Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
A syndrome characterized by a transient loss of the ability to form new memories. It primarily occurs in middle aged or elderly individuals, and episodes may last from minutes to hours. During the period of amnesia, immediate and recent memory abilities are impaired, but the level of consciousness and ability to perform other intellectual tasks are preserved. The condition is related to bilateral dysfunction of the medial portions of each TEMPORAL LOBE. Complete recovery normally occurs, and recurrences are unusual. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp429-30)
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A thiamine antagonist due to its inhibition of thiamine pyrophosphorylation. It is used to produce thiamine deficiency.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Injection of ANALGESICS; LOCAL ANESTHETICS; or NARCOTICS into the PLEURAL CAVITY between the two pleural membranes.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of THIAMINE in the diet, characterized by anorexia, irritability, and weight loss. Later, patients experience weakness, peripheral neuropathy, headache, and tachycardia. In addition to being caused by a poor diet, thiamine deficiency in the United States most commonly occurs as a result of alcoholism, since ethanol interferes with thiamine absorption. In countries relying on polished rice as a dietary staple, BERIBERI prevalence is very high. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1171)
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
A dissociative disorder in which the individual adopts two or more distinct personalities. Each personality is a fully integrated and complex unit with memories, behavior patterns and social friendships. Transition from one personality to another is sudden.
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
The ideal anesthetic drug would provide hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation without undesirable changes in ... Systemic local anesthetics: local anesthetics are given systemically (orally or intravenous) to relieve neuropathic pain. ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... 246 Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. Inhalational anesthetics ...
General anesthetics, however, typically elicit several key reversible effects: immobility, analgesia, amnesia, unconsciousness ... As with intravenous anesthetic infusions, prolonged delivery of highly soluble anesthetic gases generally results in longer ... This process is accelerated with intravenous anesthetics, so much so that it is negligible to consider during their use. The ... The receiver of the anesthesia primarily feels analgesia followed by amnesia and a sense of confusion moving into the next ...
The infusion of local anesthetic can be programmed to be a continuous flow or patient-controlled analgesia. In some cases, ... Complications associated with brachial plexus block include intra-arterial or intravenous injection, which can lead to local ... Continuous wound infiltration Drug-induced amnesia Neuromuscular monitoring Suprascapular nerve Panchamia, Jason, Olsen, David ... Include T1-T2 if block is anesthetic 3. Include C3-C4 if block is anesthetic The interscalene block is performed by injecting ...
... intravenous anesthetic regimes, or inexperience. Most cases of awareness are caused by inexperience and poor anesthetic ... Many patients undergoing monitored anesthesia go through profound amnesia depending on the amount of anesthetic used. Some ... A patient who is anesthetized but not paralyzed can move in response to a painful stimulus if the analgesia is inadequate. This ... The aim of conscious sedation or monitored anesthetic care is to provide a safe and comfortable anesthetic while maintaining ...
Intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine is commonly initiated with a loading dose followed by a maintenance infusion. There may ... Dexmedetomidine may enhance the effects of other sedatives and anesthetics when co-administered. Similarly, drugs that lower ... As such, dexmedetomidine provides less amnesia than benzodiazepines. Dexmedetomidine also has analgesic effects at the spinal ... as an adjunct medication to help decrease the opioid requirements of people in pain while still providing similar analgesia. ...
... amnesia (especially anterograde amnesia), ataxia, hangover effects, confusion, and falls. A benzodiazepine dependence occurs in ... If intravenous midazolam is given too quickly, hypotension may occur. A "midazolam infusion syndrome" may result from high ... Mencía SB, López-Herce JC, Freddi N (May 2007). "Analgesia and sedation in children: practical approach for the most frequent ... As of 2010[update], it is the most commonly used benzodiazepine in anesthetic medicine. In acute medicine, midazolam has become ...
Moderate doses (5-10 mg intranasal, or 0.01-0.02 mg/kg intramuscular or intravenous) will produce analgesia and anesthesia. ... It was approved for use as an investigational drug under the brand names Sernyl and Sernylan in the 1950s as an anesthetic, but ... amnesia, nystagmus (oscillation of the eyeball when moving laterally), excitation, and skin dryness. PCP is self-administered ... PCP was initially made in 1926 and brought to market as an anesthetic medication in the 1950s. Its use in humans was disallowed ...
Hirota K, Hashimoto Y, Lambert DG (December 2002). "Interaction of intravenous anesthetics with recombinant human M1-M3 ... Circulatory interactions during total intravenous anesthesia and analgesia-sedation]. Der Anaesthesist (in German). 46 (12): ... Because of its ability to cause confusion and amnesia, ketamine has been used for date rape. Russian doctor Evgeny Krupitsky ... Circulatory interactions during total intravenous anesthesia and analgesia-sedation]" [S-(+)-ketamine. ...
During this stage, the patient progresses from analgesia without amnesia to analgesia with amnesia. Patients can carry on a ... Spontaneous ventilation can also be maintained using intravenous anaesthesia (e.g. propofol). Intravenous anaesthesia to ... If these medications cannot effectively manage the pain, local anesthetic may be directly injected to the nerve in a procedure ... A variety of drugs may be administered, with the overall aim of ensuring unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, loss of reflexes ...
... but experiences only partial analgesia 3rd plane The patient has complete analgesia and amnesia Oropharyngeal airway Anesthetic ... At that time, intravenous anesthetic agents were not yet in common use, and neuromuscular-blocking drugs were not used at all ... Di-ethyl ether analgesia: a detailed description of the first stage of ether analgesia in man. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1954, 111, ... 1st plane The patient does not experience amnesia or analgesia 2nd plane The patient is completely amnesic ...
... s induce a state called dissociative anesthesia, marked by catalepsy, amnesia, and analgesia. Ketamine ... Can also potentiate opioid analgesia. Chloroform: an early anesthetic. Delucemine: also an SSRI with neuroprotective properties ... Chia YY, Liu K, Chow LH, Lee TY (September 1999). "The preoperative administration of intravenous dextromethorphan reduces ... Phencyclidine: a dissociative anesthetic previously used in medicine, but its development was discontinued in the 1960s in ...
... solubilities and anesthetic properties". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 88 (5): 1161-7. doi:10.1213/00000539-199905000-00036. PMID ... reported the degree of anterograde amnesia to be similar, but the degree of retrograde amnesia was much lower after flurothyl. ... Karliner W (February 1963). "Clinical experiences with intravenous Indoklon: a new convulsant drug". Journal of Neuropsychiatry ... The convulsant properties of flurothyl pose a challenge to unifying theories of general anesthetics such as the Meyer-Overton ...
At high concentrations, could induce amnesia, analgesia, spins, stupor, and unconsciousness as result of high levels of ethanol ... Ethanol can be taken orally, by inhalation, rectally, or by injection (e.g., intravenous), though it is typically ingested ... and various general anesthetics. Indeed, ethanol has been found to enhance GABAA receptor-mediated currents in functional ... Gilman JM, Ramchandani VA, Crouss T, Hommer DW (January 2012). "Subjective and neural responses to intravenous alcohol in young ...
Intravenous general anesthetics[edit]. Induction[edit]. Intravenously-delivered general anesthetics are typically small and ... analgesia, amnesia, unconsciousness, and reduced autonomic responsiveness to noxious stimuli.[2][3][4] ... As with intravenous anesthetic infusions, prolonged delivery of highly soluble anesthetic gases generally results in longer ... Inhalational general anesthetics[edit]. Minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) is the concentration of an inhalational anesthetic ...
Local anesthetic toxicity. *Malignant hyperthermia. *Perioperative mortality. *Postanesthetic shivering. *Postoperative nausea ... Intravenous therapy (IV). *Tracheal intubation. *Laryngeal tube. *Combitube. *Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA). *Oropharyngeal ... Drug-induced amnesia. *Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. *Nerve block. *Penthrox inhaler. *Tracheal intubation ...
Local anesthetic toxicity. *Malignant hyperthermia. *Perioperative mortality. *Postanesthetic shivering. *Postoperative nausea ... Drug-induced amnesia. *Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. *Nerve block. *Penthrox inhaler. *Tracheal intubation ...
Moderate doses (5-10 mg intranasal, or 0.01-0.02 mg/kg intramuscular or intravenous) will produce analgesia and anesthesia. ... PCP was initially made in 1926 and brought to market as an anesthetic medication in the 1950s.[10][74][15][16] Its anesthetic ... Symptoms are summarized by the mnemonic device RED DANES: rage, erythema (redness of skin), dilated pupils, delusions, amnesia ... PCP was initially made in 1926 and brought to market as an anesthetic medication in the 1950s.[10][14][15][16] Its use in ...
Caudal epidural analgesia[edit]. The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous ... "Side effects of subarachnoid and epidural sufentanil associated with a local anesthetic in patients undergoing labor analgesia ... The onset of analgesia is slower with epidural analgesia or anaesthesia than with spinal analgesia or anaesthesia. ... Epidural analgesia during childbirth[edit]. Epidural analgesia provides rapid pain relief in most cases. It is more effective ...
Cave G, Harvey M (September 2009). "Intravenous lipid emulsion as antidote beyond local anesthetic toxicity: a systematic ... Gow-Gates GA (April 1998). "The Gow-Gates mandibular block: regional anatomy and analgesia". Australian Endodontic Journal. 24 ... List of local anesthetics. References[edit]. *^ Ryan, T (2019). "Tramadol as an adjunct to intra‐articular local anaesthetic ... of Wisconsin, Local Anesthesia and Regional Anesthetics *^ a b Weinberg GL, VadeBoncouer T, Ramaraju GA, Garcia-Amaro MF, Cwik ...
Anesthetic risk factors include the use of volatile anesthetics, Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Opioids, and longer duration of ... The intravenous anaesthetic propofol is currently the least emetogenic general anaesthetic. These medications are thought to ... Propofol: an anesthetic medication that confers antiemetic properties Alternative medicine[edit]. In conjunction with ... Anesthetic strategies to prevent vomiting include using regional anesthesia whenever possible and avoiding medications that ...
These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Neumann R, Schulzke SM, Bührer C (2012). "Oral ibuprofen versus intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin for the ... Congenital analgesia (insensitivity to pain). Notes[edit]. *^ Anonymous (1990). Cancer pain relief and palliative care; report ... Fatigue, sedation, dizziness, ataxia, tremor, diplopia, nystagmus, amblyopia, amnesia, abnormal thinking, hypertension, ...
These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Neumann R, Schulzke SM, Bührer C (2012). "Oral ibuprofen versus intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin for the ... Analgesia and fever reduction.. As per paracetamol. Ziconotide. Peptide.. N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. ... Fatigue, sedation, dizziness, ataxia, tremor, diplopia, nystagmus, amblyopia, amnesia, abnormal thinking, hypertension, ...
These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Neumann R, Schulzke SM, Bührer C (2012). "Oral ibuprofen versus intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin for the ... "Nefopam analgesia and its role in multimodal analgesia: A review of preclinical and clinical studies". Clinical and ... Fatigue, sedation, dizziness, ataxia, tremor, diplopia, nystagmus, amblyopia, amnesia, abnormal thinking, hypertension, ...
These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Neumann R, Schulzke SM, Bührer C (2012). "Oral ibuprofen versus intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin for the ... Congenital analgesia (insensitivity to pain). Notes[edit]. *^ Anonymous (1990). Cancer pain relief and palliative care; report ... Fatigue, sedation, dizziness, ataxia, tremor, diplopia, nystagmus, amblyopia, amnesia, abnormal thinking, hypertension, ...
... and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial ... Anesthetics, General. Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and ... Monitor-Guided Analgesia During General Anesthesia - Part I. This prospective randomized clinical trial evaluates the effects ... It may result from damage to nerves or can be induced by an anesthetist (a medical professional) using anesthetics such as ...
The ideal anesthetic drug would provide hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation without undesirable changes in ... Systemic local anesthetics: local anesthetics are given systemically (orally or intravenous) to relieve neuropathic pain. ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... 246 Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. Inhalational anesthetics ...
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a ... Anesthetics, Intravenous (18) • Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and ... Anesthetic Gases (0) see Anesthetics, Inhalation. Anesthetics (89) • Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial ... Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by ...
CNS Pharmacology General anesthetics Dr. Hiwa K. Saaed, H.D, M.Sc, Ph.D Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology College of ... Poor analgesia. 33 * 34. Intravenous anesthetics/ Etomidate • Is used to induce anesthesia, it is a hypnotic agent but lacks ... Neuroleptanesthesia: Is a state of analgesia and amnesia produced when fentanyl is used with droperidol and N2O, Is suitable ... Intravenous anesthetics/ ketamine • Ketamine (phencyclidine derivative) a short-acting, anesthetic, induces a dissociated state ...
General anesthetics, however, typically elicit several key reversible effects: immobility, analgesia, amnesia, unconsciousness ... As with intravenous anesthetic infusions, prolonged delivery of highly soluble anesthetic gases generally results in longer ... This process is accelerated with intravenous anesthetics, so much so that it is negligible to consider during their use. The ... The receiver of the anesthesia primarily feels analgesia followed by amnesia and a sense of confusion moving into the next ...
It has been demonstrated in some in vitro, animal, and human studies that some anesthetics are associated with increased ... Neither the route of anesthesia nor the type of anesthetic appears to be significantly associated with the development of ... Given the inconsistent evidence on the association between surgery, anesthetic type, and AD, well-designed and adequately ... Many points in this complex pathogenesis can potentially be influenced by both surgery and anesthetics. ...
The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and ... lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ... The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and ... Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Links Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics with Mitochondrial Function Curr Biol. 2016 Aug 22;26 ...
10 Intravenous and inhalational anesthetics induce hypnosis, whereas opioid and local anesthetics induce analgesia.10 ... Therefore, it is likely that MAC is not a good indicator of unconsciousness or amnesia. If the sensitivity to inhalational ... According to the current definition of anesthetic depth, anesthesia consists of hypnosis and analgesia. ... Immediately after delivery, 5 units of intravenous oxytocin and 2 μg/kg intravenous fentanyl was administered for 5 min. We ...
Retrobulbar anesthesia is a type of regional anesthetic nerve block in the retrobulbar space, located behind the globe of the ... Intravenous sedation is commonly used to improve patient cooperation, to provide analgesia, and obtain amnesia for the ... Anesthetic Agent. Choice of the anesthetic agent depends on the duration of the surgery to be performed. A single agent may be ... If anesthetic is injected into the eyeball, this can cause a scleral rupture (ocular explosion). Needle damage is more likely ...
Anesthetics have been used in many procedures for more than 150 years, doctors and scientists still dont know exactly how ... New inhaled and intravenous general anesthetics act quickly and dissipate rapidly when stopped, while local and regional ... analgesia (lack of pain) and amnesia (lack of memory). And they have developed medicines that can provide one or more elements ... The next few decades saw the introduction of less flammable anesthetic gases as well as the discovery of intravenous ...
... and analgesia. Clonidine can be given via oral, intramuscular, intravenous, intrathecal and epidural routes. ... and decreases anesthetic requirements for both opioid and volatile anesthetics [4]. Premedication with oral clonidine provides ... Preanesthetic medication lessens preoperative anxiety, provides amnesia for preoperative and perioperative events and maintains ... Time for the sensory block to regress to L1 and rescue analgesia was longest in 4 followed by groups 3 and 2. There was ...
101 Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic that, in lower doses, provides good analgesia, amnesia, and sedation.102 Although ... The use of oral or intravenous acetaminophen has been limited to postoperative pain control. Although intravenous acetaminophen ... and ongoing analgesia was given in an additional 34%.3 Thus, infants received analgesia for approximately half of the ... Analgesia and local anesthesia during invasive procedures in the neonate. Clin Ther. 2005;27(6):844-876pmid:16117989. ...
A general anesthetic acts by blocking awareness centers in the brain so that amnesia (loss of memory), analgesia (insensibility ... General anesthetics are usually administered by intravenous infusion or by inhalation of gases through a mask or through an ... Topical anesthetics are readily absorbed and act rapidly.. Local Anesthesia. (Infiltration)is injected into a specific area and ... Intravenous block (Bier block). Is used most often for procedures involving the arm, wrist and hand. An occlusion tourniquet is ...
However, many anesthetics are delivered as total intravenous agents, with propofol providing amnesia and remifentanil supplying ... the analgesia, so there is no vapor level to measure, thus making the bispectral index an essential monitor of anesthetic depth ... The obstetric anesthetic chapter makes the recommendation that the conversion rate of regional to general anesthesia should be ... The last portion of the book discusses the legal ramifications of anesthetic mishaps. The case of Mrs. Elaine Bromiley, the 37- ...
Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia is not often needed. However, for the patient with cardiopulmonary comorbidities, ... Proposed general anesthetic plan: Prepare the anesthetic machine to rid it of trace anesthetic gases, change the soda lime ... Adequate sedation, analgesia, amnesia and muscle relaxation. * Secured airway, ensuring positive pressure ventilation, ... Select anesthetic drugs. The termination of action of most anesthetic drugs is due to redistribution, metabolism, and ...
Understanding Inhaled General Anesthetics. These drugs are complete anesthetics, providing analgesia, hypnosis and amnesia. ... The Ins and Outs of Intravenous Sedation. A look at the drugs and techniques used to administer minimal, moderate and deep ... Easy-to-implement strategies for more effective use of local anesthetics. Understanding Antiemetic Medications. Focusing on ... These potent pain relievers offer significant analgesia but also carry the risk of serious side effects, tolerance and ...
Intravenous anesthetics are used to induce a state of impaired awareness or for complete sedation. Commonly used intravenous ... Dissociative anaesthesia: unique anesthetic state with analgesia, intact spontaneous breathing, amnesia, and no complete loss ... Intravenous anaesthetics Abstract Intravenous anesthetics are used to induce a state of impaired awareness or for complete ... Commonly used intravenous anesthetics include propofol, etomidate, ketamine, and barbiturates (e.g., thiopental). Propofol is ...
... and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial ... Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of ...
... and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial ... Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of ...
amnesia, and unconsciousness, with the loss of muscle tone and reflexes.. 58. Stages of General Anesthesia. Stage 1 analgesia ... Increasing rate of intravenous fluids. 64. Local or Regional Anesthesia*Sensory nerve impulse transmission from a specific body ... Inhalation intake and excretion of anesthetic gas or vapor to the lungs through a mask ... Combination used to provide hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, muscle relaxation, and reduced reflexes with minimal disturbance of ...
General anesthesia provides amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. In addition, the patients airway is secured with an ... Monitored anesthesia care (MAC) combines intravenous sedation with local anesthetic injection, infiltration including tumescent ... Anesthesia, analgesia, and amnesia. Cosmetic Oculoplastic Surgery, Eyelid, Forehead, and Facial Techniques. 3rd ed. 1999. 67-74 ... Anesthetic agents are used and include the following:. * Lidocaine (Dilocaine, Octocaine, Xylocaine), Amide local anesthetic ...
Local anesthetic at the incision site is beneficial to manage post operative pain. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia is ... i) Providing adeuate sedation, analgesia, amnesia and muscle relaxation.. ii) Secured airway, ensuring positive pressure ... a). Proposed general anesthetic plan: Prepare the anesthetic machine to ensure there is no trace anesthetic gases. Change the ... c. Local anesthetic infiltration at incision site. May be considered as a choice of post-operative analgesia in patients who ...
The action on the spinal cord causes immobility and analgesia.. General anesthetics can be divided into three groups at the ... Intravenous agents. Ketamine and inhalation agents such as nitrous oxide, xenon, and cyclopropane produce significant analgesia ... The action on the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex causes amnesia.. * ... Unlike the other commonly used general anesthetics, this drug has a unique ability to produce sedation and analgesia without ...
overview of anesthesia and anesthetic choices Authors Scott A Falk, MD Lee A Fleisher, MD Section Editor Stephanie B Jones, MD ... Continuous infusions of one or a combination of medications are used to provide amnesia and analgesia. A typical regimen ... Local anesthetic (0.5%) is injected into the intravenous line. Signs and symptoms of anesthesia (numbness, insensitivity) ... In certain circumstances amnesia may be undesirable and may be avoided by utilizing a regional anesthetic technique. The ...
Recovery after a small dose is rapid, with some somnolence and retrograde amnesia. Repeated intravenous doses lead to prolonged ... but not analgesia. It produces hypnosis within 30 to 40 seconds of intravenous injection. ... Thiopental, a barbiturate, is used for the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for ... For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of ...
... and amnesia (lack of memory). Scientists have developed drugs called anesthetics that target each of these elements. Most ... A CRNA combines regional, inhalation, and intravenous agents to attain the right balance for surgery. These three agents ... Anesthesia consists of several components, including sedation, unconsciousness, immobility, analgesia (lack of pain) ... Anesthetic agents have long been used to ensure more and more patients survive the trauma of surgery. ...
The ideal anesthetic drug would provide hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation without undesirable changes in ... In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in ... Inhalational anesthetics will reliably produce amnesia through general suppression of the nuclei at doses below those required ... Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. ...
... characterized by profound analgesia and mild amnesia. Emergency defibrillation is a fast procedure and this patient was found ... IWe administered continuous intravenous dobutamine (30mcg.Kg-1.min-1) and amiodarone. Echocardiography revealed ventricular ... There are no studies evaluating others anesthetics in this situation. The use of S(+)-ketamine should be studied in patients ...
A balanced anesthetic that provides amnesia, akinesia, and analgesia should be developed. There is no evidence to suggest that ... General anesthesia with inhaled anesthetic or intravenous anesthetic is necessary for the surgical treatment of Wilms tumor. ... A balanced technique with an amnesic agent (volatile agent or intravenous agent), intravenous narcotic or epidural analgesia, ... The proposed general anesthetic plan is total intravenous anesthesia with nondepolarizing muscle relaxation. Ensure that an MH ...
The infusion of local anesthetic can be programmed to be a continuous flow or patient-controlled analgesia. In some cases, ... Complications associated with brachial plexus block include intra-arterial or intravenous injection, which can lead to local ... Continuous wound infiltration Drug-induced amnesia Neuromuscular monitoring Suprascapular nerve Fisher, L; Gordon, M (2011). " ... Include T1-T2 if block is anesthetic 3. Include C3-C4 if block is anesthetic The interscalene block is performed by injecting ...
  • This prospective randomized clinical trial evaluates the effects of a monitor-guided opioid analgesia during general anesthesia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study investigates the electrocardiographic-electrophysiological effects of administration of anesthetic drugs for general anesthesia (GA) in patients with BrS at high risk of sudden cardiac deat. (bioportfolio.com)
  • General anesthetics elicit a state of general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • While general anesthesia induction may be facilitated by one general anesthetic, others may be used in parallel or subsequently to achieve and maintain the desired anesthetic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • This drug, however, also alters arousal and is often used in parallel with other general anesthetics to help maintain a state of general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither the route of anesthesia nor the type of anesthetic appears to be significantly associated with the development of postoperative delirium or postoperative cognitive dysfunction. (dovepress.com)
  • According to the current definition of anesthetic depth, anesthesia consists of hypnosis and analgesia. (asahq.org)
  • Retrobulbar anesthesia is a type of regional anesthetic nerve block in the retrobulbar space, located behind the globe of the eye. (aao.org)
  • New inhaled and intravenous general anesthetics act quickly and dissipate rapidly when stopped, while local and regional anesthetics that block specific nerves provide an alternative to general anesthesia. (livescience.com)
  • Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have helped identify and explore several components of general anesthesia-including sedation, unconsciousness, immobility, analgesia (lack of pain) and amnesia (lack of memory). (livescience.com)
  • Advances in cell biology, genetics and molecular biology have spurred scientists to learn more about anesthesia and develop better anesthetics. (livescience.com)
  • Anesthesia differs from analgesia in blocking all sensation, not only pain. (nursingcrib.com)
  • Monitored anesthesia care (MAC) combines intravenous sedation with local anesthetic injection, infiltration including tumescent anesthesia, or nerve blocks. (medscape.com)
  • To minimize these risks, the anesthesia personnel must titrate the medications carefully to maintain spontaneous respirations while maintaining an anesthetic depth, allowing the patient to remain comfortable. (medscape.com)
  • For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Thiopental, a barbiturate, is used for the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Thiopental is an ultrashort-acting depressant of the central nervous system which induces hypnosis and anesthesia, but not analgesia. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Anesthesia is a reversible condition due to the effect of anesthetic drugs that cause a reduction or complete loss of response to pain or other sensations such as consciousness and muscle movements during surgery or other invasive procedures that can be painful. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Drugs that are used to induce this type of anesthesia are called general anesthetics. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Drugs used to induce local anesthesia are called local anesthetics. (healthcareguys.com)
  • While the definition of anesthesia itself, as the loss of 'awareness,' is rather vague, a pragmatic definition of anesthesia as the provision of a combination of amnesia, analgesia (pain control), and muscle relaxation to allow the performance of surgery or interventional procedures is more useful. (pharmaguide.co)
  • This topic discusses an overview of anesthesia and anesthetic choices focusing on intraoperative management and the risks and benefits of anesthetic choices. (pharmaguide.co)
  • The most common methods of providing pain relief include local anesthesia, parenteral narcotics, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), neuraxial blockade with epidural or spinal anesthetics, or regional nerve blockade. (pharmaguide.co)
  • Anesthesia consists of several components, including sedation, unconsciousness, immobility, analgesia (lack of pain) and amnesia (lack of memory). (digestivecarephysicians.com)
  • General anesthesia may result in low blood pressure, undesirable decreases in cardiac output, central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, loss of protective airway reflexes (such as coughing), need for tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, and residual anesthetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This block is particularly useful in providing anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for surgery to the clavicle, shoulder, and arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • S(+)-ketamine is a drug with fast onset that does not depress the myocardium and neither the respiratory centers, produces a dissociating anesthesia, characterized by profound analgesia and mild amnesia. (ispub.com)
  • IV anesthetics are used to relieve pain (analgesia), to relax (sedate), to induce sleepiness (hypnosis) or forgetfulness (amnesia), or to make you unconscious for general anesthesia. (anesthesiabilling.org)
  • Benzodiazepines may be used to provide sedation and amnesia during local or regional anesthesia or during procedural sedation, which combines the use of local anesthesia with sedatives to relax you for minor procedures. (anesthesiabilling.org)
  • The first phase of anesthesia, when an anesthetic is first given, is called induction. (anesthesiabilling.org)
  • But opioids by themselves are generally not used for anesthesia, because there have been reported cases of awareness during anesthesia when opioids alone were used as anesthetics. (anesthesiabilling.org)
  • Ketamine infusions rapidly produce anesthesia and a unique cataleptic state with profound analgesia, unresponsiveness and amnesia, but often with maintenance of muscle tone, involuntary movements, open eyes and spontaneous breathing. (nih.gov)
  • Current indications are as the sole anesthetic agent for short term diagnostic and surgical procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to other general anesthetic agents, and as an adjunct to low potency agents. (nih.gov)
  • Improvements in inhalational and intravenous agents have increased the safety profile of general anesthesia and complication rates are low. (pedsurglibrary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia practice for pediatric extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) according to the age groups and discuss the anesthetic management of these patients. (storzmedical.com)
  • Groups were compared according to ketamine and midazolam doses, extra anesthetic agent requirement, duration of procedure, procedural and postprocedural complications due to anesthesia, as well as mean number of sessions and calculus diameter. (storzmedical.com)
  • There was no statistically significant difference in additional anesthetic agent requirement (p = 0.35) as well as mean number of SWL sessions (p = 0.23), duration of anesthesia (p = 0.93), stone size (p = 0.20), and stone laterality (p = 0.71) in both preschool and school children. (storzmedical.com)
  • Only appr 20% of the cases required addition of other anesthetic agents like propofol or fentanyl and no child required general anesthesia. (storzmedical.com)
  • Retrograde amnesia is a consequence of conscious sedation and obviously helped to maintain this form of anesthesia also in those children requiring a second ESWL (408 sessions in 251 children). (storzmedical.com)
  • A combination of inhalation and intravenous anesthetics, often with opioids added for pain relief and neuromuscular blockers for muscle paralysis, is called balanced anesthesia. (instituteplasticsurgery.com)
  • You are correct that "anesthesia" literally means "no feeling," which would imply analgesia, and that pentobarbital is not primarily an analgesic, but the term "general anesthesia" is in reference to a state of analgesia, amnesia, loss of consciousness, and sometimes loss of reflexes and paralysis which are induced by various agents. (yarchive.com)
  • Barbiturates are perfectly capable of inducing general anesthesia, and in fact, I believe thiopental was the first intravenous general anesthetic. (yarchive.com)
  • Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that blocks the release of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and provides anesthesia, amnesia, and analgesia by virtue of decreasing central sensitization. (medznat.ru)
  • Follow a proposed general anesthetic plan: total intravenous anesthesia with propofol ± opioid infusion ± nitrous oxide. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • When thiopental is used as the sole anesthetic agent, the desired level of anesthesia can be maintained by injection of small repeated doses as needed or by using a continuous intravenous infusion with a 0.2% or 0.4% concentration (see section 6.6). (medicines.org.uk)
  • General anesthesia drugs are administered intravenously and by inhalation of anesthetic gases using masks. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • General anesthesia drugs are intended to bring about analgesia or pain relief, amnesia, reversible unconsciousness, motionlessness, and inhibition of autonomic nervous system such as increased blood pressure, heart rate, and sweating, and to perform easier and safer surgery. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Further, the technological advancements in drug delivery devices, development of specific targeted drugs and patient monitoring devices for monitoring physiological parameters of patients during and after anesthesia, and minimized side effects of anesthetic drugs are drivers which are likely to boost the market growth during the forecast period. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • However, lack of health care facilities in underdeveloped countries and in remote areas and few anesthetic doctors and certified anesthetic nurses per capita of population are anticipated to restrain the growth of the general anesthesia drugs market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Based on the route of administration, the market is segmented into intravenous anesthesia drugs and inhaled anesthesia drugs. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Intravenous anesthetic drugs are administered through the veins while inhaled anesthetic drugs are administered through anesthesia masks and endotracheal tubes using ventilators. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Inhalational anesthetics are gases or volatile liquids that produce general anesthesia when inhaled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intravenous anesthetics are sedative hypnotic drugs that produce anesthesia in large doses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • these can be used alone for brief surgical procedures or for rapid induction of anesthesia maintained by inhalational anesthetics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and dissociative anesthesia, which uses ketamine , a drug related to the hallucinogens that produces profound analgesia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • local anesthetic an agent, e.g., lidocaine, procaine, or tetracaine, that produces anesthesia by paralyzing sensory nerve endings or nerve fibers at the site of application. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The modern practice of anesthesiology relies on the use of combinations of intravenous and inhaled drugs ( balanced anesthesia techniques) to take advantage of the favorable properties of each agent while minimizing their adverse effects. (mhmedical.com)
  • For more invasive surgical procedures, anesthesia may begin with a preoperative benzodiazepine, be induced with an intravenous agent (eg, thiopental or propofol), and be maintained with a combination of inhaled (eg, volatile agents, nitrous oxide) and/or intravenous drugs (eg, propofol, opioid analgesics). (mhmedical.com)
  • To produce anesthesia, doctors use drugs called anesthetics. (stoneymeadows.co.nz)
  • Therefore, these practitioners are uniquely qualified to provide all levels of analgesia/sedation and anesthesia (moderate to deep to general). (painandpsa.org)
  • Lowered sensitivity to external stimuli (hyporeflexia), analgesia, unconsciousness, muscle relaxation, and amnesia are significant features of general anesthesia. (notesformedicalstudents.com)
  • Important effects seen in general anesthesia are sedation , reduced anxiety , lack of awareness and amnesia, skeletal muscle relaxation , suppression of protective reflexes, and analgesia . (lecturio.com)
  • They are referred to as the "triad" of anesthesia and must be achieved during the administration of any anesthetic agent. (lecturio.com)
  • This phase comprises the time of administration of an anesthetic to the development of effective anesthesia. (lecturio.com)
  • Induction of anesthesia with an intravenous agent (eg, propofol) will produce unconsciousness in 30 seconds. (lecturio.com)
  • To achieve the needed depth of anesthesia, some drugs are added to the anesthetics either by inhalation or intravenous routes. (lecturio.com)
  • After the administration of the anesthetic agent, the vital signs and response to stimuli are continuously monitored to balance the amount of drug inhaled, or infused, with the depth of anesthesia. (lecturio.com)
  • The state of sedation, analgesia, amnesia and muscle paralysis is called general anesthesia. (news-medical.net)
  • Intravenous (IV) agents like propofol, or anesthetic vapors, or a combination of the two, may be used to induce anesthesia. (news-medical.net)
  • One of the most serious, but thankfully rare, complications associated with general anesthesia is malignant hyperthermia (an inherited condition that causes hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hypercarbia and lethal increase in body temperature in response to a reaction to the anesthetic medication). (news-medical.net)
  • on anesthetic methods in current use and an analysis of anesthesia conducted during the past six years by the Department of Anaesthesia of nfcGill University at the Montreal Divisior. (scribd.com)
  • Spinal anesthesia with 1 :1500 nupercaine and orotracheal administration of oxygen, continuous blood transfusion and intermittent intravenous injection of ~ r o c a i n e , ~ postoperative bronchoscopic suction. (scribd.com)
  • The method of anesthesia that is chosen for or by a patient depends upon the nature of the surgical procedure and the patient's level of apprehension.The following table illustrates the choices of anesthesia, a description of the anesthetic technique, and the usual indications for that technique. (facialsurgery.org)
  • Local anesthetic is used in conjunction with the other methods of anesthesia in all oral surgery procedures. (facialsurgery.org)
  • Our office offers our patients the option of I ntravenous Sedation or Dental Intravenous Anesthesia or to some it is referred to as "Twilight Sedation" for their dental treatment. (facialsurgery.org)
  • Propofol is one of the most commonly used intravenous agents for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • 9 It is not recommended to administer propofol for anesthetic induction in children under three years of age, as well as for maintenance of anesthesia in children below two months of age due to lack of population studies. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • Anesthesia & Analgesia 123, 1286-1296 (2016). (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • Anesthetic Properties of 4-Iodopropofol: Implications for Mechanisms of Anesthesia. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • I'll use sevoflurane (an "anesthesia gas") to maintain a state of amnesia during the surgery. (rk.md)
  • While usually administered with inhalational agents, general anesthesia can be achieved with intravenous agents, such as propofol . (wikidoc.org)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Anesthesia & Analgesia. (lww.com)
  • An anesthetic or anaesthetic is a drug used to induce anesthesia ⁠- ⁠in other words, to result in a temporary loss of sensation or awareness. (zonaidey.ru)
  • Benzodiazepines are used for preoperative medication, intravenous sedation, intravenous induction of anesthesia, and suppression of seizure activity (Table 2.2). (digital-campus.org)
  • Induction of general anesthesia with midazolam requires intravenous administration of the drug. (digital-campus.org)
  • Anesthesia is a pharmacologically induced reversible state of amnesia, analgesia, loss of consciousness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes and decreased stress response. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Fentanyl: It is a synthetic opioid used for its analgesia, sedation and anesthesia actions. (stemgeeks.net)
  • General anesthesia is the state produced when a patient receives medications for amnesia, analgesia, muscle paralysis, and sedation. (news-medical.net)
  • Tim Silegy, DDS, and Roger S. Kingston, DDS 413 P ed iatr ic O r al C o ns c i o u s S e dat i o n Oral conscious sedation can be a safe and cost-effective alternative to intravenous sedation and general anesthesia for children who could not otherwise be treated. (studyres.com)
  • Your posts show that you have an abundance of ignorance about anesthetic agents and anesthesia providers in general. (allnurses.com)
  • Local anesthesia can refer to a truly local anesthetic (numbing the skin of the operative area) or to a regional anesthetic (spinal anesthesia or nerve block). (healthtap.com)
  • General anesthesia is a medically induced coma and loss of protective reflexes resulting from the administration of one or more general anesthetic agents. (healthtap.com)
  • General anesthesia is usually a combination of inhaled anesthesia gases and intravenous medications. (sierraanesthesia.com)
  • Local and regional anesthesia involves using an anesthetic that acts on a specific part of the body and desensitizes it to pain (usually). (scienceabc.com)
  • There's also 'conduction anesthesia', which involves a variety of both regional and local anesthetic techniques. (scienceabc.com)
  • This form of anesthesia impacts the entire central nervous system of a subject by temporarily inducing a number of effects, including complete muscle relaxation, amnesia, analgesia, paralysis of the skeletal muscles (in some cases) and unconsciousness. (scienceabc.com)
  • Inhalational anesthesia is usually accompanied by intravenous anesthesia, which involves introducing intravenous agents like opioids (e.g., fentanyl ) and sedatives (e.g., propofol ) to reduce pain and induce unconsciousness, respectively. (scienceabc.com)
  • Moderate doses (5-10 mg intranasal, or 0.01-0.02 mg/kg intramuscular or intravenous) will produce analgesia and anesthesia. (tripsit.me)
  • However, many anesthetics are delivered as total intravenous agents, with propofol providing amnesia and remifentanil supplying the analgesia, so there is no vapor level to measure, thus making the bispectral index an essential monitor of anesthetic depth. (asahq.org)
  • Etomidate, Propofol, and Barbiturates are much more potent at producing unconsciousness rather than immobility or analgesia. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Propofol (Diprivan) is the most commonly used anesthetic induction agent. (anesthesiabilling.org)
  • Characterized by fast onset and rapid systemic clearance, propofol was developed as the "milk of amnesia" that became widely used starting from the 1980s. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • Like other anesthetics, propofol, as a small and hydrophobic molecule, binds to the GABA(A) and glycine gated ion channels, thus enhancing inhibitory activity of these channels. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • Propofol is available in drug form (Diprivan) as a more modern intravenous agent in comparison to traditional intravenous agents (e.g. barbituates) and volatile anesthetic agents (e.g. isoflurane). (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • 5 Likewise, reports have indicated that patients induced with propofol show improved alertness and faster discharge times than with other anesthetics (e.x. newer volatile anesthetics such as sevoflurane). (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • 7 Thus, given the need for prolonged sedation, careful thought should be taken to consider alternative anesthetic agents rather than increasing propofol dose requirements. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • Propofol is an increasingly popular intravenous anesthetic that maintains extremely fast induction and recovery times, coupled with a short half-life and quick elimination from the body. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • 1. Walsh, C. T. Propofol: Milk of Amnesia. (anesthesiologydfw.com)
  • To help reduce blood pressure, I can deepen the anesthetic (more gas or propofol), provide more pain medications, or use other medications like labetalol, metoprolol, hydralazine or nicardipine . (rk.md)
  • The synergistic effects between benzodiazepines and other drugs, especially opioids and propofol, facilitate better sedation and analgesia. (digital-campus.org)
  • With little room for error and recent reports of abuse and deaths, propofol, a commonly used general anesthetic induction agent, has provoked considerable concern and has stirred debate regarding its classification and how care should be rendered. (cdeworld.com)
  • Marketed as Diprivan ® by AstraZeneca ( www.astrazeneca.com ), propofol is a commonly used general anesthetic induction agent. (cdeworld.com)
  • 2,3 Both subanesthetic and anesthetic doses of propofol increase dopamine concentrations, which reflect activation of the reward circuit. (cdeworld.com)
  • It may include some or all of analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain ), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), and unconsciousness . (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthetics that agonize them are typically used to induce a state of sedation and/or unconsciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is likely that MAC is not a good indicator of unconsciousness or amnesia. (asahq.org)
  • General anesthetics can be divided into three groups at the molecular level depending on their abilities to produce unconsciousness, immobility, and analgesia. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Unlike general anesthetics, these drugs produce a transient loss of sensory perception, especially those of pain in a localized area of the body without having unconsciousness. (healthcareguys.com)
  • It is the temporary state of more than one analgesia, paralysis, amnesia, and unconsciousness. (stoneymeadows.co.nz)
  • If the narcotics were used alone, they are good pain blockers, but don't have reliable ability to ensure amnesia or unconsciousness. (hubpages.com)
  • While this "milk of amnesia" has earned a horrible stigma following Michael Jackson's (unsupervised) use and ultimate demise, it's really a fantastic agent which we routinely use to induce and often times maintain a state of unconsciousness. (rk.md)
  • Chloroform was also used as an anesthetic to induce unconsciousness before medical procedures in the 19th century. (scienceabc.com)
  • The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and immobility) remain an unsolved mystery. (nih.gov)
  • The action on the spinal cord causes immobility and analgesia. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Most of our volatile agents also offer some degree immobility but no appreciable analgesia. (rk.md)
  • Local anesthetic agents are usually of the amino amides class and include such agents as lidocaine, bupivacaine, prilocaine, mepivacaine, and etidocaine. (medscape.com)
  • For incisional sites, a local anesthetic such as 1% lidocaine with epinephrine (EPI) is ideal for direct injection into the incisional site with rapid onset of the anesthetic effect. (medscape.com)
  • For procedures in which flaps are to be elevated, as in a facelift or coronal forehead lift, the incision site is anesthetized as previously mentioned, and the flap area can be infiltrated with a diluted anesthetic such as 0.5% lidocaine with EPI. (medscape.com)
  • As an example, in a facelifting procedure both short-acting (lidocaine) and longer-acting (bupivacaine) anesthetics with EPI are injected into the incision line from the temple area, the preauricular and tragal incision site, and posteriorly into the posterior ear sulcus and postauricular scalp and neck areas, which are injected using a 30 gauge x 0.5 inch or 27 gauge x 1.25 inch needle. (medscape.com)
  • A diluted anesthetic such as 0.25% lidocaine with 1:400,000 EPI can be injected with a spinal needle (25 gauge x 3.5 inches) in a tumescent fashion, infiltrating (swelling) the subcutaneous area with this diluted mixture. (medscape.com)
  • For the local anesthetic, 1% lidocaine often is used with 1:200,000 or 1:100,000 EPI. (medscape.com)
  • A local anesthetic (e.g. lidocaine ) is administered in the area where the surgery is to be performed. (facialsurgery.org)
  • 5. Discuss intravenous vs topical lidocaine in this setting. (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • I'll begin intravenous induction with fentanyl (a potent narcotic offering profound but short-lived pain relief) followed by lidocaine (a local anesthetic to attenuate the response to laryngoscopy). (rk.md)
  • Lidocaine: It is a local anesthetic used to decrease and block the sensitive component (pain) as well as the motor component (movement), it also serves as an antiarrhythmic and is currently widely used by dentists. (stemgeeks.net)
  • This series was designed to demonstrate that EPs in a resource-poor setting can provide effective analgesia for femur fractures with anatomic landmark-guided FICBs, clinician-compounded lidocaine-epinephrine (1:100,000), and a standard injection needle. (escholarship.org)
  • Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ketamine [7]. (nih.gov)
  • Ketamine and inhalation agents such as nitrous oxide, xenon, and cyclopropane produce significant analgesia. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Ketamine is a parenterally administered, general anesthetic used largely for short term diagnostic and surgical procedures, but which has been limited in use because of its psychological side effects including vivid hallucinations, agitation and confusion. (nih.gov)
  • Ketamine (kee' ta meen) is an arylcyclohexylamine anesthetic that acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of N-methyl-D-apartate (NMDA) receptors in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • These adverse effects of ketamine are less in children, but have limited its usefulness as a routine anesthetic agent in adults. (nih.gov)
  • Ketamine is available as liquid solution for intramuscular or intravenous injection in vials of 50 mg/mL in several generic forms and under the brand name of Ketalar. (nih.gov)
  • The anaesthesia technique primarily used intravenous ketamine and midazolam. (storzmedical.com)
  • Ketamine (Okay, particular Okay, tremendous Okay, ketalar, inexperienced) is categorized as a brief appearing dissociative anesthetic, as a result of it provides a way of detachment. (sildenafilmedsusa.com)
  • Ketamine was found in 1962 by Parke-Davis and is on the listing of World Well being Group's record of important drugs because of its in depth use as an anesthetic and painkiller. (sildenafilmedsusa.com)
  • Ketamine was used prominently as an anesthetic within the Vietnam Warfare. (sildenafilmedsusa.com)
  • Since, ketamine suppresses respiration in contrast to different widespread anesthetics, it stimulates the circulatory system as an alternative of miserable it, it's utilized in nations with poor resuscitation gear. (sildenafilmedsusa.com)
  • Various researches suggest the usefulness of ketamine as a strong analgesic used in sub anesthetic intravenous doses, and also as a sedative. (medznat.ru)
  • Each episode of urinary and fecal retention appeared immediately after intravenous administration of ketamine. (alliedacademies.org)
  • General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs given to induce general anaesthesia can be either as gases or vapours (inhalational anaesthetics), or as injections (intravenous anaesthetics or even intramuscular). (wikipedia.org)
  • 10 Intravenous and inhalational anesthetics induce hypnosis, whereas opioid and local anesthetics induce analgesia. (asahq.org)
  • Intravenous narcotics such as morphine or fentanyl (Sublimaze) and antianxiety agents such as diazepam (Valium) or midazolam (Versed) are commonly used to induce and maintain conscious sedation. (nursingcrib.com)
  • Intravenous anesthetics are used to induce a state of impaired awareness or for complete sedation. (amboss.com)
  • An ideal anesthetic drug should also induce rapid, smooth loss of consciousness, be rapidly reversible upon discontinuation, and possess a wide margin of safety. (mhmedical.com)
  • Medications that induce amnesia include midazolam (often given as a premedication), before even going to the operating room. (hubpages.com)
  • Doses as low as 0.25 mg of triazolam can relieve anxiety and induce sedation and amnesia before procedures. (sedationdentalcare.net)
  • The paragraph on providing adequate doses of local anesthetic states that fentanyl 10 mg given intrathecally needs to be corrected to 10 mcg. (asahq.org)
  • Intravenous fentanyl 1 ug.kg -1 and synthetic oxytocin 10 units were administered to all patients. (ispub.com)
  • : 246 Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhalational anesthetics will reliably produce amnesia through general suppression of the nuclei at doses below those required for loss of consciousness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug doses were chosen to accurately reflect what is used clinically for our specific anesthetic and critical care needs. (riseforspecialchildren.com)
  • Although apnea may be less common after benzodiazepine induction than after barbiturate induction, even small intravenous doses of diazepam and midazolam have resulted in respiratory arrest. (digital-campus.org)
  • A general anesthetic acts by blocking awareness centers in the brain so that amnesia (loss of memory), analgesia (insensibility to pain), hypnosis (artificial sleep), and relaxation (rendering a part of the body less tense) occur. (nursingcrib.com)
  • 2. a drug or agent used to abolish the sensation of pain, to achieve adequate muscle relaxation during surgery, to calm fear and allay anxiety, and to produce amnesia for the event. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The most important of these factors are analgesia, amnesia, and skeletal muscle relaxation. (lecturio.com)
  • These drugs are complete anesthetics, providing analgesia, hypnosis and amnesia. (outpatientsurgery.net)
  • It produces hypnosis within 30 to 40 seconds of intravenous injection. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Inadequate hypnosis in the absence of opioid analgesia may account for the increased incidence of awareness in LSCS. (ispub.com)
  • Preanesthetic medication lessens preoperative anxiety, provides amnesia for preoperative and perioperative events and maintains hemodynamic stability by attenuating autonomic reflexes [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This phase comprises the time from discontinuation of anesthetic until consciousness and reflexes return. (lecturio.com)
  • The patient may have amnesia, and Diazepam (Valium)protective reflexes are normal or minimally altered. (slideshare.net)
  • Interacts negatively with the above potentiators == Chemistry and Pharmacology == In chemical structure, PCP is an arylcyclohexylamine derivative, and, in pharmacology, it is a member of the family of dissociative anesthetics. (tripsit.me)
  • From this finding, they proposed that parturients require a smaller amount of volatile anesthetics than do nonpregnant women. (asahq.org)
  • Thereafter, a 30% decrease in MAC of volatile anesthetics was identified in first trimester parturients. (asahq.org)
  • The B-Aware and B-Unaware trials failed to show that awareness occurs more often with solely monitoring end-tidal concentrations of volatile anesthetics compared with the bispectral index monitor. (asahq.org)
  • minimizes fluctuations in the hemodynamic profile during anesthetic induction [ 3 ] and decreases anesthetic requirements for both opioid and volatile anesthetics [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Inhalation anesthetics, which are sometimes called volatile anesthetics, are compounds that enter the body through the lungs and are carried by the blood to body tissues. (instituteplasticsurgery.com)
  • The main target of inhalation anesthetics (or so-called volatile anesthetics) is the brain. (notesformedicalstudents.com)
  • Because of its antinociceptive effect N 2 O decreases the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anesthetics and may attenuate the increase in blood pressure and heart rate caused by surgical stimulation. (ispub.com)
  • There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. (bioportfolio.com)
  • and general anesthetics can affect all of the endpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual general anesthetics vary with respect to their specific physiological and cognitive effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below are several key targets of general anesthetics that likely mediate their effects: GABAA receptors are chloride channels that hyperpolarize neurons and function as inhibitory CNS receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the sensitivity to inhalational anesthetics on the brain is not enhanced by pregnancy, current general anesthetic procedures in cesarean section should be reviewed. (asahq.org)
  • General anesthetics are usually administered by intravenous infusion or by inhalation of gases through a mask or through an endotracheal tube inserted into the trachea. (nursingcrib.com)
  • Some clients become more anxious about a general anesthetic that about the surgery itself. (nursingcrib.com)
  • Multiple sites and different mechanisms are responsible for the effects of general anesthetics. (healthcareguys.com)
  • At the microscopic level, the action of general anesthetics on the thalamus and reticular activating system leads to reversible loss of consciousness. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Unlike the other commonly used general anesthetics, this drug has a unique ability to produce sedation and analgesia without the risk of respiratory depression. (healthcareguys.com)
  • Most anesthetics fall into one of two broad categories: general or local/regional. (digestivecarephysicians.com)
  • Hi -- I'm going in to have an appendectomy next month, and I think that they're going to use a general anesthetic. (stoneymeadows.co.nz)
  • General anesthetics put patients to sleep during the procedure. (stoneymeadows.co.nz)
  • These drugs include general, regional, and local anesthetics. (stoneymeadows.co.nz)
  • Each general anesthetic involves the use of many different medications. (hubpages.com)
  • There are 3 main categories of general anesthetics. (lecturio.com)
  • However, it is known that signals along the nerves responsible for passaging stimuli are interrupted and fail to be processed by the central nervous system after the administration of a general anesthetic. (news-medical.net)
  • Here are the agents I typically use for a straightforward general anesthetic. (rk.md)
  • Heavy sedation or a brief general anesthetic is usually requested for the procedure. (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
  • Another definition is a "reversible lack of awareness," whether this is a total lack of awareness (e.g. a general anesthetic) or a lack of awareness of a part of the body such as a spinal anesthetic or another nerve block would cause. (thefullwiki.org)
  • this psychological dependence has only been observed in abusers but not in patients who are legitimately administered the drug for acute situations (general anesthetic induction or a one-time sedation procedure). (cdeworld.com)
  • question in anesthesiology, namely, how do general anesthetics work? (coursera.org)
  • What's the difference between a local and general anesthetic? (healthtap.com)
  • Can people to be allergic to general anesthetic? (healthtap.com)
  • What are the side effects of general anesthetic? (healthtap.com)
  • Is it bad to be smoking before general anesthetic? (healthtap.com)
  • Is it common to have boils after general anesthetic? (healthtap.com)
  • What are the long term side effects of general anesthetic? (healthtap.com)
  • How long should my dad be under if he just received general anesthetic? (healthtap.com)
  • What to expect for first time operation and general anesthetic on monday? (healthtap.com)
  • Can you give me suggestions for 1st time operation and general anesthetic on monday? (healthtap.com)
  • General anesthetics are very safe. (healthtap.com)
  • Is it impossible to drive after given general anesthetic, even for a 15 minute operation? (healthtap.com)
  • The most commonly used general anesthetic agents are usually a mixture of gases that can be inhaled by the patient (inhalational anesthetics). (scienceabc.com)
  • Diethyl ether, which was used as a recreational drug in centuries past, was the first common general anesthetic to be used in the 1850s. (scienceabc.com)
  • A rather interesting thing about general anesthetics is that, despite their use for more than 150 years, we still don't completely know about their mechanism of action, i.e. how they numb the entire nervous system so effectively. (scienceabc.com)
  • Is an injection of an anesthetic agent into the epidural space, the area inside the spinal column but outside the dura mater. (nursingcrib.com)
  • This technique involves the injection of local anesthetic agents in close proximity to the brachial plexus, temporarily blocking the sensation and ability to move the upper extremity. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve an optimal block, the tip of the needle should be close to the nerves of the plexus during the injection of local anesthetic solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Observation of local anesthetic surrounding the nerves during ultrasound-guided injection is predictive of a successful block. (wikipedia.org)
  • a ) Intravenous injection of pentothal combined with endotracheal administration of nitrous o & l e and oxygen. (scribd.com)
  • b ) Intravenous injection of pentothal and of curare, combined with endotracheal administration of nitrous oxide and oxygen. (scribd.com)
  • While traditionally administered as a single injection, newer techniques involve placement of indwelling catheters for continuous or intermittent administration of local anesthetics. (wikidoc.org)
  • Regional block resulting from an injection of a large volume of local anesthetic into the epidural space . (wikidoc.org)
  • Midazolam hydrochloride is a water-soluble benzodiazepine available as a sterile, nonpyrogenic parenteral dosage form for intravenous or intramuscular injection. (nih.gov)
  • Tim Silegy, DDS 388 Lo cal A nesth eti c s i n D entist ry: T h e n a n d N o w The advent of local anesthetics with the development of nerve blockade injection techniques heralded a new era of patient comfort while permitting more-extensive and invasive dental procedures. (studyres.com)
  • Flumazenil injection is available as a sterile parenteral dosage form for intravenous administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Flumazenil injection is recommended for intravenous use only. (rxlist.com)
  • To minimize the likelihood of pain at the injection site, flumazenil injection should be administered through a freely running intravenous infusion into a large vein. (rxlist.com)
  • Local anesthetics (for example, a cream or an injection) simply numb the 'target' region of the body without influencing the consciousness of the patient, which means that the patient will remain awake, but will be impervious to sensations in the affected region. (scienceabc.com)
  • Intravenous sedation is commonly used to improve patient cooperation, to provide analgesia, and obtain amnesia for the procedure. (aao.org)
  • There are many ways to achieve perioperative analgesia in patients, depending on the surgical procedure, underlying medical problems, risk associated with the method, and, to some degree, patient preferences. (pharmaguide.co)
  • After the procedure, the anesthesiologist maintains responsibility for the patient's overall care and is required to carry out post-anesthetic evaluation and treatment, directing non-anesthesiology staff as appropriate to maintain a comfortable state for the patient in recovery. (digestivecarephysicians.com)
  • Emergency exploratory laparotomy for spontaneous rupture of CC (1.8%-2.8%) and biliary peritonitis may sometimes be the initial manifestation of CC. Options are T-tube external drainage as emergency procedure or cystectomy, cholecystectomy, Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • You'll be completely unconscious, have no pain, your muscles will be relaxed, and you'll have amnesia from the procedure. (stoneymeadows.co.nz)
  • If the procedure is predicted to be long or if the patient has a higher anesthetic risk, a resuscitation and airway-skilled clinician dedicated to monitoring is advised. (painandpsa.org)
  • Medications are administered through an intravenous line (I.V.). The patient falls asleep and is completely unaware of the procedure being performed. (facialsurgery.org)
  • The initial pediatric dose of midazolam for sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia is age, procedure, and route dependent (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for complete dosing information). (nih.gov)
  • Quite predictably, anesthetic drugs are mostly used before medical operations where the patient has to undergo a surgical procedure, so the patient is spared the pain and discomfort of the entire procedure. (scienceabc.com)
  • Nyeri paska operasi pasien dikelola dengan epidural analgesia yang dipasang pada daerah setinggi vertebra cervical 3, dengan regimen bupivakain 0,1% dan morfin 0,5 mg dalam volume 5 ml.Ringkasan: Chiari malformation adalah kelainan anatomi cerebellum yang memiliki potensi berbahaya. (ristekbrin.go.id)
  • For example, patients undergoing surgery for abdominal cancer had better pain relief with an epidural infusion compared to intravenous narcotics. (medicalexpert.com)
  • Se puede utilizar en forma de parches, por vía sublingual, en forma de spray nasal, comprimidos para chupar, vía intravenosa y vía epidural. (stemgeeks.net)
  • Careful selection and administration of medications is essential in producing the desired and optimal intraoperative anesthetic effect and postoperative outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Compared with other modes of administration, intravenous medications generally have a quick onset, have a predictable drug absorption, and are titratable. (medscape.com)
  • I will mention some of the intravenous medications that I use in my clinical practice as an Anesthesiology resident. (stemgeeks.net)
  • If this is the case, different medications can be used in the anesthetic plan. (healthtap.com)
  • Intravenous medications are filtered through the kidneys and/or liver and may take 24 to 48 hours. (sierraanesthesia.com)
  • In addition, this class of drugs produces amnesia and has anticonvulsant actions. (medscape.com)
  • It is a highly specific alpha2 agonist,causes reduction in sympathetic flow in the central nervous system.It has become very popular for sedation because 1)the sedation resembles normal sleep 2)lack of respiratory depression 3)produces amnesia 4)excellent quality of recovery which is without hangover and also rapid. (anesthesiaworld.net)
  • It's an anaesthetic, and a powerful and tricky one (known in the trades as "milk of amnesia, because it's disolved in basically Intralipid, it crosses the blood brain barrier to produce unconsciouness in seconds, much like a barbiturate). (yarchive.com)
  • The mechanism of action of all inhalational anesthetics is thought to involve uptake of the gas in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and interaction with the membrane proteins, resulting in inhibition of synaptic transmission of nerve impulses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Multimodal or balanced analgesia employs more than one modality of pain control to obtain additive or synergistic beneficial analgesia while reducing the undesirable side effects of opioids. (medicalexpert.com)
  • Intravenous midazolam hydrochloride has been associated with respiratory depression and respiratory arrest, especially when used for sedation in noncritical care settings. (nih.gov)
  • Intravenous midazolam hydrochloride should be used only in hospital or ambulatory care settings, including physicians' and dental offices, that provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiac function, e.g., pulse oximetry. (nih.gov)
  • Midazolam: It is a very short-acting benzodiazepine, used to cause amnesia and control anxiety, nervousness, agitation, convulsions during surgical procedures. (stemgeeks.net)
  • These techniques provide profound analgesia, with retention of the patient's ability to maintain a patent airway and to respond to verbal commands. (mhmedical.com)
  • Premedication with oral clonidine provides significant benefits for preoperative anxiety [ 1 ] and analgesia. (omicsonline.org)
  • The next few decades saw the introduction of less flammable anesthetic gases as well as the discovery of intravenous anesthetics with controllable dosage. (livescience.com)
  • It's used as an anesthetic, sedative for intensive care sufferers and to deal with persistent ache. (sildenafilmedsusa.com)
  • Additionally the role of sedation and amnesia in the ICU has been questioned because studies have shown that sedative agents, especially benzodiazepines, may put patients at higher risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potentially even cognitive impairment, months after ICU discharge. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • EPSDT DENTAL PROGRAM Dental Hospital Calls and Sedation Policy Revisions D9230 NITROUS OXIDE - analgesia, anxiolysis, inhalation of nitr. (anesthesiabilling.org)
  • Alan W. Budenz, MS, DDS, MBA 397 N i tr o u s Ox i d e-Ox yg en: A N e w Lo o k at a V e ry O l d T e c h n i q u e With proper administration and well-maintained equipment, the nitrous oxide-oxygen technique has an extremely high success rate and a very low rate of adverse effects. (studyres.com)
  • Some conditions, like local anesthetic toxicity, airway trauma or malignant hyperthermia , can be more directly attributed to specific anesthetic drugs and techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although prolongation of local anesthetic-induced sensory and motor block is well documented after co-administration with intrathecal clonidine [ 5 , 6 ], the effect of oral clonidine remains controversial [ 5 , 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Easy-to-implement strategies for more effective use of local anesthetics. (outpatientsurgery.net)
  • For additional information on the classes of local anesthetics, see Local Anesthetic Agents, Infiltrative Administration . (medscape.com)
  • Due to their distinct chemical properties, local anesthetics can pass through the neuronal membrane and bind to a specific receptor at the opening of the voltage-gated sodium channel, thus preventing sodium influx and the initiation of action potentials leading to loss of sensations in the area supplied by the nerve. (healthcareguys.com)
  • These techniques are classified by the level at which the needle or catheter is inserted for injecting the local anesthetic - interscalene block on the neck, supraclavicular block immediately above the clavicle, infraclavicular block below the clavicle and axillary block in the axilla (armpit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Include C3-C4 if block is anesthetic The interscalene block is performed by injecting local anesthetic to the nerves of the brachial plexus as it passes through the groove between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, at the level of the cricoid cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local anesthetics belong to two chemical classes (amides and esters). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • If a true allergy is present, it is most likely due to an ester class local anesthetic. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Indeed, even in this rare situation the allergy may be from a local anesthetic metabolite such as para -amino-benzoic acid (PABA) or a preservative. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Local anesthetics are drugs that block nerve conduction in the region where they are applied. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • topical anesthetic a local anesthetic applied directly to the area to be anesthetized, usually the mucous membranes or the skin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Refers to a Regional block resulting from a small volume of local anesthetics being injected into the spinal canal . (wikidoc.org)
  • What local anesthetics do is provide a temporary blockade of nerve transmission, which means that they prevent sensory neurons from sending pain signals to the brain. (scienceabc.com)
  • Cocaine is a very good example of a regional anesthetic and was first used back in 1859 by Kart Koller, an Austrian ophthalmologist ( Source ), but cocaine has now been replaced by more effective local anesthetics. (scienceabc.com)
  • Their most desired effects are anxiolysis and anterograde amnesia (form of memory loss relating to the things that happen after a traumatic event), which are extremely useful for premedication. (digital-campus.org)
  • PCP was developed in the 1950s to be used as an intravenous anesthetic in the United States, but its use was discontinued due to the high incidence of patients experiencing postoperative delirium with hallucinations. (buypsychedeliconline.com)
  • The effects were comparable to 19.3 mg of intravenous diazepam but with faster postoperative recovery. (sedationdentalcare.net)
  • a commonly used intravenous anesthetic to help him with sleep. (coursera.org)
  • Recovery after a small dose is rapid, with some somnolence and retrograde amnesia. (pharmacycode.com)
  • v Anterograde amnesia refers to a deficit in encoding new information subsequent to a given and specific event in time ( after taking the anxiolytic agent) v Retrograde amnesia refers to the loss of information preceding a specific event in time or the onset of brain damage. (my-rpg.com)
  • Ventilation must be monitored in all patients receiving intravenous benzodiazepines, and resuscitation equipment must be immediately available. (digital-campus.org)
  • Sedation and analgesia are administered to critically ill patients to provide comfort and ensure safety, because unrelieved or unrecognized pain and anxiety contribute to patient distress, evoke the stress response, complicate the management of lifesaving devices, and negatively affect outcome. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • However, skillfully conducted obstetric analgesia, in addition to relieving pain and anxiety, may benefit the mother in many other ways. (nysora.com)
  • After continuous administration of thiopental the effect duration is prolonged, personnel qualified in the use of anesthetics should be constantly available during the administration of the medicinal product. (medicines.org.uk)
  • It is advisable to inject a small intravenous ''test'' dose of 25 to 75 mg (1 to 3 ml of a 2.5% solution) to assess tolerance or unusual sensitivity to thiopental and pausing to observe patient reaction for at least 60 seconds. (medicines.org.uk)
  • A CRNA combines regional, inhalation, and intravenous agents to attain the right balance for surgery. (digestivecarephysicians.com)
  • psychomotor impairment recover-inhalation, and intravenous sedation. (slideshare.net)
  • An ideal anesthetic agent that can achieve all desired effects in all populations does not yet exist. (lecturio.com)
  • Modern anesthetic techniques allow millions of Americans to safely undergo surgery with fewer and less serious side effects. (livescience.com)
  • A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. (zonaidey.ru)
  • This department has no specific routine anesthetic method for the tuberculosis patient, but it uses various principles in selection for those patients about to undergo thoracoplasty, pneumonectomy, lobectomy and other types of operation. (scribd.com)
  • These potent pain relievers offer significant analgesia but also carry the risk of serious side effects, tolerance and dependence. (outpatientsurgery.net)
  • Benzodiazepines are unique among the group of intravenous anesthetics in that their action can readily be terminated by administration of their selective antagonist flumazenil (intravenous administration of 0.2 mg/min until reaching the desired degree of reversal. (digital-campus.org)