Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Great BritainCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.EnglandSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.United StatesFrail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).LondonInstitutionalization: The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.ScotlandHome Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.AlaskaHousing: Living facilities for humans.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Democratic People's Republic of Korea: A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Independent Living: A housing and community arrangement that maximizes independence and self-determination.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Inuits: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.IndiaSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.JapanMotivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.EuropeMental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Dependency (Psychology): The tendency of an individual or individuals to rely on others for advice, guidance, or support.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Visually Impaired Persons: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.BrazilDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Employment, Supported: Paid work for mentally or physically disabled persons, taking place in regular or normal work settings. It may be competitive employment (work that pays minimum wage) or employment with subminimal wages in individualized or group placement situations. It is intended for persons with severe disabilities who require a range of support services to maintain employment. Supported employment differs from SHELTERED WORKSHOPS in that work in the latter takes place in a controlled working environment. Federal regulations are authorized and administered by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services.
  • Amidst political tensions, an estimated 18 million people across DPRK continue to suffer from food insecurity and undernutrition, as well as a lack of access to basic services. (reliefweb.int)
  • In DPRK, around 18 million people, or 70 per cent of the population, including 1.3 million under-five children, depend on the Public Distribution System (PDS) for rations of cereal and potatoes. (reliefweb.int)
  • However, even with PDS support most people do not consume an adequately diverse diet that includes sufficient proteins and fats needed for healthy development. (reliefweb.int)
  • I've taken an archive of the discussion page of the "deleted" page (technically its not deleted but moved page Timothy Ball to User:Jinkinson/Timothy Ball over a redirect without leaving a redirect (Userfying per result of previous DRV), so its now at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jinkinson/Timothy Ball. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Itelmen , also called Kamchadal , people of the southern Kamchatka Peninsula , far eastern Russia , numbering about 2,500 in the late 20th century. (britannica.com)
  • ABC has teamed with People magazine for a four-hour documentary marking the 20th anniversary of the tragic death of Britain's Princess Diana. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Local tradition suggests that the Zay people comprise three streams of people that populated the islands of Lake Ziway between the early 14th and the mid-17th centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circassians are a people indigenous to the North Caucasus region, most of whom were scattered across the globe by a 19th century tsarist military campaign that caused the deaths of huge numbers. (yahoo.com)
  • They speak a Mon-Khmer language The Lạch people, a subgroup of K'Ho, is the indigenous group of Lâm Đồng. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapter One, Article One of the Charter of the United Nations states that peoples have the right to self-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • People should not be denied life-saving treatments, simply because of their recent drug use," said Associate Professor Jason Grebely from the Kirby Institute at the University of New South Wales. (infohep.org)
  • According to Ann Brower Stahl, a professor of Anthropology specializing in Africa studies, the medieval towns of Banda people such as Begho were probably a source of slaves between 1400 and 1600 CE, with slaves going to Islamic North Africa, the primary trade being in women and children before 1500 CE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite a recommendation from the World Health Organization that people who use drugs should receive direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C, some countries do not provide treatment to active drug users and physicians often cite concern about adherence as a reason to deny treatment to active drug users. (infohep.org)
  • A People's Republic is typically a Marxist or socialist one-party state that claims to govern on behalf of the people even if it in practice often turns out to be a dictatorship state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012 the Committee decided to focus part of its work on guidance for a more operative practice with vulnerable groups and in particular on people with disabilities. (coe.int)
  • Some people are better at it than others, but just about everyone can improve with practice. (kidshealth.org)
  • Knee pain affects 25-37% of people aged over 50 years, 1 , - , 6 approximately 50% of whom have, or will develop, radiographic osteoarthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Currently in Vancouver, alcohol dependence affects over 12,000 people and injection drugs over 9,000 people. (vancouver.ca)
  • Our people-based marketing tools give you access to data that's critical to discovering site visitor context. (adobe.com)
  • The Tamyen (Tamien, Thamien) people are associated with the original site of Mission Santa Clara (Mission Santa Clara de Thamien) on the Guadalupe River, 1777. (wikipedia.org)
  • People Our Parents Warned Us About have visited this site so far. (tripod.com)
  • At our site, we keep our costs low so we are able to offer the lowest prices on tickets for the most sought after events, events such as Voca People. (excite.com)
  • But elimination of hepatitis C in people who inject drugs is unlikely to be achieved unless the number of people with hepatitis C who share injecting equipment can be reduced. (infohep.org)
  • Connecting decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people and ideas, Bloomberg quickly and accurately delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world. (bloomberg.com)
  • To learn more about the factors that favor a cure, amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research, a New York City-based foundation, in 2014 began to fund a consortium of international researchers who do transplants in HIV-infected people with blood cancers. (sciencemag.org)
  • Experts from Australia's leading hepatitis C research centre say that the findings of the review demonstrate that policies that deny hepatitis C treatment for people who use drugs are unacceptable. (infohep.org)
  • I hope our research will encourage countries to overturn these policies and allow treatment to all people living with hepatitis C, regardless of current or previous drug use. (infohep.org)
  • The findings add to a growing body of research suggesting Parkinson's is more likely to afflict people with rigid, cautious personalities. (livescience.com)
  • Onychomycosis occurs in 10% of the general population, 20% of persons older than 60 years, and 50% of those older than 70 years. (aafp.org)
  • Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated condition that occurs in people who are genetically susceptible. (nps.org.au)
  • To investigate whether people who inject drugs have poorer responses to direct-acting antiviral treatment, researchers from the Kirby Institute searched for all studies which reported the outcomes of direct-acting antiviral treatment in cohorts that included current or recent drug users (within the previous 12 months), or people receiving OST. (infohep.org)
  • Although the interventions that the two patients received could only be used on a tiny fraction of the 37 million HIV-infected people worldwide, their stories point to cure strategies that could be more widely applicable. (sciencemag.org)
  • The results show patients with Parkinson's disease are more likely to be cautious and avoid taking risks compared with people who don't have Parkinson's. (livescience.com)
  • In the new study, Sullivan and colleagues asked 89 patients with Parkinson's and 99 healthy people whether they engaged in specific activities- such as riding roller coasters, speeding and wearing a seatbelt- before the age of 35. (livescience.com)
  • Although not specifically addressed by the guidelines, alcohol use also is contraindicated for people with certain medical conditions such as peptic ulcer. (nih.gov)
  • Our data provides robust evidence to inform global clinical guidelines, and we hope it will improve public health policy for hepatitis C treatment for people who use drugs internationally. (infohep.org)
  • The Report, together with the resulting Guidelines and Recommendations on Including People with Disabilities in Disaster Preparedness and Response were discussed and adopted by the Committee of Permanent Correspondents of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement on 24 October. (coe.int)
  • The Tamyen people (also spelled as Tamien, Thamien) are one of eight linguistic divisions of the Ohlone (Coastanoan) people groups of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tamyen territory extends over most of the present day Santa Clara County, California, and was bordered by other Ohlone people: Ramaytush to the northwest on the San Francisco Peninsula, Chochenyo to the northeast and east, Mutsun to the south, and the Awaswas to the southwest. (wikipedia.org)
  • A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citations outside the jurisdictions in question usually substitute the name of the state for the words "the People" in the case captions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Deori community belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family of Mongoloid stock (as is generally the case of the people of northeast India). (wikipedia.org)
  • The replies to the questionnaire were included into a report which portrays the situation of people with disabilities in disaster preparedness and response, focusing on different practices, return of experiences, good examples and mentioning the legal issues and drawing attention to what can be done in the case of a disaster. (coe.int)
  • Another study by Sullivan and colleagues found women with Parkinson's disease were 60 percent more likely to say they had a routine lifestyle as a young adult (such as getting up and going to bed at the same time every day) compared with people without Parkinson's. (livescience.com)
  • 5 of 8 people found this review helpful. (imdb.com)
  • Our deep-seated need for connection, no matter how glorious or peculiar: the nuns for their supreme creator, the faux celebrities for the famous people they obsessively emulate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Teasingly halfway between documentary and fiction, 'River People' limns the hardscrabble life of fishermen on China's Yellow River with a half-elegiac, half-realistic eye, from the p.o.v. of two teenage boys. (variety.com)
  • To put this in real terms, the U.S.'s 5.8 percent growth works out to a $422 increase per person. (washingtonpost.com)
  • For anyone delivering software that has to be used by real people, the presentation will help you distinguish between software that is "deployed" and actually "delivered. (slideshare.net)
  • Taking HIV medicine as prescribed and keeping an undetectable viral load (or staying virally suppressed) is the best thing people with HIV can do to stay healthy and protect their sexual partners. (cdc.gov)
  • People of all ages have life-saving ostomy surgery for a wide variety of reasons and most go on to live active and healthy lives. (ostomy.org)
  • Sharing your story can be powerful however and help educate the larger community and your circle of friends that people with an ostomy are all around us living healthy lives. (ostomy.org)
  • Among the Aka live a second group of people, with their own language, the Koro. (wikipedia.org)
  • The business community is also starting to pay attention to the next generation, Gen Z. This group of people under the age of 20 is already almost as large as Millennials. (mediapost.com)