Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.SesquiterpenesParasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Betazole: A histamine H2 agonist used clinically to test gastric secretory function.Histamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 2.1.1.8.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)ColombiaMultidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.QuinolinesKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.NaphthyridinesMalaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.AfghanistanNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.

Relationships between malaria prevalence and malaria-related morbidity in school children from two villages in central Africa. (1/318)

To investigate the relationship between parasite prevalence and malaria-related morbidity, we carried out a comparative study among cohorts of school children from two villages, Dienga, Gabon, and Pouma, Cameroon, both located in malaria-endemic areas. Seven to 17 year-old children attending primary schools were similarly followed-up at each site to evaluate the frequency of malaria attacks. Follow-up involved daily temperature recording (and blood smears in the case of fever) and preparation of blood smears every two weeks. In Pouma, 186 children were followed-up for six months. In Dienga, 228 children were followed-up for nine months. The mean prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum infections (as assessed by the blood smears) was twice as high in Pouma compared with Dienga (45.2% versus 26.8%; P < 0.0001), whereas the monthly malaria attack rate (as assessed by the daily surveillance) was twice as high in Dienga compared with Pouma (21.5% versus 41.4%; P = 0.003). The possible implication of several parameters that may differ between the two areas, such as the malaria transmission level, the economical and social status of the inhabitants, the characteristics of infecting parasite strains, and the genetic background of the population, is discussed.  (+info)

Analysis of mefloquine resistance and amplification of pfmdr1 in multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thailand. (2/318)

Resistance to quinoline-containing compound has been associated with the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene. We analyzed wild P. falciparum isolates with high levels of chloroquine and mefloquine resistance for their macrorestriction maps of chromosome 5 and sequence of pfmdr1. Two types of chromosome 5 amplification were found. Eleven of 62 resistant isolates displayed Bgl 1 fragments larger than 100 kb. Twenty-nine isolates possessed multiple copies of the fragments. We failed to detect any amplification of this region on chromosome 5 in 22 mefloquine-resistant isolates, suggesting that other mechanisms can mediate the mefloquine-resistant phenotype. There was no direct association between pfmdr1 mutations and chloroquine sensitivity. Resistant lines could have Asn-86 and Tyr-184 or Phe-184, the predicted sequence of those chloroquine-sensitive isolates. No mutation at Asn-1042 and Asp-1246 was detected among these chloroquine-resistant isolates. Therefore, a few base substitutions in the pfmdr1 gene may not be sufficient to account for all chloroquine-resistant phenotypes.  (+info)

Factors influencing resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum. (3/318)

A treatment-reinfection study design was used to investigate the relationships between host immunologic and/or genetic factors and resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum. Sixty-one children in Gabon were enrolled in a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of each human plasmodial species. All were given amodiaquine for radical cure of parasites, and 40 were subsequently followed-up for 30 weeks. Successive blood smears were examined to measure the delay of reappearance in blood of asexual stages of P. falciparum parasites. Presence of infection during the cross-sectional survey was associated with male sex, non-deficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, plasma interleukin-10 level, and anti-LSA-Rep antibody concentration. Resistance to reinfection was related to the presence of anti-LSA-J antibodies, and the absence of anti-LSA-Rep antibodies. Moreover, P. malariae-infected subjects were usually co-infected with P. falciparum, and were also more rapidly reinfected with P. falciparum after treatment, compared with those without P. malariae infection.  (+info)

Antibiotics for prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum infections: in vitro activity of doxycycline against Senegalese isolates. (4/318)

The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The 71-50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for doxycycline ranged from 0.7 to 108.0 microM and the geometric mean IC50 for the 71 isolates was 11.3 microM (95% confidence interval = 9.5-13.4 microM). The activity of doxycycline did not differ significantly (P = 0.0858) between the chloroquine-susceptible isolates and the chloroquine-resistant isolates. There was no in vitro correlation between the responses to doxycycline and those to artemether, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil, suggesting no in vitro cross-resistance among these drugs. Potency was increased by prolonged exposure. In 96-hr incubations, the activity of doxycycline was 4-5-fold more increased than in 48-hr incubations. The in vitro activity of doxycycline against intraerythrocytic stages of multidrug-resistant P. falciparum, its action against the preerythrocytic forms, the lack of correlation between the responses in vitro of P. falciparum to doxycycline and the other antimalarial drugs, and its original potential site of action are factors that favor its use as antimalarial drug.  (+info)

In vivo efficacy study of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine in Kibwezi, Kenya and Kigoma, Tanzania. (5/318)

We conducted two randomized clinical trials to determine the in vivo efficacy of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Seventy-five patients under the age of 10 years in Kibwezi, Kenya, and 171 patients in Kigoma, Tanzania, were enrolled for treatment. Due to loss of eight patients in Kibwezi and 37 in Kigoma to follow-up, we used best and worst case scenarios for the parasitological response. The in vivo sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to amodiaquine was 75% (no loss to follow-up) in Kibwezi and ranged from 85% in the best to 65% in the worst case scenario in Kigoma. The sensitivity to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was 70% to 88% in Kibwezi and 65% to 89% in Kigoma. R1 resistance to amodiaquine was 22% in Kibwezi and varied from 6% in the best to 26% for the worst case scenario in Kigoma. The R1 resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was 5% to 23% in Kibwezi and 2% to 26% in Kigoma. R2 resistance was 3% for amodiaquine and 7% for sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in Kibwezi and 9% in Kigoma for each treatment group. There was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups at either study site, except for a slight difference in R1 resistance in the best case scenario, Kibwezi, in favour of S/P. Although both amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance seems to be increasing, these antimalarials are still effective in parasite clearance.  (+info)

Adaptation of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium vivax from Indonesia to New World monkeys. (6/318)

The spread of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia poses a serious health threat to areas of Southeast Asia where this species of malaria parasite is endemic. A strain of P. vivax from Indonesia was adapted to develop in splenectomized Aotus lemurinus griseimembra, Aotus vociferans, Aotus nancymai, and Saimiri boliviensis monkeys. Transmission to splenectomized Saimiri monkeys was obtained via sporozoites. Chemotherapeutic studies indicated that the strain was resistant to chloroquine and amodiaquine while sensitive to mefloquine. Infections of chloroquine-resistant P.vivax in New World monkeys should be useful for the development of alternative treatments.  (+info)

Role of extraneuronal mechanisms in the termination of contractile responses to amines in vascular tissue. (7/318)

1 The role of the uptake and release of agonist from extraneuronal sites in the termination of responses of rabbit aortic strips to amines was studied. 2 Strips were contracted with adrenaline or noradrenaline and after response plateau was reached, the muscle chambers were washed free of agonist and the relaxation in Krebs solution recorded. After inhibition of catechol-O-methyl-transferase, monoamine oxidase and neuronal uptake the relaxation rate was greatly prolonged. Evidence is provided that this very slow relaxation resulted from the accumulation of intact amine at extraneuronal sites during exposure to the agonist and its subsequent release past receptors due to a reversal of the concentration gradient after washout. 3 Pretreatment with the haloalkylamine, GD-131 (N-cyclohexylmethyl-N-ethyl-beta-chloroethylamine), an inhibitor of extraneuronal uptake, returned the slow relaxation rate after enzyme inhibition towards that of control strips. By blocking the extraneuronal transport of amines their accumulation at intracellular loci after enzyme inhibition was prevented. 4 The effects of GD-131 and 17beta-oestradiol on the relaxation rate of untreated strips contracted by adrenaline and noradrenaline confirmed that extraneuronal uptake to sites of enzymatic activity is the major mechanism terminating their action. 5 Inactivation of extraneuronal transport sites by GD-131 was prevented by protecting them with 17beta-oestradiol or normetanephrine during exposure to the haloalkylamine, pointing to a common site of action of these agents on a specific carrier system for amines. 6 Evidence is presented that the relaxation from contractions induced by histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine also involves extraneuronal accumulation and release, probably by an uptake process which is identical to the one for catecholamines.  (+info)

"One-pot" synthesis and antimalarial activity of formamidine derivatives of 4-anilinoquinoline. (8/318)

Amodiaquine (AQ) is an antimalarial which is effective against chloroquino-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum but whose clinical use is severely restricted because of associated hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis. "One-pot" synthesis of formamidines likely to be transformed into AQ derivatives is reported. Compared with AQ, the new compounds were devoid of in vitro cytotoxicity upon human embryonic lung cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. One showed a potent in vivo activity in mice infected with P berghei. Transformation of this compound by reductive amination led to a new type of AQ derivatives that displayed an in vitro activity similar to that of AQ but did not lead to toxic quinone-imines.  (+info)

*Intermittent preventive therapy

A trial conducted in northern Tanzania using the antimalarial drug amodiaquine instead of S/P was similarly successful. Six ... Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo- ... Treating schoolchildren in Kenya with S/P and amodiaquine significantly improved anaemia (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93). IPTp ...

*Amodiaquine

... is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine. Amodiaquine was first made in 1948. It is on the World ... "Amodiaquine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 4 December 2015. "Amodiaquine". Livertox. Archived from the ... Amodiaquine has become an important drug in the combination therapy for malaria treatment in Africa. It is often used in ... Among amodiaquine users, several rare but serious side effects have been reported and linked to variants in the CYP2C8 alleles ...

*Artesunate/amodiaquine

Artesunate and amodiaquine are both antimalarial medication; however, work by different mechanisms. Artesunate/amodiaquine was ... "Artesunate + Amodiaquine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. "Artesunate Amodiaquine ... Artesunate/amodiaquine, sold under the trade name Camoquin among others, is a medication used for the treatment of malaria. It ... Artesunate/amodiaquine is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.85 to 1.52 ...

*4-Aminoquinoline

Examples include amodiaquine, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine. Amodiaquine Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Bray PG, Hawley ... SR, Ward SA (1996). "4-Aminoquinoline resistance of Plasmodium falciparum: insights from the study of amodiaquine uptake". Mol ...

*Mepacrine

Chloroquine Amodiaquine Pamaquine Mefloquine Drugs.com: Quinacrine. Retrieved on August 24, 2009. Toubi E, Kessel A, Rosner I, ...

*Artesunate

"Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop (artesunate, amodiaquine) [summary of product characteristics]" (PDF). Sanofi-Aventis. Archived ...

*WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children

Amodiaquine Artemether Artemether/lumefantrine Artesunate Artesunate/amodiaquine Artesunate/mefloquine Chloroquine Doxycycline ... To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine. Other combinations that deliver ...

*Selective sweep

"Geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance distinguished by differential responses to amodiaquine and ...

*Project 523

Artesunate combination drugs (such as artesunate/amodiaquine and artesunate/mefloquine) are more effective than artemether- ... "The initial pharmaceutical development of an artesunate/amodiaquine oral formulation for the treatment of malaria: a public- ...

*Mass drug administration

In Bobo-Dioulasso, where primaquine was used in combination with either chloroquine or amodiaquine, the prevalence of ... 1999). "[Assay of sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine and quinine in ...

*Antimalarial medication

Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinolone anti-malarial drug similar in structure and mechanism of action to chloroquine. Amodiaquine ... Amodiaquine is now available in a combined formulation with artesunate (ASAQ) and is among the artemisinin-combination ... According to WHO guidelines 2010, artemisinin-based combination therapies should be used in preference to amodiaquine plus ...

*Argemone mexicana

"Argemone mexicana decoction versus artesunate-amodiaquine for the management of malaria in Mali: Policy and public-health ...

*Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative

Lacaze Catherine (2011). "The initial pharmaceutical development of an artesunate/amodiaquine oral formulation for the ... this antimalarial product is a fixed-dose combination of artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ). It is the result of a partnership ...

*Clerk family

Amodiaquine, or the Combination in Pregnant Women in Ghana". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 198 (8): 1202-1211. doi: ...

*Artesunate/mefloquine

... is a recommended treatment in Southeast Asia while in Africa artesunate/amodiaquine, artemether/ ...

*R. Heiner Schirmer

"Efficacy and Safety of Triple Combination Therapy With Artesunate-Amodiaquine-Methylene Blue for Falciparum Malaria in Children ...

*Institute for Tropical Medicine Tuebingen

... amodiaquine artesunate, pyronaridine artesunate as well as malaria and ebola vaccines. According to a survey of the ...

*Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria

... and amodiaquine (AQ), which usually cost less than US$1. Therefore, unsubsidized, quality-assured ACTs are not affordable by ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... amodiaquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.180 --- chloroquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.180.350 --- hydroxychloroquine MeSH D03.438.810.050. ...

*ATC code P01

P01BA01 Chloroquine P01BA02 Hydroxychloroquine P01BA03 Primaquine P01BA06 Amodiaquine P01BB01 Proguanil P01BB02 Cycloguanil ... P01BE05 Artenimol P01BF01 Artemether and lumefantrine P01BF02 Artesunate and mefloquine P01BF03 Artesunate and amodiaquine ...

*Rajpal Singh Yadav

... amodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in a tribal population of District Sundargarh, Orissa.", Indian ...

*Artemisinin

1.7 million doses of Sanofi's ArteSunate AmodiaQuine Winthrop (ASAQ Winthrop), a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination ... amodiaquine (ASAQ), piperaquine (Duo-Cotecxin), and pyronaridine (Pyramax). Increasingly, these combinations are being made to ...

*WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

Amodiaquine Artemether Artemether/lumefantrine Artesunate Artesunate/amodiaquine Artesunate/mefloquine Artesunate/pyronaridine ... Not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy or in children below 5 kg To be used in combination with either amodiaquine ...

*PATH (global health organization)

1.7 million doses of Sanofi's ArteSunate AmodiaQuine Winthrop (ASAQ Winthrop), a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination ...

*List of drugs: Am

... amodiaquine (INN) amogastrin (INN) Amohexal (Hexal Australia) [Au], also known as amoxicillin. amolanone (INN) amolimogene ...
Abstract The antimalarial activities of amodiaquine, the desethyl metabolite of amodiaquine, chloroquine, and mefloquine were evaluated against 35 field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum collected from eastern Thailand, October-December 1985, to define patterns of cross-resistance among these compounds. The assay system was based on the in vitro inhibition of schizont maturation. The parasites were generally sensitive to mefloquine (mean 50%-inhibitory concentrations = 9.98 nM) and highly resistant to chloroquine (IC50 = 313 nM). The mean in vitro activity of desethylamodiaquine (67.5 nM) was approximately 3.5 times lower than that of amodiaquine (18.2 nM). There was a significant rank-order correlation between the IC50s of desethylamodiaquine and chloroquine, but not between amodiaquine and chloroquine, which suggests that the apparent cross-resistance between chloroquine and amodiaquine observed in clinical studies may be more closely related to the cross-resistance between chloroquine and the
The correct prescription of ACT by healthcare staff and the compliance of patients are essential for an effective management of malaria in Africa. Different previous studies had already shown the efficacy and tolerability of artesunate plus amodiaquine in sub-Saharan Africa [2-7].. The objective of this pilot study was to verify the non-inferiority of two daily intakes versus a single intake (which can permit to decrease the number of tablet to be taken per dose) and to evaluate the impact of dose fractionation on clinical safety. This study showed that adequate responses to treatment were similar for the two treatment regimens, and approaching 100% before and after PCR analysis on D14. The statistical analyses conducted on the ITT and PP populations demonstrated the non-inferiority of administering Artesunate plus amodiaquine as two intakes versus a single daily intake, in terms of clinical and parasitological efficacy on D14.. It was also demonstrated that the two tested treatment regimen were ...
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes pfcrt and pfmdr1 are selected by amodiaquine treatment in Africa. To examine the importance of these mutations in amodiaquine-treated Asian parasites, we determined pre- and posttreatment genotypes for amodiaquine treatment failures from a clinical trial in Afghanistan. The pfcrt codon 72 to 76 haplotype SVMNT was present in all samples tested, both before and after treatment. Amodiaquine did not clearly select for any pfmdr1 genotype, but a novel mutation, pfmdr1 N86F, was detected in four samples. We provide in vivo data to support the in vitro correlation between pfcrt SVMNT and increased resistance to the metabolite of amodiaquine.,br/, ...
Background: The development and spread of antimalarial drug resistant parasites contributes to the global impact of the disease. In vivo efficacy assessments of treatments for Plasmodium falciparum malaria are essential for ensuring effective case management. Artemisinin-based combinations have been adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Cameroon since 2004. Methods: A total of 177 children aged six-months to 10 years with uncomplicated mono-infected falciparum malaria were randomized (1:1) to receive artesunate/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS/SP) or artesunate/amodiaquine (AS/AQ) pediatric tablets and followed up for 28 days according to the standard World Health Organization in vivo drug efficacy monitoring protocol. The primary and secondary endpoints were PCR uncorrected and corrected cure rates, as measured by adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28. Results: The PCR corrected cure rate was high, overall (88.1%, 95% CI 83.1-93.1), 85.9%
The key goal of artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT) is to enhance cure rates and delay development of parasite resistance to component drugs [16]. This study has shown rapid parasite and fever clearance in children treated with 6-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and 3-day course of artesunate plus amodiaquine (AAMQ). This is characteristic of artemisinin combination therapy [6]. It was also demonstrated that these ACT regimens were tolerable among under-five children in this locality. The ACTs were not compared with existing first-line and second-line drugs for uncomplicated malaria (chloroquine or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine,) because of very high treatment failures (in excess of 80%) recently reported for both drugs in the study area [12]. Administering such ineffective treatments to ill, under-five children could significantly increase the risk of poor treatment outcome.. The cure rates obtained for a 6-dose regimen of AL and a 3-day course of AAMQ were high (, 80%) but ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
A dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on arm span- or age range (DRAAAS), derived from a study of 1674 children, was compared with standard dose regimen of the same drugs calculated according to body weight (SDRAA) in 68 malarious children. Children on DRAAAS received 0.8-1.0 of artesunate/kg and 0.9-1.2 times amodiaquine/kg compared with those receiving SDRAA. Parasite and fever clearance and fall in hematocrit in the first 3 days were similar; both regimens were well tolerated. DRAAAS is simple and is efficacious. ...
Main results: 56 studies included, mostly from Africa. Treatment allocation was adequately concealed in three trials, and unclear or inadequate in the remainder. Amodiaquine was more effective than chloroquine for parasite clearance (day 7, Peto odds ratio 4.42 (95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.35); day 14, Peto odds ratio 6.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.09 to 8.15). Comparisons with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine were more mixed, with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine more effective on day 28 (Peto odds ratio 0.41; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61). No significant difference for adverse events was observed between amodiaquine and chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Reported adverse effects were minor or moderate. No life threatening events were detected ...
BACKGROUND: Very few data on anti-malarial efficacy are available from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC changed its anti-malarial treatment policy to amodiaquine (AQ) and artesunate (AS) in 2005.. METHODS: The results of two in vivo efficacy studies, which tested AQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) monotherapies and AS+SP and AS+AQ combinations in Boende (Equatorial province), and AS+SP, AS+AQ and SP in Kabalo (Katanga province), between 2003 and 2004 are presented. The methodology followed the WHO 2003 protocol for assessing the efficacy of anti-malarials in areas of high transmission.. RESULTS: Out of 394 included patients in Boende, the failure rates on day 28 after PCR-genotyping adjustment of AS+SP and AS+AQ were estimated as 24.6% [95% CI: 16.6-35.5] and 15.1% [95% CI: 8.6-25.7], respectively. For the monotherapies, failure rates were 35.9% [95% CI: 27.0-46.7] for SP and 18.3% [95% CI: 11.6-28.1] for AQ. Out of 207 patients enrolled in Kabalo, the failure rate on day 28 after ...
Abstract. Home management of malaria is recommended for prompt, effective antimalarial treatment in children less than five years of age. Compliance, safety, and effectiveness of the new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine regimen used to treat suspected malaria were assessed in febrile children enrolled in a 24-month cohort study in two settings in Madagascar. Children with fever were asked to visit community health workers. Presumptive antimalarial treatment was given and further visits were scheduled for follow-up. The primary endpoint was the risk of clinical/parasitologic treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included fever/parasite clearance, change in hemoglobin levels, and frequency of adverse events. The global clinical cure rate was 98.4% by day 28 and 97.9% by day 42. Reported compliance was 83.4%. No severe adverse effects were observed. This study provides comprehensive data concerning the clinical cure rate obtained with artesunate-amodiaquine and evidence supporting the scaling up of home
CD4+ T cells play key roles in the regulation of immune responses against pathogenic infectious antigens via development into effector T helper and induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells. Particularly, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ iTreg cells are crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis and controlling inflammatory diseases. Anti-inflammatory drugs that enhance iTreg cell generation would be effective at preventing and treating inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined whether anti-malarial and anti-arthritic amodiaquine (AQ) could affect iTreg cell development. Despite the anti-proliferative activity of AQ, AQ only moderately decreased iTreg cell proliferation but substantially increased IL-2 production by iTreg cells. Furthermore, AQ dose-dependently increased iTreg cell development and significantly upregulated iTreg cell markers including CD25. Interestingly, CD25 expression was decreased at later stages of iTreg cell development but was sustained in the presence of AQ, which was ...
Listing your company for Amodiaquine Hcl/Base allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Listing your company for AMODIAQUINE HCL allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Without an effective vaccine for the prevention of malaria, a fundamental component of the strategy for the control of this disease is based on prompt and effective treatment. Due to the high resistance level of Plasmodium falciparum to the most affordable drugs such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemisinin-based combination therapies are presently used in many countries or are being developed for registration. One artemisinin combination therapy that is drawing a certain degree of interest is the combination of artesunate (a short half-life drug) plus amodiaquine (a long half-life drug that is presently used in loose combination in many countries). The short half-life drug achieves substantial and rapid parasite killing, while a high concentration of the long half-life drug kills off the remaining malaria parasites. In addition to the effectiveness of 3 days of treatment (rapid clearance of fever and malaria parasites) in western and central Africa, where resistance to ...
The mainland Chinese started studying the anti-malarial effects of the traditional anti-malarial medicine derived from the plant Artemisa anna back in the 1960s. For various reasons, including the upheavals of the Cultural Revolution, the positive results were not published internationally. When they were, in the 1990s, they were pretty much "poohed-poohed" by the developed world except … the pharmaceuticals who pricked up their ears and went for it big time! The plants active ingredient was Artemisin and soon the synthetic Artesunate was developed.. Artesunate is fast-acting but has a very short half-life (i.e. very quickly disappears from the blood). Amodiaquine has longer half-life. The tablets are marketed in packs of a pair a day. If there is still some residual malaria, then a second line of attack is used - the trade name Coartem, a combination of Artesunate and Lumefantrine (in turn developed from halofantrine, the basis of Halfan, which at the time of its recent development was ...
ONeill, PM; Shone, AE; Stanford, D; Nixon, G; Asadollahy, E; Park, BK; Maggs, JL; Roberts, P; Stocks, PA; Biagini, G; +19 more... (2009) Synthesis, Antimalarial Activity, and Preclinical Pharmacology of a Novel Series of 4-Fluoro and 4-Chloro Analogues of Amodiaquine. Identification of a Suitable "Back-Up" Compound for N-tert-Butyl Isoquine. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 52 (7). pp. 1828-44. ISSN 0022-2623 DOI: 10.1021/jm8012757 Full text not available from this repository ...
Calcium, Concentration, Graphene, Nanoribbon, Paper, Drugs, Role, Lead, Bath, Cymbopogon, Endothelium, Indomethacin, Muscle, Phenylephrine, Prostacyclin, Relaxation, Smooth Muscle, Tissue, Vascular Smooth Muscle, Amodiaquine
Assuming the following reaction proceeds in the forward direction, 3 Sn4+(aq) + 2 Cr(s)  3 Sn2+(aq) + 2 Cr3+(aq) a. Sn4+(aq) is the reducing agent and Cr(s) is the oxidizing agent. b. Cr(s) is the reducing agent and Sn2+(aq ...
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ) as well as amodiaquine (AQ) resistance. mefloquine (MQ) and lumefantrine (LU) sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y. Additionally, Pfcrt K76 allele carrying parasites have shown tolerance to LU. We investigated the association between Pfmdr1 86/Pfcrt 72-76 and P. falciparum resistance to CQ, AQ, MQ and LU using field samples collected during 2008-2011 from malaria endemic sites in western Kenya. Genomic DNA from these samples was genotyped to examine SNPs and haplotypes in Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt respectively. Additionally, immediate ex vivo and in vitro drug sensitivity profiles were assessed using the malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence-based assay. We observed a rapid but steady percent increase in wild-type parasites with regard to both Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt between 2008 and 2011 (p|0
Abstract The effects of chloroquine, amodiaquine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (SP) (Fansidar) on the infection rate and density of Plasmodium flaciparum gametocytes were studied in 198 patients with falciparum malaria from an area in the Punjab where malaria is endemic but seasonally transmitted. One month following treatment of 100 patients, SP had reduced the gametocyte carrier rate from 37% to 6% and the mean gametocyte density from 80 to 1.4 per mm3 of blood. Chloroquine and amodiaquine were much less effective. Since SP has no gametocytocidal properties and the reduction in gametocytes coincided with clearance of asexual parasitemias, gametocytes were probably reduced subsequent to the cure of the asexual malaria infections. If used during the nontransmission season, SP might be an effective component of an integrated program for reducing malaria transmission in the Punjab and other areas where 4-aminoquinoline-resistant and SP-sensitive falciparum malaria exists.
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING AND INHIBITING VIRAL INFECTIONS - Compositions and methods for the treatment, as well as the inhibition and prevention, of an infection of the papillomavirus and the epithelial lesions, namely, the warts of the skin and mucosal surfaces, associated therewith, in a mammalian host, as well as methods of inhibiting the replication of a papillomavirus in an infected cell, are provided. The compositions comprise a therapeutically effective amount of an active ingredient comprising at least one compound selected from the group consisting of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, amodiaquine, or in each case, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The methods comprise topically administering a therapeutically and/or antivirally effective amount of such a compound to a mammalian host, such as a human being, in need of such treatment, although alternatively other routes of administration may be used, including but not limited to transdermal, transmucosal, respiratory, ...
This study evaluated and compared the efficacy of five brands of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs); Dihydroartemisinin plus Piperaquine, Artesunate plus Amodiaquine, Artesunate plus Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine, Artemether plus lumefantrine and Artesunate plus mefloquine combinations in vivo in P.berghei infected swiss albino mice. The experimental animals were pre-screened to rule out infection. All drugs were administered as clinical doses for the curative test and the Mean Percentage Parasitemia level assessed daily for seven days and on day 60. The results showed that all the drugs were effective with artesunate plus amodiaquine combination being the most efficacious followed by dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine and artesunate plus sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine combinations followed by artesunate plus mefloquine combination and artemether plus lumefantrine combination which was the least efficacious. Results on day 60 showed increasing parasitemia levels in mice which received Artemether
This study was designed to determine the efficacy of both artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine (but not to compare the efficacies of the two
Bulk Pharmaceuticals Acyclovir CAS 59277-89-3 Albendazole CAS 54965-21-8 Allopurinol CAS 315-30-0 Alpha Methyldopa CAS 555-30-6 Amodiaquine CAS 86-42-0 Amprolium HCL CAS 121-25-5 Analgin CAS
Find out how to take Artesunate (drug) and its dose. Describes the best time to take the drug and precautions if any that should be followed.
BACKGROUND: Gametocytes are responsible for transmission of malaria from human to mosquito. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) reduces post-treatment gametocyte carriage, dependent upon host, parasite and pharmacodynamic factors. The gametocytocidal properties of antimalarial drugs are important for malaria elimination efforts. An individual patient clinical data meta-analysis was undertaken to identify the determinants of gametocyte carriage and the comparative effects of four ACTs: artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate/amodiaquine (AS-AQ), artesunate/mefloquine (AS-MQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). METHODS: Factors associated with gametocytaemia prior to, and following, ACT treatment were identified in multivariable logistic or Cox regression analysis with random effects. All relevant studies were identified through a systematic review of PubMed. Risk of bias was evaluated based on study design, methodology, and missing data. RESULTS: The systematic review identified 169 published
HIV and malaria are two of the most pernicious diseases facing developing countries. Malaria affects 300 to 500 million individuals annually in developing countries and it is estimated that 25.8 million people in Africa live with HIV. Current therapy recommended by the World Health Organization includes the use of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate and artemether. To minimize the risk of resistance, these drugs are used in combination with older drugs with longer half-lives including amodiaquine and lumefantrine.. Treatment of malaria is further complicated by the increasing availability of antiretroviral (ARV) medications for HIV in that clinically important drug-drug interactions may occur in co-infected patients. Protease inhibitor (e.g. lopinavir and ritonavir) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (e.g. efavirenz) based treatment commonly affects pharmacokinetic exposure of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways.. Artemether is metabolized by the CYP3A4 to ...
Amodiaquine is a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of histamine N-methyl transferase in human erythrocytes, also used as an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent. Buy Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor Amodiaquin dihydrochloride dihydrate from AbMole BioScience.
|p|AQ is a bio-product made of natural ingredients. Designed to eradicate bacteria and viruses in air and any surfaces to radically enhance indoor and personal hygiene. Unlike its chemical counterpart, the bio-structure of AQ is far too complicated to be
Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Follistim AQ (follitropin). Includes dose adjustments, warnings and precautions.
Although the practice of administering the first dose of an antimalarial treatment and given the remaining tablets to be taken at home by patients is common practice in busy outpatient services of health facilities in malaria endemic countries, there is little information on the effectiveness of ACTs in treating uncomplicated malaria (Piola et al. 2005; Ngasala et al. 2011a,b). The effectiveness of the two ACTs adopted in the Burkina Faso policy of antimalarial treatment, AL and ASAQ, was evaluated in Nanoro, a sentinel site of the National Malaria Control Program. Both treatments were equally efficacious, endorsing the decision of using them for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, although the proportion of patients with a PCR-adjusted ACPR was slightly lower than that of an efficacy study, carried out in the same area and at approximately the same time. Indeed, in the latter, the PCR-adjusted cure rate was 91.1% for AL and 96.8% for ASAQ (Four Artemisinin-Based Combinations (4ABC) Study ...
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is used extensively as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. There has been no rigorous assessment of the potential for racial/ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of ACTs that might influence their efficacy. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search was performed that identified 72 publications in which the geographical origin of the patients could be ascertained and the key pharmacokinetic parameters maximum drug concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and elimination half-life (t½β) were available for one or more of the five WHO-recommended ACTs (artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, artesunate-mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine ...
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) was recommended in 2012 for young children in the Sahel during the peak malaria transmission season. Children are given a single dose of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine combined with a 3-day course of amodiaquine, once a month for up to 4 months. Roll-out and scale-up of SMC has been impressive, with 12 million children receiving the intervention in 2016. There is evidence of its overall benefit in routine implementation settings, and a meta-analysis of clinical trial data showed a 75% decrease in clinical malaria compared to placebo. SMC is not free of shortcomings. Its target zone includes many hard-to-reach areas, both because of poor infrastructure and because of political instability. Treatment adherence to a 3-day course of preventive treatment has not been fully documented, and could prove challenging. As SMC is scaled up, integration into a broader, community-based paradigm which includes other preventive and curative activities may prove beneficial, both ...
Seven patients developed hepatitis after receiving amodiaquine for malaria prophylaxis for 4 to 15 weeks. Four patients had a minor form of hepatitis: jaundice was mild or absent, serum aminotransferase levels were moderately increased, and recovery was prompt. Three patients had a severe form: jaundice was intense, serum aminotransferase levels were markedly increased, jaundice persisted for 3 to 6 months, and liver tests were still abnormal 7 to 27 months after the onset of hepatitis. In two patients, serum aminotransferase levels increased promptly after readministration of the drug, which is consistent with an immunoallergic mechanism for amodiaquine-induced hepatitis. ...
<p>An outline of the opportunities and challenges in large-scale use of artemisinin combination therapies to treat malaria.</p>
21 6 Fe 2+ (aq) 6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 6 e - 6 Fe 2+ (aq)  6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 6 e - Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + 6 e - 2 Cr 3+ (aq) Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + 6 e -  2 Cr 3+ (aq) 6 Fe 2+ (aq) + Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + ? 2nd H + (aq) 6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + ? 1st Oxygen H 2 O (l) 6 Fe 2+ (aq) + Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + ? 2nd H + (aq)  6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + ? 1st Oxygen H 2 O (l) Oxygen = 7 2nd (Hydrogen) = 14 Balancing Redox Equations in acidic solutions ...
Data for artesunate, used for the treatment of malaria, indicates IVC in conjunction with IV Artesunate makes a substantial difference in advanced cancers.
Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
The [H3O+] of a solution with pH = 3 is -10 M. 10 M. 1 x 10-3 M. 1 x 103 M. 1 x 10-11 M. Identify the acid(s) and base(s) in the following reaction: CH3COOH(aq) + NH3(aq) CH 3COO-(aq) + NH4+(aq) CH3COOH is the only acid, and NH3 is ...
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We produce Dihydroartemisinin + Piperaquine Phosphate Tablets and other Antimalarial drugs in the following forms: -Artemether (Injection, Tablets) -Artesunate + Amodiaquine (Tablets) -Artesunate + Mefloquine HCL (Tablets) -Artesunate + .....
Our Molecular Group provides tools that summarise the prevalence of molecular markers for resistance to artemisinin, chloroquine, lumefantrine, amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and displays the patterns of these markers by location and time to facilitate management and containment of antimalarial resistance
Malaria, Plasmodium, Plasmodium Falciparum, Gold, Administration, Amodiaquine, Evaluation, Falciparum Malaria, Mefloquine, Parasites, Patients, Primaquine, Pyrimethamine, Sulfadoxine, Time, Treatment, Treatments, Health, Hospitals, Infection
According to the World Health Organization, half of the Worlds population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i) ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii) a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii) a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with P. falciparum dihydroorotate
Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Indo Farma is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Indo Farma is available on the Drugs.com website.
The adult dosage of Coartem is four tablets taken twice a day for three days. This eMedTV page further explores dosing guidelines for this medication, including dosing recommendations for children and important tips on when and how to take this drug.
The AQ400 Discrete Analyzer is the newest Discrete Analyzer from SEAL. The AQ400 brings increased speed, capacity, flexibility and reproducibility to your analysis.
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The Nutshell Putative Gay Genes Identified, Questioned A genomic interrogation of homosexuality turns up speculative links between genetic elements and sexual orientation, but researchers say the study is too small to be significant. ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) are widely used in African countries, including Cameroon. Between 2005 and 2007, five randomized studies comparing different treatment arms among artesunate-amodiaquine and other ACT were conducted in Cameroonian children aged two to 60 months who had uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In these studies, the categorical criterion proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to assess the relative effectiveness of anti- malarial drugs, was repeatedly evaluated on Days 14, 21 and 28 after treatment initiation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different treatments on this repeated ordinal outcome, hence using the fully available information. METHODS: The quantitative synthesis was based on individual patient data. Due to the incomplete block design concerning treatment arms between different trials, a mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis approach was adopted. The repeated ordinal outcome was
Between March 1990 and June 1992, a study was carried out in Equatorial Guinea on the in vitro response of Plasmodium falciparum to different antimalarial drugs. Field work for the study was conducted both in the countrys island region as well as on the mainland, and resistant isolates were found to exhibit interregional differences. On the island of Bioko, 204 tests were performed with 16% (11 of 69) resistant to chloroquine, 9% (4 of 46) resistant to quinine, 14% (6 of 43) resistant to a combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and 6.5% (3 of 46) resistant to amodiaquine. In the mainland area of Bata, the same antimalarial drugs and mefloquine were tested with the following results: 9% (5 of 58) resistant to chloroquine; 2% (1 of 58) resistant to amodiaquine, and 3% (2 of 58) resistant to a combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. No isolates resistant to quinine or mefloquine were found. Effective concentrations (EC50, EC90, and EC99) and regression lines (log dose/response) for each ...
From chloroquine to artemisinin-based combination therapy: the Sudanese experience. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) was recommended in 2012 for young children in the Sahel during the peak malaria transmission season. Children are given a single dose of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine combined with a 3-day course of amodiaquine, once a month for up to 4 months. Roll-out and scale-up of SMC has been impressive, with 12 million children receiving the intervention in 2016. There is evidence of its overall benefit in routine implementation settings, and a meta-analysis of clinical trial data showed a 75% decrease in clinical malaria compared to placebo. SMC is not free of shortcomings. Its target zone includes many hard-to-reach areas, both because of poor infrastructure and because of political instability. Treatment adherence to a 3-day course of preventive treatment has not been fully documented, and could prove challenging. As SMC is scaled up, integration into a broader, community-based paradigm which includes other preventive and curative activities may prove beneficial, both ...
Citation: Lee, S-E., Kim, M-R., Kim, J-H., Takeoka, G.R., Kim, T-W., Park, B-S. 2008. Antimalarial Activity of Anthothecol Derived from Khaya anthotheca (Meliaceae). Phytomedicine 15:533-535. Interpretive Summary: Malaria is a serious disease affecting more than 500 million people worldwide every year. Recent estimates of the global malaria burden have shown increasing levels of malaria morbidity and mortality. The main factor contributing to the increasing malaria mortality and morbidity is the widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to conventional antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine. Since the parasites resistance to medicines continues to undermine malaria control efforts, new antimalarial agents are needed. Anthothecol, a limonoid of Khaya anthotheca (Meliaceae), showed potent antimalarial activity against malaria parasites with IC50 values of 1.4 and 0.17 uM using two different assays. Anthothecol might be a useful product for ...
This video shows a cornea with amiodarone verticillata deposits. You can see these as a whorl pattern - the entity is also called whorl keratopathy or hurricane keratopathy. These deposits are benign, difficult to see, and rarely (if ever) have any visual significance.. Drugs that can cause this pattern: CACTI Mneumonic: chloroquine, amiodarone, chlorpromazine, tamoxifen, indomethacin.. In addition, you can presumably get a similar pattern with amodiaquine, meperidine, and with Fabrys disease.. ...
Search Indian Artesunate Injection Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - Contact to Artesunate Injection Exporters in India, Artesunate Injection Wholesalers, Artesunate Injection Distributors and Traders from India.
Nahhhh...ini sang sahabat pengen foto tema piknik....dia yang mau foto, aq yang excited...soalnya ini jadi seolah membangkitkan keinginan yang dulu terpaksa dipendam...hehehehehe...Aq mulai browsing-browsing contoh foto-foto prewed tema piknik...Ihhh...lucuk-lucuukk bener yaaahh foto-foto tema piknik ituuuhhh... #mewek lagi....Habis ngumpulin inspirasi, selanjutnya aq bantuin dia mikir properti yang cocok buat tema itu...hehehehe...Kebetulan aq mau pulang ke Semarang, jadi rencananya nanti aq mau bantu dia cari-cari properti sama bawain properti punyaku dulu...Katanya dia kesulitan nyari properti coz dia tinggal di kota kecil...Ya wes lah...I will help you masbrooo... hehehehehe...mari qt kumpulkan propertinyaaa...Waduuuhhh....aq beneran jadi overexcited ni...hahahahaha....Ini beberapa contoh foto prewed yang aq kumpulin buat referensi dia...Maap banget yaaa...banyak yang lupa sumbernya...coz itu kebanyakan foto-foto yang aq kumpulin waktu aq mau prewed dulu...hehehehe...Lets cekidoottt.... ^o ...
Serious complications are not likely to occur with a short-term Nasacort AQ overdose. This page on the eMedTV Web site describes the problems that may occur with a long-term Nasacort AQ overdose and explains what treatment options are available.
Malaria during pregnancy, particularly Plasmodium falciparum malaria, has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality, which must be reduced by both preventive measures and effective case management. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend
Artesunate Plus Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine is an artesunate-based oral medication used to treat malaria. It consists of artesunate and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. "Artesunate+Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria (ASPF)". clinicaltrials.gov. University of Oxford. July 11, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2017 ...
Background: In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. The ADDO program strengthens private sector pharmaceutical services by improving regulatory and supervisory support, dispenser training, and record keeping practices.. Methods: The governments pilot program made subsidized ACTs available through ADDOs in 10 districts in the Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, covering about 2.9 million people. The program established a supply of subsidized ACTs, created a price system with a cost recovery plan, developed a plan to distribute the subsidized products to the ADDOs, trained dispensers, and strengthened the adverse drug reactions reporting system. ...
The costs of delivering specific products are poorly understood and ballpark estimates are often used to inadequately plan for the budgetary implications of supply chain expenses. The purpose of this research was to estimate the country level costs of the public sector supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) from the central to the peripheral levels in Benin and Kenya. A micro-costing approach was used and primary data on the various cost components of the supply chain was collected at the central, intermediate, and facility levels between September and November 2013. Information sources included central warehouse databases, health facility records, transport schedules, and expenditure reports. In Benin, supply chain costs added US$0.20 to the initial acquisition cost of ACT and US$0.34 to RDTs; in Kenya, they added US$0.24 to the acquisition cost of ACT and US$0.19 to RDTs (normalized to US$1). Total supply chain costs accounted for more ...
Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp). The intervention builds on two tested malaria control strategies to clear existing parasites (treatment effect seen in mass drug administrations) and to prevent new infections (prophylaxis). IPTi using the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (S/P) was pioneered in Ifakara, Tanzania in 1999. Infants received S/P at ages 3, 6, and 9 months in combination with their routine childhood (EPI) vaccinations. IPTi reduced clinical attacks of malaria by 59% (95% CI, 41%-72%) in Ifakara. Remarkably, protection persisted throughout the second year of life, long after SP had disappeared from circulation. A trial conducted in northern Tanzania using the antimalarial drug amodiaquine instead of S/P was similarly successful. Six subsequent trials showed less ...
There is limited data available regarding safety profile of artemisinins in early pregnancy. They are, therefore, not recommended by WHO as a first-line treatment for malaria in first trimester due to associated embryo-foetal toxicity in animal studies. The study assessed birth outcome among pregnant women inadvertently exposed to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) during first trimester in comparison to those of women exposed to other anti-malarial drugs or no drug at all during the same period of pregnancy. Pregnant women with gestational age ,20 weeks were recruited from Maternal Health clinics or from monthly house visits (demographic surveillance), and followed prospectively until delivery. 2167 pregnant women were recruited and 1783 (82.3%) completed the study until delivery. 319 (17.9%) used anti-malarials in first trimester, of whom 172 (53.9%) used (AL), 78 (24.4%) quinine, 66 (20.7%) sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and 11 (3.4%) amodiaquine. Quinine exposure in first trimester was associated ...
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended as a means of prolonging the effectiveness of first-line malaria treatment regimens. Different brands of mefloquine (MQ) have been reported to be non-bioequivalent; this could result in sub-therapeutic levels of mefloquine with decreased efficacy. In 2002, mefloquine-artesunate (MQ-AS) combination therapy was adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Peru. Although MQ resistance has yet to be reported from the Peruvian Amazon, it has been reported from other countries in the Amazon Region. Therefore, continuous monitoring is warranted to ensure that the first-line therapy remains efficacious. This study examines the in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetic parameters through Day 56 of three commercial formulations of MQ (Lariam®, Mephaquin®, and Mefloquina-AC® Farma) given in combination with artesunate ...
This is probably the first publication on efficacy of AS+SMP in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The high cure rate demonstrated for AS+-SMP (,90%) in this study was expected because of the synergistic effect of artesunate and SMP and potentially because of the non-wide use of SMP as an antimalarial in this country. Previously high efficacy of SMP for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria was reported in other African countries [8-10].. Although the loose combinations of AS+SMP was slightly (not significantly) more efficacious than the fixed one, the fixed regimen of AS+SMP is most promising since it permits reduction of the treatment duration to a maximum of 24 h. The mechanism of action of SM drug is the same as of sulfadoxine(S), but its protein binding and elimination half-life permit the new regimen to be developed in SM rather than in SP [6, 7, 16]. The repeated loading dose of AS is responsible for a drastic destruction of parasites whereas the SMP ...
Drug resistance in the malaria parasites of man is of two kinds. The first is resistance to drugs which inhibit dihydrofolate reductase, proguanil (Paludrine) and pyrimethamine (Daraprim). This type occurs in all three common parasite species, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. The second type of resistance is to the 4-aminoquinolines chloroquine and amodiaquine (Camoquin; Basoquin in the USA), and rarely to quinine, and this is known only in P. falciparum. Both types of resistance frequently coexist in falciparum infections.. ...
A Phase 2 interventional, multicenter, randomized open-label study to determine the effective and tolerable dose of KAF156 and Lumefantrine Solid Dispersion Formulation in combination, given once daily for 1, 2 and 3-days to adults and children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria ...
A novel class of benzoheterocyclic analogues of amodiaquine designed to avoid toxic reactive metabolite formation was synthesized and evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against K1 (multidrug resistant) and NF54 (sensitive) strains of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the identification of highly promising analogues, the most potent of which had IC50s in the nanomolar range against both strains. The compounds further demonstrated good in vitro microsomal metabolic stability while those subjected to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies had desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. In vivo antimalarial efficacy in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated for four compounds, all of which showed good activity following oral administration. In particular, compound 19 completely cured treated mice at a low multiple dose of 4×10mg/kg. Mechanistic and bioactivation studies suggest hemozoin formation inhibition and a low likelihood of forming ...
Best practices, policy and innovations in the administration of healthcare in developing communities and countries. For administrators, academics, researchers and policy leaders. Includes peer reviewed research papers. Edited by Dr. Judith Shamian, President of the International Council of Nurses, Geneva CH
Resistance to malaria drugs can be found at varying levels and low levels of resistance may not impact on control. Artemisinin and its derivatives, are not used alone for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, but are combined with a partner drug; this is known as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Currently the level of artemisinin resistance means that ACT treatment can still be effective in these areas provided the partner drug is efficacious. However, there is a real and serious risk that drug resistance will worsen and spread further. ACT resistance has already been identified on the Thai-Cambodia border. Intense efforts by the global malaria control community are underway to attempt to halt the spread of these resistant parasites and to delay emergence of resistance elsewhere ...
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Background: Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) was developed as an affordable, simple, fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination therapy for use in Africa. This trial was a randomized parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study to compare CDA and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) efficacy in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and further define the CDA safety profile, particularly its hematological safety in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) -deficient patients. Methods and Findings: The trial was conducted at medical centers at 11 sites in five African countries between June 2006 and August 2007. 1372 patients (≥1 to |15 years|old, median age 3 years) with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomized (2:1) to receive CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg once daily for three days (N = 914) or six-doses of AL over three days (N = 458). Non-inferiority of CDA versus AL for efficacy was evaluated in the Day 28 per-protocol (PP) population using parasitological cure (polymerase chain
Chemotherapy remains an important approach in the fight against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine combination is widely in use due to its effectiveness against Plasmodium falciparum. Misuse in the form of multiple repeated doses of this anti-malaria drug is rampant in Nigeria. This study was designed to assess the hepatotoxic and clastogenic potential of extreme misuse of artemether-lumefantrine in rats. Graded doses of artemether-lumefantrine (1-5 mg/kg body weight) were administered by oral gavage for 6 weeks, twice daily, for 3 consecutive days per week. Artemether-lumefantrine, at all doses, did not have significant effects on the body and relative liver weight of treated group compared to the negative control group. The mean γ-glutamyltransferase, alanine, and aspartate aminotransaminase activity in groups of artemether-lumefantrine treated rats were significantly higher (p , 0.05) than that of the negative control group indicating that repeated administration of artemether-lumefantrine may ...
Results. Overall, 43.6% and 28.5% of the women received optimal (two+) and partial (one) doses of IPTp-SP respectively during pregnancy. Having had been counseled on the dangers of malaria during pregnancy was the most pervasive determinant of both optimal (RRR = 6.47, 95% CI 4.66-8.97) and partial (RRR = 4.24, 95% CI 3.00-6.00) uptake of IPTp-SP doses. Early ANC initiation was associated with a higher likelihood of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP (RRR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.57). Also, women with secondary or higher education were almost twice as likely as those who had never been to school to have received optimal SP doses during pregnancy (RRR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.56). Being married was associated with a 60% decline in the partial uptake of IPTp-SP (RRR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). Inter-district variations in the uptake of both optimal and partial IPTp-SP doses existed (P , 0.05 ...
Geometric Least Squares Means Ratios of the IC50s to quinine (QN), chloroquine (CQ), monodesethylamodiaquine (MdAQ), and artemisinin (ART). The legend indicates
This eMedTV page explains that the potential risks of breastfeeding while taking Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) are unknown. This page discusses whether Coartem passes through breast milk and explains what to discuss with your doctor before nursing.
Nigerian children received 2.5BN vaccine doses worldwide, millions still miss out on lifesaving immunisation, the poorest child is near to death before time
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
THE POPULATION IN SENEGAL WAS REPORTED AT 12.82 MILLIONS PERSONS IN 2009, ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF). IN 2015, SENEGAL'S POPULATION IS EXPECTED TO BE 14.78 MILLIONS PERSONS. IN 2009, SENEGAL'S ECONOMY SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP, ADJUSTED BY PURCHASING POWER PARITY, WAS 0.03 PERCENT. IN 2015, SENEGAL'S SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP IS FORECASTED TO BE 0.03 PERCENT. THIS PAGE INCLUDES A CHART, HISTORICAL DATA AND FORECAST FOR SENEGAL'S POPULATION.
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Also its worth addressing this issue now so it doesnt become a shock to you. Student maintenance loans are means tested, so if your parents refuse to give financial information because they dont want you to move...you will end up with the minimum loan. Which is nearly 4k if living outside of london. You may be able to get a bursary from your university, but again these are usually means tested and reply on financial information of your parents. 4k will not be enough to live on in the vast majority of UK cities. I could just about scrape living on 4k now (I love on 5k atm) but that would mean only food and accommodation, 0 left over for even a coffee with friends. So you need to plan ahead ...

Amodiaquine : a case for reconsideration? : reports on individual drugsAmodiaquine : a case for reconsideration? : reports on individual drugs

Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination ... Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination ... Amodiaquine : a case for reconsideration? : reports on individual drugs. No Electronic Version ... Unknown author (‎1996)‎. Amodiaquine : a case for reconsideration? : reports on individual drugs. http://www.who.int/iris/ ...
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artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) | MalariaWorldartesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) | MalariaWorld

Read more about Decreased prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance markers to amodiaquine despite its wide scale use as ... Decreased prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance markers to amodiaquine despite its wide scale use as ACT partner drug ...
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Tolerability of amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, alone...: Ingenta ConnectTolerability of amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, alone...: Ingenta Connect

Amodiaquine + SP is not well tolerated and a substantial proportion of patients experienced pruritus and fatigue, thus ... Tolerability of amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, alone or in combination for the treatment of uncomplicated ... Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum malaria; Rwanda; amodiaquine; sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine; tolerability Document Type: Research ... To assess the tolerability and efficacy of amodiaquine (AQ) + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the first-line malaria treatment ...
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Amodiaquine for treating malaria. - GOV.UKAmodiaquine for treating malaria. - GOV.UK

Background: Amodiaquine has been widely used to treat malaria. Fatal adverse reactions have been reported in adults taking it ... Amodiaquine was more effective than chloroquine for parasite clearance (day 7, Peto odds ratio 4.42 (95% confidence interval ... Objectives: to compare amodiaquine with chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium ... Authors conclusions: There is evidence to support the continued use of amodiaquine to treat uncomplicated malaria, although ...
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Amodiaquine-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.. [Yan-Ru Niu, Bing Wei, Bi Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Xia Jing, Cai-Ling ... Amodiaquine (AQ) is routinely prescribed as an anti-malarial drug. Here, we evaluated AQ-induced toxicity in the male ...
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Role of hepatic metabolism in the bioactivation and detoxication of amodiaquine.  - PubMed - NCBIRole of hepatic metabolism in the bioactivation and detoxication of amodiaquine. - PubMed - NCBI

... hepatic microsomes despite extensive turnover of amodiaquine to desethylamodiaquine. 5. Amodiaquine quinoneimine underwent ... Role of hepatic metabolism in the bioactivation and detoxication of amodiaquine.. Jewell H1, Maggs JL, Harrison AC, ONeill PM ... This indicated a role for P450 in the bioactivation of amodiaquine to a reactive metabolite that conjugates with glutathione ... Therefore in vitro studies may underestimate the bioactivation of amodiaquine in vivo. These data indicate that the extent of ...
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Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine. Amodiaquine was first made in 1948. It is on the World ... "Amodiaquine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 4 December 2015. "Amodiaquine". Livertox. Archived from the ... Amodiaquine has become an important drug in the combination therapy for malaria treatment in Africa. It is often used in ... Among amodiaquine users, several rare but serious side effects have been reported and linked to variants in the CYP2C8 alleles ...
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Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Market Global Outlook, Size, Share & Demand Forecast To 2025. Global Amodiaquine Hydrochloride market ... To analyze the Amodiaquine Hydrochloride with respect to individual growth trends, future prospects, and their contribution to ... This report studies the global market size of Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Market in key regions like North America, Europe, Asia ... The objectives of this study are to define, segment, and project the size of the Amodiaquine Hydrochloride market based on ...
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... where resistance to amodiaquine is low, the combination of artesunate plus amodiaquine may delay or prevent the emergence of ... plus amodiaquine (a long half-life drug that is presently used in loose combination in many countries). The short half-life ... of a fixed combination of artesunate plus amodiaquine by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative with sanofi-aventis as the ...
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Artesunate and amodiaquine are both antimalarial medication; however, work by different mechanisms. Artesunate/amodiaquine was ... "Artesunate + Amodiaquine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. "Artesunate Amodiaquine ... Artesunate/amodiaquine, sold under the trade name Camoquin among others, is a medication used for the treatment of malaria. It ... Artesunate/amodiaquine is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.85 to 1.52 ...
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Amodiaquine-lnduced HepatitisA Report of Seven Cases | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of PhysiciansAmodiaquine-lnduced HepatitisA Report of Seven Cases | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

Amodiaquine-lnduced Hepatitis: A Report of Seven Cases DOMINIQUE LARREY, M.D.; ANNE CASTOT, M.D.; DOMINIQUE PESSAYRE, M.D.; ... Amodiaquine-lnduced Hepatitis: A Report of Seven Cases. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104:801-803. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-104-6-801 ... Seven patients developed hepatitis after receiving amodiaquine for malaria prophylaxis for 4 to 15 weeks. Four patients had a ... which is consistent with an immunoallergic mechanism for amodiaquine-induced hepatitis. ...
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Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated malaria ...Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated malaria ...

Amodiaquine for treating malaria. *Rectal artesunate for treating people with suspected severe malaria before transfer to ... Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP plus AQ) performed better than sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP ... Chloroquine or amodiaquine combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for treating uncomplicated malaria. *Artesunate plus ... To compare sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP plus AQ) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP plus AS) ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD004966/INFECTN_sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-plus-artesunate-versus-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-plus-amodiaquine-for-treating-uncomplicated-malaria

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ATAQ EASY: Artesunate + Amodiaquine Fixed Dose Combination in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria. The ... history of hepatic and (or) haematological impairment during treatment with amodiaquine. *intake of medication metabolised by ... patient having received artesunate + amodiaquine or artemether + lumefantrine at a suitable dosage within 30 days prior to ... Amodiaquine Fixed-Dose Combination) Administered in 1 or 2 Intakes Per Day Versus Coartem® (Artemether + Lumefantrine) in the ...
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Efficacy of Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) in Children With Malaria and Severe Acute Malnutrition, Madaoua, Niger 2010 - Full...Efficacy of Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) in Children With Malaria and Severe Acute Malnutrition, Madaoua, Niger 2010 - Full...

Amodiaquine. Amodiaquine, artesunate drug combination. Amebicides. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective ... Intervention Details: Drug: Artesunate-amodiaquine fixed-dose combination *artesunate 25 mg / amodiaquine 67.5 mg: 1 tablet / ... Efficacy of Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) in Children With Malaria and Severe Acute Malnutrition, Madaoua, Niger 2010. The ... artesunate 50 mg / amodiaquine 135 mg: 1 tablet / day for 3 days for children with a weight of 9 kg to less than 18 kg; ...
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Artesunate - amodiaquine combination therapy for falciparum malaria in young Gabonese children | Malaria Journal | Full TextArtesunate - amodiaquine combination therapy for falciparum malaria in young Gabonese children | Malaria Journal | Full Text

The effectiveness of three daily doses of artesunate plus amodiaquine combination given unsupervised (n = 32), compared with ... Artesunate-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of childhood malaria is one of the artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs ... Mutabingwa TK, Anthony D, Heller A, Hallet R, Ahmed J, Drakeley C, Greenwood BM, Whitty CJ: Amodiaquine alone, amodiaquine+ ... Amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children: a randomised, ...
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Efficacy of Artesunate + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS + SP) and Amodiaquine + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AQ + SP) for...Efficacy of Artesunate + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS + SP) and Amodiaquine + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AQ + SP) for...

T. K. Mutabingwa, D. Anthony, A. Heller et al., "Amodiaquine alone, amodiaquine+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine+ ... D. Schellenberg, E. Kahigwa, C. Drakeley et al., "The safety and efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and their ... Efficacy of Artesunate + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS + SP) and Amodiaquine + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AQ + SP) for ...
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... or artesunate/amodiaquine (AS/AQ) pediatric tablets and followed up for 28 days according to the standard World Health ... In Vivo Efficacy of Artesunate/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine versus Artesunate/Amodiaquine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated P. ... In Vivo Efficacy of Artesunate/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine versus Artesunate/Amodiaquine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated P. ... "In Vivo Efficacy of Artesunate/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine versus Artesunate/Amodiaquine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated P. ...
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The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | A Comparison of the in Vitro Activities of Amodiaquine and...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | A Comparison of the in Vitro Activities of Amodiaquine and...

Isolates with IC50 values of amodiaquine ,20 nM demonstrated a high degree of correlation with values of desethylamodiaquine; ... but not between amodiaquine and chloroquine, which suggests that the apparent cross-resistance between chloroquine and ... was approximately 3.5 times lower than that of amodiaquine (18.2 nM). There was a significant rank-order correlation between ... the desethyl metabolite of amodiaquine, chloroquine, and mefloquine were evaluated against 35 field isolates of Plasmodium ...
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AMODIAQUINE, SULFADOXINE-PYRIMETHAMINE, AND COMBINATION THERAPY FOR UNCOMPLICATED FALCIPARUM MALARIA: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED...AMODIAQUINE, SULFADOXINE-PYRIMETHAMINE, AND COMBINATION THERAPY FOR UNCOMPLICATED FALCIPARUM MALARIA: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED...

We compared the efficacies of amodiaquine (AQ), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and AQ + SP for the treatment of uncomplicated ... Systematic review of amodiaquine treatment in uncomplicated malaria. Lancet 348 : 1196-1201.. [Google Scholar] ... Efficacy of amodiaquine alone and combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and of sulfadoxine pyrimethamine combined with ... f AMODIAQUINE, SULFADOXINE-PYRIMETHAMINE, AND COMBINATION THERAPY FOR UNCOMPLICATED FALCIPARUM MALARIA: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED ...
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Disposition of Amodiaquine and Related Antimalarial Agents in Human Neutrophils: Implications for Drug Design | Journal of...Disposition of Amodiaquine and Related Antimalarial Agents in Human Neutrophils: Implications for Drug Design | Journal of...

Disposition of Amodiaquine and Related Antimalarial Agents in Human Neutrophils: Implications for Drug Design. D. J. Naisbitt, ... Disposition of Amodiaquine and Related Antimalarial Agents in Human Neutrophils: Implications for Drug Design. D. J. Naisbitt, ... Disposition of Amodiaquine and Related Antimalarial Agents in Human Neutrophils: Implications for Drug Design. D. J. Naisbitt, ... Amodiaquine did not lead to impairment of either cellular function or cell viability at therapeutic levels. In contrast to ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/280/2/884

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Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine fixed-dose combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated...Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine fixed-dose combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated...

Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine fixed-dose combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated ... Tolerability and safety of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine fixed dose combinations for the treatment of ...
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Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of...Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of...

Antimalarial efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and the combinations of amodiaquine + artesunate ... Antimalarial resistance Artemether-lumefantrine Artesunate-amodiaquine Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine pfK13 pfmdr1 pfcrt pfpm2 ... The only instances of a pfmdr1 86Y mutation, associated with amodiaquine resistance, were identified in ASAQ treatment failures ... Reinf reinfection, Recr recrudescence, AL artemether-lumefantrine, ASAQ artesunate-amodiaquine, DP dihydroartemisinin- ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12936-018-2290-9
  • 1. The hepatic metabolism of the antimalarial drug amodiaquine was investigated in order to gain further insight into the postulated metabolic causation of the hepatotoxicity, which restricts the use of the drug. (nih.gov)
  • Authors' conclusions: There is evidence to support the continued use of amodiaquine to treat uncomplicated malaria, although local drug resistance patterns need to be considered. (www.gov.uk)
  • Careful consideration of local resistance patterns is required because resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine are high in many areas. (cochrane.org)
  • In light of reports of increasing resistance of parasites to amodiaquine in African countries in whichPlasmodium falciparumis endemic as well as the paucity of recent in vitro sensitivity data, we assessed the in vivo and in vitro sensitivity to amodiaquine ofP. (ovid.com)
  • The high prevalence of in vitro and in vivo resistance precludes the use of amodiaquine on its own as second-line treatment. (ovid.com)
  • These findings also suggest that the value of amodiaquine combinations as first- or second-line treatment in areas with similar patterns of 4-aminoquinoline resistance should be reassessed. (ovid.com)
  • This study shows that amodiaquine is effective, safe and affordable in an area with high resistance to chloroquine. (msf.org)
  • Continued use of amodiaquine or artesunate monotherapies, persistence of substandard ACT in the private sector[ 8 - 10 ] and resistance to artesunate and/or amodiaquine may jeopardize the future use of AS-AQ and AL as an effective artemisinin-based combination therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amodiaquine-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • There have been reports of increased liver toxicity in people with HIV/AIDS on zidovudine or efavirenz when treated with amodiaquine-containing ACT regimens, therefore it is recommended that these people avoid amodiaquine. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who are poor metabolizers of amodiaquine display lower treatment efficacy against malaria, as well as increased toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development and clinical use of 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial agents such as amodiaquine have been limited by toxicity to neutrophils. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have investigated the chemical basis of amodiaquine-induced toxicity and compared the findings with those for established antimalarial drugs proposed for human use. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data provide a chemical rationale for the idiosyncratic agranulocytosis observed with amodiaquine, and they suggest that similar toxicity might be anticipated for amopyroquine but is less likely with bis-mannich antimalarial agents such as pyronaridine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Role of hepatic metabolism in the bioactivation and detoxication of amodiaquine. (nih.gov)
  • However, no such binding was observed with human (six individuals) hepatic microsomes despite extensive turnover of amodiaquine to desethylamodiaquine. (nih.gov)
  • Amodiaquine prevents severe hepatic injury and high lethality in P. acnes-primed and LPS-induced hepatitis mice. (selleckchem.com)
  • Amodiaquine is actually a congener of chloroquine and is no longer used abroad owing to its propensity for causing hepatic damage and agranulocytosis. (brainkart.com)
  • Therefore, the parasitological and haematological response to treatment with amodiaquine was studied in children under 5 years during a 14-day follow-up. (msf.org)
  • This indicated a role for P450 in the bioactivation of amodiaquine to a reactive metabolite that conjugates with glutathione and protein. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to other antimalarial agents, amodiaquine (because it contains a 4-aminophenol function) depleted glutathione in activated neutrophils, by formation of an electrophilic quinoneimine metabolite. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This in turn may be a predisposing factor in the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity associated with amodiaquine. (nih.gov)
  • The mean in vitro activity of desethylamodiaquine (67.5 nM) was approximately 3.5 times lower than that of amodiaquine (18.2 nM). (ajtmh.org)
  • falciparumisolates from 128 pediatric outpatients (0.5-10 years old) in Pingilikani, Kilifi District, Kenya, who were treated with amodiaquine (10 mg/kg/day for 3 days). (ovid.com)
  • Amodiaquine did not lead to impairment of either cellular function or cell viability at therapeutic levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 6. Substitution of a fluorine for the phenolic hydroxyl group in amodiaquine blocked bioactivation of the drug in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • In two patients, serum aminotransferase levels increased promptly after readministration of the drug, which is consistent with an immunoallergic mechanism for amodiaquine-induced hepatitis. (annals.org)
  • Insertion of an N-hydroxyethyl function enabled partial clearance of amodiaquine and its deshydroxyfluoro analogue via O-glucuronidation and altered the balance between phase I oxidation and direct phase II conjugation of amodiaquine. (nih.gov)
  • Amodiaquine is a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of histamine N-methyl transferase with estimated Ki of 18.6 nM. (selleckchem.com)
  • Amodiaquine is a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of histamine N-methyl transferase in human erythrocytes, also used as an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent. (adooq.com)
  • Therefore in vitro studies may underestimate the bioactivation of amodiaquine in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Among amodiaquine users, several rare but serious side effects have been reported and linked to variants in the CYP2C8 alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The side effects of amodiaquine are generally minor to moderate and are similar to those of chloroquine. (wikipedia.org)