A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes consisting of three isoprene units, forming a 15-carbon skeleton, which can be found in various plant essential oils and are known for their diverse chemical structures and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A histamine H2 agonist used clinically to test gastric secretory function.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 2.1.1.8.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; rather, it's a country located in South America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
Quinolines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a two-nitrogened benzene ring fused to a pyridine ring, which have been synthesized and used as building blocks for various medicinal drugs, particularly antibiotics and antimalarials.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a naphthyridine nucleus, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyridine ring, and they have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties, including as antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Afghanistan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in South-Central Asia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help answer those!
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.

Relationships between malaria prevalence and malaria-related morbidity in school children from two villages in central Africa. (1/318)

To investigate the relationship between parasite prevalence and malaria-related morbidity, we carried out a comparative study among cohorts of school children from two villages, Dienga, Gabon, and Pouma, Cameroon, both located in malaria-endemic areas. Seven to 17 year-old children attending primary schools were similarly followed-up at each site to evaluate the frequency of malaria attacks. Follow-up involved daily temperature recording (and blood smears in the case of fever) and preparation of blood smears every two weeks. In Pouma, 186 children were followed-up for six months. In Dienga, 228 children were followed-up for nine months. The mean prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum infections (as assessed by the blood smears) was twice as high in Pouma compared with Dienga (45.2% versus 26.8%; P < 0.0001), whereas the monthly malaria attack rate (as assessed by the daily surveillance) was twice as high in Dienga compared with Pouma (21.5% versus 41.4%; P = 0.003). The possible implication of several parameters that may differ between the two areas, such as the malaria transmission level, the economical and social status of the inhabitants, the characteristics of infecting parasite strains, and the genetic background of the population, is discussed.  (+info)

Analysis of mefloquine resistance and amplification of pfmdr1 in multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thailand. (2/318)

Resistance to quinoline-containing compound has been associated with the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene. We analyzed wild P. falciparum isolates with high levels of chloroquine and mefloquine resistance for their macrorestriction maps of chromosome 5 and sequence of pfmdr1. Two types of chromosome 5 amplification were found. Eleven of 62 resistant isolates displayed Bgl 1 fragments larger than 100 kb. Twenty-nine isolates possessed multiple copies of the fragments. We failed to detect any amplification of this region on chromosome 5 in 22 mefloquine-resistant isolates, suggesting that other mechanisms can mediate the mefloquine-resistant phenotype. There was no direct association between pfmdr1 mutations and chloroquine sensitivity. Resistant lines could have Asn-86 and Tyr-184 or Phe-184, the predicted sequence of those chloroquine-sensitive isolates. No mutation at Asn-1042 and Asp-1246 was detected among these chloroquine-resistant isolates. Therefore, a few base substitutions in the pfmdr1 gene may not be sufficient to account for all chloroquine-resistant phenotypes.  (+info)

Factors influencing resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum. (3/318)

A treatment-reinfection study design was used to investigate the relationships between host immunologic and/or genetic factors and resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum. Sixty-one children in Gabon were enrolled in a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of each human plasmodial species. All were given amodiaquine for radical cure of parasites, and 40 were subsequently followed-up for 30 weeks. Successive blood smears were examined to measure the delay of reappearance in blood of asexual stages of P. falciparum parasites. Presence of infection during the cross-sectional survey was associated with male sex, non-deficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, plasma interleukin-10 level, and anti-LSA-Rep antibody concentration. Resistance to reinfection was related to the presence of anti-LSA-J antibodies, and the absence of anti-LSA-Rep antibodies. Moreover, P. malariae-infected subjects were usually co-infected with P. falciparum, and were also more rapidly reinfected with P. falciparum after treatment, compared with those without P. malariae infection.  (+info)

Antibiotics for prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum infections: in vitro activity of doxycycline against Senegalese isolates. (4/318)

The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The 71-50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for doxycycline ranged from 0.7 to 108.0 microM and the geometric mean IC50 for the 71 isolates was 11.3 microM (95% confidence interval = 9.5-13.4 microM). The activity of doxycycline did not differ significantly (P = 0.0858) between the chloroquine-susceptible isolates and the chloroquine-resistant isolates. There was no in vitro correlation between the responses to doxycycline and those to artemether, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil, suggesting no in vitro cross-resistance among these drugs. Potency was increased by prolonged exposure. In 96-hr incubations, the activity of doxycycline was 4-5-fold more increased than in 48-hr incubations. The in vitro activity of doxycycline against intraerythrocytic stages of multidrug-resistant P. falciparum, its action against the preerythrocytic forms, the lack of correlation between the responses in vitro of P. falciparum to doxycycline and the other antimalarial drugs, and its original potential site of action are factors that favor its use as antimalarial drug.  (+info)

In vivo efficacy study of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine in Kibwezi, Kenya and Kigoma, Tanzania. (5/318)

We conducted two randomized clinical trials to determine the in vivo efficacy of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Seventy-five patients under the age of 10 years in Kibwezi, Kenya, and 171 patients in Kigoma, Tanzania, were enrolled for treatment. Due to loss of eight patients in Kibwezi and 37 in Kigoma to follow-up, we used best and worst case scenarios for the parasitological response. The in vivo sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to amodiaquine was 75% (no loss to follow-up) in Kibwezi and ranged from 85% in the best to 65% in the worst case scenario in Kigoma. The sensitivity to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was 70% to 88% in Kibwezi and 65% to 89% in Kigoma. R1 resistance to amodiaquine was 22% in Kibwezi and varied from 6% in the best to 26% for the worst case scenario in Kigoma. The R1 resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was 5% to 23% in Kibwezi and 2% to 26% in Kigoma. R2 resistance was 3% for amodiaquine and 7% for sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in Kibwezi and 9% in Kigoma for each treatment group. There was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups at either study site, except for a slight difference in R1 resistance in the best case scenario, Kibwezi, in favour of S/P. Although both amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance seems to be increasing, these antimalarials are still effective in parasite clearance.  (+info)

Adaptation of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium vivax from Indonesia to New World monkeys. (6/318)

The spread of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia poses a serious health threat to areas of Southeast Asia where this species of malaria parasite is endemic. A strain of P. vivax from Indonesia was adapted to develop in splenectomized Aotus lemurinus griseimembra, Aotus vociferans, Aotus nancymai, and Saimiri boliviensis monkeys. Transmission to splenectomized Saimiri monkeys was obtained via sporozoites. Chemotherapeutic studies indicated that the strain was resistant to chloroquine and amodiaquine while sensitive to mefloquine. Infections of chloroquine-resistant P.vivax in New World monkeys should be useful for the development of alternative treatments.  (+info)

Role of extraneuronal mechanisms in the termination of contractile responses to amines in vascular tissue. (7/318)

1 The role of the uptake and release of agonist from extraneuronal sites in the termination of responses of rabbit aortic strips to amines was studied. 2 Strips were contracted with adrenaline or noradrenaline and after response plateau was reached, the muscle chambers were washed free of agonist and the relaxation in Krebs solution recorded. After inhibition of catechol-O-methyl-transferase, monoamine oxidase and neuronal uptake the relaxation rate was greatly prolonged. Evidence is provided that this very slow relaxation resulted from the accumulation of intact amine at extraneuronal sites during exposure to the agonist and its subsequent release past receptors due to a reversal of the concentration gradient after washout. 3 Pretreatment with the haloalkylamine, GD-131 (N-cyclohexylmethyl-N-ethyl-beta-chloroethylamine), an inhibitor of extraneuronal uptake, returned the slow relaxation rate after enzyme inhibition towards that of control strips. By blocking the extraneuronal transport of amines their accumulation at intracellular loci after enzyme inhibition was prevented. 4 The effects of GD-131 and 17beta-oestradiol on the relaxation rate of untreated strips contracted by adrenaline and noradrenaline confirmed that extraneuronal uptake to sites of enzymatic activity is the major mechanism terminating their action. 5 Inactivation of extraneuronal transport sites by GD-131 was prevented by protecting them with 17beta-oestradiol or normetanephrine during exposure to the haloalkylamine, pointing to a common site of action of these agents on a specific carrier system for amines. 6 Evidence is presented that the relaxation from contractions induced by histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine also involves extraneuronal accumulation and release, probably by an uptake process which is identical to the one for catecholamines.  (+info)

"One-pot" synthesis and antimalarial activity of formamidine derivatives of 4-anilinoquinoline. (8/318)

Amodiaquine (AQ) is an antimalarial which is effective against chloroquino-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum but whose clinical use is severely restricted because of associated hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis. "One-pot" synthesis of formamidines likely to be transformed into AQ derivatives is reported. Compared with AQ, the new compounds were devoid of in vitro cytotoxicity upon human embryonic lung cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. One showed a potent in vivo activity in mice infected with P berghei. Transformation of this compound by reductive amination led to a new type of AQ derivatives that displayed an in vitro activity similar to that of AQ but did not lead to toxic quinone-imines.  (+info)

Amodiaquine is an antimalarial medication used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by inhibiting the growth of the parasite in red blood cells. Amodiaquine is often used in combination with other antimalarial drugs, such as artesunate or chloroquine.

The chemical name for amodiaquine is 4-[(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)methyl]-1-(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)piperazine and it has the molecular formula C18H24ClN3O. It is available in the form of tablets for oral administration.

Like all medications, amodiaquine can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and headache. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects such as liver damage, abnormal heart rhythms, and blood disorders. It is important to take amodiaquine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

It's important to note that Amodiaquine is not available in all countries and it's use is limited due to the risk of severe side effects, especially when used alone. It should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and with regular monitoring of blood cells, liver function and heart activity.

Antimalarials are a class of drugs that are used for the prevention, treatment, and elimination of malaria. They work by targeting the malaria parasite at various stages of its life cycle, particularly the erythrocytic stage when it infects red blood cells. Some commonly prescribed antimalarials include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, and artemisinin-based combinations. These drugs can be used alone or in combination with other antimalarial agents to increase their efficacy and prevent the development of drug resistance. Antimalarials are also being investigated for their potential use in treating other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Sulfadoxine is an antimicrobial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined in medical terms as a long-acting synthetic antibacterial that is used to treat and prevent various bacterial infections. Sulfadoxine works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria through interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential component for their survival.

It is often combined with pyrimethamine (a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor) to treat and prevent malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, particularly in areas where there is resistance to other antimalarial drugs. The combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine is known as a "sulfonamide-pyrimidine" or "SP" treatment.

Sulfadoxine should be used with caution, as it can cause serious side effects such as severe skin reactions, blood disorders, and allergic reactions. It is also not recommended for use in people who have an allergy to sulfonamides or who are breastfeeding infants younger than two months of age.

Artemisinins are a class of antimalarial drugs derived from the sweet wormwood plant (Artemisia annua). They are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly species of malaria parasite. Artemisinins have become an essential component in the treatment of malaria and are often used in combination therapy regimens to reduce the risk of drug resistance.

The artemisinin compounds contain a unique peroxide bridge that is responsible for their antimalarial activity. They work by generating free radicals that can damage the parasite's membranes, leading to its rapid death. Artemisinins have a fast action and can significantly reduce the parasite biomass in the first few days of treatment.

Some commonly used artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) include:

* Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem)
* Artesunate-amodiaquine (Coarsucam)
* Artesunate-mefloquine (Artequin)
* Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim, Duo-Cotecxin)

Artemisinins have also shown potential in treating other conditions, such as certain types of cancer and viral infections. However, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy for these indications.

Pyrimethamine is an antiparasitic medication that is primarily used to treat and prevent protozoan infections, such as toxoplasmosis and malaria. It works by inhibiting the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, which is essential for the parasite's survival. By doing so, it interferes with the synthesis of folate, a vital component for the growth and reproduction of the parasite.

Pyrimethamine is often used in combination with other medications, such as sulfonamides or sulfones, to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains. Common side effects of pyrimethamine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and headache. It is important to note that pyrimethamine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential for serious side effects and interactions with other medications.

Chloroquine is an antimalarial and autoimmune disease drug. It works by increasing the pH or making the environment less acidic in the digestive vacuoles of malaria parasites, which inhibits the polymerization of heme and the formation of hemozoin. This results in the accumulation of toxic levels of heme that are harmful to the parasite. Chloroquine is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus, and photodermatitis.

The chemical name for chloroquine is 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline, and it has a molecular formula of C18H26ClN3. It is available in the form of phosphate or sulfate salts for oral administration as tablets or solution.

Chloroquine was first synthesized in 1934 by Bayer scientists, and it has been widely used since the 1940s as a safe and effective antimalarial drug. However, the emergence of chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria parasites has limited its use in some areas. Chloroquine is also being investigated for its potential therapeutic effects on various viral infections, including COVID-19.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Malaria, Falciparum is defined as a severe and often fatal form of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. This type of malaria is characterized by high fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and vomiting. If left untreated, it can cause severe anemia, kidney failure, seizures, coma, and even death. It is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa.

'Plasmodium falciparum' is a specific species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes and has a complex life cycle involving both human and mosquito hosts.

In the human host, the parasites infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause damage, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and in severe cases, organ failure and death. 'Plasmodium falciparum' malaria is often more severe and life-threatening than other forms of malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. It is a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where access to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment remains limited.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fluorenes" is not a medical term, but rather a chemical term referring to organic compounds that contain a fluorene moiety, which is a bicyclic compound made up of two benzene rings fused to a five-membered ring containing two carbon atoms and one double bond.

Fluorenes have various applications in the field of materials science, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). They are not typically used in a medical context, although some fluorene derivatives have been explored for potential therapeutic applications.

Therefore, I cannot provide a medical definition of "Fluorenes." However, if you have any questions about the chemical properties or applications of fluorenes, I would be happy to try and answer them.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units, hence the name "sesqui-" meaning "one and a half" in Latin. They are composed of 15 carbon atoms and have a wide range of chemical structures and biological activities. Sesquiterpenes can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and they play important roles in the defense mechanisms of these organisms. Some sesquiterpenes are also used in traditional medicine and have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Senegal" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, known officially as the Republic of Senegal. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help with those.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Ethanolamines are a class of organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a carbon atom. They are derivatives of ammonia (NH3) in which one or two hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a ethanol group (-CH2CH2OH).

The most common ethanolamines are:

* Monethanolamine (MEA), also called 2-aminoethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NH2.
* Diethanolamine (DEA), also called 2,2'-iminobisethanol, with the formula HOCH2CH2NHCH2CH2OH.
* Triethanolamine (TEA), also called 2,2',2''-nitrilotrisethanol, with the formula N(CH2CH2OH)3.

Ethanolamines are used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products, including as solvents, emulsifiers, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They also have applications as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. In the body, ethanolamines play important roles in various biological processes, such as neurotransmission and cell signaling.

I'm not aware of any medical condition or term that is specifically associated with or referred to as "Cameroon." Cameroon is a country located in Central Africa, known for its rich biodiversity and cultural diversity. If you have more context about why you are looking for a medical definition of "Cameroon," I may be able to provide a more helpful response.

Betazole is a histamine analogue drug, which is primarily used in the diagnosis of gastrinoma (a type of tumor that secretes excessive amounts of gastrin hormone), by stimulating the release of gastric acid. It works by mimicking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach, thereby increasing the secretion of gastric acid.

The increased gastric acid secretion due to Betazole administration can be measured and used to diagnose gastrinoma, as patients with this condition typically have an exaggerated response to histamine-like substances. It is important to note that Betazole is not used for treatment purposes, but only for diagnostic purposes under medical supervision.

Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism and degradation of histamine, which is a biogenic amine involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Histamine is released by mast cells and basophils during allergic reactions and inflammation, and it can cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing.

HNMT is responsible for methylating the primary amino group of histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, which is then further metabolized by other enzymes. HNMT is primarily found in tissues such as the liver, kidney, and intestine, but it is also present in the brain and other organs.

Inhibition of HNMT has been suggested to be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating histamine-mediated disorders, such as allergies, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of HNMT in these conditions and to develop effective treatments that target this enzyme.

Parasitemia is a medical term that refers to the presence of parasites, particularly malaria-causing Plasmodium species, in the bloodstream. It is the condition where red blood cells are infected by these parasites, which can lead to various symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and organ damage in severe cases. The level of parasitemia is often used to assess the severity of malaria infection and to guide treatment decisions.

Malaria is not a medical definition itself, but it is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here's a simple definition:

Malaria: A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, characterized by cycles of fever, chills, and anemia. It can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ghana" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, known officially as the Republic of Ghana. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm not aware of any medical definitions associated with the term "Angola." Angola is a country located in Southern Africa, known officially as the Republic of Angola. It does not have any specific relevance to medical terminology or healthcare. If you have more context or information about why you are looking for a medical definition of Angola, I may be able to provide a more helpful response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gabon" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Africa, known officially as the Gabonese Republic. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Burkina Faso" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in West Africa. The name "Burkina Faso" translates to "Land of Incorruptible People" in Mossi and Dioula, two languages spoken in the region. The country was known as Upper Volta when it gained independence from France in 1960. It was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984 by then-President Thomas Sankara, who aimed to promote a sense of national identity and unity among the diverse population.

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country with a population of around 21 million people (as of 2021). It shares borders with six countries: Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and Côte d'Ivoire to the southwest. The capital city is Ouagadougou.

The primary languages spoken in Burkina Faso are French (the official language), Mooré, Dioula, Fula, and Gourmanchéma. The country has a diverse cultural heritage with numerous ethnic groups, including the Mossi, Fulani, Bobo, Gurunsi, Senufo, and Lobi.

Burkina Faso faces various challenges, such as poverty, food insecurity, limited access to education, and health issues like malaria, HIV/AIDS, and neglected tropical diseases. The country also struggles with political instability and security threats from extremist groups operating in the Sahel region.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine medication that is used to relieve allergic symptoms caused by hay fever, hives, and other allergies. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. Chlorpheniramine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, syrup, and injection.

Common side effects of chlorpheniramine include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness. It may also cause more serious side effects such as rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing, and confusion, especially in elderly people or those with underlying medical conditions. Chlorpheniramine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider, particularly in children, pregnant women, and people with medical conditions such as glaucoma, enlarged prostate, and respiratory disorders.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully when taking chlorpheniramine, as taking too much can lead to overdose and serious complications. If you experience any unusual symptoms or have concerns about your medication, it is best to consult with a healthcare provider.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mali" is not a medical term or condition in English. Mali is the name of a country located in West Africa, and its capital city is Bamako. If you have any questions about Mali or anything else, please let me know!

Quinine is defined as a bitter crystalline alkaloid derived from the bark of the Cinchona tree, primarily used in the treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases. It works by interfering with the reproduction of the malaria parasite within red blood cells. Quinine has also been used historically as a muscle relaxant and analgesic, but its use for these purposes is now limited due to potential serious side effects. In addition, quinine can be found in some beverages like tonic water, where it is present in very small amounts for flavoring purposes.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sierra Leone" is not a medical term or concept. It is an African country located on the western coast of the continent, known for its rich natural resources and diverse culture. If you have any questions about medical topics or health-related issues, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Mefloquine is an antimalarial medication that is used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by interfering with the growth of the parasite in the red blood cells of the body. Mefloquine is a synthetic quinoline compound, and it is available under the brand name Lariam, among others.

Mefloquine is typically taken once a week, starting one to two weeks before traveling to an area where malaria is common, and continuing for four weeks after leaving the area. It may also be used to treat acute malaria infection in conjunction with other antimalarial medications.

It's important to note that mefloquine has been associated with serious neuropsychiatric side effects, including anxiety, depression, hallucinations, and seizures. Therefore, it is usually reserved for use in situations where other antimalarial drugs cannot be used or have failed. Before taking mefloquine, individuals should discuss their medical history and potential risks with their healthcare provider.

Proguanil is an antimalarial medication that is primarily used to prevent and treat malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. It works by blocking the development of the parasite in the red blood cells, thereby preventing the disease from progressing. Proguanil is often used in combination with other antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine or atovaquone to increase its effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance.

Proguanil is available under various brand names, including Paludrine and Malarona. It is typically taken daily in tablet form, starting before travel to a malaria-endemic area and continuing for several weeks after leaving the area. Proguanil may also be used off-label for other indications, such as treating certain types of cancer or preventing recurrent urinary tract infections. However, its use for these conditions is not well-established and should be discussed with a healthcare provider.

Like all medications, proguanil can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and mouth ulcers. It may also interact with other drugs, such as warfarin and metoclopramide, so it is important to inform a healthcare provider of all medications being taken before starting proguanil. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consult their healthcare provider before taking proguanil, as its safety in these populations has not been well-studied.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Analytical chemistry techniques are a collection of methods and tools used to identify and quantify the chemical composition of matter. These techniques can be used to analyze the presence and amount of various chemicals in a sample, including ions, molecules, and atoms. Some common analytical chemistry techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter to identify and quantify chemical species. There are many different types of spectroscopy, including UV-Vis, infrared (IR), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
2. Chromatography: This technique separates the components of a mixture based on their physical or chemical properties, such as size, charge, or polarity. Common types of chromatography include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Mass spectrometry: This technique uses the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to identify and quantify chemical species. It can be used in combination with other techniques, such as GC or LC, to provide structural information about unknown compounds.
4. Electrochemical methods: These techniques use the movement of electrons to measure the concentration of chemical species. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and amperometry.
5. Thermal analysis: This technique uses changes in the physical or chemical properties of a sample as it is heated or cooled to identify and quantify chemical species. Examples include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

These are just a few examples of the many analytical chemistry techniques that are available. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which to use will depend on the specific needs of the analysis.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Dapsone is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called sulfones. It is primarily used to treat bacterial skin infections such as leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis (a skin condition associated with coeliac disease). Dapsone works by killing the bacteria responsible for these infections.

In addition, dapsone has anti-inflammatory properties and is sometimes used off-label to manage inflammatory conditions such as vasculitis, bullous pemphigoid, and chronic urticaria. It is available in oral tablet form and topical cream or gel form.

Like all medications, dapsone can cause side effects, which may include nausea, loss of appetite, and headache. More serious side effects, such as methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder that affects the body's ability to transport oxygen), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage that causes pain, numbness, or weakness in the hands and feet), and liver damage, can occur but are less common.

It is important for patients taking dapsone to be monitored by a healthcare provider to ensure safe and effective use of the medication.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Colombia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Colombia. If you are looking for medical information related to Colombia or its healthcare system, I would be happy to try to help you with that.

Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins (MRPs) are a subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that play a crucial role in the efflux of various substrates, including drugs and organic anions, out of cells. They are located in the plasma membrane of many cell types, including epithelial cells in the liver, intestine, kidney, and blood-brain barrier.

MRPs are known to transport a wide range of molecules, such as glutathione conjugates, bilirubin, bile acids, and various clinical drugs. One of the most well-known MRPs is MRP1 (ABCC1), which was initially identified in drug-resistant tumor cells. MRP1 can confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents by actively pumping them out of cancer cells, thereby reducing their intracellular concentration and effectiveness.

The activity of MRPs can have significant implications for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, as they can affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Understanding the function and regulation of MRPs is essential for developing strategies to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy and optimizing drug dosing regimens in various clinical settings.

Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50) is a measure used in pharmacology, toxicology, and virology to describe the potency of a drug or chemical compound. It refers to the concentration needed to reduce the biological or biochemical activity of a given substance by half. Specifically, it is most commonly used in reference to the inhibition of an enzyme or receptor.

In the context of infectious diseases, IC50 values are often used to compare the effectiveness of antiviral drugs against a particular virus. A lower IC50 value indicates that less of the drug is needed to achieve the desired effect, suggesting greater potency and potentially fewer side effects. Conversely, a higher IC50 value suggests that more of the drug is required to achieve the same effect, indicating lower potency.

It's important to note that IC50 values can vary depending on the specific assay or experimental conditions used, so they should be interpreted with caution and in conjunction with other measures of drug efficacy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rwanda" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a bicyclic structure made up of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. They have a wide range of applications, but they are perhaps best known for their use in the synthesis of various medications, including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs.

Quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, work by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections.

Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells. They are commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

It is important to note that quinolines have been associated with serious side effects, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, nerve damage, and abnormal heart rhythms. As with any medication, it is important to use quinolines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and to follow their instructions carefully.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Papua New Guinea" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, made up of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!

"Plasmodium vivax" is a species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It's one of the five malaria parasites that can infect humans, with P. falciparum being the most deadly.

P. vivax typically enters the human body through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Once inside the human host, the parasite travels to the liver where it multiplies and matures. After a period of development that can range from weeks to several months, the mature parasites are released into the bloodstream, where they infect red blood cells and continue to multiply.

The symptoms of P. vivax malaria include fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and fatigue. One distinctive feature of P. vivax is its ability to form dormant stages (hypnozoites) in the liver, which can reactivate and cause relapses of the disease months or even years after the initial infection.

P. vivax malaria is treatable with medications such as chloroquine, but resistance to this drug has been reported in some parts of the world. Prevention measures include using insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying to reduce mosquito populations, as well as taking prophylactic medications for travelers visiting areas where malaria is common.

Naphthyridines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a naphthyridine core structure, which is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon made up of two benzene rings fused to a tetrahydropyridine ring. They have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used in the development of various therapeutic agents, including antibiotics, antivirals, and anticancer drugs.

In medical terms, naphthyridines do not have a specific clinical definition or application, but they are rather a chemical class that is utilized in the design and synthesis of drugs with potential therapeutic benefits. The unique structure and properties of naphthyridines make them attractive candidates for drug development, particularly in areas where new treatments are needed to overcome drug resistance or improve efficacy.

It's worth noting that while naphthyridines have shown promise in preclinical studies, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and effectiveness in humans before they can be approved as therapeutic agents.

Malaria, Vivax:

A type of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria, Vivax is characterized by recurring fevers, chills, and flu-like symptoms, which can occur every other day or every third day. This type of malaria can have mild to severe symptoms and can sometimes lead to complications such as anemia and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). One distinguishing feature of Malaria, Vivax is its ability to form dormant stages in the liver (called hypnozoites), which can reactivate and cause relapses even after years of apparent cure. Effective treatment includes medication to kill both the blood and liver stages of the parasite. Preventive measures include using mosquito nets, insect repellents, and antimalarial drugs for prophylaxis in areas with high transmission rates.

'Afghanistan' is a country and not a medical term or condition. It is located in Central Asia and is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, and the Arabian Sea. The country has a complex history with ongoing political and security challenges. If you are looking for information related to medical tourism or healthcare in Afghanistan, I can provide some general insights. However, please note that the medical facilities and services in Afghanistan may not be comparable to those in developed countries due to various factors such as infrastructure, resources, and expertise.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nigeria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous country in Africa. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

... is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine. Amodiaquine was first made in 1948. It is on the World ... "Amodiaquine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Scholia has a topic profile for Amodiaquine. Portal: ... Amodiaquine has become an important drug in the combination therapy for malaria treatment in Africa. It is often used in ... Amodiaquine has also been found to work against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains of malaria. It is also used in ...
"Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop (artesunate, amodiaquine) , summary of product characteristics. Gentilly, France: Sanofi- ... Therefore, it is theoretically possible that the combination of montelukast with a CYP2C8 substrate (e.g. amodiaquine, an anti- ... March 2007). "Hepatotoxicity due to a drug interaction between amodiaquine plus artesunate and efavirenz". Clinical Infectious ...
Examples include amodiaquine, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine. Other uses for the derivatives are: anti-asthmatic, ... Amodiaquine Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Quinoline 8-Hydroxyquinoline Ionophore Al-Ahmary, Khairia M.; Alenezi, Maha S.; ... insights from the study of amodiaquine uptake". Mol. Pharmacol. 50 (6): 1551-8. PMID 8967977. DeVita, Robert; Chang, Lehua (13 ...
These include quinine, chloroquine, amodiaquine, and primaquine. Quinoline is used as a solvent and reagent in organic ...
"Treating uncomplicated malaria with ASAQ (artesunate-amodiaquine) , Medicines for Malaria Venture". www.mmv.org. Retrieved 2022 ... Lacaze Catherine (2011). "The initial pharmaceutical development of an artesunate/amodiaquine oral formulation for the ... this antimalarial product is a fixed-dose combination of artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ). The result of a partnership between ...
"Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop (artesunate, amodiaquine) [summary of product characteristics]" (PDF). Sanofi-Aventis. Archived ... evidence that treatment with artesunate plus mefloquine is superior to treatment with artesunate plus amodiaquine or artesunate ...
Amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine may achieve less treatment failures when compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine alone ... Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate is better than sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine in controlling treatment ... Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group) (October 2005). "Chloroquine or amodiaquine combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for ... "Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated malaria ...
Artesunate Artesunate/amodiaquine (artesunate + amodiaquine) Artesunate/mefloquine (artesunate + mefloquine) Artesunate/ ... To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine, or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine. Other combinations that deliver ... Amodiaquine + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (Co-packaged) Chloroquine Doxycycline Mefloquine Proguanil Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine ( ... Diloxanide Metronidazole Amphotericin B Meglumine antimoniate Miltefosine Paromomycin Sodium stibogluconate Amodiaquine ...
Artesunate Artesunate/amodiaquine (artesunate + amodiaquine) Artesunate/mefloquine (artesunate + mefloquine) Artesunate/ ... To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine. Other combinations that deliver ... Diloxanide Metronidazole Amphotericin B Miltefosine Paromomycin Sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate Amodiaquine ... Amodiaquine + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (Co-packaged) Chloroquine Doxycycline Mefloquine Proguanil Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine ( ...
Chloroquine Amodiaquine Pamaquine Mefloquine "Quinacrine Shortage & What the ACR Is Doing about It". 13 March 2019 [8 February ...
"Geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance distinguished by differential responses to amodiaquine and ...
In Bobo-Dioulasso, where primaquine was used in combination with either chloroquine or amodiaquine, the prevalence of ... 1999). "[Assay of sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine and quinine in ...
Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinolone anti-malarial drug similar in structure and mechanism of action to chloroquine. Amodiaquine ... Amodiaquine is now available in a combined formulation with artesunate (ASAQ) and is among the artemisinin-combination ... The resistance of other quinolone anti-malarials such as amodiaquine, mefloquine, halofantrine and quinine are thought to have ... Artemisinin-based combination therapies should be used in preference to amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the ...
WHO recommends combinations such as artemether/lumefantrine, artesunate/amodiaquine, artesunate/mefloquine, artesunate/ ...
A trial conducted in northern Tanzania using the antimalarial drug amodiaquine instead of S/P was similarly successful. Six ... Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo- ... Treating schoolchildren in Kenya with S/P and amodiaquine significantly improved anaemia (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93). IPTp ...
Use of computational approaches and organ-chips to repurpose FDA-approved drugs like Amodiaquine to prevent or treat COVID-19. ...
The following substances are known to be HNMT inhibitors: amodiaquine, chloroquine, dimaprit, etoprine, metoprine, quinacrine, ...
Amodiaquine, or the Combination in Pregnant Women in Ghana". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 198 (8): 1202-1211. doi: ...
... amodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in a tribal population of District Sundargarh, Orissa". Indian ...
... is a two-ring heterocyclic compound used as a chemical intermediate to aminoquinoline antimalarial drugs including amodiaquine ...
Treating 4-aminophenol with acetic anhydride gives paracetamol: It is a precursor to amodiaquine, mesalazine, AM404, ...
"Efficacy and Safety of Triple Combination Therapy With Artesunate-Amodiaquine-Methylene Blue for Falciparum Malaria in Children ...
... amodiaquine artesunate, pyronaridine artesunate as well as malaria and ebola vaccines. According to a survey of the ...
... artesunate/amodiaquine, artesunate/pyronaridine and parenteral artesunate for malaria therapy and prophylaxis. Kremsner and his ...
... and amodiaquine (AQ), which usually cost less than US$1. Therefore, unsubsidized, quality-assured ACTs are not affordable by ...
Malaria in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa through the use of the drugs sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and amodiaquine. This ...
... amodiaquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.180 - chloroquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.180.350 - hydroxychloroquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.440 ...
... combinations P01BA01 Chloroquine P01BA02 Hydroxychloroquine P01BA03 Primaquine P01BA06 Amodiaquine P01BA07 Tafenoquine P01BB01 ... P01BE05 Artenimol P01BF01 Artemether and lumefantrine P01BF02 Artesunate and mefloquine P01BF03 Artesunate and amodiaquine ...
... artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ), artesunate/mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine, or artesunate/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. ...
1.7 million doses of Sanofi's ArteSunate AmodiaQuine Winthrop (ASAQ Winthrop), a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination ...
Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine. Amodiaquine was first made in 1948. It is on the World ... "Amodiaquine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Scholia has a topic profile for Amodiaquine. Portal: ... Amodiaquine has become an important drug in the combination therapy for malaria treatment in Africa. It is often used in ... Amodiaquine has also been found to work against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains of malaria. It is also used in ...
The declining efficacy of chloroquine in the early 2000s in Ghana led to its replacement with artesunate/amodiaquine (AS/AQ) ... Efficacy of amodiaquine/artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children under five years in Ghana. Ghana ... Efficacy of amodiaquine/artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children under five years in Ghana. Ghana ... Efficacy of amodiaquine/artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children under five years in Ghana. . Ghana ...
Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, ... Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, ... units and 3 referral health facilities for which increased sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate/amodiaquine ...
Ukah M, Badejoko O, Ogunniyi S, Loto O, Aboderin O, Fatusi A. A randomized trial of artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether- ... Ukah M, Badejoko O, Ogunniyi S, Loto O, Aboderin O, Fatusi A. A randomized trial of artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether- ... Abbreviations: A = atovaquone; AL = artemether-lumefantrine; AQ = amodiaquine; As = artesunate; BID = twice daily; CI = ... Abbreviations: A = atovaquone; AL = artemether-lumefantrine; AQ = amodiaquine; Ar = artemether; As = artesunate; BID = twice ...
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While amodiaquine on its own failed to demonstrate efficacy, we cannot exclude potential therapeutic value of amodiaquine when ... effect observed could possibly be attributed to the change from lumefantrine to amodiaquine. Amodiaquine is a widely used ... Using a similar 3-day antimalarial dosing strategy as for human patients, plasma concentrations of amodiaquine in healthy ... In Vivo Activity of Amodiaquine against Ebola Virus Infection. DeWald, Lisa Evans; Johnson, Joshua C; Gerhardt, Dawn M; ...
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General Description: Amodiaquine Hydrochloride 352.64mg equivalent to Amodiaquine 270mg base + Artesunate 100mg fixed dose ... Amodiaquine Hydrochloride 352.64mg equivalent to Amodiaquine 270mg base + Artesunate 100mg fixed dose combination, bilayered ... Each fixed dose combination bilayered tablet contains Amodiaquine Hydrochloride 352.64mg, equivalent to Amodiaquine base 270mg ... Amodiaquine is a 4-Aminoquinolone Artesunate is an Artemesinin derivative Standard shelf life 2 years (24 months) Other ...
Previous treatment with Amodiaquine in the past 28 days (treatment with ASAQ or SPAQ) Age minimum: 3 Months. Age maximum: 59 ... Drug concentrations of Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine among chemoprevention failures (as defined in outcome 1) [Time ...
Amodiaquine (AQ); an effective antimalarial drug for uncomplicated malaria; has been greatly restricted after cases of life- ... Amodiaquine attained 100parasitological clearance rate versus 70in CQ-treated volunteers. The findings indicate that there was ... Biological and Haematological Safety Profile of Oral Amodiaquine and Chloroquine in Healthy Volunteers with or without ...
Antimalarial drugs include amodiaquine, dapsone, hydroxychloroquine, pyrimethamine, and quinine.. Miscellaneous drugs include ...
QV 256 84OL A comparative study of amodiaquine and chloroquine in two test systems / QV 256 85CH Studies of chloroquine and ...
Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Madagascar, ... Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of ... Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium ...
The cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and structurally related antimalarials: An individual patient data meta-analysis ... Triple therapy with artemether-lumefantrine plus amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine alone for artemisinin-resistant, ... Cardiovascular Concentration-Effect Relationships of Amodiaquine and its Metabolite Desethylamodiaquine: Clinical and Pre- ...
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  • The side effects of amodiaquine are generally minor to moderate and are similar to those of chloroquine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amodiaquine has also been found to work against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains of malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amodiaquine was more effective than chloroquine for parasite clearance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The combined results of parasite clearance at seven days from 24 trials was 83% for amodiaquine and 56% for chloroquine (odds ratio 4.29, 95% confidence interval 3.51 to 5.24). (ox.ac.uk)
  • No significant difference for adverse events was observed between amodiaquine and chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This drug he me complex is toxic and mess up membrane function.The side effects of amodiaquine are generally minor to moderate and are likethose of chloroquine. (healthypharma.com)
  • Cochrane Abstracts , Evidence Central , evidence.unboundmedicine.com/evidence/view/Cochrane/439370/all/Chloroquine_or_amodiaquine_combined_with_sulfadoxine‐pyrimethamine_for_treating_uncomplicated_malaria. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • I was surprised to see he found many hits versus Ebola including the drugs chloroquine and amodiaquine. (collaborativedrug.com)
  • In Ghana in 2004 (when choroquine was still the nationally recommended drug for the first-line treatment of malaria), the sensitivities, to chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine, artesunate and halofantrine, of 60 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two ecologically distinct areas of the country were assessed in vitro. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Although 32 of the P. falciparum isolates evaluated (56.1% of the 57 isolates successfully investigated for their susceptibility to choroquine) showed resistance to chloroquine and two showed slightly reduced sensitivity to amodiaquine, all the isolates were sensitive to mefloquine, artesunate, quinine and halofantrine. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) since June 1998 has advocated for the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in countries where Plasmodium falciparum malaria is resistant to traditional antimalarial therapies such as chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and amodiaquine (19;22). (bvsalud.org)
  • Amodiaquine (ADQ) is a medication used to treat malaria, including Plasmodium falciparum malaria when uncomplicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amodiaquine has become an important drug in the combination therapy for malaria treatment in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who are poor metabolizers of amodiaquine display lower treatment efficacy against malaria, as well as increased toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seasonal malaria chemoprevention with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine in children: a field guide (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Locations of 14 study health centers, including 11 peripheral satellite health units and 3 referral health facilities for which increased sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate/amodiaquine despite 14 years as first-line malaria treatment was tested, Zanzibar. (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND:Amodiaquine has been widely used to treat malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amodiaquine for treating malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:There is some evidence to support the continued use of amodiaquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, although drug resistance should be considered. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets Amodiaquine hydrochloride is a medication used in the treatment and prevention of malaria. (healthyinc.co.in)
  • Amodiaquine medication is used for treatment ofmalaria, including Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (healthypharma.com)
  • First-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria includes the use of artesunate and amodiaquine. (afribary.com)
  • BackgroundArtesunate-amodiaquine (AS&AQ) is a widely used artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for falciparum malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Partly in consequence of these observations, the recommended first-line treatment for malaria in Ghana was changed to an amodiaquine-artesunate combination in January 2005. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The scientists found success with Amodiaquine (AQ), a drug on the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines, which has been used in Africa and Asia to treat and prevent malaria since it was discovered by Joseph Burckhalter of Parke-Davis in 1944. (kgi.edu)
  • Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Madagascar, 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mali, 2015-2016. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the existence of counterfeit and substandard artesunate and amodiaquine in the market may lead to therapeutic failures or development of resistance when consumed. (afribary.com)
  • The aim of the study was to examine the pharmaceutical equivalence of different brands of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets and, their bioavailability and tolerability when given as monotherapy and combination therapy. (afribary.com)
  • Amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine showed similar results for parasite clearance on day seven, but sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine appeared to be more effective on day 14 and 28. (ox.ac.uk)
  • of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for three days. (who.int)
  • It involves administering monthly courses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) during this peak transmission period to those most at risk: children under five. (malariaconsortium.org)
  • We are committed toprovide a stock of highly effective Amodiaquine Hydrochloride tablets to ourinnumerable clients with the help of our well-experienced pharmaceuticalspecialists. (healthypharma.com)
  • Amodiaquine Hydrochloride is a prescribeddrug available as a tablet in several strengths. (healthypharma.com)
  • Amodiaquine hydrochloride is a Mannich base 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial recommended for the treatment of uncomplicatedmalaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. (healthypharma.com)
  • In an Ebola treatment center in Liberia , EVD patients receiving the combination antimalarial artesunate - amodiaquine had a lower risk of death compared to those treated with artemether-lumefantrine. (bvsalud.org)
  • Amodiaquine is a widely used antimalarial in the countries that experience outbreaks of EVD and, therefore, holds promise as an approved drug that could be repurposed for treating EBOV infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • Using a similar 3-day antimalarial dosing strategy as for human patients , plasma concentrations of amodiaquine in healthy animals were similar to those found in humans . (bvsalud.org)
  • While amodiaquine on its own failed to demonstrate efficacy , we cannot exclude potential therapeutic value of amodiaquine when used in combination with artesunate or another antiviral . (bvsalud.org)
  • The bioavailability after oral administration of single doses of artesunate (200mg), amodiaquine (600mg), their fixed combination (200mg/612.6mg), and non-fixed combination (200mg+600mg) as measured by high performance liquid chromatography of plasma samples and tolerability were compared. (afribary.com)
  • Fifteen brands of artesunate and five brands of amodiaquine tablets selected randomly were obtained from retail drug outlets in Ogun, Oyo and Lagos states in South western Nigeria and were subjected to various physicochemical tests including drug content, disintegration and dissolution times. (afribary.com)
  • Physicochemical tests revealed that 33.0% of the artesunate tablets and 80.0% of the amodiaquine tablets analyzed met compendial standards. (afribary.com)
  • Comparing changes in haematologic parameters occurring in patients included in randomized controlled trials of artesunate-amodiaquine vs single and combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • About 3.6% of the population studied showed high risk for a poor reaction to or reduced treatment outcomes when treated with amodiaquine. (wikipedia.org)
  • SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing amodiaquine with other treatment for uncomplicated malarial infections in adults and children. (ox.ac.uk)
  • I found that adding the van der Waals shape of amodiaquine helped to limit the number of hits to about 120 in each case. (collaborativedrug.com)
  • It is true that desethyl amodiaquine, not amodiaquine, isresponsible for most of the observed anti malarial activity, and that the toxicthings of amodiaquine after oral administration may be in particle due to desethylamodiaquine. (healthypharma.com)
  • In Vivo Activity of Amodiaquine against Ebola Virus Infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Locations of 14 study health centers, including 11 peripheral satellite health units and 3 referral health facilities for which increased sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate/amodiaquine despite 14 years as first-line malaria treatment was tested, Zanzibar. (cdc.gov)
  • Disease and drug interactions: treating malaria with artesunate plus amodiaquine in patients also receiving treatment for concomitant HIV infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In an Ebola treatment center in Liberia , EVD patients receiving the combination antimalarial artesunate - amodiaquine had a lower risk of death compared to those treated with artemether-lumefantrine. (bvsalud.org)
  • As artemether and artesunate are derivatives of artemisinin, the beneficial anti- Ebola virus (EBOV) effect observed could possibly be attributed to the change from lumefantrine to amodiaquine . (bvsalud.org)
  • While amodiaquine on its own failed to demonstrate efficacy , we cannot exclude potential therapeutic value of amodiaquine when used in combination with artesunate or another antiviral . (bvsalud.org)
  • Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Madagascar, 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mali, 2015-2016. (cdc.gov)
  • Amodiaquine 270mg (as hydrochloride)+ Artesunate 100mg fixed dose combination, bilayered tablets, blister pack of 3 tablets. (unicef.org)
  • Amodiaquine hydrochloride (150 mg base) tbl. (who.int)
  • Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets were assessed according to the `Procedure for Assessing the Acceptability, in principle, of Pharmaceutical Products for purchase by United Nations Agencies' by the team of WHO assessors. (who.int)
  • The countries of origin of the assessors involved with Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets were Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Spain, South Africa and Zimbabwe. (who.int)
  • 30 August 2007 Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets was included in the list of prequalified medicinal products. (who.int)
  • 87.5% (78.2-93.8) of the fever cases in children and 80.7% (68.1-90.0) in adults were treated with one of the recommended antimalarials (at the time SP, amodiaquine or quinine). (springer.com)
  • Protects a clients subjective report of amodiaquine toxicity suggests that these drugs result from tainted fermented beverages. (revivemedicalny.com)
  • Amodiaquine is a widely used antimalarial in the countries that experience outbreaks of EVD and, therefore, holds promise as an approved drug that could be repurposed for treating EBOV infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • In Vivo Activity of Amodiaquine against Ebola Virus Infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most effective drug identified, called amodiaquine, is now part of a clinical trial of treatments for COVID-19. (nih.gov)
  • Based in part on these results, amodiaquine has been incorporated into the ongoing ANTICOV clinical trial, which is testing drugs to treat COVID-19 in 13 African countries. (nih.gov)
  • Using a similar 3-day antimalarial dosing strategy as for human patients , plasma concentrations of amodiaquine in healthy animals were similar to those found in humans . (bvsalud.org)
  • Pivoting their efforts to COVID-19, the researchers then used the chips to identify three approved drugs-amodiaquine, toremifene, and clomiphene-that could reduce SARS-CoV-2 entry into human lung cells. (nih.gov)