetic variants associated with head size and the volume of the hippocampus , a brain structure that is crucial for learning and memory. (
  • Database of human genetic variants associated with longevity. (
  • The coronavirus variant first detected in Kent, and now dominant in the UK and a number of other countries, is more transmissible but does not increase disease severity, research has suggested. (
  • The National Microbiology Laboratory has confirmed that the coronavirus variant first detected in the U.K. was not found in samples from Pauingassi First Nation, the community said in a news release on Tuesday. (
  • The same process was earlier used to find the HTR2A variant but with a smaller cohort. (
  • AstraZeneca and Oxford University's COVID-19 vaccine has similar efficacy against the British coronavirus variant as it does to the previously circulating variants, the university said on Friday. (
  • Based on these analyses, NERVTAG said there was "a realistic possibility" that infection with the new variant is associated with an increased risk of death compared with previously circulating variants. (
  • What are the symptoms of cough-variant asthma? (
  • In the type of asthma called cough-variant asthma, severe coughing is the main symptom. (
  • What can trigger cough-variant asthma? (
  • Cough Variant asthma can be triggered by any number of air pollution and quality factors. (
  • Cough Variant Asthma refers to the cough symptom some asthma sufferers experience. (
  • There are many factors that can irritate and aggravate cough variant asthma. (
  • Air purification is a very sensible prevention measure for cough variant asthma. (
  • Cough variant asthma is a type of asthma where the predominant symptom is a non-productive cough. (
  • Data from patients with cough variant asthma, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. (
  • This particular variant of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by the presence of subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules, scanty or absent systemic manifestations and a clinically benign course. (
  • However, the function of this particular variant in ADHD has been poorly understood. (
  • The gene is involved in inflammation and is not associated with the overall risk of developing disease, but patients with one particular variant experienced better clinical outcomes. (
  • namely, possessing a particular variant called APOE4 increases one's risk of developing the disease. (
  • The findings, published today in Nature Biomedical Engineering , are the latest research involving the blocker displacement amplification (BDA) technology, a novel PCR-based enrichment method that enables the selective amplification of low abundant sequence variants (SNVs and indels) in a background of wildtype DNA. (
  • Alternative splicing of this gene and the use of alternate promoters result in multiple transcript variants and isoforms. (
  • Additional isoforms have also been shown to result from the use of alternate translation initiation codons from identical transcript variants (PMIDs: 12032546, 20937277). (
  • Occasionally, variant migraines alternate with typical migraine symptoms. (
  • Signs and symptoms of the AB variant become apparent in infancy. (
  • Progressive damage caused by the buildup of GM2 ganglioside leads to the destruction of these neurons, which causes the signs and symptoms of the AB variant. (
  • Two studies found no evidence that people with the B117 variant have worse symptoms or a heightened risk of developing long Covid then those with a different strain. (
  • A separate observational study using data logged by 37,000 UK users of a self-reporting coronavirus symptom app found no evidence the variant altered symptoms or likelihood of experiencing long Covid. (
  • By studying the effects of this particular gene variant on cells cultured in the lab, they found that it blocks the production of inflammatory chemicals, known as cytokines, that are known to be responsible for aggravating disease symptoms in Crohn's disease and other inflammatory diseases. (
  • Although the new variant of the virus does not appear to cause more severe symptoms, it is more infectious, and the authors recommend continued measures for protection, including mask wearing. (
  • Explain to patients who ask that this study suggests that human-to-human transmission of the degenerative neurologic disease variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD), caused by exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease, could occur if blood from infected individuals enters the blood supply. (
  • Studies of transgenic mice bred to express the human prion protein gene in its most common human variants indicate that while there appears to be good protection against BSE transmission to humans, human-to-human transmission of vCJD may readily occur in all but about 10% of the population, according to Jean C. Manson, Ph.D., and colleagues of the Institute for Animal Health here. (
  • In contrast, vCJD was transmitted to all three mouse lines expressing the human gene variants, with different pathological characteristics for each genotype. (
  • Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma is characterized by an unusual, bland morphology which mimics some benign urinary bladder lesions and it has a clinical behaviour which simulates the clinical behaviour of high-grade conventional urothelial carcinomas. (
  • The clinical history and ECG recording during a spontaneous attack are paramount in the clinical diagnosis of variant angina. (
  • Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant. (
  • Findings from the new studies, conducted between September and December when B117 emerged and started to spread across parts of England, provide insights into its characteristics that will help inform public health, clinical and research responses to this and other variants. (
  • Professor Ken Smith from the Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, the lead author of the study, said: "Our findings have important implications for how we think about the biology of complex disease and, in particular, show that genetic variants might control pathways that drive the clinical outcome of disease without being associated with its diagnosis. (
  • The findings may help avoid overtreatment of largely nonaggressive tumors with the FVPTC variant, the study authors noted in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . (
  • This is a well-powered study that confirms the most common histological variants of papillary carcinoma have distinct biological and clinical properties," commented Thomas J. Giordano, MD, PhD, who is Howard Clay Bryant Professor of Pathology and Professor of Internal Medicine as well as Director of the Division of Molecular and Genomic Pathology at the University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI. (
  • However, clinical data suggest that the variant does not cause more severe illness. (
  • We found that carrying a particular genetic variant of LTA4H seems to offer protection against TB in the Vietnamese patients and leprosy in the Nepalese patients," says Dr Sarah Dunstan from the Oxford University Clinical Research in Ho Chi Minh City, part of the Wellcome Trust's South East Asia programme in Vietnam. (
  • The study showed that COVID-19 patients infected with a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 had better clinical outcomes, including a lower proportion developing low blood oxygen or requiring intensive care. (
  • The study, published in the journal Cell, confirms earlier work suggesting the mutation had made the new variant of virus more common. (
  • A genetic variant that increases the risk of a common type of stroke has been identified by scientists in a study published online in Nature Genetics today. (
  • This suggests that FVPTC and CPTC, the most common two PTC variants, should be generally treated differently, with the former being generally less aggressively treated, as opposed to having FVPTC and CPTC treated indiscriminately in many practices of today," Dr. Xing said. (
  • Structural variants (SVs) in the genome - where segments of DNA are duplicated, deleted, inverted, inserted, translocated and more - are far more common than originally expected, even in outwardly healthy people. (
  • Most previous studies have focused on either looking for coding variants or regulatory variants that affect disease in these individuals or potentially looking at common variants that could affect disease. (
  • This is a common variant. (
  • Variant CJD is more common in younger people. (
  • P.1 has been designated a "variant of concern," indicating evidence of increased transmissibility, and potential for more severe disease and reduced effectiveness of vaccines or other treatments. (
  • Eric Topol, MD , Founder and Director of the Scripps Research Translational Institute in San Diego, and Professor of Molecular Medicine noted in a Tweet yesterday that while the P.1 variant is certainly contagious, it does not approach the transmissibility or lethality of the B.1.1.7 variant, which now represents at least 30% of cases in the US, according to Dr. Fauci. (
  • These results precipitated a search for functional variants of klotho. (
  • The current work suggests that while the G614 variant may be more infectious, it is not more pathogenic. (
  • Using functional genomic and genetic data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx), we observed that in the general population, purifying selection has depleted haplotype combinations predicted to increase pathogenic coding variant penetrance," the article's authors noted. (
  • Except for cigarette smoking, the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors do not appear to predispose patients to variant angina. (
  • They have identified plausible gene variants that predispose some children to developing the disease. (
  • The variant, first identified in Kent, southern England, is more easily transmissible, prompting many countries to restrict travel to Britain. (
  • Some are immune-evading, like the South African and Brazilian variants, and others are far more transmissible, like the United Kingdom variant (B.1.1.7). (
  • The announcement that the coronavirus strain sweeping Britain could be more deadly as well as more transmissible has raised fresh concerns about the variant that has spread to dozens of countries. (
  • With this more contagious variant [P.1], the solution is to continue to accelerate vaccination," he added. (
  • Haldimand-Norfolk Health Unit staff were busy over the weekend tracing contacts of the one resident in the region who was diagnosed with a more contagious variant of COVID-19. (
  • Because the science is always changing, Nixon adds, there can be rare instances in which two different testing companies classify the very same genetic alteration differently: One might label it a variant of unknown significance, while another classifies it as harmful. (
  • The comparison of Kolmogorov fractal dimension will be also given in order to classify the six variants. (
  • We enumerate and classify many of these variants, and evaluate their effect on the speed with which the correct alignment is reached. (
  • The variants are a heterogeneous group of osteosarcomas with a range of different imaging and behavioral features. (
  • Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called "variant" viruses when they are found in people. (
  • Since then, a total of 360 sequences of this variant can be found in GISAID (a global science initiative and primary source for genomic data of influenza viruses), with the highest submission from Denmark (n=121), followed by the United Kingdom (n=73) and Nigeria (n=56). (
  • SAN FRANCISCO , Sept. 14, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Genome Medical , a nationwide genomics medical practice, today announced a program offering expert care and support to family members of individuals found to carry a disease-causing genetic variant. (
  • This variant confers one the strongest associations found to date for cancer among those identified by genome-wide association studies and identifies a subset of people who are particularly susceptible to harm associated with smoking," said Christopher Amos, PhD, director of the Center for Genomic Medicine at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire. (
  • They found large-effect genome-wide associations for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung in rare variants of the gene encoding for BRCA2 (rs11571833, OR = 2.47, P = 4.74 x 10 -20 ). (
  • THE Indonesian Medical Association's (IDI) Covid-19 task force head, Zubairi Djoerban, has said that the new variant of the coronavirus found in the United Kingdom recently can be detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. (
  • He further said that the newly found Covid-19 variant would not hamper efforts to develop Covid-19 vaccines. (
  • Japanese health authorities have found more than 90 cases of a new variant of the COVID-19 virus, the government's chief spokesman says. (
  • The mutant variant, known as E484K, has been found in 91 cases in the Kanto area of eastern Japan and in 2 cases at airports, Chief Cabinet Secretary Katsunobo Kato told reporters on Friday. (
  • It was just a matter of time before the P.1 variant, first found in Brazil, would make its way around the U.S. and land in New York. (
  • If many relatives are tested and found to have the same variant, then it may be responsible for the increased cancer risk in your family. (
  • Cristina Nixon has found that people react differently to the news that they have a variant of unknown significance. (
  • When the team looked at patients with another inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, they found that the same gene variant was linked to less joint damage over time, but not with susceptibility to developing the disease in the first place. (
  • They found a significant association between the LINGO1 gene variant identified in Iceland to essential tremor patients in the U.S. 'This variant is five percent more likely to be present in essential tremor patients than controls,' Dr. Vilari-o-G-ell says. (
  • We found a whole range of genetic variants that affect the impact of other variants,' says Thompson, 'and we are beginning to understand the guiding principles of these gene networks. (
  • Similarly, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed that the patients with FVPTC had the best prognosis, followed by patients with the CPTC variant, and with the worst prognosis found in patients with TCPTC. (
  • Scientists have found a variation in a gene that may raise the risk of developing autism, especially when the variant is inherited from mothers rather than fathers. (
  • The scientists again found that children with autism had higher rates of the thymine variant in the CNTNAP2 gene than would be expected to occur by chance. (
  • The coronavirus variant found in Pauingassi First Nation shares that genetic marker with the B117 variant, but the full sequencing has shown that the samples for which sequencing was successful are negative for the B117 variant. (
  • The B117 virus variant wasn't found in five of the seven samples, Dr. Marcia Anderson, the public health lead with the Manitoba First Nations Pandemic Response Coordination Team, said in an interview on CBC Manitoba's Radio Noon on Tuesday. (
  • Further work is needed now to learn more about the biological processes that NCAN is involved in and how NCAN variants disturb neuronal processes in patients with bipolar disorder. (
  • Now, as a new genomic study shows, a rare variant of the BRCA2 gene is associated with increased risk for squamous cell lung cancer, particularly among cigarette smokers. (
  • For a smoker carrying this variant (2% of the population), the risk of developing lung cancer is approximately doubled, which may have implications for identifying high-risk ever-smoking subjects for lung cancer screening," they write. (
  • In contrast, a variant in CHEK2 (rs17879961) was associated with reduced risk for lung cancer (OR = 0.38, P = 1.27 x 10 -13 ). (
  • Cite this: BRCA2 Variant Linked to Lung Cancer Risk - Medscape - Jun 18, 2014. (
  • The finding is striking because it not only links the gene variant -- which is present in two of every five men -- with the risk of marital discord and divorce, but also appears to predict whether women involved with these men are likely to say their partners are emotionally close and available, or distant and disagreeable. (
  • I know brugada syndrome is a high risk of sudden cardiac arrest but mBrugada variant maybe that means normal don't know.What did thet doctor say. (
  • Most testing companies will update your genetic counselor, who will update you, if research reveals that the variant is associated with an increased risk of cancer. (
  • This is one of the few genetic variants to date to be associated with risk of stroke and the discovery opens up new possibilities for treatment. (
  • Those people who carry two copies of the variant (one inherited from each parent) have nearly twice the risk for this type of stroke compared to those with no copies of the variant. (
  • However, the exact mechanism by which the genetic variant increases the risk of stroke is not yet known. (
  • Although all of those with APOE4 were more likely to develop Alzheimer's than those without the variant, the risk was much smaller among the men. (
  • For instance, healthy men with APOE4 were 27 percent more likely to develop cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's compared to those without the variant, while female carriers had an 80 percent greater risk. (
  • The prevalence of high-risk parameters differed significantly between the three variants, with TCPTC linked to the highest prevalence and FVPTC having the lowest prevalence of these parameters (Table). (
  • The CPTC and TCPTC variants were linked to a more than 3-fold and 14-fold increased risk for death over the FVPTC variant (hazard ratios, 3.44 and 14.96, respectively). (
  • Taking PTC variant-differentiated risk into the assessment will help improve the efficiency of this effort. (
  • Differential Clinicopathological Risk and Prognosis of Major Papillary Thyroid Cancer Variants. (
  • Details of the scientists' work appeared in the journal Nature Genetics , in an article titled, "Modified penetrance of coding variants by cis-regulatory variation contributes to disease risk. (
  • Our findings suggest that a person's disease risk is potentially determined by a combination of their regulatory and coding variants, and not just one or the other," says Tuuli Lappalainen, Ph.D., a core faculty member at the NYGC, an assistant professor of systems biology at Columbia University, and the lead author of the current study. (
  • The Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) has established a sequence variant nomenclature , an international standard used to report variation in genomic, transcript and protein sequences. (
  • The NMR structures of three single-amino acid variants of the C-terminal domain of the human prion protein, hPrP(121-230), are presented. (
  • A specific polymorphism, or variant, in the prion protein gene in humans has been shown to be a major determinant of susceptibility to prion diseases. (
  • The variant in question, D614G, makes a small but effective change in the virus's 'Spike' protein, which the virus uses to enter human cells. (
  • Resolving variant-to-function relationships is a key challenge faced by human geneticists. (
  • The alpha globin obtained from the E. coli expressed hemoglobin was also combined with normal human beta chains and hemin to form the alphaV1M variant. (
  • As expected, the three variant hPrP(121-230) structures have the same global architecture as the previously determined wild-type bovine, human, murine, and Syrian hamster prion proteins, but with the present study two localized "conformational markers" could be related with single amino acid exchanges. (
  • This variant occurs on about 10 per cent of human chromosomes. (
  • For the mice with the human gene, the investigators bred three genetically identical populations that expressed the gene in the three human variants (methionine homozygous, heterozygous, or valine homozygous). (
  • It presents evidence that "joint regulatory and coding variant effects are an important part of the genetic architecture of human traits and contribute to modified penetrance of disease-causing variants. (
  • Ingenuity Variant Analysis is the leading application for analysis and interpretation of human sequencing data generated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. (
  • Preliminary data from a study conducted at the University of Oxford indicates that the COVID-19 vaccine developed by AstraZeneca is effective against the Brazilian variant of the disease. (
  • However, the vaccine might need to be adapted for a future variant, vaccine co-developer said. (
  • Sarah Gilbert, co-developer of the vaccine, said that, although the vaccine had efficacy against the UK variant, it might need to be adapted for a future variant. (
  • We're going to see variants of concern that may increase transmission, we could see some that may increase the severity in some individuals and then we we need to consider the possibility that we'll see variants that escape the vaccine. (
  • The goal was to find, if possible, distinct gene variants that, in combination, might indicate predisposition to and higher likelihood of developing KD. (
  • The results from this study fit extremely well with the recent TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) study of papillary carcinoma, which demonstrated the classical, follicular and tall cell variants have distinct biological characteristics and genetic drivers," said Dr. Giordano, who was co-chair of the TCGA study. (
  • One observational study of patients in London hospitals suggested the variant is not associated with more severe illness and death, but appears to lead to higher viral load. (
  • The findings reveal that the same gene variant is linked with a greater susceptibility to severe malaria. (
  • She also added: "We understand that the virus does not cause more severe disease from the preliminary information that [the UK] shared with us, although again those studies are underway to look at hospitalized patients with this variant. (
  • Their results confirmed that the G614 variant is more infectious but, fortunately, is not associated with a more severe form of COVID-19. (
  • These variants of urothelial carcinoma have varied biological behaviours but small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a very aggressive tumour with very poor prognosis. (
  • Our global tracking data show that the G614 variant in Spike has spread faster than D614," theoretical biologist Bette Korber of Los Alamos National Laboratory and colleagues wrote in their report. (
  • D614G refers to a change in the amino acid (from D to G) in position 614, and people may also refer to it as the G614 variant. (
  • Over a month, the G614 variant became the dominant form of SARS-CoV-2 around the world. (
  • The G614 variant first piqued the study team's interest in April, when they noticed a repeated pattern across the globe. (
  • Their analysis showed that before March 1, the G614 variant was present in 10% of sequences. (
  • The geographical data clearly indicate that the G614 variant is more infectious. (
  • By analyzing real-life data from almost 1,000 COVID-19 patients, they also showed that the G614 variant is associated with a higher viral load. (
  • According to the study, those with the variant were no more likely to die than patients with a different strain, with 16% (31 out of 198) dying within 28 days compared with 17% (24 out of 141) for those with a non-B117 infection. (
  • Analysing the variant before the peak of hospital admissions and any associated strains on the health service gave us a crucial window of time to gain vital insights into how B117 differs in severity or death in hospitalised patients from the strain of the first wave. (
  • At least five of the seven suspected cases of the coronavirus variant from Pauingassi First Nation are negative for the B117 variant, Dr. Marcia Anderson says. (
  • While we are not out of the woods yet, so to speak, it is a great relief that we are not in fact dealing with the B117 U.K. variant of concern,' Pauingassi First Nation Chief Roddy Owens wrote in a release. (
  • In addition to DNA markers similar to the B117 variant, Monias says the alarming spread of the virus in the community had him worried about a virus variant of concern. (
  • As of Tuesday, there are 107 cases of COVID-19, and one possible case of the B117 variant. (
  • Bette Korber, a theoretical biologist at LANL and lead author of the study, explains, "All over the world, even when local epidemics had many cases of the original form circulating, soon after the D614G variant was introduced into a region, it became the prevalent form. (
  • Bette Korber, a theoretical biologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory and lead author of the study, noted, "The D614G variant first came to our attention in early April, as we had observed a strikingly repetitive pattern. (
  • Geographic information from samples from the GISAID COVID-19 viral sequence database enabled tracking of this highly recurrent pattern, a shift in the viral population from the original form to the D614G variant. (
  • That work also included observations of COVID-19 patients from Sheffield that suggested an association of the D614G variant with higher viral loads in the upper respiratory tract. (
  • Currently tens of thousands of sequences are available through this project, and this enabled Korber and the research team to identify the emergence of the D614G variant. (
  • When a variant overlaps an annotation selected here, the consequence term regulatory_region_variant will be assigned. (
  • The scientists edited the SNP into a cell line on different haplotypes with a regulatory variant. (
  • Now that we have demonstrated a mechanism for modified penetrance, the long-term goal of the research is a better prediction of whether an individual is going to have a disease using their genetic data by integrating the regulatory and coding variants," Dr. Lappalainen says. (
  • Inheriting the gene variant does not mean that a child will inevitably develop autism. (
  • Looking deeper into that chromosome, they identified a gene - CNTNAP2 - that contained a variant relevant to autism. (
  • Where a single segment of the genetic code could contain either the chemical base adenine or thymine, children with autism tended to have inherited the thymine variant. (
  • Earlier this week, Health Minister Oscar Ugarte told CNN's affiliate TV Peru that the Brazilian variant P1 has been identified in almost all regions in the country, particularly in the areas bordering with Brazil. (
  • Dr. Brent Roussin, Manitoba's chief public health officer, said Tuesday the province must continue to follow COVID-19 fundamentals, especially as Canada identifies more cases of coronavirus variants of concern. (
  • Authors of both studies acknowledged the findings differ from some other studies exploring the severity of the variant, and called for more research. (
  • NERVTAG said this lag in data could be why the studies did not find evidence of an increase in hospitalisations of people with the new variant, which seems at odds with the findings of increased severity of disease. (
  • Harms plans to determine what role this TREM2 variant plays in the severity and progression of ALS. (
  • This is one good looking Marvel Gallery Deadpool Variant Statue . (
  • Square-Enix finally tackles Wade Wilson with the Marvel Universe Deadpool Variant Play Arts Kai Action Figure. (
  • The alpha+M variant of HbA, in which the normal N-terminal valine of the alpha chains is preceded by a methionine residue, was prepared by the same procedure. (
  • The emergence of variants has raised concerns about whether they could spread easily and be more deadly, and that vaccines might be less effective against them. (
  • A new genetic variant which affects susceptibility to tuberculosis and leprosy has been identifed in a study into why some people are more resistant than others to these diseases. (
  • Bywaters, E.G.L. A variant of rheumatoid arthritis characterized by recurrent digital pad nodules and palmar fasciitis, closely resembling palindromic rheumatism. (
  • Japan has reported 151 cases of variants from Britain, South Africa and Brazil, according to the health ministry. (
  • Influenza A H3N2 variant viruses (also known as "H3N2v" viruses) with the matrix (M) gene from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus were first detected in people in July 2011. (
  • KUALA LUMPUR: Malaysia has detected its first two Covid-19 cases from the Nigerian SARS-CoV-2 virus, also known as the B.1.525 variant, in two foreign nationals who had flown in from the United Arab Emirates, says Health director-general Tan Sri Dr Noor Hisham Abdullah. (
  • As part of the preventive measures toward the new virus variant, Azis urged the government to trace Indonesians and foreigners who had just arrived in Indonesia. (
  • Research shows that a new variant of SARS-CoV-2, which is now the dominant form of the virus, is more infectious in cell cultures. (
  • The rapid domination of this variant suggests that it may give the virus an advantage, increasing its infectiousness. (
  • The initial screening done by the province looks for a genetic marker - a key mutation - that indicates a sample might be a virus variant of concern. (
  • While it is the case that the P.1 variant poses some difficulty for current vaccines, the vaccines are nonetheless effective at what matters-serious illness, hospitalization, and death. (
  • Britain had said that it believed the vaccines were effective against variants that are circulating in the UK. (
  • Fig. 1: Switch versus tune mechanism for genetic variants. (
  • The new mechanism is a variant on the notorious, highly multidrug resistant mcr-1 gene. (