Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
The collecting of fetal blood samples typically via ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND GUIDED FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION from the umbilical vein.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A self-reporting test consisting of items concerning fear and worry about taking tests and physiological activity, such as heart rate, sweating, etc., before, during, and after tests.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.
An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Board, room, and other personal assistance services generally provided on a long term basis. It excludes regular medical care.
A cystic growth originating from lymphatic tissue. It is usually found in the neck, axilla, or groin.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)

Adrenomedullin production is increased in normal human pregnancy. (1/368)

OBJECTIVE: Adrenomedullin, a recently discovered vasoactive peptide originally identified in pheochromocytoma, has been found to be increased in the plasma of pregnant women at term. This study was designed to elucidate whether adrenomedullin secretion is dependent on gestational age and the possible source and function of this peptide in human pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Adrenomedullin concentrations were determined by RIA in amniotic fluid and maternal plasma obtained from 110 pregnant women between 8 and 40 weeks of gestation. Subjects were stratified into five groups according to gestational age. In term patients (n = 15), adrenomedullin was also measured in the umbilical artery and vein separately. RESULTS: High concentrations of adrenomedullin were present in plasma and amniotic fluid samples from patients in the first, second and third trimester. There was no significant difference in mean maternal plasma concentration of adrenomedullin between the five patient groupings. Amniotic fluid adrenomedullin concentrations decreased from 81.2 +/- 11.7 pg/ml at 8-12 weeks of gestation to 63.7 +/- 6.0 pg/ml at 13-20 weeks of gestation and then increased at 21-28 weeks of gestation to 99.1 +/- 10.4 pg/ml. A further increase was found in samples collected after 37 weeks of gestation (132.6 +/- 10.1 pg/ml). In the umbilical vein, adrenomedullin concentration was higher (P < 0.05) than in the artery (65.7 +/- 6.1 pg/ml and 48.5 +/- 5.2 pg/ml respectively), suggesting that adrenomedullin in the fetal circulation derives from the placenta. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the presence of adrenomedullin in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid throughout gestation, and show that its production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that this hormone may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery.  (+info)

Mosaic trisomy 17 in amniocytes: phenotypic outcome, tissue distribution, and uniparental disomy studies. (2/368)

Mosaicism for trisomy 17 in amniocyte cultures is a rare finding, whilst postnatal cases are exceptional. In order to gain insight into the possible effects of the distribution of the trisomic line and of uniparental disomy (UPD) on embryofoetal development, we have performed follow-up clinical, cytogenetic and molecular investigations into three newly detected prenatal cases of trisomy 17 mosaicism identified in cultured amniotic fluid. In the first case, the pregnancy ended normally with the birth of a healthy girl, and analysis of newborn lymphocytes and of multiple extra-embryonic tissues was indicative of confined placental mosaicism. The second case was also associated with a normal pregnancy outcome and postnatal development, and only euploid cells were found in peripheral blood after birth. However, maternal isodisomy 17 consequent to a meiosis II error and loss of a chromosome 17 homologue was detected in peripheral lymphocytes postnatally. In the third case, pathological examination after termination of pregnancy showed growth retardation and minor dysmorphisms, and the trisomic line was detected in foetal skin fibroblasts. In addition, biparental derivation of chromosome 17 was demonstrated in the euploid lineage. These results, together with previously reported data, indicate that true amniotic trisomy 17 mosaicism is more commonly of extra-embryonic origin and associated with normal foetal development. Phenotypic consequences may arise when the trisomic line is present in foetal tissues. Case 2 also represents the first observation of maternal UPD involving chromosome 17; the absence of phenotypic anomalies in the child suggests that chromosome 17 is not likely to be subject to imprinting in maternal gametes.  (+info)

Collagenous constituents of amniotic fluid. (3/368)

The amniotic fluid (AF) was fractionated by dialysis, gel filtration and SDS/PAGE, and submitted to the assay of collagenous constituents. The collagenous character of peptides and proteins of amniotic fluid was confirmed by hydroxyproline (Hyp) assay and treatment with bacterial collagenase followed by electrophoresis and gel filtration of the digestion products. It was found that AF contains collagen degradation products but the classical method of Hyp determination described by Woessner (Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1961, 93, 440-447) gives overestimated values due to the interference with other AF components. Fractionation of AF on Sephadex G-100 column allowed to remove the interfering material and to estimate the actual Hyp content which equals to approx. 6.2 microg/ml. About 70% of Hyp was found in low molecular dialyzable products and the rest (about 30%) appears to be a constituent of nondialyzable collagenous polypeptides of the molecular mass of about 7.9-26.3 kDa. It is suggested that such collagenous polypeptides may be the products of proteolytic conversion of collagen precursor (procollagen) into the monomeric form of this protein. No high molecular forms of collagen, corresponding to alpha-subunits, were found.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy type I (Werdnig- hoffmann) by DNA deletion analysis of cultivated amniocytes. (4/368)

AIM: Presentation of a prenatally diagnosed case of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, the most severe type of spinal muscular atrophy. METHODS: DNA obtained from cultivated amniocytes was analyzed for deletions in the survival motor neuron gene and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene. RESULTS: The fetus was diagnosed as an affected homozygote for deletions in exon 7 and exon 8 of the survival motor neuron gene. No deletions of exon 5 in the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene were found. CONCLUSION: Direct DNA deletion analysis of the survival motor neuron gene and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein gene in affected families represents a highly reliable and fast method for prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease.  (+info)

Prenatal confirmation of the translocation between chromosome 15 and Y-chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (5/368)

A 30-year-old woman and her husband visited our hospital with habitual abortion as the complaint. Chromosome examination revealed a normal 46, XX for her and 46, XY, 15, der (15) t (Y; 15) (q12; p12) for him. After her pregnancy amniocentesis was performed. The karyotype was 46, XX, 15, der (15) t (Y; 15) (q12; p12) pat. ish der (15) (DYZ1+). A female baby was delivered. The growth of the baby was normal at 12 months of age.  (+info)

Second-trimester maternal urine human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-core fragment concentrations in Asian pregnancies with fetal chromosomal abnormalities. (6/368)

The aim of this study was to investigate the second trimester concentrations of maternal urine human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-core fragment (HCGbetacf) in Asian pregnanci2es with fetal chromosomal abnormalities. HCGbetacf concentrations were analysed from 34 urine samples in chromosomally abnormal pregnancies, including 28 cases of Down's syndrome, one case of trisomy 18, and five cases of other chromosomal abnormalities (one mosaic deletion and four translocations), and in a cohort of 268 normal pregnancies receiving second trimester amniocentesis. Results were normalized to urine creatinine (Cr) concentration and converted to the multiple of the median (MOM) concentration for the appropriate gestation. The median HCGbetacf MOM concentrations of Down's syndrome pregnancies (12.89) was significantly higher than that of normal pregnancies (1. 06) (P < 0.00001). Wide variations of HCGbetacf concentrations were observed in other chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. There were 18 of 28 (64%) Down's syndrome cases but one of five (20%) other chromosomally abnormal cases with HCGbetacf concentrations above the 95th centile of the control values (8.22 MOM cut-off). These findings suggest that HCGbetacf could be a potential marker in urine screening for fetal Down's syndrome in Asians.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnostic and prognostic value of human cytomegalovirus load and IgM antibody response in blood of congenitally infected fetuses. (7/368)

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) load and virus-specific IgM were quantified in blood of 36 fetuses from mothers with primary HCMV infection. Nineteen fetuses were congenitally infected and 17 were uninfected as diagnosed by virus isolation from and DNA detection in amniotic fluid. Sensitivity of antigenemia was 57.9%; of viremia, 55. 5%; of leukoDNAemia, 82.3%; and of IgM, 57.9%; specificity was 100% for all assays. When amniocentesis was performed, 4 HCMV-infected fetuses (group A) showed abnormal ultrasound and biochemical/hematologic findings, 8 (group B) had elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase values, and 7 (group C) had normal ultrasound and biochemical findings. Virus loads were higher in groups A and B than in group C. In group A, no pregnancy went to term, in group B, 3 of 6 newborns were symptomatic at birth, and in group C, the 6 newborns were subclinically infected. Taken together, virologic, laboratory, and ultrasound findings may contribute to a better prognostic definition of fetal HCMV infection.  (+info)

Role of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in simultaneous detection of probe sets for chromosome 18, X and Y in uncultured amniotic fluid cells. (8/368)

Major aneuploidies diagnosed prenatally involve the autosomes 13, 18, and 21, and sex chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows rapid analysis of chromosome copy number in interphase cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization in simultaneous detection of probe sets for chromosome 18, X, and Y in uncultured amniotic fluid cells as a safer alternative method for aneuploidy detection prenatally. Fifty amniotic fluid samples were analyzed by FISH and standard cytogenetics. Mean time to obtain results was three days for fluorescence in situ hybridization and 20 days for karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was informative in 43 samples (86%), and within this group, two aneuploidies were correctly identified. This evaluation demonstrates that FISH with X, Y, and 18 alpha satellite DNA probes could accurately and rapidly detect aneuploidies involving these chromosomes and could be used in any prenatal clinical laboratory.  (+info)

Amniocentesis is a medical procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal cells, is withdrawn from the uterus through a hollow needle inserted into the abdomen of a pregnant woman. This procedure is typically performed between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy.

The main purpose of amniocentesis is to diagnose genetic disorders and chromosomal abnormalities in the developing fetus, such as Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, and neural tube defects. The fetal cells obtained from the amniotic fluid can be cultured and analyzed for various genetic characteristics, including chromosomal structure and number, as well as specific gene mutations.

Amniocentesis carries a small risk of complications, such as miscarriage, infection, or injury to the fetus. Therefore, it is generally offered to women who have an increased risk of having a baby with a genetic disorder or chromosomal abnormality, such as those over the age of 35, those with a family history of genetic disorders, or those who have had a previous pregnancy affected by a genetic condition.

It's important to note that while amniocentesis can provide valuable information about the health of the fetus, it does not guarantee a completely normal baby, and there are some risks associated with the procedure. Therefore, the decision to undergo amniocentesis should be made carefully, in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual circumstances and preferences of each woman.

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus. It is enclosed within the amniotic sac, which is a thin-walled sac that forms around the embryo during early pregnancy. The fluid is composed of fetal urine, lung secretions, and fluids that cross over from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta.

Amniotic fluid plays several important roles in pregnancy:

1. It provides a shock-absorbing cushion for the developing baby, protecting it from injury caused by movement or external forces.
2. It helps to maintain a constant temperature around the fetus, keeping it warm and comfortable.
3. It allows the developing baby to move freely within the uterus, promoting normal growth and development of the muscles and bones.
4. It provides a source of nutrients and hydration for the fetus, helping to support its growth and development.
5. It helps to prevent infection by providing a barrier between the fetus and the outside world.

Throughout pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid increases as the fetus grows. The amount of fluid typically peaks around 34-36 weeks of gestation, after which it begins to gradually decrease. Abnormalities in the volume of amniotic fluid can indicate problems with the developing baby or the pregnancy itself, and may require medical intervention.

Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) is a prenatal testing procedure that involves taking a small sample of the chorionic villi, which are finger-like projections of the placenta that contain fetal cells. The sample is then tested for genetic disorders and chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome.

CVS is typically performed between the 10th and 12th weeks of pregnancy and carries a small risk of miscarriage (about 1 in 100 to 1 in 200 procedures). The results of CVS can provide important information about the health of the fetus, allowing parents to make informed decisions about their pregnancy. However, it is important to note that CVS does not detect all genetic disorders and may produce false positive or false negative results in some cases. Therefore, follow-up testing may be necessary.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

The second trimester of pregnancy is the period between the completion of 12 weeks (the end of the first trimester) and 26 weeks (the beginning of the third trimester) of gestational age. It is often considered the most comfortable period for many pregnant women as the risk of miscarriage decreases significantly, and the symptoms experienced during the first trimester, such as nausea and fatigue, typically improve.

During this time, the uterus expands above the pubic bone, allowing more space for the growing fetus. The fetal development in the second trimester includes significant growth in size and weight, formation of all major organs, and the beginning of movement sensations that the mother can feel. Additionally, the fetus starts to hear, swallow and kick, and the skin is covered with a protective coating called vernix.

Prenatal care during this period typically includes regular prenatal appointments to monitor the mother's health and the baby's growth and development. These appointments may include measurements of the uterus, fetal heart rate monitoring, and screening tests for genetic disorders or other potential issues.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

Chromosome disorders are a group of genetic conditions caused by abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the body's genetic material, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome disorders can result from changes in the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) or structural abnormalities in one or more chromosomes. Some common examples of chromosome disorders include:

1. Down syndrome: a condition caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and distinctive physical features.
2. Turner syndrome: a condition that affects only females and is caused by the absence of all or part of one X chromosome, resulting in short stature, lack of sexual development, and other symptoms.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: a condition that affects only males and is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome, resulting in tall stature, infertility, and other symptoms.
4. Cri-du-chat syndrome: a condition caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and a distinctive cat-like cry.
5. Fragile X syndrome: a condition caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, resulting in intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and physical symptoms.

Chromosome disorders can be diagnosed through various genetic tests, such as karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific disorder and its associated symptoms and may include medical interventions, therapies, and educational support.

Cordocentesis, also known as percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS), is a medical procedure in which a small amount of fetal blood is withdrawn from the umbilical cord for diagnostic testing. It is typically performed when there is a concern for fetal anemia, chromosomal abnormalities, or other genetic disorders. The procedure involves inserting a thin needle through the mother's abdomen and uterus to reach the umbilical cord, usually during the second trimester of pregnancy. Cordocentesis carries a small risk of complications, including fetal injury, infection, and premature labor.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

Rh isoimmunization is a condition that occurs when an Rh-negative individual (usually a woman) develops an immune response to the Rh-positive blood of another individual (usually a fetus during pregnancy or a transfused blood). The Rh-negative person's immune system recognizes the Rh-positive blood as foreign and produces antibodies against it. This sensitization can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn if the mother becomes pregnant with another Rh-positive fetus, as the maternal antibodies can cross the placenta and attack the fetal red blood cells, potentially causing anemia, jaundice, or more severe complications.

The first exposure to Rh-positive blood typically does not cause a significant reaction because the mother's immune system has not yet produced enough antibodies. However, subsequent exposures can lead to increasingly severe reactions due to the presence of pre-existing antibodies. Preventive measures such as administering Rh immunoglobulin (RhIg) to Rh-negative women during pregnancy and after delivery help prevent sensitization and reduce the risk of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

High-risk pregnancy is a term used to describe a situation where the mother or the fetus has an increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or in the postpartum period. These risks may be due to pre-existing medical conditions in the mother, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Other factors that can contribute to a high-risk pregnancy include advanced maternal age (35 years and older), obesity, multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.), fetal growth restriction, placental issues, and a history of previous pregnancy complications or preterm labor.

High-risk pregnancies require specialized care and monitoring by healthcare professionals, often involving maternal-fetal medicine specialists, obstetricians, perinatologists, and neonatologists. Regular prenatal care, frequent checkups, ultrasound monitoring, and sometimes additional testing and interventions may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

I cannot specifically provide a medical definition for "Test Anxiety Scale," as it is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can give you some information about the concept of test anxiety and its measurement.

Test anxiety is a type of performance anxiety that occurs when an individual experiences excessive fear, worry, or stress before, during, or after taking tests or exams. It can negatively impact their cognitive functioning, memory recall, and overall academic performance. Test anxiety may manifest as physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, rapid heartbeat, sweating) and/or psychological symptoms (e.g., racing thoughts, feelings of panic, low self-esteem).

A Test Anxiety Scale is a standardized psychometric instrument designed to measure the severity of test anxiety experienced by an individual. These scales typically consist of a series of questions or statements that assess various aspects of test anxiety, such as cognitive worry, physical symptoms, and affective reactions. Respondents are asked to rate their agreement with each item on a Likert-type scale (e.g., 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The total score provides an indication of the individual's overall test anxiety level.

Examples of Test Anxiety Scales include:

1. Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale (STAS)
2. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI)
3. The Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ)
4. The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS)
5. The Reactions to Tests Scale (RTS)

These scales are often used in research and clinical settings to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing test anxiety or to identify individuals who may benefit from such interventions.

Estriol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is produced in the placenta during pregnancy and is used as a marker for fetal growth and development. Estriol levels can be measured in the mother's urine or blood to assess fetal well-being during pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic forms of estriol are sometimes used in hormone replacement therapy to treat symptoms of menopause.

Chorioamnionitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the fetal membranes, specifically the chorion and amnion, which make up the membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus in the uterus. This condition is typically caused by a bacterial infection that ascends from the lower genital tract of the mother and infects the amniotic cavity, leading to an inflammatory response.

The symptoms of chorioamnionitis can vary but often include fever, abdominal pain or tenderness, foul-smelling amniotic fluid, and an elevated white blood cell count in the mother's blood. In some cases, it may also be associated with preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes.

Chorioamnionitis can have serious consequences for both the mother and the baby. It can increase the risk of complications such as sepsis, pneumonia, and endometritis in the mother, and may lead to premature birth, respiratory distress syndrome, and brain injury in the newborn. Treatment typically involves administering antibiotics to the mother to help clear the infection and prevent further complications.

Genetic counseling is a process of communication and education between a healthcare professional and an individual or family, aimed at understanding, adapting to, and managing the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. This includes providing information about the risk of inherited conditions, explaining the implications of test results, discussing reproductive options, and offering support and resources for coping with a genetic condition. Genetic counselors are trained healthcare professionals who specialize in helping people understand genetic information and its impact on their health and lives.

An "eugenic abortion" is not a medical term, but rather a descriptive phrase that combines two concepts: eugenics and abortion.

Eugenics refers to the belief and practice of improving the human species by encouraging reproduction of individuals with desired traits and preventing reproduction of those with undesired traits. This concept has been widely criticized for its potential to be used as a tool for discrimination and oppression.

Abortion, on the other hand, is the medical procedure to end a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb.

A "eugenic abortion," therefore, generally refers to the practice of terminating a pregnancy based on the perceived genetic traits or characteristics of the fetus, such as disability, race, or sex. This phrase is often used in discussions about the ethics and morality of selective abortions, and it raises important questions about discrimination, reproductive rights, and medical ethics. It's worth noting that the vast majority of abortions are not performed for eugenic reasons, but rather due to a variety of personal, medical, and socioeconomic factors.

Trisomy is a genetic condition where there is an extra copy of a particular chromosome, resulting in 47 chromosomes instead of the typical 46 in a cell. This usually occurs due to an error in cell division during the development of the egg, sperm, or embryo.

Instead of the normal pair, there are three copies (trisomy) of that chromosome. The most common form of trisomy is Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, where there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. Other forms include Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), which are associated with more severe developmental issues and shorter lifespans.

Trisomy can also occur in a mosaic form, where some cells have the extra chromosome while others do not, leading to varying degrees of symptoms depending on the proportion of affected cells.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Custodial care is a type of long-term care that involves providing assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) such as bathing, dressing, grooming, feeding, and using the bathroom. This type of care is typically provided to individuals who are unable to perform these tasks on their own due to illness, disability, or frailty associated with aging.

Custodial care does not involve medical treatment or skilled nursing care, but rather focuses on helping the individual maintain their daily routine and quality of life. It can be provided in a variety of settings, including at home, in an assisted living facility, or in a nursing home.

It's important to note that custodial care is not covered by Medicare, which typically only covers skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services. However, some long-term care insurance policies may cover custodial care, and Medicaid may also provide coverage for individuals who meet certain income and asset requirements.

Cystic lymphangioma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops in the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system. It is typically present at birth or appears in early childhood. The tumor is caused by the abnormal development of lymphatic vessels, resulting in the formation of cystic spaces filled with lymph fluid.

Cystic lymphangioma can occur anywhere in the body but are most commonly found in the head and neck region, particularly in the tongue, mouth, and throat. They may also appear in the armpits or groin. The tumor usually grows slowly and can cause various symptoms depending on its location. For example, a cystic lymphangioma in the throat can cause difficulty breathing, swallowing, or speaking.

Treatment options for cystic lymphangioma include surgical removal of the tumor, sclerotherapy (injection of a solution that causes the cysts to harden and shrink), or observation if the tumor is not causing any symptoms. The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

"Biological dressings" refer to materials used in wound healing that are derived from biological sources, such as living cells, tissues, or extracellular matrix components. These dressings can be used to promote the regeneration and repair of damaged or injured tissues by providing a supportive environment for cell growth, differentiation, and tissue formation.

Biological dressings may be derived from various sources, including:

1. Autografts: Tissue harvested from the same individual who will receive the graft.
2. Allografts: Tissue harvested from a donor of the same species.
3. Xenografts: Tissue harvested from a donor of a different species.
4. Decellularized tissue matrices: Tissues that have had their cellular components removed, leaving behind an intact extracellular matrix scaffold.
5. Engineered tissues: Tissues created in the lab through the cultivation and assembly of cells on biocompatible scaffolds or hydrogels.

Examples of biological dressings include skin substitutes, amniotic membranes, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations. These dressings can help to reduce inflammation, prevent infection, and enhance the healing process in various types of wounds, including chronic wounds, burns, and surgical incisions.

It is important to note that while biological dressings offer several advantages over traditional wound dressings, they may also carry risks such as immune rejection or disease transmission, depending on their source and preparation. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate biological dressing materials for each individual patient and application.

Premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM) is a medical condition that occurs when the amniotic sac, which surrounds and protects the developing fetus, breaks or ruptures prematurely before labor begins. The amniotic sac is made up of two layers of fetal membranes - the inner amnion and the outer chorion.

In a normal pregnancy, the fetal membranes rupture spontaneously during labor as a sign that the delivery process has begun. However, if the membranes rupture before 37 weeks of gestation, it is considered premature rupture of membranes. PROM can lead to complications such as preterm labor, infection, and fetal distress.

PROM can be classified into two types based on the timing of membrane rupture:

1. Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM): When the membranes rupture before 37 weeks of gestation, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes. PPROM increases the risk of preterm labor and delivery, which can lead to various complications for the newborn, such as respiratory distress syndrome, brain bleeding, and developmental delays.
2. Term Premature Rupture of Membranes (TPROM): When the membranes rupture at or after 37 weeks of gestation, it is called term premature rupture of membranes. TPROM may not necessarily lead to complications if labor begins soon after the membrane rupture and there are no signs of infection. However, if labor does not start within 24 hours of membrane rupture, the risk of infection increases, and the healthcare provider may consider inducing labor or performing a cesarean delivery.

The exact cause of premature rupture of fetal membranes is not always known, but several factors can increase the risk, including previous PROM, bacterial infections, smoking, substance abuse, and trauma to the uterus. Healthcare providers monitor women with PROM closely for signs of infection and preterm labor and may recommend treatments such as antibiotics, corticosteroids, or hospitalization to reduce the risk of complications.

Twin pregnancy refers to a type of multiple pregnancy where a woman is carrying two fetuses simultaneously. There are two types of twin pregnancies: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monoygotic twins occur when a single fertilized egg (zygote) splits and develops into two separate embryos, resulting in identical twins who share the same genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to non-identical twins who have their own unique genetic material.

Twin pregnancies are associated with higher risks of complications compared to singleton pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. Close monitoring by healthcare providers is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the twins.

The first trimester of pregnancy is defined as the period of gestational development that extends from conception (fertilization of the egg by sperm) to the end of the 13th week. This critical phase marks significant transformations in both the mother's body and the growing embryo/fetus.

During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining (implantation), initiating a series of complex interactions leading to the formation of the placenta - an organ essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus while removing waste products. Simultaneously, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and differentiation, giving rise to various organs and systems. By the end of the first trimester, most major structures are present, although they continue to mature and grow throughout pregnancy.

The mother may experience several physiological changes during this time, including:
- Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
- Fatigue
- Breast tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Food aversions or cravings
- Mood swings

Additionally, hormonal shifts can cause various symptoms and prepare the body for potential changes in lactation, posture, and pelvic alignment as pregnancy progresses. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this period to monitor both maternal and fetal wellbeing, identify any potential complications early on, and provide appropriate guidance and support throughout the pregnancy.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Premature obstetric labor, also known as preterm labor, is defined as regular contractions leading to cervical changes that begin before 37 weeks of gestation. This condition can result in premature birth and potentially complications for the newborn, depending on how early the delivery occurs. It's important to note that premature labor requires medical attention and intervention to try to stop or delay it, if possible, to allow for further fetal development.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Aneuploidy is a medical term that refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information in the form of genes.

In humans, the normal number of chromosomes in a cell is 46, arranged in 23 pairs. Aneuploidy occurs when there is an extra or missing chromosome in one or more of these pairs. For example, Down syndrome is a condition that results from an extra copy of chromosome 21, also known as trisomy 21.

Aneuploidy can arise during the formation of gametes (sperm or egg cells) due to errors in the process of cell division called meiosis. These errors can result in eggs or sperm with an abnormal number of chromosomes, which can then lead to aneuploidy in the resulting embryo.

Aneuploidy is a significant cause of birth defects and miscarriages. The severity of the condition depends on which chromosomes are affected and the extent of the abnormality. In some cases, aneuploidy may have no noticeable effects, while in others it can lead to serious health problems or developmental delays.

Erythroblastosis, fetal is a medical condition that occurs in the fetus or newborn when there is an incompatibility between the fetal and maternal blood types, specifically related to the Rh factor or ABO blood group system. This incompatibility leads to the destruction of the fetal red blood cells by the mother's immune system, resulting in the release of bilirubin, which can cause jaundice, anemia, and other complications.

In cases where the mother is Rh negative and the fetus is Rh positive, the mother may develop antibodies against the Rh factor during pregnancy or after delivery, leading to hemolysis (breakdown) of the fetal red blood cells in subsequent pregnancies if preventive measures are not taken. This is known as hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

Similarly, incompatibility between the ABO blood groups can also lead to HDN, although it is generally less severe than Rh incompatibility. In this case, the mother's immune system produces antibodies against the fetal red blood cells, leading to their destruction and subsequent complications.

Fetal erythroblastosis is a serious condition that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Treatment options include intrauterine transfusions, phototherapy, and exchange transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures such as Rh immune globulin (RhIG) injections can help prevent the development of antibodies in Rh-negative mothers, reducing the risk of HDN in subsequent pregnancies.

The amnion is the innermost fetal membrane in mammals, forming a sac that contains and protects the developing embryo and later the fetus within the uterus. It is one of the extraembryonic membranes that are derived from the outer cell mass of the blastocyst during early embryonic development. The amnion is filled with fluid (amniotic fluid) that allows for the freedom of movement and protection of the developing fetus.

The primary function of the amnion is to provide a protective environment for the growing fetus, allowing for expansion and preventing physical damage from outside forces. Additionally, the amniotic fluid serves as a medium for the exchange of waste products and nutrients between the fetal membranes and the placenta. The amnion also contributes to the formation of the umbilical cord and plays a role in the initiation of labor during childbirth.

Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects that affect the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the early brain and spinal cord of the embryo, does not close properly during fetal development. This can result in various conditions such as:

1. Anencephaly: a severe defect where most of the brain and skull are missing. Infants with anencephaly are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth.
2. Spina bifida: a condition where the spine does not close properly, leaving a portion of the spinal cord and nerves exposed. This can result in various neurological problems, including paralysis, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain).
3. Encephalocele: a condition where the skull does not close properly, allowing the brain to protrude through an opening in the skull. This can result in various neurological problems, including developmental delays, vision and hearing impairments, and seizures.

NTDs are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as folic acid deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and exposure to certain medications during pregnancy. Folic acid supplementation before and during early pregnancy has been shown to reduce the risk of NTDs.

A therapeutic abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy before viability (the ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb), which is generally considered to be around 24 weeks of gestation. The term "therapeutic" is used to describe abortions that are performed for medical reasons, such as to protect the life or health of the pregnant individual, or in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality and cannot survive outside the womb.

Therapeutic abortions may be recommended in situations where continuing the pregnancy poses a significant risk to the health or life of the pregnant individual. For example, if a pregnant person has a serious medical condition such as heart disease, cancer, or severe pre-eclampsia, continuing the pregnancy could worsen their condition and put them at risk of serious complications or even death. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be necessary to protect the health or life of the pregnant individual.

Therapeutic abortions may also be recommended in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality that is not compatible with life outside the womb. For example, if the fetus has a condition such as anencephaly (a neural tube defect where the brain and skull do not form properly), or a chromosomal abnormality such as Trisomy 13 or 18, continuing the pregnancy may result in a stillbirth or a short, painful life for the infant after birth. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be considered a compassionate option to prevent unnecessary suffering.

It's important to note that the decision to undergo a therapeutic abortion is a deeply personal one, and should be made in consultation with medical professionals and trusted family members or support networks. Ultimately, the decision should be based on what is best for the physical and emotional health of the pregnant individual, taking into account their values, beliefs, and circumstances.

"Fetal organ maturity" refers to the stage of development and functional competency of the various organs in a fetus. It is the point at which an organ has developed enough to be able to perform its intended physiological functions effectively and sustainably. This maturity is determined by a combination of factors including structural development, cellular differentiation, and biochemical functionality.

Fetal organ maturity is a critical aspect of fetal development, as it directly impacts the newborn's ability to survive and thrive outside the womb. The level of maturity varies among different organs, with some becoming mature earlier in gestation while others continue to develop and mature until birth or even after.

Assessment of fetal organ maturity is often used in clinical settings to determine the optimal time for delivery, particularly in cases where there are risks associated with premature birth. This assessment typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound and MRI, as well as laboratory tests and physical examinations.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

Congenital foot deformities refer to abnormal structural changes in the foot that are present at birth. These deformities can vary from mild to severe and may affect the shape, position, or function of one or both feet. Common examples include clubfoot (talipes equinovarus), congenital vertical talus, and cavus foot. Congenital foot deformities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences during fetal development, or a combination of both. Treatment options may include stretching, casting, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and type of the deformity.

Intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT) is a medical procedure in which blood is transfused into the fetal circulation through the umbilical vein while the fetus is still in the uterus. This procedure is typically performed to treat severe anemia in the fetus, most commonly caused by hemolytic disease of the newborn due to Rh incompatibility or ABO incompatibility between the mother and fetus.

During the procedure, ultrasound guidance is used to insert a thin needle through the mother's abdomen and uterus and into the umbilical vein of the fetus. The blood is then transfused slowly, allowing the fetal body to adjust to the increased volume. The procedure may need to be repeated every 2-4 weeks until the baby is mature enough for delivery.

IUT is a highly specialized procedure that requires significant expertise and experience in maternal-fetal medicine and interventional radiology. It carries risks such as preterm labor, infection, fetal bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), and fetal loss, but it can be life-saving for the fetus when performed appropriately.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "freedom" is a philosophical or abstract concept and not a medical term. It refers to the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint. It does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

Sex determination analysis is a medical or biological examination used to establish the genetic or phenotypic sex of an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: Examination of an individual's DNA to identify the presence of specific sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males). This is typically performed through a blood or tissue sample.
2. Chromosomal analysis: Microscopic examination of an individual's chromosomes to determine their number and structure. In humans, females typically have 46 chromosomes, including two X chromosomes (46,XX), while males typically have 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY).
3. Phenotypic analysis: Observation of an individual's physical characteristics, such as the presence or absence of certain sex organs or secondary sexual characteristics, to determine their phenotypic sex.

Sex determination analysis is used in various medical and research contexts, including prenatal testing, diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSDs), forensic investigations, and population studies. It's important to note that while sex determination analysis can provide information about an individual's genetic or phenotypic sex, it does not necessarily reflect their gender identity, which is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A karyotype is a method used in genetics to describe the number and visual appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. It includes the arrangement of the chromosomes by length, position of the centromeres, and banding pattern. A karyotype is often represented as a photograph or image of an individual's chromosomes, arranged in pairs from largest to smallest, that has been stained to show the bands of DNA. This information can be used to identify genetic abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations. A karyotype is typically obtained by culturing cells from a sample of blood or tissue, then arresting the cell division at metaphase and staining the chromosomes to make them visible for analysis.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Mosaicism, in the context of genetics and medicine, refers to the presence of two or more cell lines with different genetic compositions in an individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg. This means that some cells have one genetic makeup, while others have a different genetic makeup. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as errors during cell division after fertilization.

Mosaicism can involve chromosomes (where whole or parts of chromosomes are present in some cells but not in others) or it can involve single genes (where a particular gene is present in one form in some cells and a different form in others). The symptoms and severity of mosaicism can vary widely, depending on the type and location of the genetic difference and the proportion of cells that are affected. Some individuals with mosaicism may not experience any noticeable effects, while others may have significant health problems.

Fetofetal transfusion is a medical condition that can occur in pregnancies with multiple fetuses, such as twins or higher-order multiples. It refers to the transfer of blood from one fetus (donor) to another (recipient) through anastomotic connections in their shared placenta.

In some cases, these anastomoses can result in an imbalance in blood flow between the fetuses, leading to a net transfer of blood from one fetus to the other. This situation is more likely to occur when there is a significant weight or size difference between the fetuses, known as twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).

In TTTS, the recipient fetus receives an excess of blood, which can lead to high-output cardiac failure, hydrops, and potential intrauterine demise. Meanwhile, the donor fetus may become anemic, growth-restricted, and at risk for hypovolemia and intrauterine demise as well. Fetofetal transfusion can be diagnosed through ultrasound evaluation and managed with various interventions, including laser ablation of anastomotic vessels or fetoscopic surgery, depending on the severity and gestational age at diagnosis.

... , along with chorionic villus sampling, are examples of prenatal diagnostic tests. Amniocentesis or chorionic ... This study cites the amniocentesis-related pregnancy loss to be 0.30% (95% CI, 0.11-0.49%). The incidence of amniocentesis- ... or culture of the amniotic fluid obtained via amniocentesis. However, in clinical practice, performing an amniocentesis for the ... is associated with significantly higher rates of pregnancy loss following amniocentesis. Early amniocentesis also has higher ...
Sherman, Elias (2013). "Amniocentesis". Genetic Disorders and the Fetus. Springer. pp. 31-52. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-5155-9_2. ... In addition to CVS, amniocentesis can be used to obtain fetal karyotype by examining fetal cells in amniotic fluid. It was ... poses less risk as compared to amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling (CVS). Chorionic villus sampling utilizes placental ...
Prenatal testing, such as amniocentesis, is available to pregnant women who may be carriers of the condition. As with all ... "Amniocentesis". National Health Service. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2020. "What Is Hemophilia? - NHLBI, NIH". www. ... usually during weeks 11-14 of pregnancy amniocentesis: a sample of amniotic fluid is taken for testing, usually during weeks 15 ...
Amniocentesis is very accurate; however, there is a risk of miscarriage which occur in 0.5-1% of women who have amniocentesis. ... A normal amniocentesis result means the EIF is not significant and there would be no other concerns about it. That is usually ... Amniocentesis is a test to check a baby's chromosomes. A small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains some fetal cells, is ... "Amniocentesis". nhs.uk. 20 October 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2019. (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
ISBN 978-1-4987-2056-4. Perni, Sriram C.; Roost, John R.; Chervenak, Frank A. (2017). "Amniocentesis". Operative Obstetrics. ...
Amniocentesis provides a sample of amniotic fluid that can be used to screen for sequence variants or chromosomal variants, ... "Amniocentesis". www.bcwomens.ca. Retrieved 2019-03-19. "Chorionic Villus Sampling". www.bcwomens.ca. Retrieved 2019-03-19. ... Mothers carrying a fetus with suspected L1 syndrome will often elect to undergo amniocentesis despite its risk, rather than ... "Amniocentesis". www.bcwomens.ca. Retrieved 2019-03-20. "Amniotic fluid: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. ...
Amniocentesis is a medical procedure where fluid from the sac is sampled during fetal development, between 15 and 20 weeks of ... The amniotic sac has to be punctured to perform amniocentesis. This is fairly routine procedure, but can lead to infection of ... doi:10.1016/B978-1-4557-2794-0.00007-3. ISBN 978-1-4557-2794-0. "Amniocentesis". nhs.uk. 20 October 2017. Retrieved 6 October ...
ISBN 978-1-119-67698-0. "Diagnostic Tests - Amniocentesis". Harvard Medical School. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. ... substances via invasive procedures which involve inserting probes or needles into the uterus such as in amniocentesis. Not all ...
Dube, Leela (1983). "Misadventures in Amniocentesis". Economic and Political Weekly. 18. "Female foeticide in India , UNICEF". ...
Jeffery, R (1984). "Female infanticide and amniocentesis". Social Science & Medicine. 19 (11): 1207-1212. doi:10.1016/0277-9536 ...
Amniocentesis in the second-trimester. Because 3C syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, parents with one child with the ...
... amniocentesis). However, chorionic villus sampling has a risk of fetal death of one in 100 and amniocentesis of one in 200; a ... November 2006). "Pregnancy loss rates after midtrimester amniocentesis". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 108 (5): 1067-72. doi: ... "Randomised controlled trial of genetic amniocentesis in 4606 low-risk women". Lancet. 1 (8493): 1287-93. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736 ...
John O'Connor (1997-03-21). "TV WEEKEND - Amniocentesis for the Gay Factor". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-27. Eric Mink ( ...
Benn, Peter A.; Lillian Y. F. Hsu (2004). "Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosomal Abnormalities through Amniocentesis". In Aubrey ... such as amniocentesis or fetal blood sampling. In theory, CPM is when the trisomic cells are found only in the placenta. CPM is ...
Amniocentesis has become the standard of care for prenatal care visits for women who are "at risk" or over a certain age. The ... Since amniocentesis has approximately a 0.5% chance of miscarriage, one of those 200 normal pregnancies might result in a ... Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis (Review). By Alfirevic Z, Mujezinovic F, Sundberg K at The ... An invasive method involves probes or needles being inserted into the uterus, e.g. amniocentesis, which can be done from about ...
Amniocentesis is also a technique for diagnosis. Samples from the amniotic fluid are taken from a fetus, cultured, then ...
An amniotic fluid sample is collected via amniocentesis and the sample is spun down in a centrifuge at 1000 rpm for 3-5 minutes ... "Diagnosis of the respiratory distress syndrome by amniocentesis". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 109 (3): 440-45. doi:10.1016/0002- ...
"Diagnosis of the respiratory distress syndrome by amniocentesis". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 109 (3): 440-5 ...
Amniocentesis is another invasive procedure which can be used to collect foetal DNA samples.[medical citation needed] This ... Before amniocentesis commences, the doctor will inject local anaesthetics to the mother's abdomen. The doctor will then apply ... "Amniocentesis - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center". www.urmc.rochester.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-08. ... The two most common invasive methods of extracting foetal DNA are chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AMC). ...
Amniocentesis is usually performed at 15-18 weeks. These procedures have risks of miscarriage of 1% or less. Preimplantation ... "Chorionic Villus Sampling and Amniocentesis: Recommendations for Prenatal Counseling". United States, Center for Disease ...
Kaunitz A, Di Sant'Agnese PA (December 1979). "Needle tract endometriosis: an unusual complication of amniocentesis". ... amniocentesis, appendectomy, episiotomy, vaginal hysterectomies, and hernia repair. Endometriosis may also present with skin ...
Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are procedures conducted to assess the fetus. A sample of amniotic fluid is ... Miscarriage caused by invasive prenatal diagnosis (chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis) is rare (about 1%). The ... Agarwal K, Alfirevic Z (August 2012). "Pregnancy loss after chorionic villus sampling and genetic amniocentesis in twin ... Alfirevic Z, Navaratnam K, Mujezinovic F (September 2017). "Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis ...
Anatomical defect in the mother Amniocentesis Chorionic villus sampling Age >30 Smoking and exposure tobacco smoke[failed ... Agarwal K, Alfirevic Z (August 2012). "Pregnancy loss after chorionic villus sampling and genetic amniocentesis in twin ... Alfirevic, Zarko; Navaratnam, Kate; Mujezinovic, Faris (September 4, 2017). "Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for ...
Pregnant women can also undergo testing via amniocentesis. Enzymatic activity studies in fibroblasts and/or lymphocytes ...
An amniocentesis later proves the baby is Sonny's. On her way to tell him, Claudia is accidentally run off the road by Sonny's ...
CVS usually takes place at 10-12 weeks' gestation, earlier than amniocentesis or percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling. It ... Alfirevic, Z.; Sundberg, K.; Brigham, S. (2003). Alfirevic, Zarko (ed.). "Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for ... Alfirevic, Z. (2000). "Early amniocentesis versus transabdominal chorion villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis". The Cochrane ... "Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis: recommendations for prenatal counseling. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Two such diagnostic tests are chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis. Individual states and countries vary on their ... Some medical organizations advocate the offer of diagnostic testing by chorionic villi sampling, and amniocentesis to all ... Alfirevic, Z; Navaratnam, K; Mujezinovic, F (4 September 2017). "Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal ...
Techniques included chronic villus sampling, amniocentesis, and ultrasounds. However, since there were no substantive penalties ...
Since the advent of forms of prenatal diagnosis, such as amniocentesis and ultrasound, it has become possible to detect the ... However, only 2-3 percent of women agree to completing genetic testing, CVS or amniocentesis, the current tests for chromosomal ... Common invasive tests are amniocentesis, the screening of amniotic fluid from the uterus, and chorionic villus sampling, which ... Alfirevic Z, Navaratnam K, Mujezinovic F (September 4, 2017). "Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal ...
Cell-free DNA, Amniocentesis, and Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS). Of the three, CVS is no longer used due to risk of worsening ... Amniocentesis is another recommended method for testing antigen status and risk for HDN. Fetal antigen status can be tested as ... and may also include assessment with amniocentesis and Middle Cerebral Artery scans.[citation needed] Blood testing for the ...
Amniocentesis, along with chorionic villus sampling, are examples of prenatal diagnostic tests. Amniocentesis or chorionic ... This study cites the amniocentesis-related pregnancy loss to be 0.30% (95% CI, 0.11-0.49%). The incidence of amniocentesis- ... or culture of the amniotic fluid obtained via amniocentesis. However, in clinical practice, performing an amniocentesis for the ... is associated with significantly higher rates of pregnancy loss following amniocentesis. Early amniocentesis also has higher ...
... your doctor may offer amniocentesis. Amniocentesis is a test that detects or rules out certain inherited disorders in a fetus. ... Amniocentesis is a test that detects or rules out certain inherited disorders in a fetus. It also assesses lung maturity to see ... When you are about 15 weeks pregnant, your doctor may offer amniocentesis. Amniocentesis is a test that detects or rules out ... Doctors generally offer amniocentesis to women with an increased risk of having a baby with particular disorders, including ...
Chorionic Villus Sampling and Amniocentesis: Recommendations for Prenatal Counseling ... Amniocentesis is usually performed at 15-18 weeks gestation, but more amniocentesis procedures are now being performed at 11- ... amniocentesis became an accepted standard of care in the 1970s. In 1990, more than 200,000 amniocentesis procedures were ... of amniocentesis procedures. Prospective parents considering the use of either CVS or amniocentesis should be counseled about ...
For amniocentesis, studies evaluated drugs that relax the uterus (tocolytics), progesterone prophylaxis, or compared the ... Technique modification for reducing the risks from amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Currently, many technical ... The objective of this review was to compare the safety and effectiveness of all techniques of performing both amniocentesis and ... For amniocentesis three interventions were evaluated - intramuscular progesterone, hexoprenaline and selecting high or low ...
SI818U: Uterus, Genetic Abnormality/Fetal Maturity, with/without Ultrasound Guided Amniocentesis. Page Content ... SI818U: Uterus, Genetic Abnormality/Fetal Maturity, with/without Ultrasound Guided AmniocentesisCurrently selected ...
Information about the SNOMED CT code 61362004 representing Fetal or neonatal effect of damage to placenta from amniocentesis. ... Fetal or neonatal effect of damage to placenta from amniocentesis 61362004 removed: 2013-07-31. ancestors. sorted most to least ... Fetal or neonatal effect of damage to placenta from amniocentesis 61362004. SNOMED CT code. SNOMED code. 61362004. ... Fetal or neonatal effect of damage to placenta from amniocentesis (disorder). synonyms. Fetal or neonatal effect of damage to ...
This Lexvo.org page describes the entity referred to by the URI http://lexvo.org/id/wordnet/30/noun/amniocentesis_1_04_00. A ... http://purl.org/vocabularies/princeton/wn30/synset-amniocentesis-noun-1. skos:note. This resource corresponds to the meaning of ...
Amniocentesis. One of the methods used to test for disorder and health problems with the fetus is amniocentesis. Amniocentesis ... When will amniocentesis or CVS occur?. The first amniocentesis can occur any time after the 15th week of pregnancy. CVS will ... The accuracy of amniocentesis and CVS testing is not 100% and in some cases, a red flag can trigger further testing only to ... The amniocentesis can be done around 15-18 weeks for genetic testing or later on in pregnancy for other tests including tests ...
AMNIOCENTESIS FOR PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS. / Hsu, Lillian Y.F.; Yahr, Felice; Godmilow, Lynn et al. In: The Lancet, Vol. 307, No. ... Hsu, L. Y. F., Yahr, F., Godmilow, L., & Hirschhorn, K. (1976). AMNIOCENTESIS FOR PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS. The Lancet, 307(7952), ... Hsu, LYF, Yahr, F, Godmilow, L & Hirschhorn, K 1976, AMNIOCENTESIS FOR PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, The Lancet, vol. 307, no. 7952, pp ... title = "AMNIOCENTESIS FOR PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS",. author = "Hsu, {Lillian Y.F.} and Felice Yahr and Lynn Godmilow and Kurt ...
Amniocentesis. Consider an amniocentesis for the fetal lung profile if delivery is contemplated before 39 weeks gestation. ... When is amniocentesis indicated in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)?. What is the prepregnancy management of ... For elective induction before 38.5 weeks, fetal lung maturity should be verified via amniocentesis. ...
Amniocentesis. WELL is a programme incorporating support, education and information on a wide range of health and wellbeing ... Find out more about the results of amniocentesis. What are the risks of amniocentesis?. Before you decide to have amniocentesis ... How amniocentesis is performed. Amniocentesis is usually carried out between the 15th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, but you can ... When amniocentesis is offered. Amniocentesis is not offered to all pregnant women. Its only offered if theres a higher chance ...
Serial amniocentesis[edit]. This procedure involves removal of amniotic fluid periodically throughout the pregnancy under the ... Fetoscopy and laser ablation; serial amniocentesis. Prognosis. 0-20% survival of one or all fetuses without treatment;[1]. 66- ... serial amniocentesis), which is associated with a 66% survival rate of at least one fetus. Without treatment, there is an ...
Amniocentesis. Consider an amniocentesis for the fetal lung profile if delivery is contemplated before 39 weeks gestation. ... When is amniocentesis indicated in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)?. What is the prepregnancy management of ... For elective induction before 38.5 weeks, fetal lung maturity should be verified via amniocentesis. ...
The earlier time for amniocentesis is unequivocally set at ≥15 gestational weeks, whereas for CVS, the earlier limit varies ... Definite prenatal diagnosis is only possible by invasive prenatal diagnostic testing (IPDT), mainly including amniocentesis and ... Amniocentesis 4.1.1. Timing All guidelines agree that amniocentesis should be performed only after 15 completed gestational ... and amniocentesis as well as fetal blood sampling (FBS) under specific indications [10,11]. The first diagnostic amniocentesis ...
Searching for information on what amniocentesis is really like? I had one - Heres my experience. ... However, you better believe I spent HOURS online, searching for "Whats Amniocentesis really like?" and "1 in 60 Triple Screen ... And among those piles of search terms, you are going to find the term amniocentesis. ... faced with an incomplete Triple Screen or Ultrasound and are wondering what an Amniocentesis is really like, Ill share my ...
Gain a comprehensive understanding of the amniocentesis procedure, its importance in prenatal care, and what to expect during ... Ongoing Care After Amniocentesis. Fostering continued prenatal care after amniocentesis is essential to ensure the welfare and ... Criteria for Amniocentesis. Amniocentesis may be suggested for expectant mothers above 35 years, those with unusual ultrasound ... Genetic Counselling and Amniocentesis. Counselors are integral to the amniocentesis process, ready to elucidate potential ...
Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used primarily in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and metabolic disorders ... Amniocentesis. Amniocentesis (also referred to as an amniotic fluid test or, informally, an "amnio") is a medical procedure ... An amniocentesis is performed by a Fetal Medicine Specialist when a woman is between 15 and 20 weeks gestation. Women who ... Amniocentesis (or another procedure, called chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) can diagnose these problems in the womb. These ...
1983). FURTHER COMMENTS ON AMNIOCENTESIS IN TWIN GESTATIONS . 14(2), 397-398. 10.1002/ajmg.1320140223 Share this citation. ... FURTHER COMMENTS ON AMNIOCENTESIS IN TWIN GESTATIONS Letter VERP, MS, ELIAS, S, SIMPSON, JL. ( ... 1983). FURTHER COMMENTS ON AMNIOCENTESIS IN TWIN GESTATIONS . 14(2), 397-398. 10.1002/ajmg.1320140223 ...
Amniocentesis (Consent Advice No. 6). This paper provides advice for clinicians in obtaining consent of women undergoing ...
What is amniocentesis?. An amniocentesis is done to sample the amniotic fluid around your baby. This fluid will contain some of ... The amniocentesis procedure is straightforward and can be done in our clinic. It requires placing a small needle through the ... This procedure, which is similar to amniocentesis, injects red blood cells from a compatible donor into the babys umbilical ...
Trusted Amniocentesis Specialist serving Silver Spring, MD & Germantown, MD. Visit our website to book an appointment online: ... Amniocentesis Q & A. What is amniocentesis?. Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test that checks your amniotic fluid for signs of ... Is an amniocentesis safe for my baby?. An amniocentesis is a safe procedure. Your MFM specialist will talk to you in more ... What happens during amniocentesis?. An amniocentesis usually takes about 15 minutes. Your MFM specialist gives you instructions ...
... which is done through amniocentesis. However, amniocentesis itself can sometimes cause problems, and its possible for ... Amniocentesis. An expectant mother with polyhydramnios will also be watched closely for signs of preterm labor. If her doctor ...
See also amniocentesis; preeclampsia and eclampsia; premature birth.. ectopic pregnancy Summary Ectopic pregnancy, condition in ...
Amniocentesis. *. Anal or Rectal Pain. *. Anemia. *. Anemia and Iron Deficiency Screening. *. Animal Allergies. ...
The Gale Encyclopedia of Science 6th Edition: A one-stop source for science information that covers all major areas of science, engineering, technology, mathematics and the medical and health sciences, while providing a comprehensive overview of current scientific knowledge and technology and is aligned with science standards and high school curricula.
Whats The Difference Between Chorionic Villus Sampling And Amniocentesis?. HealthStatus Crew Why You Should Stop Judging Your ...
NTAMNIO, NTMONITO, NTINDUCT, NTSTIMUL, NTTOCOL, NTULTRAS, NTOTHROB: Obstetric procedures - Amniocentesis, Electronic fetal ... Amniocentesis--Surgical transabdominal perforation of the uterus to obtain amniotic fluid to be used in the detection of ...
Although there are some chances of infertility, you should know that you can get pregnant even if you have this condition. In this case you might be
Amniocentesis. A diagnostic test to screen for chromosome abnormalities and inherited disorders. A sample of amniotic fluid is ... These additional tests, such as amniocentesis and chronic villus sampling, are often more invasive and have additional risks to ...
  • Amniocentesis, along with chorionic villus sampling, are examples of prenatal diagnostic tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are necessary to conclusively diagnose the majority of genetic disorders, with amniocentesis being the gold-standard procedure after 15 weeks' gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling is an alternative to amniocentesis if genetic diagnostic testing is to be performed in the first trimester between 10 and 15 weeks' gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis are prenatal diagnostic procedures that are performed to detect fetal abnormalities. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently, many technical aspects of how amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are carried out are left to the operator's personal preference. (cochrane.org)
  • Currently, the techniques for amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) tend to be described in local and national guidelines, but certain aspects, including the choice of instruments, is predominantly based upon the operator's personal preference. (cochrane.org)
  • Mujezinovic F, Alfirevic Z. Technique modifications for reducing the risks from amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. (cochrane.org)
  • Chorionic villus sampling can be used to test for the same chromosome disorders as the amniocentesis. (babymed.com)
  • What's The Difference Between Chorionic Villus Sampling And Amniocentesis? (healthstatus.com)
  • Since prenatal diagnoses of Down syndrome via invasive procedures like amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling have been available in the US for decades, such calculations are possible. (genomeweb.com)
  • Fetal lung development can be tested by sampling the amount of surfactant in the amniotic fluid obtained via amniocentesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniocentesis requires the withdrawal of a small amount of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac before the baby is born. (babymed.com)
  • [5] Other treatments include periodic removal of amniotic fluid (serial amniocentesis ), which is associated with a 66% survival rate of at least one fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniocentesis has traditionally been performed to assess the extent of fetal lung development in the context of medical and obstetrical complications, with the intention of delivering the fetus if fetal lung maturity is demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • With robust awareness of the amniocentesis steps, patients and medical practitioners can collaborate effectively towards optimal maternal and fetal health. (katepauline.com)
  • Prenatal diagnostic testing, which includes amniocentesis, is necessary to conclusively diagnose the majority of genetic disorders, with amniocentesis being the gold-standard procedure after 15 weeks' gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An amniocentesis is typically performed in the second trimester between the 15th and 20th week of gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, CVS is done at 10-12 weeks' gestation, and amniocentesis is done at 15-18 weeks' gestation. (cdc.gov)
  • We included all randomised comparisons of different methods of performing amniocentesis after 15 weeks' gestation, or CVS (transabdominal or transvaginal) with each other or with no testing. (cochrane.org)
  • By contrast, amniocentesis is typically performed between 15 weeks and 20 weeks gestation. (genomeweb.com)
  • Amniocentesis may be offered to certain patients at higher risks of having a fetus with a genetic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniocentesis is a test that detects or rules out certain inherited disorders in a fetus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • During amniocentesis, a small sample of the fluid that surrounds the fetus is removed. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the methods used to test for disorder and health problems with the fetus is amniocentesis. (babymed.com)
  • Both amniocentesis and CVS tests carry a small chance of a miscarriage of the fetus. (babymed.com)
  • Fostering continued prenatal care after amniocentesis is essential to ensure the welfare and progress of the fetus. (katepauline.com)
  • Amniocentesis Prenatal diagnostic testing involves testing the fetus before birth (prenatally) to determine whether the fetus has certain abnormalities, including certain hereditary or spontaneous genetic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are blood tests and ultrasound tests that can be done earlier in the pregnancy which may avoid the need for amniocentesis at times. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It really doesn't matter why you decide to get it or not get it, but if you are in the same boat, faced with an incomplete Triple Screen or Ultrasound and are wondering what an Amniocentesis is really like, I'll share my experience with you. (survivemag.com)
  • Amniocentesis may be suggested for expectant mothers above 35 years, those with unusual ultrasound results, or if there's a family history of genetic disorders. (katepauline.com)
  • Ultrasound technology is indispensable during amniocentesis, aiding in entry point identification, needle guidance, and assessing the fetus's reaction. (katepauline.com)
  • If her doctor feels that the presence of too much fluid might be problematic, some can be safely removed through a process called amnioreduction, which is done through amniocentesis. (justmommies.com)
  • However, amniocentesis itself can sometimes cause problems, and it's possible for polyhydramnios to recur even after some fluid has been drained out. (justmommies.com)
  • Doctors also offer amniocentesis to women with pregnancy complications, such as Rh-incompatibility, that necessitate early delivery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, CVS is generally done earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis and is particularly advantageous for detecting certain genetic conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • The amniocentesis can be done around 15-18 weeks for genetic testing or later on in pregnancy for other tests including tests to check for pulmonary maturity (LS/PG test). (babymed.com)
  • The first amniocentesis can occur any time after the 15th week of pregnancy. (babymed.com)
  • Amniocentesis may be performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • When deciding on whether to perform invasive genetic diagnostic testing such as amniocentesis, patients and their physicians should participate in a shared-decision-making process that takes into account a patient's individual risk profile and preferences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used primarily in the prenatal diagnosis of genetic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this review was to compare the safety and effectiveness of all techniques of performing both amniocentesis and CVS for prenatal diagnosis. (cochrane.org)
  • Understanding amniocentesis procedure is vital for expectant parents and healthcare professionals alike. (katepauline.com)
  • For amniocentesis three interventions were evaluated - intramuscular progesterone, hexoprenaline and selecting high or low puncture sites for late 'blind' procedure - each intervention in a single small study. (cochrane.org)
  • Prospective parents considering the use of either CVS or amniocentesis should be counseled about the benefits and risks of these procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes CVS and amniocentesis, provides information on indications for their use, reviews studies about the safety of the procedures, compares the benefits and risks of the two procedures (focusing particularly on the risk for limb deficiency after CVS), and provides recommendations for counseling about these issues. (cdc.gov)
  • Healthcare providers must discuss the risks and rewards with candidates before conducting amniocentesis, establishing the fetus's gestational age and confirming the procedure's necessity. (katepauline.com)
  • When you are about 15 weeks pregnant, your doctor may offer amniocentesis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the United States, the current standard of care in obstetrical practice is to offer either CVS or amniocentesis to women who will be greater than or equal to 35 years of age when they give birth, because these women are at increased risk for giving birth to infants with Down syndrome and certain other types of aneuploidy. (cdc.gov)
  • We included five randomised studies with total of 1049 women evaluating five different technique modifications during either amniocentesis (three studies) or CVS (two studies). (cochrane.org)
  • Some women choose to wait until they can have amniocentesis. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • And among those piles of search terms, you are going to find the term amniocentesis. (survivemag.com)
  • Subjects who had an indication for genetic amniocentesis based on late maternal age were eligible to participate. (cdc.gov)
  • For amniocentesis, studies evaluated drugs that relax the uterus (tocolytics), progesterone prophylaxis, or compared the difference in safety for different puncture sites. (cochrane.org)
  • The accuracy of amniocentesis and CVS testing is not 100% and in some cases, a red flag can trigger further testing only to find out the baby is fine. (babymed.com)
  • Another important factor is the risk for miscarriage, which has been attributed to 0.5%-1.0% of CVS procedures and 0.25%-0.50% of amniocentesis procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • Counselors are integral to the amniocentesis process, ready to elucidate potential results, interpret outcomes, and provide emotional support. (katepauline.com)
  • Analysis of samples obtained from amniocentesis is accomplished via karyotyping and DNA analysis technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CVS is generally done earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis and is particularly advantageous for detecting certain genetic conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • CVS is usually performed earlier during the pregnancy than amniocentesis, most often between the tenth and twelfth week of pregnancy. (healthychildren.org)
  • Woo R. A short history of amniocentesis, fetoscopy and chorionic villous sampling. (medscape.com)
  • Procedure-related complications of amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling: a systematic review. (ciane.net)
  • Amniocentesis, a procedure to take amniotic fluid from the womb. (healthychildren.org)
  • The conventional method of obtaining foetal DNA in order to conduct such tests is via amniocentesis, which is an invasive procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding the developing foetus using a needle. (patentology.com.au)
  • With amniocentesis, the doctor inserts a thin needle through the pregnant woman's abdominal wall into the uterus. (healthychildren.org)
  • Amniocentesis removes a small amount of fluid from the sac around the baby in the womb (uterus). (medlineplus.gov)
  • DATA SOURCES: We searched the MEDLINE database for articles published after January 1, 1995, that reported data for at least 100 women with singleton pregnancies with genetic amniocentesis after 14 weeks of pregnancy and reports of CVS carried out transabdominally between 10 and 14 weeks. (ciane.net)
  • Patients who either did (study group, n=3,096) or did not (control group, n=31,907) undergo midtrimester amniocentesis were identified from the database. (nih.gov)
  • Amniocentesis in HIV pregnant women: 16 years of experience. (medscape.com)
  • This study explores ambivalence toward undergoing amniocentesis among pregnant women with overall positive attitudes. (nih.gov)
  • Amniocentesis is usually offered to women who are at increased risk of having a child with birth defects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the United States, the current standard of care in obstetrical practice is to offer either CVS or amniocentesis to women who will be greater than or equal to 35 years of age when they give birth, because these women are at increased risk for giving birth to infants with Down syndrome and certain other types of aneuploidy. (cdc.gov)
  • Risk of Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B after Amniocentesis in HBs Antigen-Positive Mothers. (medscape.com)
  • Prospective parents considering the use of either CVS or amniocentesis should be counseled about the benefits and risks of these procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • Note: Amniocentesis typically is the most accurate test for genetic conditions and malformation, although rare, a baby may still have genetic or other types of birth defects, even if amniocentesis results are normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Karyotyping of cells obtained by either amniocentesis or CVS is the standard and definitive means of diagnosing aneuploidy in fetuses. (cdc.gov)
  • To be able to do this noninvasively with a tube of blood, with accuracy that is as good as amniocentesis, is pretty darn remarkable. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To compile a systematic review of complications related to genetic amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to provide benchmark data for counseling and performance assessment of individual operators. (ciane.net)
  • Attitudes toward undergoing amniocentesis were generally positive, although all participants simultaneously described feeling ambivalent. (nih.gov)
  • Because of my age, 39 at the time, I was offered the choice of having an amniocentesis. (mosaicdownsyndrome.com)
  • Until now, we have completely relied on amniocentesis and chorionic villi sampling, which carry a significant risk, although low. (medscape.com)