Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
A syndrome characterized by a transient loss of the ability to form new memories. It primarily occurs in middle aged or elderly individuals, and episodes may last from minutes to hours. During the period of amnesia, immediate and recent memory abilities are impaired, but the level of consciousness and ability to perform other intellectual tasks are preserved. The condition is related to bilateral dysfunction of the medial portions of each TEMPORAL LOBE. Complete recovery normally occurs, and recurrences are unusual. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp429-30)
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
A thiamine antagonist due to its inhibition of thiamine pyrophosphorylation. It is used to produce thiamine deficiency.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.

Recovery from anterograde and retrograde amnesia after percutaneous drainage of a cystic craniopharyngioma. (1/84)

A case is reported of a cystic craniopharyngioma involving the floor and walls of the third ventricle. Pronounced anterograde and retrograde amnesia were documented preoperatively by formal testing. Rapid improvement in both new learning capacity and remote memory occurred after percutaneous twist drill drainage of the cystic portion of the tumour. The relevance of these observations to the amnesic syndrome and its neuropathological basis is discussed.  (+info)

Naloxone in the prevention of the adverse cognitive effects of ECT: a within-subject, placebo controlled study. (2/84)

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective treatment for major depression, but is also associated with characteristic cognitive side effects. Several reports document that endogenous opioids and their receptors are activated by electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and that naloxone in doses sufficient to block endogenous opioid receptors may reverse ECS-induced retrograde amnesia. This placebo-controlled, randomized, within-patient study was conducted to examine the potential of naloxone, given in doses sufficient to block opioid receptors (high dose), to ameliorate acute anterograde and retrograde memory impairments following ECT. Compared to placebo and low dose naloxone, high dose naloxone administered immediately before ECT resulted in significant reductions in anterograde amnesia, and better performance on an attention task. Both low and high dose naloxone improved verbal fluency. There were no beneficial effects of high dose naloxone on retrograde amnesia, and an indication that high dose naloxone may have worsened retrograde amnesia for shape stimuli. There were no effects of high dose naloxone on seizure duration, vital signs, and subjective side effects. The study is consistent with prior research in which change in behavioral and physiological measures was produced principally by naloxone doses sufficient to block endogenous opioid receptors and offers evidence of the potential for ameliorating some adverse cognitive effects associated with ECT.  (+info)

Anterograde and retrograde amnesia after lesions to frontal cortex in rats. (3/84)

A socially acquired food-preference test was used to assess effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on anterograde and retrograde memory in rats. In Experiment 1, there was no effect of lesion when rats were administered a two-choice test in which the target food was to be selected in the presence of a single distractor. In Experiment 2, a three-choice memory test was administered in which the target food was presented along with two equally palatable alternatives. In the latter test, lesioned groups displayed anterograde amnesia that increased with the length of the interval between postoperative acquisition and test, and a severe retrograde amnesia that extended equally over the entire range of intervals between preoperative acquisition and test. This outcome, which contrasted with the pattern of memory loss previously observed in rats with hippocampal lesions on this test, was interpreted as evidence for the strategic role of the frontal lobes in directing response selection and retrieval processes in memory.  (+info)

Reactivation-dependent changes in memory states in the terrestrial slug Limax flavus. (4/84)

The change in memory state in the terrestrial slug Limax flavus was studied using cooling-induced retrograde amnesia. Slugs were first conditioned to avoid carrot odor and then a second conditioning procedure was applied 1, 3, 6, or 7 days after the first conditioning trial. Cooling the slugs to approximately 1 degrees C on day 7 immediately after the presentation of the odor used in the conditioning resulted in retrograde amnesia in the slugs that were subject to a second conditioning on day 6 or 7, but not in slugs that were subject to a second conditioning on day 1 or 3. Next, second-order conditioning was used as the second conditioning procedure to distinguish the memory acquired in the first conditioning from that acquired in the second conditioning and similar results were obtained. These results suggest that the reactivation of memory altered the memory state from a cooling-insensitive state to a cooling-sensitive one. A possible model for memory states is discussed.  (+info)

Computer-assisted behavioral assessment of Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. (5/84)

In Pavlovian fear conditioning, a conditional stimulus (CS, usually a tone) is paired with an aversive unconditional stimulus (US, usually a foot shock) in a novel context. After even a single pairing, the animal comes to exhibit a long-lasting fear to the CS and the conditioning context, which can be measured as freezing, an adaptive defense reaction in mice. Both context and tone conditioning depend on the integrity of the amygdala, and context conditioning further depends on the hippocampus. The reliability and efficiency of the fear conditioning assay makes it an excellent candidate for the screening of learning and memory deficits in mutant mice. One obstacle is that freezing in mice has been accurately quantified only by human observers, using a tedious method that can be subject to bias. In the present study we generated a simple, high-speed, and highly accurate algorithm that scores freezing of four mice simultaneously using NIH Image on an ordinary Macintosh computer. The algorithm yielded a high correlation and excellent linear fit between computer and human scores across a broad range of conditions. This included the ability to score low pretraining baseline scores and accurately mimic the effects of two independent variables (shock intensity and test modality) on fear. Because we used a computer and digital video, we were able to acquire a secondary index of fear, activity suppression, as well as baseline activity scores. Moreover, we measured the unconditional response to shock. These additional measures can enhance the sensitivity of the assay to detect interesting memory phenotypes and control for possible confounds. Thus, this computer-assisted system for measuring behavior during fear conditioning allows for the standardized and carefully controlled assessment of multiple aspects of the fear conditioning experience.  (+info)

Profound amnesia after damage to the medial temporal lobe: A neuroanatomical and neuropsychological profile of patient E. P. (6/84)

E. P. became profoundly amnesic in 1992 after viral encephalitis, which damaged his medial temporal lobe bilaterally. Because of the rarity of such patients, we have performed a detailed neuroanatomical analysis of E. P.'s lesion using magnetic resonance imaging, and we have assessed his cognitive abilities with a wide range of neuropsychological tests. Finally, we have compared and contrasted the findings for E. P. with the noted amnesic patient H.M, whose surgical lesion is strikingly similar to E. P.'s lesion.  (+info)

Phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein as a molecular marker of memory processing in rat hippocampus: effect of novelty. (7/84)

From mollusks to mammals the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) appears to be an important step in the formation of long-term memory (LTM). Here we show that a 5 min exposure to a novel environment (open field) 1 hr after acquisition of a one-trial inhibitory avoidance training hinders both the formation of LTM for the avoidance task and the increase in the phosphorylation state of hippocampal Ser 133 CREB [phosphorylated CREB (pCREB)] associated with the avoidance training. To determine whether this LTM deficit is attributable to the reduced pCREB level, rats were bilaterally cannulated to deliver Sp-adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphothioate (Sp-cAMPS), an activator of PKA. Infusion of Sp-Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate Sp-cAMPS to CA1 region increased hippocampal pCREB levels and restored normal LTM of avoidance learning in rats exposed to novelty. Moreover, a 5 min exposure to the open field 10 min before the avoidance training interferes with the amnesic effect of a second 5 min exposure to the open field 1 hr after avoidance training and restores the hippocampal levels of pCREB. In contrast, the avoidance training-associated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases) in the hippocampus is not altered by novelty. Together, these findings suggest that novelty regulates LTM formation by modulating the phosphorylation state of CREB in the hippocampus.  (+info)

Retrograde amnesia for spatial memory induced by NMDA receptor-mediated long-term potentiation. (8/84)

If information is stored as distributed patterns of synaptic weights in the hippocampal formation, retention should be vulnerable to electrically induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal synapses after learning. This prediction was tested by training animals in a spatial water maze task and then delivering bursts of high-frequency (HF) or control stimulation to the perforant path in the angular bundle. High-frequency stimulation induced LTP in the dentate gyrus and probably also at other hippocampal termination sites. Retention in a later probe test was disrupted. When the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) was administered before the high-frequency stimulation, water maze retention was unimpaired. CPP administration blocked the induction of LTP. Thus, high-frequency stimulation of hippocampal afferents disrupts memory retention only when it induces a change in the spatial pattern of synaptic weights. The NMDA receptor dependency of this retrograde amnesia is consistent with the synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis.  (+info)

Amnesia is a condition characterized by memory loss, which can be temporary or permanent. It may result from brain damage or disease, and it can affect various aspects of memory, such as the ability to recall past events (retrograde amnesia), the ability to form new memories (anterograde amnesia), or both. Amnesia can also affect a person's sense of identity and their ability to learn new skills.

There are several types of amnesia, including:

1. Anterograde amnesia: This type of amnesia affects the ability to form new memories after an injury or trauma. People with anterograde amnesia may have difficulty learning new information and remembering recent events.
2. Retrograde amnesia: Retrograde amnesia affects the ability to recall memories that were formed before an injury or trauma. People with retrograde amnesia may have trouble remembering events, people, or facts from their past.
3. Transient global amnesia: This is a temporary form of amnesia that usually lasts for less than 24 hours. It is often caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain, and it can be triggered by emotional stress, physical exertion, or other factors.
4. Korsakoff's syndrome: This is a type of amnesia that is caused by alcohol abuse and malnutrition. It is characterized by severe memory loss, confusion, and disorientation.
5. Dissociative amnesia: This type of amnesia is caused by psychological factors, such as trauma or stress. People with dissociative amnesia may have trouble remembering important personal information or events that are emotionally charged.

The treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, memory may improve over time, while in other cases, it may be permanent. Treatment may involve medication, therapy, or rehabilitation to help people with amnesia cope with their memory loss and develop new skills to compensate for their memory impairments.

Retrograde amnesia is a form of memory loss where an individual cannot recall information, events, or facts from their personal past before a specific point in time. This type of amnesia is caused by damage to the brain, often as a result of head injury, stroke, infection, or certain medical conditions. The extent and duration of retrograde amnesia can vary widely, depending on the severity and location of the brain injury. In some cases, memory function may return over time as the brain heals, while in other cases the memory loss may be permanent.

Anterograde amnesia is a specific type of memory loss where a person has difficulty forming new memories or learning and retaining new information after the onset of the amnesia. It is often caused by damage to certain parts of the brain, such as the hippocampus and surrounding structures, which play a crucial role in the formation of new memories.

In anterograde amnesia, people may have trouble remembering events that occurred after the onset of their memory impairment, while their ability to recall remote memories or those that were formed before the onset of the amnesia is typically preserved. The severity of anterograde amnesia can vary widely, from mild difficulty with learning new information to a complete inability to form any new memories.

Anterograde amnesia can be caused by various factors, including brain injury, infection, stroke, alcohol or drug abuse, seizures, and certain medical conditions such as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which is often associated with chronic alcoholism. Treatment for anterograde amnesia depends on the underlying cause and may involve medication, rehabilitation, or other interventions to help improve memory function.

Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a sudden, temporary episode of memory loss that cannot be explained by a more common neurological or medical condition. It is characterized by an inability to form new memories (anterograde amnesia) and to recall past events or personal information (retrograde amnesia). These memory gaps typically last for several hours, but may persist for up to 24 hours.

TGA usually affects people over the age of 50 and is more common in men than women. The exact cause of TGA is not known, although it has been associated with various triggers such as emotional stress, physical exertion, sudden immersion in cold water, sexual activity, and medical procedures.

During a TGA episode, individuals often repeat the same questions or statements due to their inability to form new memories. They may also appear confused or disoriented, but they typically remain conscious and maintain their ability to perform familiar tasks. Most people with TGA do not experience any long-term memory loss or other neurological symptoms after the episode resolves.

The diagnosis of TGA is based on the characteristic symptoms, a normal physical examination, and the exclusion of other potential causes of amnesia through medical testing. Treatment for TGA is generally supportive, focusing on reassuring the individual and providing a safe environment during the episode. Recurrent episodes of TGA are uncommon but can occur in some individuals.

Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder typically caused by alcohol abuse, specifically thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain. It's often associated with Wernicke encephalopathy, and the two together are referred to as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

The main features of Korsakoff syndrome include severe memory impairment, particularly anterograde amnesia (inability to form new memories), confabulation (making up stories due to gaps in memory), and a lack of insight into their condition. Other cognitive functions like intelligence and perception are usually preserved.

The syndrome is believed to result from damage to the mammillary bodies and other structures in the diencephalon, particularly the thalamus. Treatment involves abstinence from alcohol, thiamine replacement, and a balanced diet. The prognosis varies but often includes some degree of permanent memory impairment.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

Alcohol Amnestic Disorder is not listed as a separate disorder in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions. However, it was previously included in earlier editions as a subtype of Amnestic Disorder due to the effects of substance use or exposure to toxins.

Alcohol Amnestic Disorder is characterized by significant memory impairment that is directly caused by alcohol consumption. This disorder can result in anterograde amnesia, which is the inability to form new memories after drinking, and/or retrograde amnesia, which involves forgetting previously learned information or personal experiences.

The diagnosis of Alcohol Amnestic Disorder typically requires a comprehensive medical and neuropsychological evaluation to determine the extent and nature of memory impairment, as well as to rule out other potential causes for cognitive decline. Treatment usually involves a combination of abstinence from alcohol, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial interventions to address substance use disorder and any co-occurring mental health conditions.

"Mental recall," also known as "memory recall," refers to the ability to retrieve or bring information from your memory storage into your conscious mind, so you can think about, use, or apply it. This process involves accessing and retrieving stored memories in response to certain cues or prompts. It is a fundamental cognitive function that allows individuals to remember and recognize people, places, events, facts, and experiences.

In the context of medical terminology, mental recall may be used to assess an individual's cognitive abilities, particularly in relation to memory function. Impairments in memory recall can be indicative of various neurological or psychological conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or amnesia.

Avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an organism changes its behavior to avoid a negative outcome or situation. This can be seen in both animals and humans, and it is often studied in the field of psychology and neuroscience.

In avoidance learning, the individual learns to associate a particular cue or stimulus with the unpleasant experience. Over time, they learn to perform an action to escape or avoid the cue, thereby preventing the negative outcome from occurring. For example, if a rat receives an electric shock every time it hears a certain tone, it may eventually learn to press a lever to turn off the tone and avoid the shock.

Avoidance learning can be adaptive in some situations, as it allows individuals to avoid dangerous or harmful stimuli. However, it can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety, or if it interferes with an individual's ability to function in daily life. For example, a person who has been attacked may develop a phobia of public places and avoid them altogether, even though this limits their ability to engage in social activities and live a normal life.

In summary, avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It can be adaptive in some situations but can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety or interferes with daily functioning.

Pyrithiamine is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in scientific research. It's an antivitamin, specifically an analog of thiamine (vitamin B1), which means it can interfere with the metabolism of thiamine in the body.

Here's a more specific definition from a biochemical perspective:

Pyrithiamine is a synthetic organic compound with the formula C6H7N2O2S. It is an analog of thiamine, where the aminomethyl group of thiamine is replaced by a pyridine ring. This structural modification makes pyrithiamine unable to act as a vitamin, but it can still interact with the enzymes and transport proteins involved in thiamine metabolism. As a result, pyrithiamine has been used as a tool to study thiamine deficiency and its effects on various organisms, including mammals.

Please note that pyrithiamine is not a term commonly used in clinical medicine or patient care. If you have any concerns about vitamins, nutrition, or health-related topics, it's best to consult a healthcare professional for accurate information and advice tailored to your specific situation.

The diencephalon is a term used in anatomy to refer to the part of the brain that lies between the cerebrum and the midbrain. It includes several important structures, such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus.

The thalamus is a major relay station for sensory information, receiving input from all senses except smell and sending it to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles. It also produces hormones that regulate mood, growth, and development.

The epithalamus contains the pineal gland, which produces melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles. The subthalamus is involved in motor control and coordination.

Overall, the diencephalon plays a critical role in integrating sensory information, regulating autonomic functions, and modulating behavior and emotion.

Scopolamine hydrobromide is a synthetic anticholinergic drug, which means it blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the nervous system. It is primarily used for its anti-motion sickness and anti-nausea effects. It can also be used to help with symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as muscle stiffness and tremors.

In medical settings, scopolamine hydrobromide may be administered as a transdermal patch, which is placed behind the ear to allow for slow release into the body over several days. It can also be given as an injection or taken orally in the form of tablets or liquid solutions.

It's important to note that scopolamine hydrobromide can have various side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and drowsiness. It may also cause confusion, especially in older adults, and should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, enlarged prostate, or certain heart conditions.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Confusion is a state of bewilderment or disorientation in which a person has difficulty processing information, understanding their surroundings, and making clear decisions. It can be caused by various medical conditions such as infections, brain injury, stroke, dementia, alcohol or drug intoxication or withdrawal, and certain medications. Confusion can also occur in older adults due to age-related changes in the brain.

In medical terms, confusion is often referred to as "acute confusional state" or "delirium." It is characterized by symptoms such as difficulty paying attention, memory loss, disorientation, hallucinations, and delusions. Confusion can be a serious medical condition that requires immediate evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional.

Unconsciousness is a state of complete awareness where a person is not responsive to stimuli and cannot be awakened. It is often caused by severe trauma, illness, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. In medical terms, it is defined as a lack of response to verbal commands, pain, or other stimuli, indicating that the person's brain is not functioning at a level necessary to maintain wakefulness and awareness.

Unconsciousness can be described as having different levels, ranging from drowsiness to deep coma. The causes of unconsciousness can vary widely, including head injury, seizure, stroke, infection, drug overdose, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. Depending on the cause and severity, unconsciousness may last for a few seconds or continue for an extended period, requiring medical intervention and treatment.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

An autobiography is a type of literature that describes the personal life experiences of an individual, written by that individual. It typically includes details about their upbringing, education, career, relationships, and other significant events in their life. The author may also reflect on their thoughts, feelings, and motivations during these experiences, providing insight into their personality and character.

Autobiographies can serve various purposes, such as sharing one's story with others, leaving a legacy for future generations, or exploring one's personal growth and development. They can be written in different styles, from straightforward and factual to introspective and reflective.

It is important to note that autobiographies are not always entirely accurate, as memory can be selective or distorted. Additionally, some individuals may choose to embellish or exaggerate certain aspects of their lives for dramatic effect or to protect the privacy of others. Nonetheless, autobiographies remain a valuable source of information about an individual's life and experiences.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Thalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the thalamus, which is a part of the brain that acts as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus plays a crucial role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Thalamic diseases can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific area of the thalamus that is affected. These symptoms may include sensory disturbances, motor impairment, cognitive changes, and altered levels of consciousness. Examples of thalamic diseases include stroke, tumors, multiple sclerosis, infections, and degenerative disorders such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Treatment for thalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or rehabilitation therapy.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Midazolam is a medication from the class of drugs known as benzodiazepines. It works by enhancing the effect of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which has a calming effect on the brain and nervous system. Midazolam is often used for its sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.

Medically, midazolam is used for various purposes, including:

1. Preoperative medication (sedation before surgery)
2. Procedural sedation (for minor surgical or diagnostic procedures)
3. Treatment of seizures (status epilepticus)
4. Sedation in critically ill patients
5. As an adjunct to anesthesia during surgeries
6. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms
7. To induce amnesia for certain medical or dental procedures

Midazolam is available in various forms, such as tablets, intravenous (IV) solutions, and intranasal sprays. It has a rapid onset of action and a short duration, making it suitable for brief, intermittent procedures. However, midazolam can cause side effects like drowsiness, confusion, respiratory depression, and memory impairment. Therefore, its use should be carefully monitored by healthcare professionals.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

Anisomycin is an antibiotic derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseolus. It is a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis and has been found to have antitumor, antiviral, and immunosuppressive properties. In medicine, it has been used experimentally in the treatment of some types of cancer, but its use is limited due to its significant side effects, including neurotoxicity.

In a medical or scientific context, 'anisomycin' refers specifically to this antibiotic compound and not to any general concept related to aniso- (meaning "unequal" or "asymmetrical") or -mycin (suffix indicating a bacterial antibiotic).

Paired-associate learning is a form of implicit or non-declarative memory task that involves learning and remembering the association between two unrelated items, such as a word and an object, or a taste and a sound. In this type of learning, the individual learns to respond appropriately when presented with one member of the pair, due to its association with the other member. This process is often used in various fields including cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and education to study memory, learning, and brain function.

The mamillary bodies are a pair of small, round structures located in the hypothalamus region of the brain. They play a crucial role in the limbic system, which is involved in emotions, memory, and learning. Specifically, the mamillary bodies are part of the circuit that forms the Papez circuit, a neural network responsible for memory and cognitive functions.

The mamillary bodies receive inputs from several brain regions, including the hippocampus, anterior thalamic nuclei, and cingulate gyrus. They then project this information to the thalamus, which in turn sends it to the cerebral cortex for further processing.

Damage to the mamillary bodies can result in memory impairment, as seen in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, a condition often associated with chronic alcohol abuse.

Thiamine deficiency, also known as beriberi, is a condition that results from inadequate intake or impaired absorption of thiamine (vitamin B1), which is essential for energy metabolism and nerve function. This deficiency can lead to various symptoms such as peripheral neuropathy, muscle weakness, heart failure, and in severe cases, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, a neurological disorder associated with alcoholism. Thiamine deficiency is commonly found in populations with poor nutrition, alcohol dependence, and gastrointestinal disorders affecting nutrient absorption.

Preanesthetic medication, also known as premedication, refers to the administration of medications before anesthesia to help prepare the patient for the upcoming procedure. These medications can serve various purposes, such as:

1. Anxiolysis: Reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation in patients before surgery.
2. Amnesia: Causing temporary memory loss to help patients forget the events leading up to the surgery.
3. Analgesia: Providing pain relief to minimize discomfort during and after the procedure.
4. Antisialagogue: Decreasing saliva production to reduce the risk of aspiration during intubation.
5. Bronchodilation: Relaxing bronchial smooth muscles, which can help improve respiratory function in patients with obstructive lung diseases.
6. Antiemetic: Preventing or reducing the likelihood of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
7. Sedation: Inducing a state of calmness and drowsiness to facilitate a smooth induction of anesthesia.

Common preanesthetic medications include benzodiazepines (e.g., midazolam), opioids (e.g., fentanyl), anticholinergics (e.g., glycopyrrolate), and H1-antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine). The choice of preanesthetic medication depends on the patient's medical history, comorbidities, and the type of anesthesia to be administered.

Verbal learning is a type of learning that involves the acquisition, processing, and retrieval of information presented in a verbal or written form. It is often assessed through tasks such as list learning, where an individual is asked to remember a list of words or sentences after a single presentation or multiple repetitions. Verbal learning is an important aspect of cognitive functioning and is commonly evaluated in neuropsychological assessments to help identify any memory or learning impairments.

The anterior thalamic nuclei are a group of nuclei in the thalamus, which is a part of the brain. The thalamus serves as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The anterior thalamic nuclei, specifically, are involved in various functions such as memory, navigation, and arousal. They receive inputs from the hippocampus and other limbic structures and project to the cingulate gyrus and other areas of the cerebral cortex. The anterior thalamic nuclei have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia.

Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) is currently referred to as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). It's a complex dissociative disorder involving the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of an individual's behavior.

In DID, each identity, or 'alter', may have its own unique name, personal history, characteristics, and mannerisms. The switching between these identities is often triggered by stressful situations or traumatic memories.

This disorder typically develops as a coping mechanism in response to severe, prolonged trauma during early childhood, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. It's important to note that this condition should be diagnosed and managed by mental health professionals with expertise in dissociative disorders.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Amnesia Anterograde amnesia Dissociative amnesia Scott Bolzan - One of the most severe cases of retrograde amnesia on record ... Psychogenic amnesia, or dissociative amnesia, is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde autobiographical memory ... Retrograde amnesia can be one of the many consequences of brain injury but it is important to note that it is not always the ... In neurology, retrograde amnesia (RA) is the inability to access memories or information from before an injury or disease ...
Retrograde amnesia. Hippocampus, 11(1): 50-55. Squire, L. R., Slater, P. C., and Chance, P. (1975). Retrograde amnesia temporal ... Ribot's law of retrograde amnesia was hypothesized in 1881 by Théodule Ribot. It states that there is a time gradient in ... Not all patients with retrograde amnesia report the symptoms of Ribot's law. Ribot's law was first postulated by the French ... For example, hippocampal lesion experiments with mouse models have shown retrograde amnesia for approximately one week prior to ...
Its primary focus is on retrograde amnesia for specific, usually time-limited, knowledge. In the case of semantic retrograde ... Retrograde amnesia is defined as the loss of memory of events and experiences occurring prior to an illness, accident, injury, ... Semantic retrograde amnesia involves loss of generic, lifelong knowledge, as in the various forms of aphasia or agnosia, and ... Temporally graded retrograde amnesia extending back several decades (early memories in life) are a common feature of patients ...
She has retrograde amnesia; she cannot remember who she really is when she is first attacked by the Black Army until Yuri saved ...
There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to ... Retrograde amnesia is inability to recall memories before onset of amnesia. One may be able to encode new memories after the ... Research has shown that there could be selectivity with amnesia when posthypnotic amnesia occurs. Lacunar amnesia is the loss ... Korsakoff's syndrome is unique because it involves both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Drug-induced amnesia is ...
Psychogenic amnesia as a memory disorder is controversial. Psychogenic amnesia is the presence of retrograde amnesia (the ... Psychogenic amnesia is supposed to differ from organic amnesia qualitatively in that retrograde loss of autobiographical memory ... Speculation also exists about psychogenic amnesia due to its similarities with 'pure retrograde amnesia', as both share similar ... Psychogenic amnesia is supposed to differ from organic amnesia in a number of ways; one being that unlike organic amnesia, ...
Markowitsch, H.J. (1996). "Organic and psychogenic retrograde amnesia: two sides of the same coin?". Neurocase. 2 (4): 357-371 ... Markowitsch, H.J. (2002). "Functional retrograde amnesia-mnestic block syndrome". Cortex. 38 (4): 651-654. doi:10.1016/S0010- ... Psychogenic amnesia is generally found in cases where there is a profound and surprising forgetting of chunks of one's personal ... When the person recovers they are able to remember their personal history, but they have amnesia for the events that took place ...
Retrograde amnesia is most marked for events occurring in the weeks or months before treatment, with one study showing that ... A positive side effect to the treatment was retrograde amnesia. It was because of this side effect that patients could not ... The acute effects of ECT can include amnesia, both retrograde (for events occurring before the treatment) and anterograde (for ... The American Psychiatric Association (APA) report in 2001 acknowledges: "In some patients the recovery from retrograde amnesia ...
Susan slips on some spilt milk and wakes up with retrograde amnesia. She loses thirty years of her memory and believes she is ... Susan's family take her to the hospital, where she is diagnosed with retrograde amnesia. Karl becomes determined to tell her ... Susan developed retrograde amnesia. The storyline saw Susan slip on some spilt milk and sustain a minor head injury. After she ... retrograde amnesia, multiple sclerosis and surrogacy. She has also been central to a cyber-bullying plot. In October 2007, ...
"Marli Van Breda discharged, suffers retrograde amnesia". EWN. 2015-06-15. Retrieved 2016-06-15. "Henri van Breda suspected of ... she was later diagnosed with retrograde amnesia and has no recollection of what took place on the evening of the attack. An axe ...
"Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia". Science. 348 (6238): 1007-1013. Bibcode:2015Sci...348.1007R. doi:10.1126/ ...
Ryan, T. J.; Roy, D. S.; Pignatelli, M.; Arons, A.; Tonegawa, S. (2015). "Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia ... amnesia, and Alzheimer's disease. These works provide proofs of concept for future medical treatments in humans through the ...
Occasional long-term effects include retrograde amnesia. Ingestion of water hemlock in any quantity can result in death or ...
"Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia". Science. 348 (6238): 1007-1013. Bibcode:2015Sci...348.1007R. doi:10.1126/ ...
Hamburg, M.D. (1967). "Retrograde Amnesia Produced by Intraperitoneal Injection of Physostigmine". Science. 156 (3777): 973-974 ... In 1967, the production of amnesia was studied through an injection of physostigmine. In 1968, melatonin was delivered to rats ...
Squire and Alvarez took the temporally graded nature of patients with retrograde amnesia as support for the notion that once a ... Molaison also showed signs of retrograde amnesia spanning a period of about 3 years prior to the surgery suggesting that ... ISBN 978-0-19-972751-3. Squire, L. R.; Alvarez, P. (1995). "Retrograde amnesia and memory consolidation: A neurobiological ... Nadel, L.; Moscovitch, M. (1997). "Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex". Current Opinion in ...
Retrograde amnesia and somnolence can result following recovery. Medical attention should be sought in cases of suspected ...
Nadel, Lynn; Moscovitch, Morris (April 1997). "Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex". Current ...
The film tells the story of Nehalata Malhotra, a young woman who regresses to childhood as result of retrograde amnesia after ... When she recovers, she is diagnosed with retrograde amnesia. Having mentally regressed to the state of her 6-year-old self, she ... Sridevi's performance as a child-woman suffering from amnesia was called by Indian Express "a milestone in her illustrious ...
ECT is associated with both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Studies utilizing objective measures of assessing anterograde ... Patients may also experience permanent amnesia. Psychiatry has greatly benefitted by advances in pharmacotherapy.: 110-112 ... amnesia have consistently demonstrated that any such abnormalities disappear within several months following completion of an ...
Sehm, Bernhard; Frisch, S; Thone-Otto, A; Horstmann, A; Villringer, A (2011). "Focal Retrograde Amnesia: Voxel-Based ... Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or physiological trauma. Amnesia is best understood via Henry ... Amnesia Default mode network Morality Out-of-body experience Theory of mind Abu-Akel, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S (September 2011). " ... Studies have also revealed that certain types of epileptic amnesia could be attributed to TPJ. fMRI studies indicated that ...
She also suffered retrograde amnesia, and fell into a coma. On 18 February 1998, the Kunming Intermediate People's Court tried ...
"Prof Michael Kopelman on 'Psychogenc [sic] Amnesia: Syndromes, Outcome, and Patterns of Retrograde amnesia'". International ... especially retrograde amnesia; confabulation; executive function; semantic dementia; and psychogenic amnesia, particularly the ... nature of amnesia for offences. From 1989 to 2015, Kopelman was first a consultant neuropsychiatrist, then professor of ...
Migs had an accident, which caused his isolated retrograde amnesia. His last memory was that of his first and ex-girlfriend, ... Films about amnesia, GMA Pictures films, Philippine romantic drama films, Regal Entertainment films, 2000s Tagalog-language ...
Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA), sometimes known as functional amnesia, refers to the presence of retrograde amnesia while ... Retrograde amnesia is typically the result of physical or psychological trauma which manifests itself as the inability to ... He maintains his identity and shows very little retrograde amnesia. He also displays some of the daily memory problems that are ... However, this evidence only appears to correlate with the symptoms of retrograde amnesia as cases have been observed where ...
Retrograde amnesia for world knowledge and preserved memory for autobiographic events. A case report. Cortex, 35, (243-252) ... Retrograde amnesia after traumatic injury of the temporo-frontal cortex. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 56 ... clinical studies to investigate the functional neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of retrograde amnesia after ...
Some with severe cases have a combined form of anterograde and retrograde amnesia, sometimes called global amnesia. In the case ... This is in contrast to retrograde amnesia, where memories created prior to the event are lost while new memories can still be ... As a result, Wearing developed both anterograde and retrograde amnesia, so he has little memory of what happened before the ... In neurology, anterograde amnesia is the inability to create new memories after an event that caused amnesia, leading to a ...
Hanif regains consciousness but has developed retrograde amnesia following the accident. However, Dewan refuses to trust him ... Films about amnesia, Central Bureau of Investigation in fiction, Fictional portrayals of the Maharashtra Police, Indian police ...
The amnesic symptoms of WKS include both retrograde and anterograde amnesia. The retrograde deficit has been demonstrated ... The retrograde amnesia that accompanies WKS can extend as far back as twenty to thirty years, and there is generally a temporal ... and Korsakoff's psychosis with anterograde and retrograde amnesia and confabulation upon relevant lines of questioning. ... The amnesia that is associated with this syndrome is a result of the atrophy in the structures of the diencephalon (the ...
... who suffered dense retrograde amnesia leaving her unable to recall any events that occurred prior to the development of amnesia ... A case study of retrograde amnesia. Brain and Cognition, 8, 3-20 Klein, S. B., & Loftus, J. (1993). The mental representation ... However, her memory for general facts about her life during the period of amnesia remained intact. This suggests that a ... Evidence also exists that shows how patients with severe amnesia can have accurate and detailed semantic knowledge of what they ...
Amnesia Anterograde amnesia Dissociative amnesia Scott Bolzan - One of the most severe cases of retrograde amnesia on record ... Psychogenic amnesia, or dissociative amnesia, is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde autobiographical memory ... Retrograde amnesia can be one of the many consequences of brain injury but it is important to note that it is not always the ... In neurology, retrograde amnesia (RA) is the inability to access memories or information from before an injury or disease ...
2008) Global retrograde amnesia but selective anterograde amnesia after frontal-temporal disconnection in monkeys. ... Experiment 1: retrograde amnesia. Monkeys destined to have bilateral lesions to the MD+Fx or ERh, or to remain as unoperated ... 2006) Retrograde amnesia in patients with hippocampal, medial temporal, temporal lobe, or frontal pathology. Learn Mem 13:545- ... 1999) Retrograde amnesia in patients with diencephalic, temporal lobe or frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia 37:939-958. ...
Retrograde Amnesia of Fear Memories Following Pentylenetetrazol Kindling. (2022). Retrograde Amnesia of Fear Memories Following ... Author Keywords: amygdala, anterograde amnesia, context fear conditioning, hippocampus, retrograde amnesia, seizures Publisher ... Author Keywords: amygdala, anterograde amnesia, context fear conditioning, hippocampus, retrograde amnesia, seizures ... Retrograde Amnesia of Fear Memories Following Pentylenetetrazol Kindling Creator Brandt, Lianne (author)et al Subject ...
There are many reasons why a person may have amnesia, which refers to difficulty recalling prior experiences or forming new ... Retrograde amnesia: In some ways the opposite of anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia is when a person cannot remember ... Traumatic amnesia: After a head injury, a person may experience anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, or both types. ... Retrograde amnesia: A person can remember new information but cannot remember events from before the onset of amnesia. ...
Amnesia? Get Remedies Fast!. Find Amnesia Products on Amazon. Retrograde Amnesia. Individuals suffering from Retrograde Amnesia ... Both Anterograde Amnesia and Retrograde Amnesia are most commonly referred to as either basic amnesia or memory loss. ... In general, there are two main forms of amnesia: Anterograde Amnesia and Retrograde Amnesia. A patient can suffer from either ... causing either Anterograde or Retrograde Amnesia.. Symptoms. The easiest symptom of amnesia to recognize is memory loss; ...
Retrograde amnesia is common. With more severe injury, a cerebral contusion may occur; this is classified into 2 types: coup ...
Kim, J. J., and Fanselow, M. S. (1992). Modality-specific retrograde amnesia of fear. Science 256, 675-677. ...
Alias A.K.A. - Retrograde Amnesia / Selective Memory. Alias A.K.A. ...
Mandy suffered a head injury that brought about retro-grade amnesia. Because of this injury, she has no memory of the accident ...
By 1926, at least 10 silent films which used amnesia as a plot device had been made; more recent productions, such as 50 First ... amnesia (or memory loss) has featured often in Hollywood films for almost a century. ... In many cases of cinematic amnesia, head injuries lead to loss of memory of earlier events (retrograde amnesia), but the ... I am reading your post because I have a daughter with retrograde amnesia. I always notice the same phrase in articles similiar ...
I have amnesia basically, they call it retrograde amnesia. So the picture on the cover shows the scene within seconds and there ...
Electroconvulsive therapy-induced persistent retrograde amnesia: Could it be minimised by ketamine or other pharmacological ... Retrograde autobiographical memory was measured with the Personal Memory Questionnaire (Reference McElhiney, Moody and Steif ... Anterograde amnesia for figural memory function was tested with the Rey Complex Figure Test (Recall Phase) with a 20 min delay ... greater decrements in retrograde memory and less improvement in HRSD score. ...
... amnesia part 2 ✓ Learning, memory & amnesia ✓ Memory aids & déjà vu ... 2. Learning, memory & amnesia part 2. 2.1. Amnesia. 2.1.1. -Retrograde: disrupted memories before trauma -Anterograde: ... Types of Amnesia. 2.5.1. Korsakoffs syndrome. Brain damage from prolonged thiamine (Vit B) deficiency (e.g. ... Increased activity in both pre & postsynaptic neurons: NO as retrograde transmitter. 1.2.5. Once LTP occurs, AMPA receptors ...
Benzodiazepines can also produce anterograde and retrograde amnesia. This effect is used peri-procedurally. ...
... anterograde amnesia) and/or an inability to remember past memories (retrograde amnesia). There is also hypermnesia, or the ... given that it is more common than retrograde amnesia). In all of these cases, it is not uncommon for the person to create ... These cases usually show both retrograde and anterograde amnesias. In the case of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and brain damage ... from stroke, anteograde amnesia is also common ( ...
A young woman washes up on a beach with retrograde amnesia-she… ... Home › Posts tagged amnesia. Blog Archives Short Take: "The ...
Dolph Ziggler suffers serious concussion and retrograde amnesia on an episode of Smackdown. ...
Study Biology of Mood Disorders flashcards from Rima Patel's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Interesting how majority posters here have retrograde amnesia. This individual,as far as I know is still a nippon kaigi card ...
Beta-endorphin causes retrograde amnesia and is released from the rat brain by various forms of training and stimulation. ...
Retrograde Amnesia. Grand Mal / Barely Auditable. Andrew Drury. The Schwartzes. A Momentary Lapse / Innova Recordings. ...
You start off as Rhys who has his amnesia ridden bride kidnapped the day of their wedding. In your quest to find her, you mett ... Retrograding Advance 12.24.02. First I have a few things to say. Thanks to the 2 dozen who emailed me last week. I answered ...
The patient presented with 7 days of retrograde amnesia, and no signs of anterograde amnesia. Her pre-existing conditions ... she showed signs of retrograde amnesia from events that happened within 7 days prior to the incident[5]. ... The Galvestron Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) was used to evaluate the patients orientation and ability to recall events ... The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test. A Practical Scale to Assess Cognition After Head Injury. J Nerv Ment Dis 1979;167: ...
Posttraumatic retrograde and anterograde amnesia: pathophysiology and implications in grading and safe return to play. ...
The most commonly reported memory effect, retrograde amnesia, represents the loss of certain past memories, a static (unless ... particularly retrograde amnesia, should be considered an important, but not overriding, tolerability issue. To consider it a ...
And Goff underscored that Madison demonstrate[d] retrograde amnesia about his crime, meaning that he had no independent ... The memory loss is genuine: Let us say the person has some kind of amnesia, which has produced a black hole where that ... that amnesia is not sufficient to show a lack of rational understanding, that determination was not unreasonable in light of ... or even total amnesia--are insufficient to meet the rational understanding test, that finding would not contradict clearly ...
This should not be confused with retrograde amnesia, which is the inability to recall events before injury. Anterograde amnesia ...
... analyze the memory deficits of individuals to recognize retrograde and anterograde amnesia; describe individuals who have ... amnesia, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, mental representations, visual imagery, reasoning, heuristics, ...
One thing I dont fully understand is Akarius amnesia. If youre familiar with retrograde vs. anterograde amnesia, the text ...
  • RA differs from a similar condition called anterograde amnesia (AA), which is the inability to form new memories following injury or disease onset. (
  • An absence of anterograde amnesia (AA) characterizes pure forms of RA, which fall into three main categories: focal, isolated, and pure RA. (
  • In general, there are two main forms of amnesia: Anterograde Amnesia and Retrograde Amnesia. (
  • With Anterograde Amnesia, the patient loses the ability to create and retain new memories after the incident that caused the onset of the amnesia. (
  • Anterograde Amnesia remains somewhat of a mystery to physicians and neurologists, as the process of retaining exact memories is not yet widely known. (
  • Psychogenic amnesia, which is more commonly referred to as dissociative or functional amnesia, is diagnosed when one has the presence of retrograde amnesia but does not have the presence of anterograde amnesia. (
  • The patient presented with 7 days of retrograde amnesia , and no signs of anterograde amnesia. (
  • Transient global amnesia is characterized by sudden-onset anterograde and retrograde amnesia that typically lasts up to 24 hours. (
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as post-traumatic amnesia, occurs from an external force that causes structural damage to the brain, such as a sharp blow to the head, a diffuse axonal injury, or childhood brain damage (e.g., shaken baby syndrome). (
  • Post-traumatic amnesia is commonly described as a confused state as the immediate result of a traumatic brain injury. (
  • During an instance of post-traumatic amnesia, the individual is unable to recall events that happened after their injury took place. (
  • Once they begin to regain their memory, the post-traumatic amnesia is considered to have resolved itself. (
  • In neurology, retrograde amnesia (RA) is the inability to access memories or information from before an injury or disease occurred. (
  • But a less severe retrograde amnesia may be the presenting symptom. (
  • Clinical microbiology of amnesia. (
  • Diagnosis of transient global amnesia is primarily clinical. (
  • retrograde amnesia was the only clinical relevant remaining symptom by 6 months. (
  • In addition, patients may have difficulties imagining what their futures may hold, as they may not be able to recall the plans or dreams they had before the onset of the amnesia. (
  • Those who suffer from Retrograde Amnesia can recover their lost memories, although some of the memories that one would had closest to the onset of the amnesia may never be fully restored. (
  • It has been described as feeling like the hours leading up to the onset of the amnesia feel more like a dream than actual reality. (
  • Currently there is no cure for Retrograde Amnesia, although doing activities designed to "jog" one's memory may help them remember some skills or events, but not their entire life before the onset. (
  • Acute-onset amnesia: Transient global amnesia and other causes. (
  • Generally, this is a more severe type of amnesia known as global, or generalized amnesia. (
  • These tests can help rule out other possible causes of the amnesia (eg, severe anemia, clotting disorders). (
  • Damage to the hippocampus (HPC) using the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) can cause retrograde amnesia for contextual fear memory. (
  • The amnesia typically remits spontaneously but may recur. (
  • This amnesia is typically attributed to loss of cells in the HPC. (
  • In cases where the amnesia is either drug or alcohol induced, the patient can easily recover from it, usually after waking from their induced state. (
  • In the majority of cases, Retrograde Amnesia is caused by a traumatic brain injury, possibly resulting from a fall or a car accident. (
  • Individuals suffering from Retrograde Amnesia are often found to be unable to recall events that took place before the amnesia set in. (
  • Retrograde amnesia can be one of the many consequences of brain injury but it is important to note that it is not always the outcome of TBI. (
  • Here we evaluate the possibility that retrograde amnesia is due to NMDAinduced seizure activity or cell damage per se. (
  • Therefore, it is unlikely that observed retrograde amnesia in contextual fear conditioning are due to disruption of non-HPC networks by propagated seizure activity. (
  • In rare instances, an individual may experience both anterograde and retrograde amnesia at the same time. (
  • Patients with inferior mesial (basal forebrain) lesions tend to manifest anterograde and retrograde amnesia and confabulation. (
  • Sometimes these two types of amnesia can occur together and are called total or global amnesia. (
  • Many types of amnesia are associated with damage to the hippocampus and other related areas of the brain that are used in the encoding, coding, and processing of memory. (
  • Because of my personal cognitive experience with this drug, transient global amnesia (TGA) was the first search term I entered. (
  • Additionally, only the more severe forms of cognitive dysfunction get reported - the transient global amnesia and severe memory loss. (
  • At no time did the report even mention transient global amnesia, although the past decade has seen an epidemic of this once rare condition. (
  • Amnesia that occurs due to psychological factors is generally referred to as psychogenic amnesia. (
  • Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is an unusual form of amnesia that combines two disorders: an acute confusional state (Wernicke encephalopathy) and a type of long-term amnesia called Korsakoff syndrome. (
  • We describe a form of amnesia, which we have called visual memory-deficit amnesia, that is caused by damage to areas of the visual system that store visual information. (
  • Robert C. Cantu, Posttraumatic Retrograde and Anterograde Amnesia: Pathophysiology and Implications in Grading and Safe Return to Play, J Athl Train. (
  • Further research is recommended to examine the applicability of the tests for the study of retrograde amnesia secondary to dissociative and neurological disorders and for the assessment of malingering of memory impairment. (
  • Another clear difference between amnesia and dementia is the variety of cognitive symptoms that occur in both conditions. (
  • After a spring-cleaning frenzy and inhaling too many fumes, Marge suffers from retrograde amnesia. (
  • Dolph Ziggler suffers serious concussion and retrograde amnesia on an episode of Smackdown. (
  • Amnesia is total or partial loss of the ability to recall experiences or events that happened in the preceding few seconds, in the preceding few days, further back in time, or after the event that caused the amnesia. (
  • I've recovered from retrograde amnesia, partial paralysis of the right side of my body, knee problem, and cold intolerance. (
  • Anterograde amnesia refers to the brain's inability to create new memories after a specific event or injury. (
  • How to easily distinguish between the concepts of amnesia and dementia? (
  • While there is some difficulty during the period of emersion from coma, that is not retrograde amnesia, just confusion. (
  • How far back in time memories are lost varies from a few seconds before the amnesia occurred to a few days, to further back in time, affecting more distant past (remote, or long-term) memories. (
  • or disease are forgotten, and retrograde amnesia, in which events preceding the causative event are forgotten. (
  • A blow to the head with a blunt instrument saddles him with retrograde amnesia. (
  • And damage to the hippocampus causes retrograde amnesia, making every day seem the same. (
  • Amnesia is a symptom that can occur in many situations and for many different causes. (
  • are also apt to show retrograde amnesia, which may extend over brief or long periods into the past, the duration seeming to depend on factors such as severity of injury and age. (
  • The patient presented with 7 days of retrograde [[amnesia]], and no signs of anterograde amnesia. (
  • Throughout the article we explain what amnesia and dementia are, and address the main differences between the two. (
  • Back "over here," the Fringe Division investigates a bizarre phenomenon when 15 people up and down the Eastern Seaboard, all suffer retrograde amnesia from listening to their shortwave radios on the same frequency. (
  • Leo has been battling personal demons after a year of retrograde amnesia. (