An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition. (1/1184)

1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed.  (+info)

Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. (2/1184)

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

Re-activation of the peptidyltransferase centre of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes after inactivation by exposure to low concentrations of magnesium ion. (3/1184)

1. The larger subrivosomal particles of rabbit reticulocytes retained full activity in the puromycin reaction and in poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis after 4h at 0 degrees C when buffered 0.5M-NH4Cl/10-30mM-MgCl2 was the solvent. 2. Activity in the puromycin reaction was diminished to approx 10% after 15-30 min at 0 degrees C when the concentration of MgCl2 was lowered to 2mM. 3. Activity was not restored when the concentration of MgCl2 was raised from 2mM to 10-30 mM at 0 degrees C. However, activity was recovered as measured by both assay systems when the ribosome fraction was heated to 37 degrees C at the higher concentrations of MgCl2. 4. Recovery of activity was noted during the course of the polyphenylalanine synthesis in 50 mM-KCl/5mM-MgCl2/25mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, at 37 degrees C. Re-activation was slow at 20 degrees C and below. 5. No more than about 5% of the protein moiety of the subparticle was lost in 0.5M-NH4Cl on decreasing MgCl2 concentration from 10mM to 2mM. No proteins were detected in the supernatant fractions by gel electrophoresis after ribosomes were separated by differential centrifugation. The supernatant fraction was not essential for the recovery of activity. However, at higher (e.g. 1M) concentrations of NH4Cl, proteins were split from the subparticle. 6. The loss and regain of activity found on lowering and restoring the concentration of MgCl2 at 0.5M-NH4Cl appears to arise from a conformational change that does not seem to be associated with a loss and regain of particular proteins. 7. A 2% decrease in E260 was noticed when the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, and the change in the spectrum indicated a net increase of approx. 100A-U base-pairs per subribosomal particle. 8. When the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, S20,W of the subparticle remained at 52+/- 1S until the sample was incubated at 37 degrees C when S20,W increased to 56 +/- 1S compared with the value of 58 +/- 1S for the subparticle as originally isolated.  (+info)

Reassembly of the peptidyltransferase centre of larger subparticles of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes from a core-particle and split-protein fraction. (4/1184)

We report the reconstruction, from a core-particle and split-protein fraction, of the larger subribosomal particle of rabbit reticulocytes. The reassembled particle was active in polyphenylalanine synthesis and in the puromycin reaction. The core-particles and split-protein fractions were obtained by treatment of the larger subparticle with salt solutions containing NH4+ and Mg2+ in the molar ratio 40:1 over the range 2.25-2.75 M-NH4Cl/56-69mM-MgCl2 at 0 degrees C. This treatment led to the loss of about eight proteins (approx. 17% of the protein moiety), which were found wholly or largely in the split-protein fraction as shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The core particle retained 5S rRNA and had much decreased (no more than 10% of control) ability to function in the puromycin reaction or in poly (U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. Activity was recovered when the recombined core-particle and split-protein fractions were dialysed overnight at 4 degrees C against 0.3M-NH4Cl/15mM-MgCl2/1mM-dithiothreitol/15% (v/v) glycerol/20mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, and then heated for 1 h at 37 degreesEES C. The recovery was 40-80% of the original activity. Raising the concentration of MgCL2 to 300 mM in 2.5 M-NH4CL led to the removal of seven rather than eight proteins, and the core particle remained active in the puromycin reaction. We infer that the protein retained by raising the concentration of Mg2+ is an essential component of the peptidyltransferase centre of the ribosome.  (+info)

Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes. (5/1184)

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37, is a proteolytically inactive serine protease homologue that is released from activated granulocytes. However, HBP is not a biologically inactive molecule but rather a multifunctional protein with properties that include the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production from monocytes. We have previously demonstrated that HBP is internalized in monocytes. In the current study, we hypothesize that HBP is internalized in monocytes via endocytosis, and this internalization is an important mechanism by which HBP enhances LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Using whole blood from healthy donors and flow cytometry, we found that colchicine (0.1-10 mM), cytochalasin D (1000 microM), NH4Cl (10-50 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (0.1-3 microM) significantly reduced the affinity of FITC-HBP for CD14-positive monocytes. Using isolated human monocytes and ELISA, we found that colchicine (0.1 mM), cytochalasin D (30 and 300 microM), NH4Cl (30 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) significantly reduced the effect of HBP (10 microg/ml) to enhance LPS (10 ng/ml)-induced TNF-alpha release after 24 h. These findings demonstrate that internalization of HBP in monocytes is essential for the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Transport of HBP to an activating compartment depends on intact F-actin polymerization and endosomal acidification, an important mechanism for endosomal protein sorting and trafficking.  (+info)

MHC class I-restricted presentation of maleylated protein binding to scavenger receptors. (6/1184)

Pathways for loading exogenous protein-derived peptides on MHC class I are thought to be present mainly in monocyte-lineage cells and to involve phagocytosis- or macropinocytosis-mediated antigenic leakage into either cytosol or extracellular milieu to give peptide access to MHC class I. We show that maleylation of OVA enhanced its presentation to an OVA-specific MHC class I-restricted T cell line by both macrophages and B cells. This enhanced presentation involved uptake through receptors of scavenger receptor (SR)-like ligand specificity, was TAP-1-independent, and was inhibited by low levels (2 mM) of ammonium chloride. No peptide loading of bystander APCs by maleylated (maleyl) OVA-pulsed macrophages was detected. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA showed enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation through receptor-mediated uptake and remained highly sensitive to 2 mM ammonium chloride. However, if receptor binding of maleyl-OVA was inhibited by maleylated BSA, the residual presentation was relatively resistant to 2 mM ammonium chloride. Maleyl-OVA directly introduced into the cytosol via osmotic lysis of pinosomes was poorly presented, confirming that receptor-mediated presentation of exogenous maleyl-OVA was unlikely to involve a cytosolic pathway. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA was well presented as a cytosolic Ag, consistent with the dependence of cytosolic processing on protein ubiquitination. Thus, receptor-specific delivery of exogenous protein Ags to APCs can result in enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation, suggesting that the exogenous pathway of peptide loading for MHC class I may be a constitutive property dependent mainly on the quantity of Ag taken up by APCs.  (+info)

Activation of the proteasomes of sand dollar eggs at fertilization depends on the intracellular pH rise. (7/1184)

The mechanism of the activation of intracellular proteasomes at fertilization was measured in living sand dollar eggs using the membrane-impermeant fluorogenic substrate, succinyl-Phe-Leu-Arg-coumarylamido-4-methanesulfonic acid. When the substrate was microinjected into unfertilized eggs, the initial velocity of hydrolysis of the substrate (V0) was low. V0 measured 5 to 10 min after fertilization was five to nine times the prefertilization level and remained high throughout the first cell cycle. Hydrolysis of the substrate was inhibited by clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, a specific inhibitor of the proteasome. There has been in vitro evidence that calcium may be involved in regulation of proteasome activity to either inhibit the increase in peptidase activity associated with PA 28 binding to the 20S proteasome or stimulate activity of the PA 700-proteasome complex. Since both intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) increase after fertilization, hydrolysis of the proteasome substrate was measured under conditions in which [Ca2+]i and pHi were varied independently during activation. When the pHi of unfertilized eggs was elevated by exposure to 15 mM ammonium chloride in pH 9 seawater, V0 increased to a level comparable to that measured after fertilization. In contrast, [Ca2+]i elevation without pHi change, induced by calcium ionophore in sodium-free seawater, had no effect on V0 in the unfertilized egg. Moreover, when unfertilized eggs were microinjected with buffers modulating pHi, V0 increased in a pH-dependent manner. These results indicate that the pHi rise at fertilization is the necessary prerequisite for activation of the proteasome, an essential component in the regulation of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake. (8/1184)

Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading.  (+info)

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The percent of ammonium chloride listed is in regards to the total weight of the ingredients used. After making a few batches, I have found that adding the ammonium chloride along with the sugar offers great results. Finally, here is an equation to figure out how much ammonium chloride to use, given you know what percentage you want to have:. K = Known Weight of Ingredients (Everything in the recipe except for Ammonium Chloride). X = Weight of Ammonium Chloride. Z = Xs % of Total Weight of Ingredients expressed as a decimal (e.g. 0.06 for 6%). T = Total Weight of Ingredients. Step 1: T = K / (1-Z). Step 2: T - K = X. Step 3: Make some salmiak licorice.. ...
Ammonium chloride based smoke is irritating to the eyes and lungs as it contains some remaining HCl and NH3. Ammonium chloride itself is not poisonous and is even used in some type of candy. But as with all fine powders a dust mask must be worn, and since ammonium chloride is irritating to the skin and damaging to the eyes, gloves and goggles are important. Acording to Shimizu, ammonium chloride forms an exception to the rule that ammonium compounds should not be mixed with chlorates. Due to the lower solubility of potassium chlorate (compared to ammonium chlorate) no ammonium chlorate should form. I personally would still use these mixtures with great caution (or avoid them) since it seems inevitable that small amounts of ammonium chlorate will still form. The lower solubility of potassium chlorate will make it the -main- product in a double decomposition reaction but not the -only- product. It is strongly advised not to mix with metal powders, specifically copper, because it will become ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ammonium chloride supplementation on urine pH and urinary fractional excretion of electrolytes in goats. AU - Mavangira, Vengai. AU - Cornish, Jennifer M.. AU - Angelos, John A. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Objective-To determine whether dietary supplementation with ammonium chloride would affect urine pH or urinary fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes in goats fed grass hay. Design-Clinical trial. Animals-15 yearling castrated male goats. Procedures-In the dose response study, 3 yearling goats fed orchard grass hay and water ad libitum were administered ammonium chloride at either 200, 400, or 500 mg/kg (91, 182, or 227 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours. In the FE study, 8 goats fed orchard grass hay were randomly divided into either a treatment (n = 4) or a control group (4). In the treatment group, ammonium chloride was administered at 450 mg/kg (2.25% of dry matter intake [DMI]), PO, every 24 hours for 8 days. The FE of electrolytes was compared between ...
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Nitrogen in the form of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, was produced in ancient Egypt by heating a mixture of animal excrement, urine and salt, according to Royal Society of Chemistry. Apparatus is set up as shown. The atomic weight of potassium is 39.10 g/mol. The formula for nitrogen is N 2 and the formula for hydrogen is H 2. Ammonium Chloride NH 4 CI Fertilizer-grade NH 4 Cl usually contains 25% N. About two-thirds of the world capacity for manufacture of this material is located in Japan, with the remaining one-third situated in India and China. Compound name is ammonium chloride Convert between NH4Cl weight and moles. (a) Calculate the percentage of nitrogen and the percentage of sulfur in ammonium sulfate. What is the percentage of chloride in potassium chloride? Most of it is produced by the dual-salt process, in which NH4CI and (Na) 2CO3 are formed simultaneously. of nitrogen is present The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining ...
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Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH₄Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is the name of the natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride.
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Do not use extra dose to make up for a missed dose. It is a broad spectrum bactericidal and fungicidal and can be used as disinfectant cleaner for linen, recommended for use in hospitals, hotels and industries. If it is close to the time of your next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your dosing schedule. Alibaba.com offers 1,348 didecyl dimethyl ammonium chlorid products. The opinions expressed in the surveys shown on the, By registering for a TabletWise account, you agree to our. What precautions should you take while using Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride? patents-wipo. This salt may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is an antiseptic/disinfectant that is used in many biocidal applications. Didecyldimethylammounium chloride. In mice this disinfectant was found to cause infertility and birth defects when combined with Alkyl (60% C14, 25% C12, 15% C16) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC),. The ...
Research Chemicals. CoA; SDS; CoO; Find a Distributor; Contact Us; Open Left Rail Navigation. Ammonium Chloride SDS MSDS Sheet: Muby Chemicals of Mubychem Group, established in 1976, is the original manufacturers of Specialty Chemicals, Pharmaceutical Excipient, Fragrance Food & Flavor chemicals, Reagent Grade Chemicals, Shale Gas Fracturing Chemicals in India. Ammonium Chloride Solution Flinn Scientific, Inc. P.O. Welcome to Acros.com! Our worldwide commitment to continuous innovation, superior safety and exceptional service ensures customer success throughout the chemical value chain and beyond. Concentrated solutions of quaternary ammonium compounds are corrosive and can cause burns to the skin and the mucous membranes. We regularly produce chemical solutions to specifications designed by government and regulatory bodies, commercial and trade associations, and the specific needs of individual users and businesses. 2.2 Summary of clinical effects Mild to severe caustic burns of the skin and ...
Additives China, Ammonium Chloride 99 5%min Industrial Grade, Description Product name:Ammonium Chloride H.S. No.: 2827109000 CAS.No.: 12125-02-9 Purity:99.5%min About Ammonium Chlor...
At 20oC, a 2.32 M aqueous solution of Ammonium Chloride has a density of 1.0344g/ml. WHat is the molality of Ammonium Chloride in the solution? The formula weight of NH4Cl is 53.50 g/mol?? I am not sure how to incorporate the ...
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Chemical structure - NH4Cl. Shipped in a resealable foil bag. Ammonium Chloride is used in fluxes, chemistry experiments, textiles, along with a lot of other uses. As with all chemicals, ammonium chloride should be handled with care. MSDS and Spec Sheets can be found here. ...
Ammonium chloride is a white salt which is usually used in dry cells. This brief video demonstrates the synthesis of ammonium chloride.
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As a consequence of a reprogrammed metabolism, cancer cells are dependent on the amino acid l-glutamine for their survival, a phenomenon that currently forms the basis for the generation of new, cancer-specific therapies. In this paper, we report on the role which ammonium ions, a product of glutaminolysis, play on the survival of l-glutamine-deprived Sp2/0-Ag14 mouse hybridoma cells. The supplementation of l-glutamine-starved Sp2/0-Ag14 cell cultures with either ammonium acetate or ammonium chloride resulted in a significant increase in viability. This effect did not depend on the ability of cells to synthesize l-glutamine, and was not affected by the co-supplementation with α-ketoglutarate. When we examined the effect of ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride on the induction of apoptosis by glutamine deprivation, we found that ammonium salts did not prevent caspase-3 activation or cytochrome c leakage, indicating that they did not act by modulating core apoptotic processes. However, both ammonium
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US EPA PC Code ); 069167 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68956-79-6 (CAS number); 68956796; 68956796 (CAS number without hyphens); Alkyl* dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride *(60%C14, 30%C16, 5%C12, 5%C18); Alkyl*dimethylethylbenzylammoniumchloride*60%C1430%C165%C125%C18; Quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-18-alkyl((ethylphenyl)methyl)dimethyl, ...
Nominated Substances: Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. Nomination Date: 12/22/1987 Nominator: NIEHS Rationale: High production, potential for exposure, lack of toxicity data, structural interest in quaternary ammonium compounds. NTP Principles: Pre 1993 - 3, 8 Status: Selected ...
US EPA PC Code ); (US EPA PC Code ); 069175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68391-01-5 (CAS number); 68391015 (CAS number without hyphens); 769175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); Alkyl* dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride *(67%C12, 25%C14, 7%C16, 1%C18); Alkyl*dimethylbenzylammoniumchloride*67%C1225%C147%C161%C18; Maquat LC12S-50%; N-alkyl (67% C12, 25% C14, 7% C16, 1% C18) dimethyl benzyl ammonium ...
The report generally describes diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride(dadmac), examines its uses, production methods, patents. Diallyl dimethyl ammonium
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Observations of the temperature dependence of the nuclear resonance spectrum of the methyl group in Methylammonium chloride solutions have enabled a value for the activation energy. $\Delta $E, associated with the two predominant proton transfer reactions to be desired. A value of $\Delta E=0=1k.$/cals, has been obtained. Rate constants have been measured over a concentration range of 0.25 M to 4.0 M, using similar methods to those previously $applied.^{1}$ Similar experiments are in progress to determine the proton transfer activation energy in ammonium chloride solutions, and will be reported. The results will be discussed with reference to recent theories of proton transfer in amine $solutions.^{2 ...
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This report studies Alkyl Benzyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2013 to 2018, and forecast to 2025. – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 8a6a7c-NDM0Z
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Severity of symptoms depend on the level and type of exposure. Inhalation of ammonium chloride fumes can result in irritation of the nose, throat and lungs, including coughing and a sore throat. People with impaired respiratory functions, such as those with emphysema much incur further damage if the chemical is inhaled. Ingestion of the chemical could result in serious negative health consequences, including death. Eye contact with the chemical may cause corneal injury, pain, redness, inflammation and/or significant ocular lesions. ...
Kienzle, E; Stürmer, K; Ranz, D; Clauss, Marcus (2006). A high roughage/concentrate ratio decreases the effect of ammonium chloride on acid-base balance in horses. Journal of Nutrition, 136(7 Supp):2048S-2049S. ...
The dissolution kinetics of malachite ore in ammonium chloride solutions has been investigated with respect to the effects of ammonium chloride concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio, stirring speed, and reaction temperature. It was determined that the dissolution rate increased with increasing ammonium chloride concentration, stirring speed, and reaction temperature. However, increasing particle diameter and solid to liquid ratio decreased the dissolution rate. Examination of data by heterogeneous model suggested that the dissolution rate is controlled by mixture kinetics. The following mathematical model was proposed to represent the reaction kinetics. ...
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The development of eco-friendly and environmentally benign catalytic systems is one of the main themes of modern organic synthesis. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is a very inexpensive and readily available catalyst; it has been reported as a catalyst for the synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds (Shaabani et al. 2003; Dabiri et al. 2009; Fortenberrya et al. 2013; Foroughifarab et al. 2011; Maleki and Salehabadi 2010; Shaabani et al. 2008; Hussein 2015). There are many bioactive molecules which possess various heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, always taken the attention of chemists over the years mainly because of their biological significance. Pyrano derivatives have well-known biological effects, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (El-Zohry et al. 2008a). Indolinone and spiro-indoline derivatives have possessed broad-spectrum therapeutic activities such as anticonvulsants (Ragavendran et al. 2007; Azam et al. 2009; Sridhar et al. 2002), antibacterial (Rahman et ...
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A CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE DISPERSION SYNTHESIS BY DISPERSION POLYMERIZATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION. Yufeng Wang,a,b,* Kefu Chen,a Lihuan Mo,a,* and Huiren Hu c. A cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) dispersion, the copolymer of acrylamide (AM) and acryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), has been synthesized through dispersion polymerization in aqueous ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) solution. The polymerization was initiated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and ferrisulfas (FeSO4) using poly(dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC) as the stabilizer. At the optimal reaction conditions, the relative molecular weight of the CPAM dispersion was 4.2×106, its charge density was 2.2 mmol·g-1, its average particle size was 6.01 μm, and its stability and dissolvability were both excellent. The CPAM dispersion was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Results indicated that ...
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An excellent detergent thickened bowl cleaner, formulated with a combination of HCL and a heavy concentration of deep cleaning, high- sudsing detergents, synergistically blended for efficient removal of organic material and hard water build-up. Liquid Swabby II has a pleasant sassafras fragrance and is effective against HIV-1 (associated with AIDS). Liquid Swabby II is an effective one-step bowl cleaner/disinfectant even in the presence of 5% blood serum. Active Ingredients: Hydrogen chloride 9.50%, n-Alkyl (C14 60%, C16 30%, C12 5%, C18 5%) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides 0.05%, n-Alkyl (C12 68%, C14 32%) dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides 0.05%. Other Ingredients: 90.40%.. ...
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Get an answer for Given the following aqueous reactants, write a balanced chemical equation to describe the reaction that occurs when they are mixed. Include the formulas and physical states of each reactant and product. If there is no product state no reaction. Do not write ionic equations for each reaction. (They want net ionic equations.) a) sodium chloride and sliver nitrate b) copper (II) chloride and sodium nitrate c) potassium hydroxide and ammonium chloride Please help :) and find homework
There is no doubt that the contribution of microbially mediated bioprocesses toward maintenance of life on earth is vital. However, understanding these microbes in situ is currently a bottleneck, as most methods require culturing these microorganisms to suitable biomass levels so that their phenotype can be measured. The development of new culture-independent strategies such as stable isotope probing (SIP) coupled with molecular biology has been a breakthrough toward linking gene to function, while circumventing in vitro culturing. In this study, for the first time we have combined Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, as metabolic fingerprinting approaches, with SIP to demonstrate the quantitative labeling and differentiation of Escherichia coli cells. E. coli cells were grown in minimal medium with fixed final concentrations of carbon and nitrogen supply, but with different ratios and combinations of 13C/12C glucose and 15N/14N ammonium chloride, as the sole ...
||CORRECTION: An earlier version of this story incorrectly reported the ventilation failure as a gas leak. A ventilation failure at Eucalyptus Hall caused the entire building to be evacuated on Thursday. In room 2302, students were working on an experiment involving ammonium chloride when fumes were released into the classroom due to a...
HPLC Part: CH0-3868 Capcell Pak® 5 µm NH2 UG 80 Å, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Chelating compounds Separation Mode: Normal Phase Solid Support: Polymer Format: Column USP Designation: N/A
HPLC Part: CH0-3374 Asahipak® 5 µm NH2P-50 100 Å, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Small molecules and biomolecules Separation Mode: Normal Phase Solid Support: Polymer Format: Column USP Designation: N/A
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Calculate the equilibrium concentration of NH3,Cu^2+,[ Cu(NH3)]^2+ ,[Cu(NH3)2]^2+,[Cu(NH3)3]^2+,and[Cu(NH3)4]^2+ in a solution made by mixing 500.0 ml of 3.00 M NH3 with 500.0 ml of 2.00*10^-3 M Cu(NO3)2. The sequential equilibria ...
ACK (Ammonium-Chloride-Potassium) lysing buffer[edit]. ACK is used for lysis of red blood cells in biological samples where ... and cationic detergents like ethyl trimethyl ammonium bromide are denaturing (will disrupt protein functions).[6] Detergents ...
... ammonium chloride • alcohol • camphor sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) • hydrochloric acid • nitric acid • acetic acid • formic ...
Ammonium chloride. NH4Cl. 3.3 oz/gal. 24.7 g/L. Boric acid. H3BO3. 4 oz/gal. 29.96 g/L. ... All-chloride[edit]. All-Chloride solutions allow for the deposition of thick nickel coatings. They do this because they run at ... Sulfate-chloride[edit]. A Sulfate-Chloride bath operates at lower voltages than a Watts bath and provide a higher rate of ... Nickel chloride. NiCl2·6H2O. 60-150 g/L. 8-20 oz/gal. 30-45 g/L. 4-6 oz/gal. ...
Ammonium chloride Solid NH4Cl −314.55 Nitrogen dioxide Gas NO2 33.2 ...
ammonium agents. *ultra-short duration: Gantacurium. *short duration: Mivacurium. *Chandonium. *intermediate duration: ... Dimethyltubocurarinium chloride (INN; also known as metocurine chloride (USAN) and dimethyltubocurarine chloride) is a non- ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dimethyltubocurarinium_chloride&oldid=898926034" ...
Titrations for cobalt and nickel are carried out in an ammoniacal environment; buffered with ammonia:ammonium chloride solution ... Endpoints are very sharp, and with care, chloride concentrations down to 15 mg/L can be analyzed. Bromide and chloride may be ... For instance, benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary type cationic surfactant) may be determined in cleaners and algaecides for ... The reaction of silver nitrate with chloride is strongly exothermic. For instance, the reaction enthalpy of Ag+ with Cl− is a ...
Eutectic temperature of ammonium chloride and water is listed as −15.9 °C (3.38 °F) and as −15.4 °C (4.28 °F) in (respectively ... ammonium chloride] or even sea salt". This combination forms a eutectic system which stabilizes its temperature automatically: ... 9-18.) "Sal Armoniac" was an impure form of ammonium chloride. The French chemist Nicolas Lémery (1645-1715) discussed it in ... and ammonium chloride (a salt). The other limit established was his best estimate of the average human body temperature, ...
When ammonium chloride salt is placed on ice when the ambient temperature is greater than −17.8 °C (0 °F), the salt melts some ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). 5. −15.5 °C / 4 °F / 257.5 K. ... A mixture of ammonium chloride, water, and ice form a ... Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). 1. −15.5 °C / 4 °F / 257.5 K. ... Calcium chloride (CaCl2). 3. Sulphuric acid, dilute (H2SO4). 10 ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). 5. −12 °C / 10 °F / 261 K. ...
... can be synthesized by: catalytic hydration of butyronitrile; reaction of butyryl chloride with ammonium salts; ...
Liquorice candy flavoured with ammonium chloride. Polkagris Traditional peppermint stick candy from Gränna, also made in other ...
... ammonium chloride is also produced. The following scheme shows the reaction mechanism: By addition of hydrogen chloride the ... chloride (3a and 3b). The resulting salt (4) precipitates after some time as aldimine tin chloride (5). Hydrolysis of 5 ... However, it has been found that this step is unnecessary and the aldimine tin chloride can be hydrolysed directly in the ... In the past, the reaction was carried out by precipitating the aldimine-tin chloride, washing it with ether and then ...
One method entails treating formaldehyde with ammonium chloride. NH4Cl + H2CO → [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2O [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2CO + H2O → [ ...
... a unit for zinc and ammonium chloride production; and an air preheater. Capacity was doubled between 1975 and 1984. A second ...
Dax, E. C. (1940) Convulsion therapy by ammonium chloride. Journal of Mental Science 86: 660-667. Dax, E. C. (1951) Indications ...
Ammonium salts, e.g.Ammonium chloride, sulphate and nitrate. Metal salts e.g. Magnesium chloride, Zinc nitrate, Zinc chloride. ... Catalyst mixture e.g. magnesium chloride with added organic and inorganic acids or acid donors. The purpose of the additives is ... chloride, bromite, hydrogen peroxide) Depending on the sizing materials that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a ... with the addition of either sodium chloride, sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate. Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather ...
... and ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphate, borax, and various acids. These early attempts found application in reducing the ...
He initially made ammonia, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride. Karl Ludwig Reimann, a chemist, joined the business in 1828 ...
Gallium ammonium chloride is used for the leads in transistors. A major application of gallium is in LED lighting. The pure ...
Ammonium chloride (salmiak) and sulfur has been collected around fumaroles. The thick sulfur layers on the southeastern summit ...
"Sal Armoniac" was an impure form of ammonium chloride. The French chemist Nicolas Lémery (1645 - 1715) discussed it in his book ... and ammonium chloride (salis Armoniaci).[6] This is a frigorific mixture which stabilizes its temperature automatically: that ... ammonium chloride).[2] Further limits were established as the melting point of ice (32 °F) and his best estimate of the average ... but the ammonium chloride cooling temperature actually is −3 °C, whereas that of NaCl is −21.1 °C; the other explanation is ...
In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. Molten salt batteries are primary or secondary batteries ... The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte ... and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a ...
ISBN 978-0-7020-4841-8. Taton, DF; Hamar, D; Lewis, LD (15 February 1984). "Evaluation of ammonium chloride as a urinary ... This is to maintain the plasma's electrical balance, as the chloride anions have been extracted. The bicarbonate content causes ... During hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach, the gastric parietal cells extract chloride anions, carbon dioxide, water ...
The quaternary ammonium compound Dimethyloctadecyl (3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) has been found to have ... Many other quaternary ammonium compounds are known to have antimicrobial properties (e.g. alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride ... 1972). "Surface-Bonded Antimicrobial Activity of an Organosilicon Quaternary Ammonium Chloride". Applied Microbiology. 24 (6): ... Quaternary ammonium ion-containing polymers (PQA) have been proven to effectively kill cells and spores through their ...
Part V. The reciprocal salt-pair, ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride; J. Chem. Soc., Trans., 1923, 123, 841 - 849 (with ... 40 186-192 (with William Donald Urry) The properties of ammonium nitrate. ...
Chemical etching is usually done with ammonium persulfate or ferric chloride. For PTH (plated-through holes), additional steps ... in which the board is submerged in etching solution such as ferric chloride. Compared with methods used for mass production, ...
"Attempt to smuggle ammonium chloride into Gaza foiled 3 May 2016". GxMSDev. Retrieved 2016-06-09. "Israel lied about Isil ...
After oxidation to the volatile oxides, RuO 4 is separated from OsO 4 by precipitation of (NH4)3RuCl6 with ammonium chloride or ... Hydrogen is used to reduce ammonium ruthenium chloride yielding a powder. The product is reduced using hydrogen, yielding the ... chloride. Ruthenium forms a wide range compounds with carbon-ruthenium bonds. Grubbs' catalyst is used for alkene metathesis. ...
August 2006). Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (ADBAC) (PDF) (Report). U.S. ... dimethylbenzyl ammonium saccharinate, 0.10%; microbiocide Alkyl (C12-C18) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride, 0.08%; antiseptic ... One of the active ingredients, benzalkonium chloride, is highly toxic to fish (LC50 = 280 μg ai/L), very highly toxic to ... The active ingredient in many Lysol products is benzalkonium chloride, but the active ingredient in the Lysol "Power and Free" ...
The conductive additive may be lithium chloride, quaternary ammonium halide, or other. Some examples of metal alkoxides ... Many alkoxides are prepared by salt-forming reactions from a metal chloride and sodium alkoxide: n NaOR + MCln → M(OR)n + n ... concomitant with the evolution of hydrogen chloride: TiCl4 + 4 (CH3)2CHOH → Ti(OCH(CH3)2)4 + 4 HCl The reaction can be ...
Samples are centrifuged with a high-density solution such as sucrose, caesium chloride, or iodixanol. The high-density solution ... Aids in separation of proteins using purification techniques such as salting out, e.g. ammonium sulfate precipitation.[10] ...
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride. ... which is comparable to the LD50 values of potassium chloride and sodium chloride.[244] Caesium chloride has been promoted as an ... The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused lithium chloride and potassium chloride.[183] ... a property which ammonium salts share.[171] Ammonium is expected to behave stably as a metal (NH+. 4 ions in a sea of ...
Its active ingredients include quaternary ammonium compounds from the family of benzalkonium chlorides and ... Benzalkonium chloride is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. The greatest ... didecyldimethylammonium chloride. These compounds are nitrogenous cationic surface active agents. ...
Ammonium cerium(IV) sulfate - (NH4)4Ce(SO4)4. *Ammonium chloride - NH4Cl ... Ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate - (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6. * ... Ammonium nitrate - NH4NO3. *Ammonium orthomolybdate - (NH4)2MoO ...
... glycyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride. The resulting N-(trifluoroacetyl)-α-aminoacetophenone was then N- ... The product was then treated with DIBAL, and the unisolated imine then treated sequentially with ammonium bromide and ... α-amino acid chlorides. Application to the preparation of β-arylalkylamines and 3-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines ...
and chloride anions (Cl−. ). Conversely, when an ionic liquid is cooled, it often forms an ionic solid-which may be either ... N-alkylpyrrolidinium and ammonium ions. Phosphonium cations are less common, but offer some advantageous properties.[23][24] A ... Sodium chloride (NaCl), for example, melts at 801 °C (1,474 °F) into a liquid that consists largely of sodium cations (Na+. ) ... "Potentiometric investigation of dialuminium heptachloride formation in aluminum chloride-1-butylpyridinium chloride mixtures". ...
Another possibility is an inorganic flux composed of zinc chloride or tin(II) chloride,[16] ammonium chloride, and a fluoride ( ... The compounds used include metal halides (most often zinc chloride or ammonium chloride), hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ... Acid flux types (not used in electronics) may contain hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride or ammonium chloride, which are harmful ... Common fluxes are ammonium chloride or resin acids (contained in rosin) for soldering copper and tin; hydrochloric acid and ...
calcium chloride, ammonium chloride 1. Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits ... Thiazide-type diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide act on the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit the sodium-chloride ...
Trospium chloride. *Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, cyamemazine (cyamepromazine), loxapine, ... Ammonium chloride. *Calcium chloride. Urinary antispasmodics. (primarily antimuscarinics). *Darifenacin. *Desfesoterodine. * ...
substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d. e. h. y. d. r. a. t. i. o. n. h. e. a. t. N. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. C. O. ‖. −. R. ... Acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides react with primary and secondary amines to form amides (the "Schotten-Baumann reaction"). ... primary ammonium (RNH+. 3) , secondary ammonium (R. 2NH+. 2) , tertiary ammonium (R3NH+). Small aliphatic amines display ... These species are not amines but are quaternary ammonium cations and have a charged nitrogen center. Quaternary ammonium salts ...
The most commonly used catalysts for this process are metal halides, particularly aluminium chloride. This is referred to as a ... First, silicon is treated with hydrogen chloride at about 300 °C to produce trichlorosilane, HSiCl3, along with hydrogen gas, ... Silane can be produced by several routes.[6] Typically, it arises from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with magnesium ... under Al and H2 gas in a mixture of NaCl and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) at high pressures:[7] ...
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride has industrial importance in the production of crease-resistant and flame-retardant ... Organic phosphonium cations are lipophilic and can be useful in phase transfer catalysis, much like quaternary ammonium salts. ... Suter, R. W.; Knachel, H. C.; Petro, V. P.; Howatson, J. H. & Shore, S. G. (1978). "Nature of Phosphorus(V) Chloride in ... phosphonium chloride: PH3 + HCl + 4 CH2O → P(CH. 2OH)+. 4Cl−. Many organophosphonium salts are produced by protonation of ...
More water-soluble gases (e.g. chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride) dissolve in the upper airway and ... Ammonia interacts with moist surfaces to form ammonium hydroxide, which causes necrosis of tissues. Exposure to high ... Smoke, chlorine, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and ammonia are common ... hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and ammonia are among the most important irritant gases. Hydrogen ...
Cations and anions can form a crystalline lattice of neutral salts, such as the Na+ and Cl− ions forming sodium chloride, or ... Solutions of substances in reagent bottles, including ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, illuminated in different colors ... The crystal lattice structure of potassium chloride (KCl), a salt which is formed due to the attraction of K+ cations and Cl− ... An animation of the process of ionic bonding between sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride, or common table ...
Hydrogen chloride. *Hydrogen fluoride. *Hydrogen (molecular). *Hydroxyl radical. *Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation ...
Hydrogen chloride. *Hydrogen fluoride. *Hydrogen (molecular). *Hydroxyl radical. *Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation ...
Detour-free synthesis of platinum-bis-NHC chloride complexes, their structure and catalytic activity in the CH activation of ... Kauffman, George B.; Thurner, Joseph J.; Zatko, David A. Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate(IV). Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic ...
Trospium chloride. *Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, cyamemazine (cyamepromazine), loxapine, ... Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Carboxylate esters. *Xanthenes. *Abandoned drugs. *Gastrointestinal system drug stubs ...
... it is used to etch copper on printed circuit boards as an alternative to ferric chloride solution.[5] This property was ... Ammonium persulfate is prepared by electrolysis of a cold concentrated solution of either ammonium sulfate or ammonium ... "Ammonium Persulphate: Copper Etchant". MG Chemicals.. *^ Turrentine, J. W. (1908). "Action of Ammonium Persulphate on Metals". ... Ammonium persulfate (APS) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2S2O8. It is a colourless (white) salt that is highly ...
Hydrogen chloride. *Hydrogen fluoride. *Hydrogen (molecular). *Hydroxyl radical. *Iron(II) oxide. *Magnesium monohydride cation ...
In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. Molten salt. Molten salt batteries are primary or ... The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte ... Zinc-chloride. 1.5. Also known as "heavy-duty", inexpensive.. Alkaline. (zinc-manganese dioxide). Zn. MnO2. 1.5. 1.15. 400-590 ... and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding.[24][25] In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use.[26][27] A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants.[28] The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
Kalsiyum chloride - mineral tuz. *Kalsiyum citrates - food acid, firming agent. *Kalsiyum diglutamate - aroma arttırıcı ... Ferric ammonium citrate - yiyecek asidi. *Ferrous gluconate - renk tutucu. *Ferrous lactate -. *Filé powder - ...
Typical reagents for this transformation are triethylamine/sulfur dioxide, zeolites, or sulfuryl chloride. Exploiting this ... The synthesis of benzonitrile by Hermann Fehling in 1844 by heating ammonium benzoate was the first method yielding enough of ... since one equivalent of the acid or base is consumed to form the ammonium or carboxylate salt, respectively. ... so one could name the substance that originates from ammonium benzoate perhaps "benzonitril".) ...
When this section is removed, the bile acids pass into the large bowel and cause diarrhea due to stimulation of chloride/fluid ... The functional group of the anion exchange resin is a quaternary ammonium group attached to an inert styrene-divinylbenzene ... It is a strong ion exchange resin, which means it can exchange its chloride anions with anionic bile acids in the ...
Amber Amblygonite Amedeo Avogadro Americium Amethyst amide amine amino acid Ammonia ammonium Ammonium nitrate Ammonium ... chloride Mercury (element) Mercury (II) chloride mercury fulminate mercury-vapor lamp Metacinnabarite metal metal halide ... skeletal formula skin Smectite Smoky quartz Soapstone Soda niter sodium Sodium bicarbonate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride ... reaction Chemical series Chemical thermodynamics Cheminformatics chemist chemistry Chemistry basic topics Chirality Chloride ...
"Thyroid Health Status of Ammonium Perchlorate Workers: A Cross-Sectional Occupational Health Study". Journal of Occupational & ... 82Rb (Rubidium chloride). gamma ray/photon (SPECT/scintigraphy). *51Cr. *57Co ...
Typically benzalkonium chloride, which disinfects wounds with minimal stinging or harm to exposed tissue. Can also be used as ... Smelling salts (ammonium carbonate). Topical medications *Antiseptics / disinfectants *Antiseptic fluid, moist wipe or spray- ...
2), and calcium chloride (CaCl. 2) in variable amounts.[16] Sold as a white powder or in tablets, is used in many of the same ... It, alongside ammonium and sodium persulfate, are common in hair lightening products.[22] ...
Trospium chloride. *Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, cyamemazine (cyamepromazine), loxapine, ... Quaternary ammonium compounds. *Bromides. *Benzilate esters. Hidden categories: *Template:drugs.com link with non-standard ...
... is a ammonium salt (CHEBI:47704) ammonium chloride (CHEBI:31206) is a inorganic chloride (CHEBI ... CHEBI:31206 - ammonium chloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks copper and its ... This produces toxic and irritating fumes (nitrogen oxides, ammonia and hydrogen chloride). The solution in water is a weak acid ...
... azanium chloride, Ammonium chloride (en); ملح النشادر, كلور الأمونيوم, كلور أمونيوم, Ammonium chloride, النشادر, نشادر, نوشادر ... Ammonium chloride (ur); Ammoniumchlorid (da); Amchlor, Ammoneric, Ammonium muriate, Darammon, Sal ammonia, Sal ammoniac, ... Media in category "Ammonium chloride". The following 22 files are in this category, out of 22 total. ... Cloruro de amonio (es); Ammoníumklóríð (is); sadir (ms); ammonium chloride (en-gb); Амониев хлорид (bg); Amonyum klorür (tr); 氯 ...
... fume; Ammonium uriate; Katapone VV-328; Quaternary ammonium chloride *Information on this page: *Mass ... Other names: (NH4)Cl; Ammonium chloride ((NH4)Cl); Amchlor; Ammoneric; Ammoniumchlorid; Ammonium muriate; Chlorid amonny; ...
Ammonium chloride is a combination of two necessary elements for plant growth -- nitrogen and chlorine. Both are naturally ... Ammonium chloride increased crop yields by up to 40 percent over crops with no chloride added, according to a multi-year study ... Ammonium chloride is a medium-strength nitrogen fertilizer compared to other ammonium-based products. The nitrogen percentage ... Ammonium chloride is a combination of two necessary elements for plant growth -- nitrogen and chlorine. Both are naturally ...
Synonym(s): AMMONIUM CHLORIDE ( (NH4) CL) ; AMMONIUM MURIATE; SAL AMMONIAC; SALMIAC; AMCHLOR; AMMONERIC; AMMONIUM CHLORIDE ( ... About AMMONIUM CHLORIDE: Ammonium Chloride is an inorganic salt.. Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Viscosity Increasing Agent ...
Ammonium muriate fume, Sal ammoniac fume Finely divided, odorless, white particulate dispersed in air. ... Alkalis & their carbonates, lead & silver salts, strong oxidizers, ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, bromine trifluoride [ ...
Various High Quality Ammonium Chloride Price Products from Global Ammonium Chloride Price Suppliers and Ammonium Chloride Price ... Tags: Ammonium Chloride Price For All Grades 99.5%min Big Factory Supply , Ammonium Chloride Price , Ammonium Chloride Producer ... Tags: 99.5%min Ammonium Chloride Price , Ammonium Chloride Industrial Grade , Ammonium Chloride Tech Grade 99.5% , View larger ... Tags: Ammonium Chloride 99.5% Purity , Ammonium Chloride Industrial Grade , Ammonium Chloride Best Price , View larger image ...
... ; find Sigma-Aldrich-CDS003485 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, ...
... the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the ... For related crystal structures containing the tri-benzyl-ammonium cation, see: Kozhomuratova et al. (2007. ); Jarvinen et al. ( ... The asymmetric unit of tribenzylammonium chloride consists of one third of a (C6H5CH2)3NH+ cation and an Cl- anion (Fig. 1). ... tribenzylammonium chloride C21H21NH+·Cl-, from the reaction of [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] with Sn(CH3)3Cl. Together with C21H21NH+· ...
... Size And Forecast According To Verified Market Research, The Global Ammonium Chloride Market is ... Ammonium Chloride Market Size And Forecast. According To Verified Market Research, The Global Ammonium Chloride Market is ... Global Ammonium Chloride Market Competitive Landscape. The Global Ammonium Chloride Market study report will provide a valuable ... The growing use of dry cell batteries has boosted the ammonium chloride market. Moreover, the application of ammonium chloride ...
ammonium chloride synonyms, ammonium chloride pronunciation, ammonium chloride translation, English dictionary definition of ... ammonium chloride. n. A slightly hygroscopic, white crystalline compound, NH4Cl, used in dry cells, as a soldering flux, and as ... Ammonium acetate Ammonium chloride Ammonium fluoride,Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate ,Ammonium meta vandate (mono vandate,Ammonium ... ammonium Acetate Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Fluoride,ammonium Ferrous Sulphate ,ammonium Meta Vandate (mono Vandate,ammonium ...
Ammonium chloride has been used historically to produce low temperatures in cooling baths. Ammonium chloride solutions with ... The earliest mention of ammonium chloride was in 554 A.D. in China. At that time, ammonium chloride came from two sources: (1) ... Those cells later evolved into zinc-carbon batteries still using ammonium chloride as electrolyte. Ammonium chloride is used in ... ammonium chloride].) Bischof, p. 212. Sutton et al., p. 599. Ammonium chloride was also found on the island of Réunion in the ...
Ammonium chloride and water react to yield ammonium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Ammonium chloride is called an acid salt, ... Ammonium chloride is an acid-forming salt that forms a white or colorless crystalline powder. It is hygroscopic in nature, so ... When ammonium chloride salt is dissolved in water, the solution temperature reduces as heat is absorbed by the reaction that ... What Is the Reaction With Ammonium Chloride and Water?. By Staff WriterLast Updated March 28, 2020 ...
Zinc ammonium chloride is a Class 9 hazardous material (Miscellaneous) according to the U.S. DOT. "Zinc Ammonium Chloride". ... Zinc ammonium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2ZnCl4. It is the ammonium salt of tetrachlorozincate. ... Zinc ammonium chloride flux in aqueous solution is applied to the steel to reduce any oxides that are formed and/or inhibit ... Hironori Matsunaga (1982). "X-Ray Structural Study of the Successive Phase Transitions in Ammonium Tetrachlorozincate, (NH4) ...
Sal Ammoniac, Ammonium Muriate. Source Neutralize Gas Liquor with Sulphuric Acid, converting all to Ammonium Sulphate. 2Nh4ho ... Ammonium Chloride. Amnonii Chloridum. Ammonium Chloride. Nh4c1 = 53.38. Synonyms. - Sal Ammoniac, Ammonium Muriate. ... Troches of Ammonium Chloride. Ammonium Chloride, 10; Extract of Glycyrrhiza, 25; Tragacanth, l2; Sugar, 50 gm.; Syrup of Tolu, ... Action of Ammonium Chloride. Locally applied, ammonium chloride increases the secretion of mucous membranes, and to a slight ...
Ammonium chloride. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] Trade names [23] IUPAC names [15] ...
Ammonium chloride is an acid, although it is only mildly acidic. It is often used as a medication to treat people whose blood ... Ammonium chloride is an acid, although it is only mildly acidic. It is often used as a medication to treat people whose blood ... Ammonium chloride also has a number of other uses; like most chemical compounds, its uses vary widely. For instance, the ... Equation for Dissolution of Ammonium Chloride * Chemical Formula for Ammonium Chloride * Ammonium Chloride Mixed with Water ...
Poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) was modified with epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETA) through interfacial ... Modification of SMA Using Epoxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride for Carbon Black Dispersing ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for ammonium chloride/chlorpheniramine/dextromethorphan/ephedrine/ipecac/ ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine Rating. No reviews - Add your ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine Disease Interactions. *Drug ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine drug interactions. There are 985 ...
Alkyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. Alkyldimethyl(phenylmethyl)quaternary ammonium chlorides. Ammonyx. Arquad dmmcb-75. ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, alkylbenzyldimethyl, chlorides. Quaternium-1. Romergal CB. Triton K-60. Vikrol RQ. Zephiral. ... Benzalkonium chloride. Benzalkonium salt. Bionol. Bio-quat 50-24. Bio-quat 50-25. Bio-quat 50-30. Bio-quat 50-40. Bio-quat 50- ...
Ammonium chloride , NH4Cl or ClH4N , CID 25517 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Ammonium chloride 99.99% trace metals basis; CAS Number: 12125-02-9; EC Number: 235-186-4; Synonyms: Salmiac; Linear Formula: ... Ammonium chloride-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones under solvent-free conditions. ... Ammonium chloride-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones under solvent-free conditions ... It sublimes at 340oC. Ammonium chloride acts as catalyst in one-pot,Biginelli condensation reactions of aldehydes, 1,3- ...
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, BENZYL-C8-18-ALKYLDIMETHYL, CHLORIDES can be found in 3 products. ... Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants Cause Subfertility in Mice by Targeting both Male and Female Reproductive Processes. ... Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 50, ... A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. ...
D08AJ06 - Didecyldimethylammonium chloride*V07AV - Technical Disinfectants. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, ...
... ammonium chloride buy online Wholesalers - choose ammonium chloride buy from 431 list of China ammonium chloride buy ... ammonium chloride buy. 431 Results. All Verified ammonium chloride buy suppliers & ammonium chloride buy manufacturers have ... Ammonium chloride CAS: 12125-02-9 English name: Ammonium chloride Chinese name: Ammonium chloride MF: ClH4N MW: 53.49146 ... Synonyms: Hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride solution, N-N-N trimethyl chloride, CTAC, Quaternary ammonium compound, Aliquat ...
... chloride , C25H44ClNO2 , CID 106131 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine and coccidioidin skin ... Drug interactions between ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine and coccidioidin skin test. Edit this ...
Get Ammonium Chlorides Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab ... Ammonium Chlorides Ammonium Chlorides. Spectrum carries high quality ammonium chloride which is an inorganic white crystalline ... Spectrum specializes in providing the top ammonium chlorides if you do not see the product, grade, or form of the ingredient ...
  • Modification of SMA Using Epoxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) was modified with epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETA) through interfacial reaction to prepare an amphoteric dispersant SMG for carbon black dispering. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The 3-Chloro-2-Hydroxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride Market report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. (sbwire.com)
  • Thus, the growth of aforementioned industries are key factors which are expected to drive the growth of global 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride market during the forecast period. (sbwire.com)
  • On the basis of geographic regions, global 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) market is segmented into seven key regions namely North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific excluding Japan, Middle East & Africa and Japan. (sbwire.com)
  • The 'Global and Chinese Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research Report' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride industry with a focus on the Chinese market. (researchmoz.us)
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.Firstly, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. (researchmoz.us)
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (researchmoz.us)
  • The report then estimates 2017-2022 market development trends of Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride industry. (researchmoz.us)
  • In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (researchmoz.us)
  • Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2012-2022 global and Chinese Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride industry covering all important parameters. (researchmoz.us)
  • 5.2 Market Competition of Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride Industry by Country (USA, EU, Japan, Chinese etc. (researchmoz.us)
  • Synonyms for ammonium chloride include muriate of ammonia and sal am-moniac. (elephantcare.org)
  • Separated from ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate. (ilo.org)
  • Reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate. (ilo.org)
  • The nitrogen percentage is 25 percent, compared to ammonium nitrate at 33 percent and ammonium phosphate at 21 percent. (ehow.com)
  • Graft starch flocculant (GSF) was synthesized by copolymerization of carboxymethylated soluble starch, acryl amine and dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride using ceric ammonium nitrate (NH 4 ) 2 Ce(NO 3 ) 6 as the polymerization initiator. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Aluminum nitrate and ammonium chloride react to form alluminum chloride, nitrogen, and water. (jiskha.com)
  • what mass of aluminum chloride is present after 43.0 g of aluminum nitrate and 43.0 g ammonium chloride have reacted completely? (jiskha.com)
  • 4. A calorimeter contains 500 g of water at 25°C. You place a cold pack containing 100 g of crystalline ammonium nitrate inside the calorimeter. (jiskha.com)
  • Sal ammoniac is a name of the natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. (fitnesshealthandwellnesscenter.com)
  • Sal ammoniac [L. sal ammoniacus], the salt usually called chloride of ammonium , and formerly muriate of ammonia . (freedictionary.org)
  • 1913 Webster] Chloride of ammonium , sal ammoniac. (freedictionary.org)
  • citation needed] Ammonium chloride, under the name sal ammoniac or salmiak is used as food additive under the E number E510, working as a yeast nutrient in breadmaking and as an acidifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substances used included acid, methyl ethyl ketone, bleach, a petrol substance, chemical ammonium chloride in powder form and hydrochloric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ammonium chloride and water react to yield ammonium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. (reference.com)
  • The earliest production of ammonium chloride was invented in 1884 by the German, made from ammonia and hydrochloric acid. (eceurope.com)
  • Ammonium chloride should not be used alone in patients with severe renal insufficiency and metabolic alkalosis secondary to vomiting hydrochloric acid as sodium depletion can occur. (elephantcare.org)
  • Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by combining ammonia (NH3) with either hydrogen chloride (gas) or hydrochloric acid (water solution): NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl Ammonium chloride occurs naturally in volcanic regions, forming on volcanic rocks near fume-releasing vents (fumaroles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tomatoes, beans and peppers were purposefully inoculated with harmful bacteria in an alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride solution by Dr. Kayimbi Tubajika in 2009. (ehow.com)
  • The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Alkyl Benzyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride Market Professional Survey Report 2018" is the property of its rightful owner. (powershow.com)
  • The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a 40% glycol solution and a 98% wettable powder, and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) in an 80% solution. (usda.gov)
  • Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride CAS 7173-51-5 in Stock! (ec21.com)
  • Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride is a cationic surfactant of dialkydimethyl quaternary ammonium compounds. (kitairu.net)
  • Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride has broad spectrum of activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. (kitairu.net)
  • Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride maintains efficacy in presence of heavy organic soiling such as blood and protein. (kitairu.net)
  • Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride is the third generation of quaternary ammonium compounds, and it is better than the first and second generation products on ability of killing microorganism. (kitairu.net)
  • Moreover, the application of ammonium chloride for soldering has provided an upthrust to the market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the application of ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source for sugarcane ( Saccharum sp. (scielo.br)
  • The dominant application of ammonium chloride is as a nitrogen source in fertilizers (corresponding to 90% of the world production of ammonium chloride) such as chloroammonium phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride . (opencroquet.org)
  • Leading Manufacturer of Myristyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride and Triethylbenzyl Ammonium Chloride (TEBACL) from Ahmedabad. (indiamart.com)
  • Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Product name: Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride(Benzalkonium Chloride) (DDBAC/BKC)Chemical nam. (kitairu.net)
  • Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Product name: Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chlor. (kitairu.net)
  • All Verified ammonium chloride buy suppliers & ammonium chloride buy manufacturers have passed our Business License Check, they can provide quality ammonium chloride buy products. (opencroquet.org)
  • The report indicates major suppliers and consumers of ammonium chloride in Hungary. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Global ammonium chloride buyers find suppliers here every day. (ec21.com)
  • Zinc chloride solution is poured into a solution of ammonium carbonate. (jiskha.com)
  • Describe how you would obtain pure crystals of Sodium chloride from a muxture of solid sodium chloride and solid zinc carbonate Step1 Step 2 Step 3 1. (jiskha.com)
  • Zinc ammonium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2ZnCl4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc ammonium chloride flux in aqueous solution is applied to the steel to reduce any oxides that are formed and/or inhibit them from forming altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc ammonium chloride is a Class 9 hazardous material (Miscellaneous) according to the U.S. DOT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spectrum specializes in providing the top ammonium chlorides if you do not see the product, grade, or form of the ingredient you require, just contact our chemical specialist at 800-772-8786. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Chemical Database - Ammonium, dodecyldimethyl(3-hydroxypropenyl)-, chloride. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Bushmans chemical tanks are suitable to store Ammonium chloride under certain conditions. (bushmantanks.com.au)
  • Users need to advise us the chemical concentration and the liquid Specific Gravity to ensure that the correct tank design is offered for Ammonium chloride storage. (bushmantanks.com.au)
  • Hangzhou Fanda Chemical Co.,Ltd (FandaChem) , a China-based chemical company, specialize in exporting C10-16-Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides C10-16-Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides Ajatin CAS:68989-00-4;Please contact us by email freely. (lookchem.com)
  • Hangzhou Fanda Chemical Co.,Ltd (FandaChem) is a Chinese supplier of C10-16-Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides C10-16-Alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides Ajatin CAS:68989-00-4, if you are looking for it in China, Please contact FandaChem for TDS, COA and MSDS freely. (lookchem.com)
  • The list of treatments mentioned in various sources for Chemical poisoning -- Ammonium Chloride includes the following list. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Ammonium chloride which is inexpensive and readily available reagent catalyzes the thia-michael addition reaction of thiols in water efficiently. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tricaprylylmethylammonium Chloride, also known as aliquat 336, is used as a metal extraction reagent and a phase transfer catalyst. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • This bottle of Dr Tim's reagent grade ammonium chloride is for use when fishless cycling. (swelluk.com)
  • Ammonium Chloride, Granular, Reagent, ACS is an inorganic compound, that presents itself as a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. (fitnesshealthandwellnesscenter.com)
  • Chloride, a salt form of the element, should not be confused with chlorine, the gas form of the element which is manufactured from chloride. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonium Chloride is an inorganic salt. (ewg.org)
  • 2013). In the course of our ongoing studies on organotin(IV) chemistry, we serendipitously isolated the title salt, tribenzylammonium chloride C 21 H 21 NH + ·Cl - , from the reaction of [(C 6 H 5 CH 2 ) 3 NH] 2 [HPO 4 ] with Sn(CH 3 ) 3 Cl. (iucr.org)
  • Ammonium chloride is called an acid salt, as it is the combination of strong acid and a weak base. (reference.com)
  • The hydrolysis of an acidic salt, such as ammonium chloride, is an endothermic reaction. (reference.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is an acid-forming salt that forms a white or colorless crystalline powder. (reference.com)
  • When ammonium chloride salt is dissolved in water, the solution temperature reduces as heat is absorbed by the reaction that takes place. (reference.com)
  • Spectrum carries high quality ammonium chloride which is an inorganic white crystalline salt considered highly soluble in water. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • In order to improve the utilization rate of raw salt in soda production, China's famous chemist Hou Debang successfully created soda and ammonium chloride dual manufacture process in sichuan in 1943. (eceurope.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is a white salt which is usually used in dry cells. (dnatube.com)
  • Product Description: Ammonium chloride, an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl, is a white crystalline salt, highly soluble in water. (fitnesshealthandwellnesscenter.com)
  • as, chloride of sodium (common salt). (freedictionary.org)
  • Chemistry - An acid-forming salt, ammonium chloride occurs as colorless crystals or as white, fine or course, crystalline powder. (elephantcare.org)
  • It is the ammonium salt of tetrachlorozincate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inorganic ammonium salts and carbonate salts are efficient catalysts for aldol condensation in atmospheric aerosols. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • This produces toxic and irritating fumes (nitrogen oxides, ammonia and hydrogen chloride). (ilo.org)
  • Ammonium chloride appears to sublime upon heating but actually decomposes into ammonia and hydrogen chloride gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium chloride is a medium-strength nitrogen fertilizer compared to other ammonium-based products. (ehow.com)
  • The growing rice and wheat crop production in the Asian countries requires a significant amount of nitrogen and therefore a rising demand for ammonium chloride is seen from the fertilizer industry. (bccresearch.com)
  • What is an ammonium chloride fertilizer? (homeschool-curriculum-and-support.com)
  • Daixi Chem of Zouping Education Equipment Co., Ltd. established in the beginning of 2001, is a professional largest manufacturers of Ammonium chloride medicine grade, food grade, feed grade and industry grade in China. (ttnet.net)
  • One of them used ammonium acetate for protein precipitation and the other one sodium chloride. (protocol-online.org)
  • So my mentor of long ago recommended either sodium or ammonium acetate, which are less likely to co-precipitate. (protocol-online.org)
  • A sample of solid ammonium chloride was placed in an evacuated container and then heated so that it decomposed to ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride gas. (bartleby.com)
  • The Global Ammonium Chloride Market study report will provide a valuable insight with an emphasis on global market including some of the major players such as BASF SE, ProChem, Inc., Jiangsu Huachang (Group) Co., Ltd., The Dallas Group of America, Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals and Fertilizers Limited. (bccresearch.com)
  • The operation focuses on identification, monitoring and seizure of consignments of all illicit precursor chemicals especially Acetic Anhydride, Acetyl Chloride, Acetic Acid and Ammonium Chloride , being transported to Afghanistan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of ammonium chloride's reactions with other chemicals are endothermic like its reaction with barium hydroxide and its dissolving in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium chloride was used in pyrotechnics in the 18th century but was superseded by safer and less hygroscopic chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ammonium cation is converted by the liver to urea with the release of a hydrogen ion. (elephantcare.org)
  • It also assesses the dynamics of country's foreign trade in ammonium chloride in 2007-2017. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Play media It is a product of the Solvay process used to produce sodium carbonate: CO2 + 2 NH3 + 2 NaCl + H2O → 2 NH4Cl + Na2CO3 In addition to being the principal method for the manufacture of ammonium chloride, that method is used to minimize ammonia release in some industrial operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It sublimes at 340 o C. Ammonium chloride acts as catalyst in one-pot,Biginelli condensation reactions of aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and urea or thiourea. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inorganic ammonium ions, NH 4 + , have been reported as efficient catalysts for the aldol condensation of carbonyl compounds.NH 4 Cl has been reportedly used to enhance the hydrolysis rate and decrease the activation energy of magnesium hydride during hydrogen generation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • High production, potential for exposure, lack of toxicity data, structural interest in quaternary ammonium compounds. (nih.gov)
  • A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. (ewg.org)
  • Ammonium chloride should not be titrated with strong oxidizing agents ( e.g., potassium chlorate) as explosive compounds may result. (elephantcare.org)
  • Contraindications/Precautions - Ammonium chloride is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic disease as ammonia may accumulate and cause toxicity. (elephantcare.org)
  • At 20oC, a 2.32 M aqueous solution of Ammonium Chloride has a density of 1.0344g/ml. (jiskha.com)
  • NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl Ammonium chloride reacts with a strong base, like sodium hydroxide, to release ammonia gas: NH4Cl + NaOH → NH3 + NaCl + H2O Similarly, ammonium chloride also reacts with alkali metal carbonates at elevated temperatures, giving ammonia and alkali metal chloride: 2 NH4Cl + Na2CO3 → 2 NaCl + CO2 + H2O + 2 NH3 A 5% by weight solution of ammonium chloride in water has a pH in the range 4.6 to 6.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large amount of chloride and ammonium ions were produced and released from industrial processes with non-biodegradable organic pollutants to affect efficiencies of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). (americanelements.com)
  • Here, the influences of chloride and ammonium ions on Co/peroxymonosulfate (Co/PMS) reaction system, a widely used AOPs to produce sulfate radicals, were investigated by examining the degradation efficiency of an azo dye (Acid Orange 7, AO7). (americanelements.com)
  • Kisch ES, Dluhy RG, William GH (1976) Regulation of renin release by calcium and ammonium ions in normal man. (springer.com)
  • One gram of ammonium chloride contains 18.7 mEq of ammonium and chloride ions. (elephantcare.org)
  • Pharmacology - The acidification properties of ammonium chloride are caused by its dissociation into chloride and ammonium ions in vivo . (elephantcare.org)
  • In the extracellular fluid, chloride ions combine with fixed bases and decrease the alkaline reserves in the body. (elephantcare.org)
  • The excess chloride ions presented to the kidney, are not completely reabsorbed by the tubules and are excreted with cations (principally sodium) and water. (elephantcare.org)
  • In hair shampoo, it is used as a thickening agent in ammonium-based surfactant systems, such as ammonium lauryl sulfate. (eceurope.com)
  • [email protected] Whatsapp: +8613292891350 56-37-1 Benzyl Triethyl Ammonium Chloride / TEBAC CAS 56-37-1 CAS Number 56-37-1 Product Name Benzyltriethylammonium chloride Molecular Formula C13H22ClN Molecular Weight 227.7735 EINECS 200-270. (opencroquet.org)
  • The kidney uses the ammonium in this drug as opposed to the sodium it typically uses, turning it into urea, H+, and Cl-, which leads to acidification of the urine. (petmd.com)