Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.
Inorganic compounds that contain iodine as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The individuals employed by the hospital.
The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Practices involved in preventing the transmission of diseases by hand.

Deposition of ammonium and nitrate in the roots of maize seedlings supplied with different nitrogen salts. (1/48)


Inhibition of glutamine synthetase by phosphinothricin leads to transcriptome reprograming in root nodules of Medicago truncatula. (2/48)


Seasonal dynamics of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in oxic and anoxic wetland sediments of subtropical coastal mangrove. (3/48)


Effects of non-indigenous oysters on microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning. (4/48)


Novel dental adhesive containing antibacterial agents and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. (5/48)


Effects of antibacterial primers with quaternary ammonium and nano-silver on Streptococcus mutans impregnated in human dentin blocks. (6/48)


Comparison of quaternary ammonium-containing with nano-silver-containing adhesive in antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity. (7/48)


Regulatory role of indeterminate domain 10 (IDD10) in ammonium-dependent gene expression in rice roots. (8/48)


Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of disinfectants and antiseptics that contain a nitrogen atom surrounded by four organic groups, resulting in a charged "quat" structure. They are widely used in healthcare settings due to their broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to their death. Common examples include benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. It is important to note that some microorganisms have developed resistance to QACs, and they may not be effective against all types of pathogens.

Benzalkonium compounds are a group of related chemicals that have antimicrobial properties. They are commonly used as disinfectants and preservatives in various products such as eye drops, nasal sprays, skin creams, and household cleaners. Benzalkonium compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, leading to their death. They are often used in low concentrations and are generally considered safe for topical use, but they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Prolonged or frequent use of products containing benzalkonium compounds may also lead to the development of bacterial resistance.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Trimethylammonium compounds are organic substances that contain a quaternary ammonium cation (N(CH3)4+). This ion is composed of a nitrogen atom surrounded by four methyl groups, and it carries a positive charge. These compounds are widely used in various applications, including as antimicrobial agents, surfactants, and chemical intermediates. In the medical field, they can be found in some medications, such as certain types of anticholinergics and muscle relaxants. It is important to note that these compounds should be handled with care, as they can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes.

Iodine compounds refer to chemical substances that contain iodine, a halogen element, combined with other elements or radicals. Iodine is commonly found in organic compounds such as iodides, iodates, and iodines, which are widely used in various applications, including medicine, agriculture, and industry.

In the medical context, iodine compounds are often used for their antiseptic and disinfectant properties. For example, tincture of iodine is a solution of iodine and potassium iodide in ethanol or water that is commonly used as a topical antimicrobial agent to prevent infection in minor cuts, wounds, and burns.

Iodine compounds are also essential for the production of thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. Iodine deficiency can lead to thyroid disorders such as goiter and mental retardation in children. Therefore, iodine is often added to table salt and other foods as a dietary supplement to prevent iodine deficiency disorders.

Ammonium compounds are chemical substances that contain the ammonium ion (NH4+). The ammonium ion is formed when ammonia (NH3) reacts with a hydrogen ion (H+) to form a bond. Ammonium compounds can be found in a variety of forms, including salts, acids, and bases.

In medicine, ammonium compounds may be used for various purposes. For example, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help loosen mucus in the airways, while ammonium bicarbonate is used as a systemic alkalizer to treat metabolic acidosis.

However, it's important to note that some ammonium compounds can be toxic in high concentrations. For instance, exposure to high levels of ammonia gas (NH3) can cause respiratory irritation and damage to the lungs. Similarly, ingesting large amounts of ammonium chloride can lead to stomach upset, vomiting, and potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

Therefore, it's essential to use ammonium compounds only under the guidance of a healthcare professional and to follow recommended dosages carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Cetylpyridinium is an antimicrobial compound that is commonly used in oral healthcare products such as mouthwashes, toothpastes, and lozenges. It works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to the death of the microorganism. Cetylpyridinium has been shown to be effective against a variety of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, making it a popular ingredient in products designed to maintain oral hygiene and prevent infection.

The chemical name for cetylpyridinium is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and it has the molecular formula C16H37NClO. It is a cationic surfactant, which means that it contains positively charged ions that can interact with negatively charged bacterial cell membranes. This interaction disrupts the membrane's structure, leading to the leakage of cellular components and the death of the microorganism.

Cetylpyridinium is generally considered safe for use in oral healthcare products, although it can cause irritation in some people. It is important to follow the instructions on any product containing cetylpyridinium carefully, as overuse or improper use may lead to adverse effects. Additionally, it is always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional before using any new medication or healthcare product, especially if you have any pre-existing medical conditions or are taking other medications.

Cetrimonium compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain cetrimonium as the active ingredient. Cetrimonium is a quaternary ammonium compound that has antimicrobial and surfactant properties. It is commonly used in personal care products such as shampoos, conditioners, and cosmetics as a preservative and to improve the product's ability to spread and wet surfaces.

Cetrimonium compounds are often used as a alternative to formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, which have been linked to health concerns. They work by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane, leading to cell death. Cetrimonium compounds are also effective against fungi and viruses.

In addition to their use in personal care products, cetrimonium compounds are also used in medical settings as a antiseptic and disinfectant. They are often found in products used to clean and disinfect medical equipment and surfaces.

It is important to note that while cetrimonium compounds have been deemed safe for use in personal care products and medical settings, they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is always recommended to do a patch test before using a new product containing cetrimonium compounds.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Ammonium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2SO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and is commonly used in fertilizers due to its high nitrogen content. In a medical context, it can be used as a laxative or for lowering the pH of the gastrointestinal tract in certain medical conditions. It may also be used in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excessively high pH in the blood. However, its use in medical treatments is less common than its use in agricultural and industrial applications.

Choline is an essential nutrient that is vital for the normal functioning of all cells, particularly those in the brain and liver. It is a water-soluble compound that is neither a vitamin nor a mineral, but is often grouped with vitamins because it has many similar functions. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays an important role in memory, mood, and other cognitive processes. It also helps to maintain the structural integrity of cell membranes and is involved in the transport and metabolism of fats.

Choline can be synthesized by the body in small amounts, but it is also found in a variety of foods such as eggs, meat, fish, nuts, and cruciferous vegetables. Some people may require additional choline through supplementation, particularly if they follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have certain medical conditions that affect choline metabolism.

Deficiency in choline can lead to a variety of health problems, including liver disease, muscle damage, and neurological disorders. On the other hand, excessive intake of choline can cause fishy body odor, sweating, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. It is important to maintain adequate levels of choline through a balanced diet and, if necessary, supplementation under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and can be produced by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ammonium chloride is commonly used as a source of hydrogen ions in chemical reactions, and it has a variety of industrial and medical applications.

In the medical field, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear from the lungs. It may also be used to treat conditions such as metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body that can lead to symptoms such as confusion, muscle twitching, and irregular heartbeat.

However, it is important to note that ammonium chloride can have side effects, including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and should not be taken in large amounts or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Ammonium hydroxide is a solution of ammonia (NH3) in water, and it is also known as aqua ammonia or ammonia water. It has the chemical formula NH4OH. This solution is composed of ammonium ions (NH4+) and hydroxide ions (OH-), making it a basic or alkaline substance with a pH level greater than 7.

Ammonium hydroxide is commonly used in various industrial, agricultural, and laboratory applications. It serves as a cleaning agent, a pharmaceutical aid, a laboratory reagent, and a component in fertilizers. In chemistry, it can be used to neutralize acids or act as a base in acid-base reactions.

Handling ammonium hydroxide requires caution due to its caustic nature. It can cause burns and eye damage upon contact, and inhalation of its vapors may lead to respiratory irritation. Proper safety measures, such as wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eyewear, should be taken when handling this substance.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Soaps" is not a medical term, but rather refers to cleaning agents that are widely used in daily life for personal and household hygiene.

However, if you're referring to "saponification," it is a chemical process that occurs when fats or oils react with an alkali, resulting in the formation of soap and glycerin. This term can be relevant in medical contexts, such as in the production of medicated soaps used for various skin conditions.

If you meant something else by "Soaps," please clarify your question, and I will do my best to provide an accurate answer.

Deodorants are substances that are applied to the body, usually under the arms, to help prevent or mask body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of sweat. Deodorants typically contain alcohol and fragrances, which can help to kill bacteria and cover up any remaining odor. Some deodorants also contain antiperspirants, which work by blocking the sweat glands and reducing the amount of sweat that is produced. This can help to further reduce body odor.

It's important to note that while deodorants can help to mask body odor, they do not prevent sweating. If you are looking for a product that can help to control sweating, you may want to consider using an antiperspirant instead. Some products combine both deodorant and antiperspirant in one product.

Deodorants are available in several forms, including sprays, roll-ons, gels, creams, and solid sticks. It's important to choose a deodorant that is right for your skin type and personal preferences. If you have sensitive skin, you may want to look for a deodorant that is labeled as "hypoallergenic" or "unscented."

It's also a good idea to apply deodorant to clean, dry skin, as this can help the product to work more effectively. If you are using an antiperspirant deodorant, it's best to apply it at night before bed, as this can help to reduce sweating and body odor throughout the day.

'Hospital Personnel' is a general term that refers to all individuals who are employed by or provide services on behalf of a hospital. This can include, but is not limited to:

1. Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, and technicians.
2. Administrative staff who manage the hospital's operations, including human resources, finance, and management.
3. Support services personnel such as maintenance workers, food service workers, housekeeping staff, and volunteers.
4. Medical students, interns, and trainees who are gaining clinical experience in the hospital setting.

All of these individuals play a critical role in ensuring that the hospital runs smoothly and provides high-quality care to its patients.

Off-label use refers to the practice of prescribing or using pharmaceutical drugs for purposes, dosages, patient populations, or routes of administration that are not included in the approved labeling of the drug by the regulatory authority, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is not illegal or unethical for physicians to prescribe medications off-label when they judge that it is medically appropriate for their patients. However, manufacturers are prohibited from promoting their drugs for off-label uses.

Hand disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms on the hands, using a medically approved product such as an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap and water. The goal of hand disinfection is to prevent the spread of infections and maintain a clean and hygienic environment, particularly in healthcare settings. It is an essential component of standard precautions to prevent the transmission of pathogens and ensure patient safety. Proper hand disinfection techniques include applying enough product to cover all surfaces of the hands, rubbing the product over all areas for at least 20-30 seconds, and allowing the product to dry completely before touching anything else.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Hand hygiene refers to the practices of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) and preventing their spread. It is an important component of infection prevention and control in healthcare settings as well as in everyday life. The two main techniques for hand hygiene are handwashing with soap and water, and using alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Proper hand hygiene can help prevent the transmission of respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, as well as various healthcare-associated infections.

Ammonium phosphate refers to three different chemical compounds, all of which are formed by the reaction of ammonia with ... Ammonium phosphate, [NH4]3[PO4] This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an ... phosphoric acid and have the general formula [NH4]x[H3−xPO4], where 1 ≤ x ≤ 3: Ammonium dihydrogenphosphate, [NH4][H2PO4] ...
... are a type of quaternary ammonium compound with three methyl groups at the nitrogen, with a more ... ammonium+compounds at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Quaternary ammonium compounds). ...
... is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. It is a white crystalline salt consisting of ions of ... ammonium nitrate and aluminum powder) Amatex (ammonium nitrate, TNT and RDX) ANFO (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) DBX (ammonium ... calcium carbonate and ammonium nitrate, may be separately purified or sold combined as calcium ammonium nitrate. Ammonium ... Ammonium nitrate has an LD50 of 2217 mg/kg, which for comparison is about two-thirds that of table salt. Ammonium nitrate ...
Karl-Heinz Zapp (2012). "Ammonium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ... Ammonium bicarbonate Ammonium nitrate Sal ammoniac, the mineralogical form of ammonium chloride John Rumble (June 18, 2018). ... Ammonium carbonate can spontaneously decompose into ammonium bicarbonate and ammonia: ( NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 ⟶ NH 4 HCO 3 + NH 3 ↑ {\ ... Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3. Since it readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon ...
ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. Zapp, Karl-Heinz (2012). "Ammonium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... Ammonium sulfate is used on a small scale in the preparation of other ammonium salts, especially ammonium persulfate. Ammonium ... In November 2009, a ban on ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizers was imposed in the ... The filtrate on evaporation yields ammonium chloride. Ammonium sulfate forms many double salts (ammonium metal sulfates) when ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds have antimicrobial activity. Quaternary ammonium compounds, especially those containing long ... Quaternary ammonium salts or quaternary ammonium compounds (called quaternary amines in oilfield parlance) are salts of ... Unlike the ammonium ion (NH+4) and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are ... June 2015). "Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs): a review on occurrence, fate and toxicity in the environment". The Science ...
"SID 167823 - PubChem". Karl-Heinz Zapp (2012). "Ammonium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... The resulting ammonium sulfite can be air oxidized to give ammonium sulfate. Ammonium sulfite is the precursor to ammonium ... Ammonium sulfite is the ammonium salt of sulfurous acid with the chemical formula (NH4)2SO3. Ammonium sulfite can be prepared ... For cosmetics, ammonium sulfite is used as a hair straightening agent and a hair waving agent. Ammonium based hair products ...
... is an inorganic compound with formula (NH4)HCO3. The compound has many names, reflecting its long history ... In addition to ammonium bicarbonate, this material contains ammonium carbamate (NH4CO2NH2), and ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3 ... This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and reverts to ammonium bicarbonate. Compositions containing ammonium ... This compound is used as a component in the production of fire-extinguishing compounds, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pigments, and it ...
... (APS) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2S2O8. It is a colourless (white) salt that is highly ... Ammonium persulfate is prepared by electrolysis of a cold concentrated solution of either ammonium sulfate or ammonium ... "Ammonium Persulphate: Copper Etchant". MG Chemicals. Turrentine, J. W. (1908). "Action of Ammonium Persulphate on Metals". ... In the ammonium salt, the O-O distance is 1.497 Å. The sulfate groups are tetrahedral, with three short S-O distances near 1.44 ...
... ammonium fluoride absorbs the gas to form the addition compound ammonium bifluoride. The reaction occurring is: NH4F + HF → ... Ammonium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4F. It crystallizes as small colourless prisms, having a sharp ... Ammonium fluoride adopts the wurtzite crystal structure, in which both the ammonium cations and the fluoride anions are stacked ... "Ammonium Fluoride". "Ammonium Fluoride". "Fluoride Toxicity - an overview ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula [NH4][HF2] or [NH4]F·HF. It is produced from ammonia and ... Ammonium bifluoride, ammonium fluoride, and hydrofluoric acid have been described as "too dangerous for any use in a car wash ... Ammonium bifluoride, as its name indicates, contains an ammonium cation ([NH4]+), and a bifluoride or hydrogen(difluoride) ... The resulting ammonium bifluoride is converted to sodium bifluoride, which thermally decomposes to release HF. Ammonium ...
... the hydroxide ion abstracts a proton from the ammonium ion, generating ammonia. Formation of ammonium compounds can also occur ... Ammonium cation is found in a variety of salts such as ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride, and ammonium nitrate. Most simple ... An exception is ammonium hexachloroplatinate, the formation of which was once used as a test for ammonium. The ammonium salts ... Under normal conditions, ammonium does not exist as a pure metal but does as an amalgam (alloy with mercury). Onium compounds ...
... is the chemical compound with the formula [NH4]SH. It is the salt derived from the ammonium cation and ... The 1990-91 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics gives information for anhydrous ammonium monosulfide ([NH4]2S) and ammonium ... it seems that solid ammonium sulfide can be distinct from solid ammonium hydrosulfide, even if this is not true in aqueous ... On Earth the compound is encountered mainly as a solution, not as the solid, but [NH4]SH ice is believed to be a substantial ...
... , also known as ammonium chloroplatinate, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2[PtCl6 ... The compound consists of separate tetrahedral ammonium cations and octahedral [PtCl6]2− anions. It is usually generated as a ... "ammonium hexachloroplatinate(IV)". 2007-03-19. Retrieved 2014-06-03. George B. Kauffman (1967). "Ammonium ... Ammonium hexachloroplatinate is used in platinum plating. Heating (NH4)2[PtCl6] under a stream of hydrogen at 200 °C produces ...
... "ammonium molybdate" can also refer to ammonium orthomolybdate, (NH4)2MoO4, and several other compounds. It is one of the more ... Ammonium heptamolybdate is the inorganic compound whose chemical formula is (NH4)6Mo7O24, normally encountered as the ... Solutions of ammonium paramolybdate react with acids to form molybdic acid and an ammonium salt. The pH value of a concentrated ... It is a colorless solid, often referred to as ammonium paramolybdate or simply as ammonium molybdate, although " ...
... (ADM) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Mo2O7. It is a white, water-soluble solid. ADM is ... Heating solutions of ammonium molybdate gives ADM. Upon heating, solid ammonium dimolybdate decomposes to molybdenum trioxide ... Armour, A. W.; Drew, M. G. B.; Mitchell, P. C. H. "Crystal and molecular structure and properties of ammonium dimolybdate" ... Roasting typical ore produces crude molybdenum(VI) oxides, which can be extracted into aqueous ammonia, affording ammonium ...
Weston, Charles W.; Papcun, John R.; Dery, Maurice (2003). "Ammonium Compounds". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical ... Neef, C.; Oosting, R.; Meijer, D. K. F (1984). "Structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of quaternary ammonium compounds". ... Banus, M. D.; Bragdon, R. W.; Gibb, T. R. P. (1952). "Preparation of quaternary ammonium borohydrides from sodium and lithium ... TMA salts do possess some of the phase-transfer catalytic properties that are characteristic of quaternary ammonium compounds, ...
Rhenium is most available commercially as salts of perrhenate, including sodium and ammonium perrhenates. These are white, ... Rhenium compounds are compounds formed by the transition metal rhenium (Re). Rhenium can form in many oxidation states, and ... CS1 German-language sources (de), CS1 maint: others, Rhenium, Rhenium compounds, Chemical compounds by element). ... This compound has been used as a catalyst in some laboratory experiments. It can be prepared by many routes, a typical method ...
"Tungsten, Tungsten Alloys, and Tungsten Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ... Ammonium paratungstate (or APT) is a white crystalline salt with the chemical formula (NH4)10(H2W12O42)·4H2O. It is described ... Heating ammonium paratungstate to its decomposition temperature of 600 °C yields tungsten(VI) oxide, as described in this ... The correct formula notation for ammonium paratungstate is therefore (NH4)10[H2W12O42]·4H2O. The [H2W12O42]10− ion is known as ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2[IrCl6]. This dark red solid is the ammonium ... The compound has been characterized by X-ray crystallography. The salt crystallizes in a cubic motif like that of ammonium ... The compound is prepared in the laboratory by the addition of ammonium chloride to an aqueous solution of sodium ... Iridium compounds, Ammonium compounds, Chloro complexes, Chlorometallates). ...
Ammonium dichromate Perry, Dale L. (2011). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds, Second Edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ... "Ammonium chromate". Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ammonium chromate. Retrieved on 28-04-2014. Information preview for Ammonium chromate, ... Ammonium chromate is a salt with the formula (NH4)2CrO4. It forms yellow, monoclinic crystals; made from ammonium hydroxide and ... ammonium dichromate; used in photography as a sensitizer for gelatin coatings. It is often used in photography, textile ...
PubChem Compound Database; CID 14213 (accessed 15 November 2016). The International Pharmacopoeia, p.1292, Volume 1, World ... Ammonium oxalate, C2H8N2O4 - more commonly written as (NH4)2C2O4 or (COONH4)2 - is an oxalate salt with ammonium (sometimes as ... Oxammite is a natural, mineral form of ammonium oxalate. This mineral is extremely rare. Ammonium oxalate is used as an ... It is the ammonium salt of oxalic acid, and occurs in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body of vertebrates by ...
... (ADP), also known as monoammonium phosphate (MAP) is a chemical compound with the chemical ... The compound appears in nature as the rare mineral biphosphammite. It is formed in guano deposits. A related compound, that is ... The compound is also a component of the ABC powder in some dry chemical fire extinguishers. Monoammonium phosphate is a widely ... doi:10.1021/jf60142a002 John R Van Wazer (1958). Phosphorus And Its Compounds - Volume I: Chemistry. New York: Interscience ...
Ammonium compounds, Organonitrogen compounds). ... In contrast to quaternary ammonium cations, other members of ... Examples of technologically significant alkylammonium compounds are: Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide is used as a source of ... are further classified as quaternary ammonium cations and are discussed more thoroughly in the article with that title. ...
Na2SO4 Sal alembroth - salt composed of chlorides of ammonium and mercury. Sal ammoniac - ammonium chloride. Sal petrae (Med. ... which were later classified as particular chemical compounds or mixtures of compounds. Many of these terms were in common use ... Na2CO3 Nitrum flammans - ammonium nitrate. Sugar of Lead - lead(II) acetate, formed by dissolving lead oxide in vinegar. Thion ... Caustic volatile alkali - ammonium hydroxide. Corrosive sublimate - mercuric chloride, formed by subliming mercury, calcined ...
1932). "8. Degradation of quaternary ammonium salts. Part V. Molecular rearrangement in related sulphur compounds". J. Chem. ... The ylide is prepared in situ by reaction of the diazo compound ethyl diazomalonate with a sulfide catalyzed by dirhodium ... The Stevens rearrangement in organic chemistry is an organic reaction converting quaternary ammonium salts and sulfonium salts ... Degradation of quaternary ammonium salts. Part I". J. Chem. Soc.: 3193-3197. doi:10.1039/JR9280003193. Stevens, T.S.; et al. ( ...
Methyl ammonium compounds are ferroelectric. The infrared spectrum includes wavenumbers (ν/c) of 110 to 130 cm−1 for the ... Compounds containing both Sb(III) and Sb(V) are mixed valence compounds. The antimony can be linked into chains, (which are ... Bromoantimonates are compounds containing anions composed of bromide (Br−) and antimony (Sb). They can be considered as double ... Lawton, Stephen L.; Jacobson, Robert A. (May 1966). "The Crystal Structure of Ammonium Hexabromoantimonate, (NH 4 ) 4 Sb III Sb ...
This removed ammonia and ammonium compounds. The water often contained dissolved lime to aid the removal of ammonia. The water ...
Rouse, Jessica (January 2010). "Compound IX:hydrated ammonium zirconium arsenate". Synthesis and Characterisation of Lanthanide ... Similarly the ammonium vanadium Tutton's salt, (NH4)2V(SO4)2, heated to 160 °C in a closed tube produces (NH4)2V2(SO4)3. At ... Potassium and ammonium nickel langbeinite can be made from nickel sulfate and the other sulfates by evaporating a water ... McDowell, C. A.; P. Raghunathan; R. Srinivasan (1975). "Proton N.M.R. study of the dynamics of the ammonium ion in ...
... refers to organic compounds containing malate and ammonium. Two stoichiometries are discussed: NH4H(C2H3OH(CO2) ... Ammonium compounds, Food additives, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... 2) with one ammonium ion per formula unit, and (NH4)2(C2H3OH(CO2)2). Malate, the conjugate base of malic acid, is chiral. ... Ammonium malate". Journal of Crystal Growth. 310 (6): 1228-1238. Bibcode:2008JCrGr.310.1228A. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.12. ...
Ammonium phosphate refers to three different chemical compounds, all of which are formed by the reaction of ammonia with ... Ammonium phosphate, [NH4]3[PO4] This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an ... phosphoric acid and have the general formula [NH4]x[H3−xPO4], where 1 ≤ x ≤ 3: Ammonium dihydrogenphosphate, [NH4][H2PO4] ...
Cite this: Evidence That Two Alkyl Ester Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Lack Substantial Human Skin-Sensitizing Potential - ... Evidence That Two Alkyl Ester Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Lack Substantial Human Skin-Sensitizing Potential. ... First, this was shown by examination of each of the compounds in the maximization test. This procedure has proven sufficiently ... HEQ = di-(hardened tallow fatty acid) ester of 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride; TEA-Quat = dialkyl ester of ...
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, BENZYL-C8-18-ALKYLDIMETHYL, CHLORIDES can be found in 2 products. ... Quaternary ammonium compounds detected in human blood was associated with increased inflammation, decreased mitochondrial ... A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. ... A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. ...
Testing Status of Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides M20300. CASRN: 63449-41-2. Genetic ... Testing Status of Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C8-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides M20300 ...
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Altered Toxicological Endpoints in Humans with Quaternary Ammonium Compound Exposure. Terry C. Hrubec, Ryan P. Seguin, Libin Xu ... Altered Toxicological Endpoints in Humans with Quaternary Ammonium Compound Exposure Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... Humans are extensively exposed to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs). QACs are ubiquitously used in medical settings, ...
Ar reaction of beta-dicarbonyl compounds catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts derived from cinchona alkaloids. Download Prime ... TY - JOUR T1 - Improved asymmetric S(N)Ar reaction of beta-dicarbonyl compounds catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts derived ... Improved asymmetric S(N)Ar reaction of beta-dicarbonyl compounds catalyzed by quaternary ammonium salts derived from cinchona ... "Improved Asymmetric S(N)Ar Reaction of Beta-dicarbonyl Compounds Catalyzed By Quaternary Ammonium Salts Derived From Cinchona ...
... quaternary ammonium compounds. Research, Technology, Methods , chemical substances , chemical compounds , nitrogen compounds , ... Research, Technology, Methods , chemical substances , chemical compounds , organic compounds , organic nitrogen compounds , ...
These compounds are used for numerous industrial purposes, water treatment, antifungal treatment in horticulture, as well as in ... Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used biocides that possess antimicrobial effect against a broad range of ... Resistance to phenicol compounds following adaptation to quaternary ammonium compounds in Escherichia coli. Soumet C, Fourreau ... Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related bacteria. Sidhu MS, Sørum H, Holck A. Sidhu MS, et al. Microb Drug ...
Ammonium Hydroxide 21, 26. Ammonium Hydroxide, Reagent. Ammonium Nitrate. Ammonium Persulfate. Ammonium Sulfate. Anhydrous ... Ammonium Bicarbonate. Ammonium Chloride, Treated or Untreated. Ammonium Biflouride. ...
创建: 1981-01-21T00:00:00Z. 最后修改: 2021-05-24T17:34:42Z. skos:notation: 351 ...
... producing high quality Ammonium Compounds Polydadmac Coagulant products. ... High quality Flocculant Agent Polydadmac Coagulant Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 26062-79-3 from China, Chinas leading ... Flocculant Agent Polydadmac Coagulant Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 26062-79-3 Quaternary Polydadmac Coagulant. 26062-79-3 ... 40% Pdadmac Polydadmac Coagulant poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride Industiral Grade Drinking Watergrade Get Best Price ...
Ammonium Compounds. Mercury Compounds 2. Experiments upon the physiological action of bromide of potassium and ammonium (as ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Ammonium Compounds ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Ammonium Compounds ... 1. Experiments with the ammonium amalgam Author(s): Wetherill, Charles Mayer, 1825-1871 Publication: [New Haven, Conn.?] : [ ... Experiments upon the physiological action of bromide of potassium and ammonium (as determined on man and the lower animals): ...
Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in ... Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in ... This suggests that laboratory-generated mixtures containing organic surrogate compounds and ammonium sulfate can be used to ... New ACP Letter: How alkaline compounds control atmospheric aerosol particle acidity Changes in biomass burning, wetland extent ...
Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride 1631. HOT Advanced Material September 6,2023 CAS No. 557-05-1 40% Water-based Zinc ... Ti3AlC2 ternary compound with a layered structure in hexagonal crystalline system. Ti3AlC2 ternary compound with a layered ... Notably, it should be noted that Ti3AlC2 is an exclusive compound that shows an exciting quasi-plasticity at room temperature. ... Ti3AlC2 ternary compound with a layered structure in the hexagonal crystalline system. ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds such as:. *alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. *alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride ...
Exhibits will be shown in six main groups: the use of ammonia in its anhydrous form; as ammonia liquor; as ammonium compounds; ... Exhibits will be shown in six main groups: the use of ammonia in its anhydrous form; as ammonia liquor; as ammonium compounds; ...
Omission of ammonium is not considered to hamper the biodegradation of organic compounds in the Closed Bottle Test. The ... Solvent free quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-18 (even numbered) alkyltrimethyl chloride was biodegraded by 70% (based on ... Solvent free quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-18 (even numbered) alkyltrimethyl chloride is classified as readily ... This compound was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, US. Reference compound - acetic acid, sodium salt CAS reg. No. - 127- ...
Ammonium-N [mg N/L] 0.042. Nitrate-N [mg N/L] 2.62. Total Nitrogen [mg N/L] 3.53. o-Phosphate-p [mg P/L] 0.062. Total Phosphate ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides (68391-01-5). Citation Information. NTP. Quaternary ... Home » Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) » Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides ( ... ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-18-alkyldimethyl, chlorides (68391-01-5). Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS). ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-14-alkylethyldimethyl, Et sulfates. *. *. EC number: 939-607-9 , CAS number: 1474044-65-9 ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, N-(C16-18 and C18-unsatd. alkyl)-N,N,N,N,N-pentamethyltrimethylenedi-, dichlorides. ...
Compound fertilizer Ammonium phosphate and by-products Chemical trade ... Compound fertilizer. Ammonium phosphate and by-products. Chemical trade. Product video. * Investor. Corporate governance. ...
PATENTS; ACIDS; ALUMINUM HYDROXIDES; AMMONIA; AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS; DECOMPOSITION; HYDROXIDES; IRON HYDROXIDES; LEACHING; PATENT ... of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium ... of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium ...
When supplied with ammonium and nitrite, the culture utilized nitrite after most of the ammonium was consumed. In summary, the ... Ammonium Compounds* / metabolism * Archaea / metabolism * Bacteria / metabolism * Fresh Water * Genomics * Nitrates / ... The culture grew on initial ammonium concentrations between 0.01 and 3 mM with the highest rates observed at the lowest ... ammonium concentrations. Blue light completely inhibited the growth of Nitrospira sp. BO4, while white light reduced the growth ...
ammonium salicylate compound tablets. Defendant Names:. John T. Milliken, doing business under the firm name and style of John ... Adulteration and misbranding of ammonium salicylate compound tablets. U. S. v. John T. Milliken & Co. Plea of guilty. Fine, $20 ...
Double salts are compounds that contain two different cations and anions in their crystal structure. Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate ... Ammonium Sulphate or Aluminium Sulphate. Distilled water. Glass beaker. Stirring rod. Filter paper. Funnel. Heat source. For ... Ferric Ammonium Sulphate. Potassium Oxalate. Distilled water. Glass beaker. Stirring rod. Filter paper. Funnel. Heat source. ... In this experiment, we will prepare the double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum.. Potassium Ferric Oxalate is ...
  • PolyDADMAC (technically named Polydimethyl-Dislkelen-Ammonium Chloride) is cationic polymer and it can be completely dissolved in water. (
  • The nutrient medium of the Closed Bottle test contained per liter of deionized water: 8.5 mg KH2PO4, 21.75 mg K2HPO4, 33.4 mg Na2HPO4·2H2O, 22.5 mg MgSO4·7H2O, 27.5 mg CaCl2, and 0.25 mg FeCl3·6H2O, Ammonium chloride was omitted from the medium to prevent nitrification. (
  • To perform these "negative control" tests without deviations from the guideline 0.5 mg/L ammonium chloride was included in the sorbent free tests. (
  • Crystals of ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) belong to the cubic crystal system. (
  • Ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) has been used as one of the components of red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer for use in various studies. (
  • Ammonia can also be combined with other substances to form ammonium compounds, including salts such as ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and others. (
  • In this study, we characterized a panel of L. monocytogenes from foods and processing plant environments in terms of their resistance to heavy metals and to the ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride. (
  • Resistance to arsenic, cadmium and the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BC) are examples of such adaptations. (
  • Israeli security and customs officials foiled an attempt to smuggle several tons of ammonium chloride into the Gaza Strip in recent weeks, Israel's Tax Authority said Tuesday. (
  • Ammonium chloride is defined as a dual-use substance and its passage into the Gaza Strip requires a permit since it is liable to be used by Gaza-based terrorist organizations - such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad - in the production of long-range rockets," the Tax Authority said in a statement. (
  • In water, most of the ammonia changes to the ionic form of ammonia, known as ammonium ions, which are represented by the formula NH4+ (an ion is an atom or a group of atoms that has acquired a net electric charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons). (
  • Ammonia and ammonium ions can change back and forth in water. (
  • Many cleaning products also contain ammonia in the form of ammonium ions. (
  • 2021. Altered toxicological endpoints in humans from common quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant exposure. (
  • We observed several effects of organic components on the hygroscopicity behavior of mixtures containing ammonium sulfate (AS) in relation to the different mass fractions of organic compounds: (1) a shift of efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate to higher RH due to the presence of 25 wt % levoglucosan in the mixture. (
  • The use of the ZSR relation leads to good agreement with measured diameter growth factors of aerosol particles containing humic acid and ammonium sulfate. (
  • This suggests that laboratory-generated mixtures containing organic surrogate compounds and ammonium sulfate can be used to mimic, in a simplified manner, the chemical composition of ambient aerosols from the Amazon Basin for the purpose of RH-dependent hygroscopicity studies. (
  • The highly polar quaternary ammonium group of glycopyrrolate limits its passage across lipid membranes, such as the blood-brain barrier, in contrast to atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide, which are non-polar tertiary amines which penetrate lipid barriers easily. (
  • 30 tons of lost ammonium nitrate on a California-bound train suggest an orchestrated conspiracy. (
  • About 30 tons of ammonium nitrate disappeared from a rail car on a train traveling to California in April. (
  • The discovery that about 30 tons of ammonium nitrate - a chemical compound used in fertilizers and explosives - were lost from a train car has ignited plenty of conspiracy theories on social media. (
  • Dyno Nobel Ltd., an explosives manufacturing company with U.S. headquarters in Utah, said about 60,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate were released from a rail car on a train that left Cheyenne, Wyoming, on April 12 and traveled to Saltdale, California. (
  • Ammonium nitrate is commonly used in fertilizers as well as mining and construction explosives, and can be dangerous to store and transport, according to CAS, a division of the American Chemical Society. (
  • In 2020, hundreds of tons of ammonium nitrate stored at a port in Beirut detonated in a massive blast that killed more than 200 people and injured more than 6,000 others. (
  • Dyno Nobel did not return a request for comment, but was quoted in news reports saying the ammonium nitrate was in pellets and that a leak likely developed in the rail car's bottom gate. (
  • Tysver said if the loss resulted from a leak during the train's journey, it "should pose no risk to public health or the environment" because ammonium nitrate is often used for ground applications and is quickly absorbed into soil. (
  • Social media posts claimed that the CIA or unnamed entities plotting false flag events are behind the disappearance of 30 tons of ammonium nitrate from a rail car last month. (
  • The scope and limitation of the asymmetric nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of alpha-substituted 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and activated aromatic systems catalyzed by N-benzyl-O-benzoylcinchoninium or cinchonidinium salts are presented. (
  • Refer to the Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) category or section 13 of IUCLID for details on the category justification. (
  • Double salts are compounds that contain two different cations and anions in their crystal structure. (
  • Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate and Potash Alum are two examples of double salts. (
  • The rest is used to make other fertilizers that contain ammonium compounds, usually ammonium salts. (
  • This type of quaternary ammonium compound has reduced effectiveness in solutions containing hard water, salts, or organic compounds. (
  • Quaternary ammonium salts containing dithiocarbamate moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against Helminthosporium oryzae . (
  • Struvite is also known as ammonium magnesium phospate, or triple phosphate. (
  • Cite this: Evidence That Two Alkyl Ester Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Lack Substantial Human Skin-Sensitizing Potential - Medscape - Mar 01, 2007. (
  • A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. (
  • 2015. Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants Cause Subfertility in Mice by Targeting both Male and Female Reproductive Processes. (
  • 2014. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. (
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds detected in human blood was associated with increased inflammation, decreased mitochondrial function and disruption of cholesterol. (
  • 2016. Identification of Environmental Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Direct Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis. (
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds altered neurodevelopment in cells. (
  • Induction of contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanism of antigen formation. (
  • Humans are extensively exposed to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs). (
  • Does the wide use of quaternary ammonium compounds enhance the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus threaten our health? (
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used biocides that possess antimicrobial effect against a broad range of microorganisms. (
  • In the base year 2020, quaternary ammonium compounds held the largest revenue share in the global hard surface disinfectants market, and it will retain its dominance through the forecast period. (
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds are efficient in killing enveloped viruses, fungi and amoebas. (
  • In this study, the efficacy of a disinfectant, composed to chlorine dioxide (10%, w/v) and quaternary ammonium compound (12.5%, w/v), was evaluated against A. flavus and A. fumigatus. (
  • Of the haloid compounds the most important are the chlorides which have broad application in medicine: Y12 ohloridt and W12, also known as calomel. (
  • F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum. (
  • In this experiment, we will prepare the double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum. (
  • Procedure for experiment (a) Weigh out the required amounts of Ferrous Sulphate or Potassium Sulphate and Ammonium Sulphate or Aluminium Sulphate. (
  • Slowly pour the solution of Ferrous Sulphate or Potassium Sulphate into the beaker containing the solution of Ammonium Sulphate or Aluminium Sulphate with constant stirring. (
  • Weigh out the required amounts of Ferric Ammonium Sulphate and Potassium Oxalate. (
  • Result: The double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum will be obtained as crystals after filtering and drying. (
  • Global ammonium sulphate supply growth jumped to 4.5% per year for the period 2010-2016 from 1.6% per year for 2000-2010. (
  • But has the growth only been tied to higher ammonium sulphate availability or are there structural changes that explain the increase in the supply growth rate? (
  • Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate or monoammonium phosphate (MAP), an optical crystal. (
  • Hygroscopic growth factors of organic surrogate compounds representing biomass burning and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles exhibit variability during dehydration experiments depending on their chemical composition, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). (
  • Potassium Ferric Oxalate is an inorganic compound used in photography and other applications. (
  • Ammonium ferrocyanide or ammonium hexacyanoferrate (II) is an inorganic chemical compound with the chemical formula (NH 4 ) 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]·xH 2 O . It is commonly available as hydrate. (
  • Inorganic ammonium ions (NH 4 + ) effectively catalyze the aldol condensation of carbonyl compounds. (
  • Ammonium ferrrocyanide can be prepared by mixing a solution of ammonium perchlorate with potassium ferrocyanide . (
  • The solution is cooled which precipitates out the poorly soluble potassium perchlorate, while ammonium ferrocyanide is recrystallized from the solution. (
  • This route has the advantage of producing a very pure compound, free of any potassium impurities. (
  • Various 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and activated aromatic systems are evaluated for the aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction, and it has been found that the yield and enantioselectivity are very dependent on the substrate and reagent. (
  • There are numerous mercury compounds. (
  • Mercury sulfides are the most widely encountered mercury compounds. (
  • The concentrations of chloramine compounds (trichloramine and soluble chlorine [monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorite, and hypochlorous acid]) were significantly higher in the evisceration area than the dark meat area. (
  • The levels of soluble chlorine compounds measured by PBZ samples were significantly higher for those employees who reported these symptoms compared to those employees who did not. (
  • Results of this evaluation suggest a health hazard may exist from exposure to soluble chlorine compounds and trichloramine. (
  • Ammonium ions are not gaseous and have no odor. (
  • Gold compound with gold in oxidation state III. (
  • Palladium compound with palladium in oxidation state II. (
  • In its chemical compounds mercury is monovalent or bivalent. (
  • In its chemical compounds antimorgr is trivalent or pentavalent. (
  • The chemical compound is used in fertilizers and explosives and can be dangerous to store. (
  • Ammonium chloride's primary use is in fertilizers, but it can also be used to manufacture explosives. (
  • The researchers first began working with the bacteria several years ago when they investigated a phenomenon in which ammonium broke down in acidic, iron-rich soils in New Jersey wetlands and similar locations. (
  • Lastly, two distinct mixtures of organic surrogate compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and humic acid, were used to represent the average water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fractions observed during the wet and dry seasons in the central Amazon Basin. (
  • Ammonium ferrocyanide is a lemon-green powdered solid, odorless and soluble in water. (
  • An odorless antiseptic compound widely used as a disinfectant in detergents. (
  • In acid solutions, compounds of pentavalant antimony usually Change to trivalent sntimonys thus noting as acidifiers. (
  • These compounds are used for numerous industrial purposes, water treatment, antifungal treatment in horticulture, as well as in pharmaceutical and everyday consumer products as preserving agents, foam boosters, and detergents. (
  • Some of the synthesized compounds inflicted antifungal activity greater than the standard fungicide. (
  • However, to date, a detailed understanding of the physiological role of these compounds has been severely hampered by a lack of selective, high affinity, metabolically stable neurokinin receptor antagonists that possess both good bioavailability and CNS penetration. (
  • I am not familiar with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, but the copper relationship to cancer is interesting. (
  • 11. Identification and characterization of a compound that protects cardiac tissue from human Ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG)-related drug-induced arrhythmias. (
  • Hydrogen fluoride can be released when other fluoride-containing compounds such as ammonium fluoride are combined with water. (
  • Therefore, wide application area of these compounds render larger revenue share to the segment. (
  • Ti3AlC2 ternary compound with a layered structure in a hexagonal crystalline system (three close-packed layers of titanium atoms separated by a layer of aluminum atoms) and a melting point of 1360 °C is a member of an advanced group of ceramic materials called MAX phases. (