Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Drug Therapy, Combination
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Membrane Transport Proteins
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Papua New Guinea
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
Relationships between malaria prevalence and malaria-related morbidity in school children from two villages in central Africa. (1/318)To investigate the relationship between parasite prevalence and malaria-related morbidity, we carried out a comparative study among cohorts of school children from two villages, Dienga, Gabon, and Pouma, Cameroon, both located in malaria-endemic areas. Seven to 17 year-old children attending primary schools were similarly followed-up at each site to evaluate the frequency of malaria attacks. Follow-up involved daily temperature recording (and blood smears in the case of fever) and preparation of blood smears every two weeks. In Pouma, 186 children were followed-up for six months. In Dienga, 228 children were followed-up for nine months. The mean prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum infections (as assessed by the blood smears) was twice as high in Pouma compared with Dienga (45.2% versus 26.8%; P < 0.0001), whereas the monthly malaria attack rate (as assessed by the daily surveillance) was twice as high in Dienga compared with Pouma (21.5% versus 41.4%; P = 0.003). The possible implication of several parameters that may differ between the two areas, such as the malaria transmission level, the economical and social status of the inhabitants, the characteristics of infecting parasite strains, and the genetic background of the population, is discussed. (+info)
Analysis of mefloquine resistance and amplification of pfmdr1 in multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Thailand. (2/318)Resistance to quinoline-containing compound has been associated with the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene. We analyzed wild P. falciparum isolates with high levels of chloroquine and mefloquine resistance for their macrorestriction maps of chromosome 5 and sequence of pfmdr1. Two types of chromosome 5 amplification were found. Eleven of 62 resistant isolates displayed Bgl 1 fragments larger than 100 kb. Twenty-nine isolates possessed multiple copies of the fragments. We failed to detect any amplification of this region on chromosome 5 in 22 mefloquine-resistant isolates, suggesting that other mechanisms can mediate the mefloquine-resistant phenotype. There was no direct association between pfmdr1 mutations and chloroquine sensitivity. Resistant lines could have Asn-86 and Tyr-184 or Phe-184, the predicted sequence of those chloroquine-sensitive isolates. No mutation at Asn-1042 and Asp-1246 was detected among these chloroquine-resistant isolates. Therefore, a few base substitutions in the pfmdr1 gene may not be sufficient to account for all chloroquine-resistant phenotypes. (+info)
Factors influencing resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum. (3/318)A treatment-reinfection study design was used to investigate the relationships between host immunologic and/or genetic factors and resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum. Sixty-one children in Gabon were enrolled in a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of each human plasmodial species. All were given amodiaquine for radical cure of parasites, and 40 were subsequently followed-up for 30 weeks. Successive blood smears were examined to measure the delay of reappearance in blood of asexual stages of P. falciparum parasites. Presence of infection during the cross-sectional survey was associated with male sex, non-deficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, plasma interleukin-10 level, and anti-LSA-Rep antibody concentration. Resistance to reinfection was related to the presence of anti-LSA-J antibodies, and the absence of anti-LSA-Rep antibodies. Moreover, P. malariae-infected subjects were usually co-infected with P. falciparum, and were also more rapidly reinfected with P. falciparum after treatment, compared with those without P. malariae infection. (+info)
Antibiotics for prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum infections: in vitro activity of doxycycline against Senegalese isolates. (4/318)The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The 71-50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for doxycycline ranged from 0.7 to 108.0 microM and the geometric mean IC50 for the 71 isolates was 11.3 microM (95% confidence interval = 9.5-13.4 microM). The activity of doxycycline did not differ significantly (P = 0.0858) between the chloroquine-susceptible isolates and the chloroquine-resistant isolates. There was no in vitro correlation between the responses to doxycycline and those to artemether, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil, suggesting no in vitro cross-resistance among these drugs. Potency was increased by prolonged exposure. In 96-hr incubations, the activity of doxycycline was 4-5-fold more increased than in 48-hr incubations. The in vitro activity of doxycycline against intraerythrocytic stages of multidrug-resistant P. falciparum, its action against the preerythrocytic forms, the lack of correlation between the responses in vitro of P. falciparum to doxycycline and the other antimalarial drugs, and its original potential site of action are factors that favor its use as antimalarial drug. (+info)
In vivo efficacy study of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine in Kibwezi, Kenya and Kigoma, Tanzania. (5/318)We conducted two randomized clinical trials to determine the in vivo efficacy of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Seventy-five patients under the age of 10 years in Kibwezi, Kenya, and 171 patients in Kigoma, Tanzania, were enrolled for treatment. Due to loss of eight patients in Kibwezi and 37 in Kigoma to follow-up, we used best and worst case scenarios for the parasitological response. The in vivo sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to amodiaquine was 75% (no loss to follow-up) in Kibwezi and ranged from 85% in the best to 65% in the worst case scenario in Kigoma. The sensitivity to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was 70% to 88% in Kibwezi and 65% to 89% in Kigoma. R1 resistance to amodiaquine was 22% in Kibwezi and varied from 6% in the best to 26% for the worst case scenario in Kigoma. The R1 resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was 5% to 23% in Kibwezi and 2% to 26% in Kigoma. R2 resistance was 3% for amodiaquine and 7% for sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in Kibwezi and 9% in Kigoma for each treatment group. There was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups at either study site, except for a slight difference in R1 resistance in the best case scenario, Kibwezi, in favour of S/P. Although both amodiaquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance seems to be increasing, these antimalarials are still effective in parasite clearance. (+info)
Adaptation of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium vivax from Indonesia to New World monkeys. (6/318)The spread of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia poses a serious health threat to areas of Southeast Asia where this species of malaria parasite is endemic. A strain of P. vivax from Indonesia was adapted to develop in splenectomized Aotus lemurinus griseimembra, Aotus vociferans, Aotus nancymai, and Saimiri boliviensis monkeys. Transmission to splenectomized Saimiri monkeys was obtained via sporozoites. Chemotherapeutic studies indicated that the strain was resistant to chloroquine and amodiaquine while sensitive to mefloquine. Infections of chloroquine-resistant P.vivax in New World monkeys should be useful for the development of alternative treatments. (+info)
Role of extraneuronal mechanisms in the termination of contractile responses to amines in vascular tissue. (7/318)1 The role of the uptake and release of agonist from extraneuronal sites in the termination of responses of rabbit aortic strips to amines was studied. 2 Strips were contracted with adrenaline or noradrenaline and after response plateau was reached, the muscle chambers were washed free of agonist and the relaxation in Krebs solution recorded. After inhibition of catechol-O-methyl-transferase, monoamine oxidase and neuronal uptake the relaxation rate was greatly prolonged. Evidence is provided that this very slow relaxation resulted from the accumulation of intact amine at extraneuronal sites during exposure to the agonist and its subsequent release past receptors due to a reversal of the concentration gradient after washout. 3 Pretreatment with the haloalkylamine, GD-131 (N-cyclohexylmethyl-N-ethyl-beta-chloroethylamine), an inhibitor of extraneuronal uptake, returned the slow relaxation rate after enzyme inhibition towards that of control strips. By blocking the extraneuronal transport of amines their accumulation at intracellular loci after enzyme inhibition was prevented. 4 The effects of GD-131 and 17beta-oestradiol on the relaxation rate of untreated strips contracted by adrenaline and noradrenaline confirmed that extraneuronal uptake to sites of enzymatic activity is the major mechanism terminating their action. 5 Inactivation of extraneuronal transport sites by GD-131 was prevented by protecting them with 17beta-oestradiol or normetanephrine during exposure to the haloalkylamine, pointing to a common site of action of these agents on a specific carrier system for amines. 6 Evidence is presented that the relaxation from contractions induced by histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine also involves extraneuronal accumulation and release, probably by an uptake process which is identical to the one for catecholamines. (+info)
"One-pot" synthesis and antimalarial activity of formamidine derivatives of 4-anilinoquinoline. (8/318)Amodiaquine (AQ) is an antimalarial which is effective against chloroquino-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum but whose clinical use is severely restricted because of associated hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis. "One-pot" synthesis of formamidines likely to be transformed into AQ derivatives is reported. Compared with AQ, the new compounds were devoid of in vitro cytotoxicity upon human embryonic lung cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. One showed a potent in vivo activity in mice infected with P berghei. Transformation of this compound by reductive amination led to a new type of AQ derivatives that displayed an in vitro activity similar to that of AQ but did not lead to toxic quinone-imines. (+info)
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | A Comparison of the in Vitro Activities of Amodiaquine and...
Abstract The antimalarial activities of amodiaquine, the desethyl metabolite of amodiaquine, chloroquine, and mefloquine were evaluated against 35 field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum collected from eastern Thailand, October-December 1985, to define patterns of cross-resistance among these compounds. The assay system was based on the in vitro inhibition of schizont maturation. The parasites were generally sensitive to mefloquine (mean 50%-inhibitory concentrations = 9.98 nM) and highly resistant to chloroquine (IC50 = 313 nM). The mean in vitro activity of desethylamodiaquine (67.5 nM) was approximately 3.5 times lower than that of amodiaquine (18.2 nM). There was a significant rank-order correlation between the IC50s of desethylamodiaquine and chloroquine, but not between amodiaquine and chloroquine, which suggests that the apparent cross-resistance between chloroquine and amodiaquine observed in clinical studies may be more closely related to the cross-resistance between chloroquine and the
Amodiaquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with the pfcrt 72-76 SVMNT allele in Afghanistan. -...
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes pfcrt and pfmdr1 are selected by amodiaquine treatment in Africa. To examine the importance of these mutations in amodiaquine-treated Asian parasites, we determined pre- and posttreatment genotypes for amodiaquine treatment failures from a clinical trial in Afghanistan. The pfcrt codon 72 to 76 haplotype SVMNT was present in all samples tested, both before and after treatment. Amodiaquine did not clearly select for any pfmdr1 genotype, but a novel mutation, pfmdr1 N86F, was detected in four samples. We provide in vivo data to support the in vitro correlation between pfcrt SVMNT and increased resistance to the metabolite of amodiaquine.,br/, ...
Biomedicines | Free Full-Text | In Vivo Efficacy of Artesunate/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine versus Artesunate/Amodiaquine in the...
Background: The development and spread of antimalarial drug resistant parasites contributes to the global impact of the disease. In vivo efficacy assessments of treatments for Plasmodium falciparum malaria are essential for ensuring effective case management. Artemisinin-based combinations have been adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Cameroon since 2004. Methods: A total of 177 children aged six-months to 10 years with uncomplicated mono-infected falciparum malaria were randomized (1:1) to receive artesunate/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS/SP) or artesunate/amodiaquine (AS/AQ) pediatric tablets and followed up for 28 days according to the standard World Health Organization in vivo drug efficacy monitoring protocol. The primary and secondary endpoints were PCR uncorrected and corrected cure rates, as measured by adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28. Results: The PCR corrected cure rate was high, overall (88.1%, 95% CI 83.1-93.1), 85.9%
ATAQ EASY: Artesunate + Amodiaquine Fixed Dose Combination in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria -...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Amodiaquine for treating malaria. - GOV.UK
Main results: 56 studies included, mostly from Africa. Treatment allocation was adequately concealed in three trials, and unclear or inadequate in the remainder. Amodiaquine was more effective than chloroquine for parasite clearance (day 7, Peto odds ratio 4.42 (95% confidence interval 3.65 to 5.35); day 14, Peto odds ratio 6.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.09 to 8.15). Comparisons with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine were more mixed, with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine more effective on day 28 (Peto odds ratio 0.41; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61). No significant difference for adverse events was observed between amodiaquine and chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Reported adverse effects were minor or moderate. No life threatening events were detected ...
Compliance, Safety, and Effectiveness of Fixed-Dose Artesunate-Amodiaquine for Presumptive Treatment of Non-Severe Malaria in...
Abstract. Home management of malaria is recommended for prompt, effective antimalarial treatment in children less than five years of age. Compliance, safety, and effectiveness of the new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine regimen used to treat suspected malaria were assessed in febrile children enrolled in a 24-month cohort study in two settings in Madagascar. Children with fever were asked to visit community health workers. Presumptive antimalarial treatment was given and further visits were scheduled for follow-up. The primary endpoint was the risk of clinical/parasitologic treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included fever/parasite clearance, change in hemoglobin levels, and frequency of adverse events. The global clinical cure rate was 98.4% by day 28 and 97.9% by day 42. Reported compliance was 83.4%. No severe adverse effects were observed. This study provides comprehensive data concerning the clinical cure rate obtained with artesunate-amodiaquine and evidence supporting the scaling up of home
DSpace at EWHA: Enhanced CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development by amodiaquine through activation of nuclear receptor 4A
CD4+ T cells play key roles in the regulation of immune responses against pathogenic infectious antigens via development into effector T helper and induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells. Particularly, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ iTreg cells are crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis and controlling inflammatory diseases. Anti-inflammatory drugs that enhance iTreg cell generation would be effective at preventing and treating inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined whether anti-malarial and anti-arthritic amodiaquine (AQ) could affect iTreg cell development. Despite the anti-proliferative activity of AQ, AQ only moderately decreased iTreg cell proliferation but substantially increased IL-2 production by iTreg cells. Furthermore, AQ dose-dependently increased iTreg cell development and significantly upregulated iTreg cell markers including CD25. Interestingly, CD25 expression was decreased at later stages of iTreg cell development but was sustained in the presence of AQ, which was ...
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The effect of dosing strategies on the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria: a meta...
Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) is one of the most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa. We investigated the impact of different dosing strategies on the efficacy of this combination for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Individual patient data from AS-AQ clinical trials were pooled using the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) standardised methodology. Risk factors for treatment failure were identified using a Cox regression model with shared frailty across study sites. Forty-three studies representing 9,106 treatments from 1999-2012 were included in the analysis; 4,138 (45.4%) treatments were with a fixed dose combination with an AQ target dose of 30 mg/kg (FDC), 1,293 (14.2%) with a non-fixed dose combination with an AQ target dose of 25 mg/kg (loose NFDC-25), 2,418 (26.6%) with a non-fixed dose combination with an AQ target dose of 30 mg/kg (loose NFDC-30), and the remaining 1,257 (13.8%) with a co
Clinical Reviews and Opinions - impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine on...
The study discuss the potential impact of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) on the cases of malaria, anaemia and molecular markers resistance Plasmodium falciparum malaria; and also review the mechanism of action and the effect on immunity of SMC. SMC using an efficacious drug is likely to substantially reduce cases of clinical malaria in high transmission settings. However, an increase of molecular markers could hamper rolling out SMC as a national policy. Key words: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention impact, malaria molecular markers, review.
Artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. - GOV.UK
Without an effective vaccine for the prevention of malaria, a fundamental component of the strategy for the control of this disease is based on prompt and effective treatment. Due to the high resistance level of Plasmodium falciparum to the most affordable drugs such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemisinin-based combination therapies are presently used in many countries or are being developed for registration. One artemisinin combination therapy that is drawing a certain degree of interest is the combination of artesunate (a short half-life drug) plus amodiaquine (a long half-life drug that is presently used in loose combination in many countries). The short half-life drug achieves substantial and rapid parasite killing, while a high concentration of the long half-life drug kills off the remaining malaria parasites. In addition to the effectiveness of 3 days of treatment (rapid clearance of fever and malaria parasites) in western and central Africa, where resistance to ...
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Bidirectional and gene-selective Nurr1 modulation by NSAIDs? | Nature Research Chemistry Community
The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 is ascribed high potential as molecular target for Parkinsons Disease and Alzheimers Disease treatment1,2 but small molecule Nurr1 ligands and mechanistic understanding of Nurr1 modulation are scarce.. Inspired by a PDB-deposited X-ray structure of Nurr1 in complex with the arachidonic acid metabolite prostaglandin A13, we hypothesized non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as Nurr1 ligands. Screening of a structurally diverse collection of NSAIDs indeed discovered several Nurr1 modulators most of which, interestingly, exhibited inverse agonism on Nurr1. Together with the previously reported Nurr1 agonist amodiaquine4, these molecules add up to a set of initial tool compounds, i.e. parecoxib, oxaprozin, amodiaquine and chloroquine, to decipher the molecular function of Nurr1.. Using this initial tool, we probed the response of the Nurr1 ligand binding domain to modulation by ligands. We observed an ability of Nurr1 agonists to stimulate homo- and ...
Life with Leukaemia: Malaria Eradication
The mainland Chinese started studying the anti-malarial effects of the traditional anti-malarial medicine derived from the plant Artemisa anna back in the 1960s. For various reasons, including the upheavals of the Cultural Revolution, the positive results were not published internationally. When they were, in the 1990s, they were pretty much poohed-poohed by the developed world except … the pharmaceuticals who pricked up their ears and went for it big time! The plants active ingredient was Artemisin and soon the synthetic Artesunate was developed.. Artesunate is fast-acting but has a very short half-life (i.e. very quickly disappears from the blood). Amodiaquine has longer half-life. The tablets are marketed in packs of a pair a day. If there is still some residual malaria, then a second line of attack is used - the trade name Coartem, a combination of Artesunate and Lumefantrine (in turn developed from halofantrine, the basis of Halfan, which at the time of its recent development was ...
Nuclear receptor Nurr1 agonists enhance its dual functions and improve behavioral deficits in an animal model of Parkinsons...
Parkinsons disease (PD), primarily caused by selective degeneration of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons, is the most prevalent movement disorder, affecting 1-2% of the global population over the age of 65. Currently available pharmacological treatments are largely symptomatic and lose their efficacy over time with accompanying severe side effects such as dyskinesia. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need to develop mechanism-based and/or disease-modifying treatments. Based on the unique dual role of the nuclear orphan receptor Nurr1 for development and maintenance of mDA neurons and their protection from inflammation-induced death, we hypothesize that Nurr1 can be a molecular target for neuroprotective therapeutic development for PD. Here we show successful identification of Nurr1 agonists sharing an identical chemical scaffold, 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline, suggesting a critical structure-activity relationship. In particular, we found that two antimalarial drugs, amodiaquine and chloroquine ...
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Puts the patient to develop a characteristic chocolate brown color. And is tightly bound to myoglobin, for some people are particularly notable for their clinical effects in acute overdose. 7. Moorhead, s, johnson, m, maas, m, and lunney, m: Nursing diagnosis: Not for individuals with alzheimers disease: A case report of amodiaquine toxicity suggests that some of the adsorbent, another should be exchanged during these interactions are manifest when the iron moiety of the. Some children can be treated with nebulized albuterol if wheezing is present. The mostmonly reported and salicylate toxicity, called cinchonism, includes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; can cause the onset of action and effect of norepinephrine. Call an ambulance if your child have sores or cracks on or made to remove on the sole manifestations of alcohol although moderate alcohol consumption leads to sinus arrest, atrioventricular (av) nodal tissue, whereas diltiazem has fewer severe side effects of medication safety: (a) there is ...
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Classify the half‑reactions as reduction half‑reactions or oxidation half‑reactions. H2(g)⟶2H+(aq)+2e−H2(g)⟶2H+(aq)+2e− 12O2(g)...
Classify the half‑reactions as reduction half‑reactions or oxidation half‑reactions.. H2(g)⟶2H+(aq)+2e−H2(g)⟶2H+(aq)+2e−. 12O2(g)+2H+(aq)+2e−⟶H2O(g)12O2(g)+2H+(aq)+2e−⟶H2O(g). Cd(s)+2OH−(aq)⟶Cd(OH)2(s)+2e−Cd(s)+2OH−(aq)⟶Cd(OH)2(s)+2e−. 2NiO(OH)(s)+2H2O(l)+2e−⟶2Ni(OH)2(s)+2OH−(aq)2NiO(OH)(s)+2H2O(l)+2e−⟶2Ni(OH)2(s)+2OH−(aq). Fe(s)⟶Fe2+(aq)+2e−Fe(s)⟶Fe2+(aq)+2e−. oxidation. reduction. reduction. oxidation. reduction ...
Identify the Oxidizing agent and the reducing agent for Al(s)+3Ag^+(aq)---|Al^3+(aq)+3Ag(s)
Assuming the following reaction proceeds in the forward direction, 3 Sn4+(aq) + 2 Cr(s) 3 Sn2+(aq) + 2 Cr3+(aq) a. Sn4+(aq) is the reducing agent and Cr(s) is the oxidizing agent. b. Cr(s) is the reducing agent and Sn2+(aq ...
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Impact of treatment and re-treatment with artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine on selection of Plasmodium...
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance against artemisinin combination treatment is a major concern for malaria control. ACTs are recommended as the rescue treatment, however, there is limited evidence as to whether treatment and re-treatment with ACTs select for drug-resistant P. falciparum parasites. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of (re-)treatment using artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) on the selection of P. falciparum multidrug resistance-1 (Pfmdr1) alleles in clinical settings.. METHODS: P. falciparum positive samples were collected from children aged 12-59 months in a clinical trial in DR Congo and Uganda. Pfmdr1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis at codons N86Y, Y184F, and D1246Y were performed at baseline and post-treatment with either AL or ASAQ as a rescue treatment using nested PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays.. RESULTS: The pre-treatment prevalence of Pfmdr1 N86 and ...
Selection of known Plasmodium falciparum resistance-mediating polymorphisms by artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine...
Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP) offer excellent antimalarial efficacy but may select for parasite polymorphisms that decrease drug sensitivity. We evaluated the selection of known polymorphisms in genes encoding put …
Monitoring of efficacy, tolerability and safety of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of...
This study showed that AL and AS-AQ remain efficacious, well-tolerated, and are safe to treat uncomplicated malaria in children from Lambaréné. However, a regular monitoring of efficacy and a study of molecular markers of drug resistance to artemisinin in field isolates is essential. Trial registrat …
Scientists Discover Potential Treatment for Parkinsons Disease - Doctor Tipster
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used by the scientists to identify the compounds which could bind and activate Nurr1 in the brain. We all know dopamine as the chemical in the brain that generates good and pleasurable feelings. In addition to that it is also an important neurotransmitter that affects motor control and movement of muscles in the body. When a person is affected with Parkinsons disease, the production of dopamine is disrupted and it causes progressive loss of motor control. In their lab experiments, scientists found that when Nurr1 was activated in rats which had Parkinsons disease, there was a marked improvement in their behaviour and they showed no signs of suffering from the disease. Associate Professor Yoon said the team had screened about 1000 FDA-approved drugs before they found two anti-malaria drugs which showed results - Chloroquine and Amodiaquine. Associate Professor Yoon, an expert in drug discovery and design opined that their discovery brings hope ...
Complete and balance each gas evolution reaction.(a) HBr(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) ?(b) NH4I(aq) | StudySoup
Complete and balance each gas evolution reaction.(a) HBr(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) ?(b) NH4I(aq) + KOH(aq) ?(c) HNO3(aq) + K2SO3(aq) ?(d) HI(aq) + Li2S(aq) ? Solution 83Pa)NaHCO3(aq) + HBr(aq) NaBr(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)b)NH4I(aq) + KOH(aq) KI(aq) + H2O(l) + NH3(g)c) HNO3(aq) + K2SO3(aq) is an impossible reactiond)2 HI(aq) +
A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Some Artemisinin Combination Therapies on |i|Plasmodium berghei|/i| in Swiss Albino Mice
This study evaluated and compared the efficacy of five brands of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs); Dihydroartemisinin plus Piperaquine, Artesunate plus Amodiaquine, Artesunate plus Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine, Artemether plus lumefantrine and Artesunate plus mefloquine combinations in vivo in P.berghei infected swiss albino mice. The experimental animals were pre-screened to rule out infection. All drugs were administered as clinical doses for the curative test and the Mean Percentage Parasitemia level assessed daily for seven days and on day 60. The results showed that all the drugs were effective with artesunate plus amodiaquine combination being the most efficacious followed by dihydroartemisinin plus piperaquine and artesunate plus sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine combinations followed by artesunate plus mefloquine combination and artemether plus lumefantrine combination which was the least efficacious. Results on day 60 showed increasing parasitemia levels in mice which received Artemether
Pharmacokinetics of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine in Children in Kampala, Uganda | Antimicrobial Agents...
Significant interest has been placed on the utility of PK parameters in predicting the treatment response. Most attention has been placed on the correlates of the AUC, as AUC represents both the duration and the degree of exposure. The accurate measurement of AUC in field studies is difficult, so recent efforts for studying the PKs of artemisinin partner drugs have focused on single day 7 drug levels (34). The rationale for this approach is that by day 7 the remaining parasites will be exposed only to the partner drug, as the rapidly eliminated artemisinin derivatives are no longer present. The level of partner drug in the days following dosing may be critical for determining both the clearance of the infection and the potential selection of drug-resistant parasites. Importantly, for the longer-acting partner drugs, the day 7 levels appear to correlate with the AUC (5), as seen for both DEAQ and LR in our study. Several studies from Thailand have examined the relationship between the day 7 ...
Successful introduction of artesunate combination therapy is not enough to fight malaria: results from an adherence study in...
A study to measure adherence to artesunate and amodiaquine (AS+AQ) therapy in patients treated for uncomplicated malaria in community health centres (CHC) was conducted in Sierra Leone. Patients/caretakers were interviewed and remaining AS+AQ tablets at home after the last treatment dose were counted. Persons leaving CHCs with an AS+AQ prescription were also interviewed (exit interviews). In total, 118 patients were visited at home: 27 (22.9%) had one or more tablets left and were classed as certainly non-adherent; 34 (28.8%) were probably non-adherent [reported incorrect (n=27) or incomplete (n=7) intake]; and 57 (48.3%) were probably adherent. The main reasons for incomplete intake were sickness after one dose of AS+AQ, no food available for drug intake and forgetting to take them. For incorrect intake, reasons were vomiting after drug intake and incorrect instructions given by the CHC. Eighty-one percent of probably adherent patients reported following instructions given to them. In exit ...
Bulk drug Psychotropic API + Cardiovascular API+ antithrombotic API+
Bulk Pharmaceuticals Acyclovir CAS 59277-89-3 Albendazole CAS 54965-21-8 Allopurinol CAS 315-30-0 Alpha Methyldopa CAS 555-30-6 Amodiaquine CAS 86-42-0 Amprolium HCL CAS 121-25-5 Analgin CAS
How to Take Artesunate and Dose of Artesunate| Medindia
Find out how to take Artesunate (drug) and its dose. Describes the best time to take the drug and precautions if any that should be followed.
AGROVOC: AGROVOC: Enzyme
Afin daider à lidentification des enzymes, les codes IUPAC sont donnés en note pour chacune delles; utiliser si possible un descripteur plus spécifique (fr) ...
Gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria following treatment with artemisinin combination therapy: a...
BACKGROUND: Gametocytes are responsible for transmission of malaria from human to mosquito. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) reduces post-treatment gametocyte carriage, dependent upon host, parasite and pharmacodynamic factors. The gametocytocidal properties of antimalarial drugs are important for malaria elimination efforts. An individual patient clinical data meta-analysis was undertaken to identify the determinants of gametocyte carriage and the comparative effects of four ACTs: artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate/amodiaquine (AS-AQ), artesunate/mefloquine (AS-MQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). METHODS: Factors associated with gametocytaemia prior to, and following, ACT treatment were identified in multivariable logistic or Cox regression analysis with random effects. All relevant studies were identified through a systematic review of PubMed. Risk of bias was evaluated based on study design, methodology, and missing data. RESULTS: The systematic review identified 169 published
Prescriber practices and patient adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria...
The World Health Organization recommends the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to treat uncomplicated malaria for the control of malaria across the world. There are several types of ACT used across malaria-endemic countries, yet there is little information about preferences and adherence practices regarding different types of ACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of adherence to two types of ACT, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate + amodiaquine (ASAQ), for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria among prescribers and patients in Guinea in 2016. The study included a review of records of malaria patients and three health-facility, cross-sectional surveys. Patients diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria and prescribed ACT (n = 1830) were recruited and visited in their home after receiving the medication and administered a questionnaire regarding ACT adherence. Prescribers (n = 115) and drug dispensers (n = 43) were recruited at the same public health facilities and
Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Osogbo Nigeria: efficacy of amodiaquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and...
Malaria continues to be one of the leading killer diseases in the tropical areas affecting the world's poorest children and pregnant women and resista...
8-penali (paludo1) final pp54-60.indd
Sulfalene and sulfadoxine are folic acid antagonists which inhibit a Plasmodium- close to that of sulfadoxine and it therefore specifi c enzyme, dihydropteroate-synthase seems reasonable to combine sulfalene/(DHPS). These drugs bind protein strongly pyrimethamine with amodiaquine since and have relatively long half-lives (65 and it has been shown that a combination of 180 hours respectively)14. Sulfalene/pyrimethamine has not been used is more effective than either product on its for over three decades and, as a result, it is likely own, and that its safety profi le is identical that todays plasmodia have not been subjected to selection pressure from this combination pyrimethamine. In 2002 (before PCR) in and have remained maximally sensitive. Uganda, Talisuna et al. (10) recorded a Since amodiaquine remains effective (15), we parasitologic effi cacy rate of 85.7%, and in organised a study to compare the combinations Rwanda in 2001, Rwagacondo et al.16 obtained ...
Challenges to replace ACT as first-line drug | Malaria Journal | Full Text
There is hope that none of the above-mentioned concerns will be substantiated in larger, upcoming trials. What can be done besides hoping? Attempts to regain efficacy of artemisinins by increasing dose were disappointing  and since only fixed-dose combinations are licensed, increased partner drug dosing could be associated with increased toxicity and adherence issues. Extending the course of routine 3-day treatment to 5 or 7 days was successful, associated with a cure rate of 98% in western Cambodia, the epicentre of drug resistance . The cost of such compromised regimens will increase, while adherence could decrease. Practitioners in Vietnam have instead empirically started to add mefloquine to the current DHA-piperaquine first-line treatment. There appears to be an inverse susceptibility between piperaquine and mefloquine. A similar inverse susceptibility between co-artemether (artemether/lumefantrine) and amodiaquine could be exploited as stopgap measure in Africa . Mefloquine did ...
Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Antiretroviral Agents and Antimalarial Drug Combinations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
HIV and malaria are two of the most pernicious diseases facing developing countries. Malaria affects 300 to 500 million individuals annually in developing countries and it is estimated that 25.8 million people in Africa live with HIV. Current therapy recommended by the World Health Organization includes the use of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate and artemether. To minimize the risk of resistance, these drugs are used in combination with older drugs with longer half-lives including amodiaquine and lumefantrine.. Treatment of malaria is further complicated by the increasing availability of antiretroviral (ARV) medications for HIV in that clinically important drug-drug interactions may occur in co-infected patients. Protease inhibitor (e.g. lopinavir and ritonavir) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (e.g. efavirenz) based treatment commonly affects pharmacokinetic exposure of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways.. Artemether is metabolized by the CYP3A4 to ...
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The arrhythmogenic cardiotoxicity of the quinoline and structurally related antimalarial drugs: a systematic review |...
Data from trials published between 1982 and July 2016 were included. A total of 177 trials met the inclusion criteria. 35,448 participants received quinoline antimalarials in these trials, of which 18,436 participants underwent ECG evaluation. Subjects with co-medication use or comorbidities including cardiovascular disease were excluded from the majority of trials. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was the drug most studied (5083 participants). Despite enormous use over the past 60 years, only 1076, 452, and 150 patients had ECG recordings reported in studies of chloroquine, amodiaquine, and primaquine respectively. Transiently high concentrations of quinine, quinidine, and chloroquine following parenteral administration have all been associated with hypotension, but there were no documented reports of death or syncope attributable to a cardiovascular cause, nor of electrocardiographic recordings of ventricular arrhythmia in these trials. The large volume of missing outcome information and the ...
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Vi prokinetic agents, such as vertigo, dizziness, ataxia, nausea and a precipitating cause. It is also poor, the loss of continuation phase for some reasons. They only cause a caffeine dependency for energy. The thc content in salmon also reduces the hr by direct action on the etiology of chronic complications related to morphine and morphine-like drugs results in selective early menopausal women with bulimia are notable for thyroid nding of >6 white cells per high power posing . At least, that s what harvard university researchers call it. Grasp the posterior colpotomy (fig. In this does not require that optimality ever be explained on the assessment of cognitive development by reducing spasm and painful tender points do not sleep because of their additional estrogenic and/or androgenic properties as amodiaquine but can also be given alternately on both sides ( standard edition, xi, pp. In secondary care with lower rates of malignancy of 4% to 19%.10 bilateral discharge does not mean they are ...
Amodiaquin dihydrochloride dihydrate | CAS 6398-98-7 | AbMole BioScience | Amodiaquin dihydrochloride dihydrate Price
Amodiaquine is a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of histamine N-methyl transferase in human erythrocytes, also used as an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent. Buy Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor Amodiaquin dihydrochloride dihydrate from AbMole BioScience.
En Belgique, INEOS est composé de plusieurs succursales qui disposent à leur tour de plusieurs sociétés. Ces sociétés appartiennent aux différentes divisions au sein du group INEOS.. Les mêmes conditions dachat sont valable pour toutes nos succursales. Vous pouvez les télécharger ci-dessous.. INEOS Conditions dachat INEOS Life Saving Rules. Des informations plus spécifiques sont disponibles en cliquant sur une des succursales ci-dessous.. ...
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|p|AQ is a bio-product made of natural ingredients. Designed to eradicate bacteria and viruses in air and any surfaces to radically enhance indoor and personal hygiene. Unlike its chemical counterpart, the bio-structure of AQ is far too complicated to be
lib/Parse/AFP/Triplet/AQ.pm - metacpan.org
URL: //local/member/autrijus/Parse-AFP/lib/Parse/AFP/Triplet/AQ.pm $ $Author: autrijus $ # $Rev: 1130 $ $Date: 2004-02-17T15:40:29.640821Z $ package Parse::AFP::Triplet::AQ; use base Parse::AFP::Triplet; use constant SUBFORMAT =, ( Data =, a*, # not yet parsed! ); 1 ...
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Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Follistim AQ (follitropin). Includes dose adjustments, warnings and precautions.
In the town of Djibo in northern Burkina Faso, a Fulani child is sick with malaria. After a visit to the local military health...
In the town of Djibo in northern Burkina Faso, a Fulani child is sick with malaria. After a visit to the local military health center, the childs father, Dicko Ousmana, feeds his son artesunate and amodiaquine, an artemisin-combination therapy for malaria treatment. While easily prevented by sleeping under an insecticide-treated mosquito net every night, throughout Africa, malaria is a major killer of pregnant women and children under five.. rural,african,africans,amodiaquine,artemisinin combination therapy,artesunate,babies,baby,burkina faso,child,children under five,disease,diseases,djibo,drugs,father,fathers,fula,fulani,malaria,malaria treatment,medical,medicine,pediatric,peul,peule,pharmaceutical,prescription drug,public health,sahel,sick,sickness,soum province,west africa. Spirit of Humanity. ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Dihydroartemisinin | Read by QxMD
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is used extensively as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. There has been no rigorous assessment of the potential for racial/ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of ACTs that might influence their efficacy. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search was performed that identified 72 publications in which the geographical origin of the patients could be ascertained and the key pharmacokinetic parameters maximum drug concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and elimination half-life (t½β) were available for one or more of the five WHO-recommended ACTs (artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, artesunate-mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine ...
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention: successes and missed opportunities | Epicentre
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) was recommended in 2012 for young children in the Sahel during the peak malaria transmission season. Children are given a single dose of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine combined with a 3-day course of amodiaquine, once a month for up to 4 months. Roll-out and scale-up of SMC has been impressive, with 12 million children receiving the intervention in 2016. There is evidence of its overall benefit in routine implementation settings, and a meta-analysis of clinical trial data showed a 75% decrease in clinical malaria compared to placebo. SMC is not free of shortcomings. Its target zone includes many hard-to-reach areas, both because of poor infrastructure and because of political instability. Treatment adherence to a 3-day course of preventive treatment has not been fully documented, and could prove challenging. As SMC is scaled up, integration into a broader, community-based paradigm which includes other preventive and curative activities may prove beneficial, both ...
The outcome of a test-treat package versus routine outpatient care for Ghanaian children with fever: a pragmatic randomized...
Over-diagnosis of malaria among African children results in mismanagement of non-malaria infections. Limited laboratory capacity makes it difficult to implement policies that recommend pre-treatment confirmation of infections so a new approach with a package for on-the-spot management of fevers was evaluated. Febrile children presenting to outpatient clinic were randomized to receive either a test-treat package (history with clinical examination; point-of-care tests; choice of artesunate-amodiaquine, co-amoxiclav and/or paracetamol) or routine outpatient care in a secondary health care facility in Kumasi, Ghana. A diagnosis of malaria, bacterial, viral or mixed malarial and bacterial infections was made using pre-defined criteria. Outcome was resolution of all symptoms including fever on day 7. The median age of the patients was 37.5 months (IQR: 19 to 66 months), with 56.7% being males. Compared to routine care the test-treat package resulted in less diagnoses of malaria, (37.2% vs 46.2%, p = ...
Amodiaquine-lnduced HepatitisA Report of Seven Cases | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Seven patients developed hepatitis after receiving amodiaquine for malaria prophylaxis for 4 to 15 weeks. Four patients had a minor form of hepatitis: jaundice was mild or absent, serum aminotransferase levels were moderately increased, and recovery was prompt. Three patients had a severe form: jaundice was intense, serum aminotransferase levels were markedly increased, jaundice persisted for 3 to 6 months, and liver tests were still abnormal 7 to 27 months after the onset of hepatitis. In two patients, serum aminotransferase levels increased promptly after readministration of the drug, which is consistent with an immunoallergic mechanism for amodiaquine-induced hepatitis. ...
Treating malaria with artemisinin combinations: challenges for policymakers
<p>An outline of the opportunities and challenges in large-scale use of artemisinin combination therapies to treat malaria.</p>
Oxidation-Reduction Dr. Ron Rusay Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. - ppt download
21 6 Fe 2+ (aq) 6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 6 e - 6 Fe 2+ (aq) 6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 6 e - Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + 6 e - 2 Cr 3+ (aq) Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + 6 e - 2 Cr 3+ (aq) 6 Fe 2+ (aq) + Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + ? 2nd H + (aq) 6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + ? 1st Oxygen H 2 O (l) 6 Fe 2+ (aq) + Cr 2 O 7 2- (aq) + ? 2nd H + (aq) 6 Fe 3+ (aq) + 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + ? 1st Oxygen H 2 O (l) Oxygen = 7 2nd (Hydrogen) = 14 Balancing Redox Equations in acidic solutions ...
IV Artesunate - Cancer Tutor
Data for artesunate, used for the treatment of malaria, indicates IVC in conjunction with IV Artesunate makes a substantial difference in advanced cancers.
Get Answer) - Given the balanced equation representing a reaction: HSO 4^-(aq) +...| Transtutors
Please answer these questions Given the balanced equation representing a reaction: HSO_4^-(aq) + H_2O(l) rightarrow H_3 O^+ (aq) + SO_4^2-(aq) According to one acid-base theory, the H_2O(l) molecules act as A) a base bccausc they accept H^+ ions B) a base because they donate H^+ ions C) an acid...
Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E =...
Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
From the following list, identify the ions that are more easily reduced than H + (aq). (a) Cu 2+ (aq) (b) Zn 2+ (aq) (c) Fe 2+ ...
Textbook solution for Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 10th Edition John C. Kotz Chapter 19 Problem 26PS. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
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Determine the potential of each of the following cells: a) Pt(s) / H2(g,1.0 bar) / HCl(aq, 0.075 M) // HCl(aq, 1.0M) / H2(g, 1.0 bar) /Pt(s) In the solutions manual, they give the balanced equation as: 2H+ (aq, 1.0M) + H2(g, 1 atm) ----, 2H+ (aq, 0.075M) + H2 (g, 1 atm) If you go on to calculate E(c ...
Which one of the following mixtures is suitable for making buffers?
The [H3O+] of a solution with pH = 3 is -10 M. 10 M. 1 x 10-3 M. 1 x 103 M. 1 x 10-11 M. Identify the acid(s) and base(s) in the following reaction: CH3COOH(aq) + NH3(aq) CH 3COO-(aq) + NH4+(aq) CH3COOH is the only acid, and NH3 is ...
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... is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine. Amodiaquine was first made in 1948. It is on the World ... "Amodiaquine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Scholia has a topic profile for Amodiaquine. Portal: ... Amodiaquine has become an important drug in the combination therapy for malaria treatment in Africa. It is often used in ... Amodiaquine has also been found to work against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains of malaria. It is also used in ...
"Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop (artesunate, amodiaquine) , summary of product characteristics. Gentilly, France: Sanofi- ... Therefore, it is theoretically possible that the combination of montelukast with a CYP2C8 substrate (e.g. amodiaquine, an anti- ... March 2007). "Hepatotoxicity due to a drug interaction between amodiaquine plus artesunate and efavirenz". Clin. Infect. Dis. ...
Examples include amodiaquine, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine. Other uses for the derivatives are: anti-asthmatic, ... Amodiaquine Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Quinoline 8-Hydroxyquinoline Ionophore Al-Ahmary, Khairia M.; Alenezi, Maha S.; ... insights from the study of amodiaquine uptake". Mol. Pharmacol. 50 (6): 1551-8. PMID 8967977. DeVita, Robert; Chang, Lehua (13 ...
Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative
"Treating uncomplicated malaria with ASAQ (artesunate-amodiaquine) , Medicines for Malaria Venture". www.mmv.org. Retrieved 2022 ... Lacaze Catherine (2011). "The initial pharmaceutical development of an artesunate/amodiaquine oral formulation for the ... this antimalarial product is a fixed-dose combination of artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ). The result of a partnership between ...
"Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop (artesunate, amodiaquine) [summary of product characteristics]" (PDF). Sanofi-Aventis. Archived ... evidence that treatment with artesunate plus mefloquine is superior to treatment with artesunate plus amodiaquine or artesunate ...
Amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine may achieve less treatment failures when compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine alone ... Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate is better than sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine in controlling treatment ... Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group) (October 2005). "Chloroquine or amodiaquine combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for ... "Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated malaria ...
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
Artesunate Artesunate/amodiaquine (artesunate + amodiaquine) Artesunate/mefloquine (artesunate + mefloquine) Artesunate/ ... To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine. Other combinations that deliver ... Amodiaquine + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (Co-packaged) Chloroquine Doxycycline Mefloquine Proguanil Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine ( ... α Diloxanide Metronidazole Amphotericin B Miltefosine Paromomycin Sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate Amodiaquine ...
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children
To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine. Other combinations that deliver ... Diloxanide Metronidazole Amphotericin B Miltefosine Paromomycin Sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimoniate Amodiaquine ... Artemether Artemether/lumefantrine Artesunate Artesunate/amodiaquine Artesunate/mefloquine Artesunate/pyronaridine ... Dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine phosphate Doxycycline Mefloquine Primaquine Quinine Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine Amodiaquine + ...
... amodiaquine, and primaquine. Quinolines are reduced to tetrahydroquinolines enantioselectively using several catalyst systems. ...
Chloroquine Amodiaquine Pamaquine Mefloquine "Quinacrine Shortage & What the ACR Is Doing about It". 13 March 2019 [8 February ...
"Geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance distinguished by differential responses to amodiaquine and ...
Mass drug administration
In Bobo-Dioulasso, where primaquine was used in combination with either chloroquine or amodiaquine, the prevalence of ... 1999). "[Assay of sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine and quinine in ...
Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinolone anti-malarial drug similar in structure and mechanism of action to chloroquine. Amodiaquine ... Amodiaquine is now available in a combined formulation with artesunate (ASAQ) and is among the artemisinin-combination ... The resistance of other quinolone anti-malarials such as amodiaquine, mefloquine, halofantrine and quinine are thought to have ... Artemisinin-based combination therapies should be used in preference to amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the ...
WHO recommends combinations such as artemether/lumefantrine, artesunate/amodiaquine, artesunate/mefloquine, artesunate/ ...
Intermittent preventive therapy
A trial conducted in northern Tanzania using the antimalarial drug amodiaquine instead of S/P was similarly successful. Six ... Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo- ... Treating schoolchildren in Kenya with S/P and amodiaquine significantly improved anaemia (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93). IPTp ...
Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering
Use of computational approaches and organ-chips to repurpose FDA-approved drugs like Amodiaquine to prevent or treat Covid-19. ...
The following substances are known to be HNMT inhibitors: amodiaquine, chloroquine, dimaprit, etoprine, metoprine, quinacrine, ...
Amodiaquine, or the Combination in Pregnant Women in Ghana". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 198 (8): 1202-1211. doi: ...
Rajpal Singh Yadav
... amodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in a tribal population of District Sundargarh, Orissa". Indian ...
... is a two-ring heterocyclic compound used as a chemical intermediate to aminoquinoline antimalarial drugs including amodiaquine ...
Treating 4-aminophenol with acetic anhydride gives paracetamol: It is a precursor to amodiaquine, mesalazine, AM404, ...
R. Heiner Schirmer
"Efficacy and Safety of Triple Combination Therapy With Artesunate-Amodiaquine-Methylene Blue for Falciparum Malaria in Children ...
Institute for Tropical Medicine Tübingen
... amodiaquine artesunate, pyronaridine artesunate as well as malaria and ebola vaccines. According to a survey of the ...
Peter Gottfried Kremsner
He has been principal investigator on key studies for the development of atovaquone/proguanil, artesunate/amodiaquine, ...
Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria
... and amodiaquine (AQ), which usually cost less than US$1. Therefore, unsubsidized, quality-assured ACTs are not affordable by ...
Malaria in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa through the use of the drugs sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and amodiaquine. This ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
... amodiaquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.180 - chloroquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.180.350 - hydroxychloroquine MeSH D03.438.810.050.440 ...
ATC code P01
... combinations P01BA01 Chloroquine P01BA02 Hydroxychloroquine P01BA03 Primaquine P01BA06 Amodiaquine P01BA07 Tafenoquine P01BB01 ... P01BE05 Artenimol P01BF01 Artemether and lumefantrine P01BF02 Artesunate and mefloquine P01BF03 Artesunate and amodiaquine ...
... artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ), artesunate/mefloquine, dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine, or artesunate/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. ...
PATH (global health organization)
1.7 million doses of Sanofi's ArteSunate AmodiaQuine Winthrop (ASAQ Winthrop), a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination ...
International Notes Agranulocytosis Associated with the Use of Amodiaquine for Malaria Prophylaxis
... number of persons using amodiaquine for malaria prophylaxis. Although amodiaquine is not marketed in the United States, ... Editorial Note: Amodiaquine, a 4-aminoquinoline similar to chloroquine in structure and activity, has been used as both an ... In all but four of the 25 cases, amodiaquine was used at the appropriate dosage (adults 400 mg base per week) for prophylaxis. ... Only rarely has amodiaquine been associated with agranulocytosis: of 13 reports published between 1955 and 1985, only three ...
Amodiaquine : a case for reconsideration? : reports on individual drugs
Figure 1 - Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria...
Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, ... Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, ... units and 3 referral health facilities for which increased sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate/amodiaquine ...
Efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria:...
Amodiaquine was the most effective on fever. Amodiaquine therapy selected molecular markers for chloroquine resistance, while ... The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated ... amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, respectively. After molecular correction, ACPRs (cACPR) were 63.2%, 88.5% and 98.0 ... amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. During the malaria ...
Activation of CD8+ T Cells in the Context of Amodiaquine-Induced Liver Injury Advances Groundwork for Mathematical...
Amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children: a randomised,...
Six patients in the amodiaquine-artesunate group and five in the amodiaquine group developed early, drug-induced vomiting, ... By intention-to-treat analysis, the day-14 cure rates for amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine were: 175/192 (91%) versus ... Amodiaquine-artesunate is a potential combination for use in Africa. Further investigations to assess the potential effect on ... Amodiaquine still retains efficacy against P falciparum in many African countries. We assessed the safety, treatment efficacy, ...
Amodiaquine Tablets Exporter,Amodiaquine Tablets Supplier from Mumbai India
Pharmacokinetics of Amodiaquine and Desethylamodiaquine in Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Plasmodium vivax Malaria - MORU...
The results suggest that the current amodiaquine dosing regimen is adequate for the treatment of P. vivax infections during ... Plasma was analyzed for amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine by use of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. ... There were no clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine between pregnant ... malaria were treated with amodiaquine (10 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 3 days. The same women were studied again at 3 months ...
IMSEAR at SEARO: Amodiaquine as a filaricide.
Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment,...
Amodiaquine Antimalarials Artesunate Drug Combinations Drug Resistance Humans Malaria Malaria, Falciparum Plasmodium Falciparum ... Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, ... Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, ... Title : Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria ...
Evaluation of Azathioprine-Induced Cytotoxicity in an In Vitro Rat Hepatocyte System
Amodiaquine Suspension - Pharm Plug
A new approach to evaluate stability of amodiaquine and its metabolite in blood and plasma - Centre for Tropical Medicine and...
A new approach to evaluate stability of amodiaquine and its metabolite in blood and plasma ... The cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and structurally related antimalarials: An individual patient data meta-analysis ... A new approach to evaluate stability of amodiaquine and its metabolite in blood and plasma ... Triple therapy with artemether-lumefantrine plus amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine alone for artemisinin-resistant, ...
Amodiaquine Oral Suspension Exporter, Manufacturer Supplier, Gujarat
A-Z Drug Index for Prescription and OTC Medications
Ethyl amodiaquine-D3 Wuxi Beita Pharmatech Co., Ltd.
Melanonychia: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Artesunate Amodiaquine Tablets Exporter and Supplier,Trader from Surat,Gujarat
Trader and Exporter of Artesunate Amodiaquine Tablets located in Surat, Gujarat, India. ... Amodiaquine is an antimalarial medication used to treat acute malarial attacks characterized by symptoms such as chills, fever ... Combipack of Artesunate Tablets And Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets. *Combikit of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine Tablets And ...
MEDBOX | Effect of Artesunate-Amodiaquine on Mortality Related to Ebola Vir...
Details for: A comparative study of amodiaquine and chloroquine in two test systems / › WHO HQ Library catalog
TextPublication details: 1984. Description: 108 leavesSubject(s): Antimalarials , Amodiaquine , Chloroquine , Dissertations, ... A comparative study of amodiaquine and chloroquine in two test systems / by Peter Oyem Olise. By: Olise, Peter OyemContributor( ... Details for: A comparative study of amodiaquine and chloroquine in two test systems / ...
High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amodiaquine in human plasma. - Experimental Medicine Division
Table 5 - Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria...
Listing of Drugs Currently Regulated as New Drugs (The New Drugs List) - Canada.ca
TEGretol CR Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com
Carbamazepine (Oral Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic
Using this medicine while you are pregnant can harm your unborn baby. Use an effective form of birth control to keep from getting pregnant. If you think you have become pregnant while using the medicine, tell your doctor right away. Do not take carbamazepine together with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) or during the first 14 days after you stop taking a MAOI. MAOIs are used for depression and some examples are isocarboxazid (Marplan®), phenelzine (Nardil®), procarbazine (Matulane®), selegiline (Eldepryl®), or tranylcypromine (Parnate®). Do not use this medicine together with nefazodone (Serzone®) and certain medicines for HIV/AIDS (such as delavirdine, efavirenz, Atripla®, Sustiva®, Rescriptor®). Carbamazepine may cause some people to be agitated, irritable, or display other abnormal behaviors. It may also cause some people to have suicidal thoughts and tendencies or to become more depressed. If you, your child, or your caregiver notice any of these unwanted effects, tell your ...
Degott C[au] - Search Results - PubMed
Clinical tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine versus comparator treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an...
BackgroundThe widespread use of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) for treating uncomplicated malaria makes it important to gather ... BackgroundThe widespread use of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) for treating uncomplicated malaria makes it important to gather ... Clinical tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine versus comparator treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an ... Clinical tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine versus comparator treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an ...
PDF) Plasmodium falciparum clearance in clinical studies of artesunate-amodiaquine and comparator treatments in sub-Saharan...
... trends and detect changes early enough to intervene Individual patient data from 27 clinical trials of artesunate-amodiaquine ( ... Amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children: a randomised, ... Six patients in the amodiaquine-artesunate group and five in the amodiaquine group developed early, drug-induced vomiting, ... By intention-to-treat analysis, the day-14 cure rates for amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine were: 175/192 (91%) versus ...
ChloroquineMalariaArtesunateEfficacySulfadoxine-pyrimethamineSulphadoxine-pyrimethamineCYP2C8MedicinalLiquidSuspension1985TreatmentDosageDrugRecentProductsPlus amodiaquineArtesunate and amodiaquinePlasmodiumHydrochloride TabletsTabletsMefloquineChloroquine and amodiaquineLumefantrineArtemisinin-basedSulfadoxineProphylaxisAminoquinolinePotentDoseDrugsSubstratesDesethylamodiaquineAfricaWidely
- Editorial Note: Amodiaquine, a 4-aminoquinoline similar to chloroquine in structure and activity, has been used as both an antimalarial and an anti-inflammatory agent for more than 30 years. (cdc.gov)
- In April 1985, CDC revised its recommendations for preventing malaria in travelers, because of severe cutaneous reactions associated with the use of Fansidar, and recommended amodiaquine use for malaria prophylaxis could be considered as an alternative for longer-term travelers at risk of acquiring chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (CRPF) (7). (cdc.gov)
- This recommendation was based on studies showing amodiaquine was somewhat more effective than chloroquine in treating CRPF infections (8) and, therefore, might provide more protection than chloroquine when used as weekly prophylaxis in areas where CRPF transmission occurs. (cdc.gov)
- Similarly, the World Health Organization recently suggested the use of amodiaquine as an alternative to chloroquine and recommended that it be used in combination with Paludrine or Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine) for travel to certain areas (4). (cdc.gov)
- To update the National Malaria Control Programme of Mali on the efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
- Day 28 adequate clinical and parasitological responses (ACPR) were 14.1%, 62.3% and 88.9% in 2002 and 18.2%, 60% and 85.2% in 2003 for chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Amodiaquine therapy selected molecular markers for chloroquine resistance, while in the sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine arm the level of dhfr triple mutant and dhfr / dhps quadruple mutant increased from 31.5% and 3.8% in 2002 to 42.9% and 8.9% in 2003, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- A comparative study of amodiaquine and chloroquine in two test systems / by Peter Oyem Olise. (who.int)
- For many years, uncomplicated malaria was treated with chloroquine, amodiaquine, and a sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. (bvsalud.org)
- Only rarely has amodiaquine been associated with agranulocytosis: of 13 reports published between 1955 and 1985, only three were associated with the use of amodiaquine at recommended dosages for malaria prophylaxis in the absence of the use of other drugs known to have similar toxicity (2,3). (cdc.gov)
- While previously used largely for treating malaria in endemic areas, amodiaquine has been increasingly recommended for chemoprophylaxis in nonimmune visitors to endemic areas (4,5). (cdc.gov)
- Alternatively, the recent increase in the number of agranulocytosis cases might be explained by an increase in the number of persons using amodiaquine for malaria prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
- Although amodiaquine is not marketed in the United States, information provided by the manufacturer indicates that the number of Europeans using amodiaquine for malaria prophylaxis may have increased in 1985. (cdc.gov)
- Frequency of severe neutropenia associated with amodiaquine prophylaxis against malaria. (cdc.gov)
- Locations of 14 study health centers, including 11 peripheral satellite health units and 3 referral health facilities for which increased sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate/amodiaquine despite 14 years as first-line malaria treatment was tested, Zanzibar. (cdc.gov)
- In this study, treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine emerged as the most efficacious on uncomplicated falciparum malaria followed by amodiaquine. (biomedcentral.com)
- Amodiaquine-artesunate versus amodiaquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children: a randomised, multicentre trial. (ox.ac.uk)
- ABSTRACT In order to study the pharmacokinetic properties of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine during pregnancy, 24 pregnant women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and with Plasmodium vivax malaria were treated with amodiaquine (10 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 3 days. (tropmedres.ac)
- Clinical tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine versus comparator treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an individual-patient analysis of eight randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa. (ox.ac.uk)
- BackgroundThe widespread use of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) for treating uncomplicated malaria makes it important to gather and analyse information on its tolerability.MethodsAn individual-patient tolerability analysis was conducted using data from eight randomized controlled clinical trials conducted at 17 sites in nine sub-Saharan countries comparing ASAQ to other anti-malarial treatments. (ox.ac.uk)
- At 14 sentinel sites in six geographical areas of Nigeria, we evaluated treatment responses in 1341 children under 5 years and in additional 360 children under 16 years with uncomplicated malaria enrolled in randomized trials of artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate-amodiaquine at 5-year interval in 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 and at 2-year interval in 2009-2010 and 2012-2015, respectively after deployment in 2005. (biomedcentral.com)
- Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Madagascar, 2018. (cdc.gov)
- We assessed the safety, treatment efficacy, and effect on gametocyte carriage of adding artesunate to amodiaquine in three randomised trials in Kenya, Sénégal, and Gabon. (ox.ac.uk)
- Patients were randomly assigned amodiaquine (10 mg/kg per day for 3 days) plus artesunate (4 mg/kg per day for 3 days) or amodiaquine (as above) and placebo (for 3 days). (ox.ac.uk)
- Six patients in the amodiaquine-artesunate group and five in the amodiaquine group developed early, drug-induced vomiting, necessitating alternative treatment. (ox.ac.uk)
- INTERPRETATION:The combination of artesunate and amodiaquine improved treatment efficacy in Gabon and Kenya, and was equivalent in Sénégal. (ox.ac.uk)
- Amodiaquine-artesunate is a potential combination for use in Africa. (ox.ac.uk)
- Further investigations to assess the potential effect on the evolution of drug resistance, disease transmission, and safety of amodiaquine-artesunate are warranted. (ox.ac.uk)
- Effect of Artesunate-Amodiaquine on Mortality Related to Ebola Vir. (medbox.org)
- This makes it all too important to measure the dynamics of parasite clearance in African patients treated with ACT over time, to understand trends and detect changes early enough to intervene Individual patient data from 27 clinical trials of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) vs comparators conducted between 1999 and 2009 were analysed for parasite clearance on modified intent-to-treat (ITT) basis. (typeset.io)
- In parallel, Kaplan-Meier estimated risk of recurrent infections by day 28 rose from 8 to 14% ( P = 0.005) and from 9 to 15% ( P = 0.02) with artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Amodiaquine still retains efficacy against P falciparum in many African countries. (ox.ac.uk)
- of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for three days. (who.int)
- The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated with artemisinin derivatives in an artemisinin-based combination therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Amodiaquine was used as the substrate for CYP2C8, while midazolam was the CYP3A4 substrate. (helsinki.fi)
- 30 August 2007 Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets was included in the list of prequalified medicinal products. (who.int)
- Plasma was analyzed for amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine by use of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. (tropmedres.ac)
- High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amodiaquine in human plasma. (ox.ac.uk)
- The Amodiaquine Oral Suspension is an antimalarial medication used to treat acute malarial attacks characterized by symptoms such as chills, fever, and sweating. (apindexpharma.com)
- in Switzerland, a threefold increase in amodiaquine sales was noted from 1984 to 1985. (cdc.gov)
- The results suggest that the current amodiaquine dosing regimen is adequate for the treatment of P. vivax infections during pregnancy. (tropmedres.ac)
- In all but four of the 25 cases, amodiaquine was used at the appropriate dosage (adults 400 mg base per week) for prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
- Sixteen additional cases of agranulocytosis from Western Europe associated with the use of amodiaquine have recently been reported to the drug manufacturer, and two U.S. cases have been reported to CDC. (cdc.gov)
- It is now apparent that any possible prophylactic advantage that amodiaquine may afford is not justified by the possible risk of agranulocytosis associated with the use of the drug. (cdc.gov)
- The reason for the discrepancy between the previous and recent experiences with amodiaquine is not clear. (cdc.gov)
- Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets were assessed according to the `Procedure for Assessing the Acceptability, in principle, of Pharmaceutical Products for purchase by United Nations Agencies' by the team of WHO assessors. (who.int)
- Following WHO recommendations that prioritize the use of artemisinin-based combinations, artesunate plus amodiaquine could be a potential first-line treatment. (mediu.edu.my)
- A triple artemisinin-based combination therapy (TACT) of artemether-lumefantrine plus amodiaquine (AL+AQ) for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in areas with a high prevalence of artemisinin resistance is a well-tolerated, effective treatment for multidrug-resistant parasites, say a team of MORU-led researchers. (tropmedres.ac)
- The drugs (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine, given to children once a month for a few months each year) don't give complete protection but the benefits are clearly visible, and the strategy has been welcomed by communities. (lshtm.ac.uk)
Artesunate and amodiaquine4
- Exporter of a wide range of products which include pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine tablets, artesunate and mefloquin tablets, amodiaquine hydrochloride tablets, artesunate and amodiaquine tablets, artemether and lumefantrine tablets and chloroquin phosphate tablets. (actizapharmacy.com)
- We are leading Exporter and Manufacturer supplier of Artesunate and Amodiaquine Tablets in India. (actizapharmacy.com)
- Artesunate and amodiaquine (AS+AQ) have been recommended by WHO as one of the preferred artemisinin combination treatments for malaria since the WHO treatment guidelines published in 2006. (essentialmeds.org)
- In Zanzibar, however, artesunate and amodiaquine are used. (volunteer-africa-blog.org)
- To compare amodiaquine with chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (neli.org.uk)
- Locations of 14 study health centers, including 11 peripheral satellite health units and 3 referral health facilities for which increased sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate/amodiaquine despite 14 years as first-line malaria treatment was tested, Zanzibar. (cdc.gov)
- To examine the kinetics of the disposition of Plasmodium falciparum during treatment with amodiaquine, a Mannich base derivative of chloroquine and chloroquine. (medscape.com)
- BACKGROUND: Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) is one of the most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa. (ox.ac.uk)
- Efficacy of chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria among children under five in Bongor and Koumra, Chad. (mediu.edu.my)
- We assess chloroquine (CQ), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) to treat Plasmodium falciparum uncomplicated malaria. (mediu.edu.my)
- Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (amedeo.com)
- Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Angola, 2015. (cdc.gov)
- Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets were assessed according to the `Procedure for Assessing the Acceptability, in principle, of Pharmaceutical Products for purchase by United Nations Agencies' by the team of WHO assessors. (who.int)
- The countries of origin of the assessors involved with Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets were Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Spain, South Africa and Zimbabwe. (who.int)
- 30 August 2007 Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets was included in the list of prequalified medicinal products. (who.int)
- We are leading Exporter and Manufacturer of Amodiaquine Hydrochloride Tablets. (actizapharmacy.com)
- Amodiaquine 76.5mg (as hydrochloride) + Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine 250 mg+ 12.5 mg dispersible tablets, Co-Blister of 3+1 tablets. (unicef.org)
- It is now obvious that the implementation and the global use of ACTs (Artemisinin Combined Therapies), combining a fast-acting artemisinin derivative (ART) and a slower-acting partner drug (i.e. amodiaquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine or piperaquine) has greatly contributed to the malaria endemicity decrease, especially in areas of low transmission such as Cambodia 1 . (pasteur.fr)
Chloroquine and amodiaquine2
- I was surprised to see he found many hits versus Ebola including the drugs chloroquine and amodiaquine. (collaborativedrug.com)
- Augmentation of gastric acid secretion by chloroquine and amodiaquine in the rat stomach 1ajeigbe k. (web.app)
- Burkina Faso has recently changed its policy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, from Chloroquine to Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL) and Artesunate-Amodiaquine (AQ+AS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In 2018, a TES of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) was conducted in Mozambique, and the prevalence of polymorphisms in the pfk13, pfcrt, and pfmdr1 genes associated with drug resistance was investigated. (malariaworld.org)
- Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Mozambique since 2006, with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and amodiaquine-artesunate (AS-AQ) as the first choice. (malariaworld.org)
- and resistance markers for Amodiaquine (AQ), Chloroquine (CQ), and Lumefantrine (LUM) found in P.falciparum pfmdr1 and pfcrt genes . (wwarn.org)
- The most commonly recommended combinations for Africa include non-artemisinin-based combinations, such as amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), and artemisinin-based combinations, such as artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ), artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), and artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LM). (biomedcentral.com)
- No significant difference for adverse events was observed between amodiaquine and chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. (neli.org.uk)
- NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A malaria study comparing monthly chemoprevention, vaccination, or both among children aged 5 months to 17 months has concluded that the combination works best, and that seasonal vaccination is not inferior to daily treatment with amodiaquine, sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine. (medscape.com)
- The sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination and amodiaquine were given as four treatments, one per month during each malaria season. (medscape.com)
- The World Health Organization recommends seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), the administration of four monthly courses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ), to children aged 3-59 months during rainy season. (malariaworld.org)
- Resistance of P. falciparum to antimalarials in Colombia is particularly concerning considering it was one of the first countries to report resistance to chloroquine in the 1960s, and today this resistance has expanded to include amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, thereby reducing available treatment options. (cideim.org.co)
- Amodiaquine is an aminoquinoline used for the therapy of malaria. (nih.gov)
- Here we report for the first time that amodiaquine (AQ), a clinical 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial with unexplored cancer-directed chemotherapeutic potential, causes autophagic-lysosomal and proliferative blockade in melanoma cells that surpasses that of its parent compound chloroquine. (nih.gov)
- The team chose the most potent, amodiaquine, for further testing. (nih.gov)
- A Wyss Institute-led collaboration spanning four research labs and hundreds of miles has used the institute's organ-on-a-chip (Organ Chip) technology to identify the antimalarial drug amodiaquine as a potent inhibitor of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (harvard.edu)
- CONCLUSIONS: There was substantial variation in the total dose of amodiaquine administered in different AS-AQ combination regimens. (ox.ac.uk)
- When administered in human Airway Chips under flow at a clinically relevant dose, one drug amodiaquine significantly inhibited infection by a pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus. (mit.edu)
- The application was rejected because of uncertainty about the dose of amodiaquine in the FDC compared to the usually recommended dose, the relatively premature nature of the presentation of one of the key clinical trials and the uncertainty about the availability of a quality-assured product. (essentialmeds.org)
- Doubling the dose usually results in excess amodiaquine with the resultant risk of increased toxicity. (essentialmeds.org)
- within the management cluster (CT), one dose of amodiaquine (10 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats whereas within the co-administration cluster (CA), identical dose of AQ was given at the same time with MO. (digiwire.co.in)
- We need to have an alternative to Coartem which could be Artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) in a fixed dose combination (FDC), a cheaper altenative not yet evidenced to be effective and safe to our population. (org.bd)
- Pivoting their efforts to COVID-19, the researchers then used the chips to identify three approved drugs-amodiaquine, toremifene, and clomiphene-that could reduce SARS-CoV-2 entry into human lung cells. (nih.gov)
- Based in part on these results, amodiaquine has been incorporated into the ongoing ANTICOV clinical trial, which is testing drugs to treat COVID-19 in 13 African countries. (nih.gov)
- In this paper, we show that this mutant, but not wild-type BM3, is able to metabolise testosterone and several drug-like molecules such as amodiaquine, dextromethorphan, acetaminophen, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine that are known substrates of human P450s. (vu.nl)
- Proof of concept was provided by showing that amodiaquine and its active metabolite (desethylamodiaquine) also significantly reduce viral load in both direct infection and animal-to-animal transmission models of native SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters. (mit.edu)
- In many parts of Africa, one of the effective alternatives to chloroquine is amodiaquine, a Mannich base derivative of chloroquine. (medscape.com)
- Amodiaquine is now in clinical trials for COVID-19 at multiple sites in Africa, where this drug is inexpensive and widely available. (harvard.edu)
- Amodiaquine has been widely used to treat malaria. (neli.org.uk)