Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)MethylaminesAcidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.GlutaminaseBiological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Leupeptins: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition. (1/1184)

1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed.  (+info)

Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. (2/1184)

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

Re-activation of the peptidyltransferase centre of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes after inactivation by exposure to low concentrations of magnesium ion. (3/1184)

1. The larger subrivosomal particles of rabbit reticulocytes retained full activity in the puromycin reaction and in poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis after 4h at 0 degrees C when buffered 0.5M-NH4Cl/10-30mM-MgCl2 was the solvent. 2. Activity in the puromycin reaction was diminished to approx 10% after 15-30 min at 0 degrees C when the concentration of MgCl2 was lowered to 2mM. 3. Activity was not restored when the concentration of MgCl2 was raised from 2mM to 10-30 mM at 0 degrees C. However, activity was recovered as measured by both assay systems when the ribosome fraction was heated to 37 degrees C at the higher concentrations of MgCl2. 4. Recovery of activity was noted during the course of the polyphenylalanine synthesis in 50 mM-KCl/5mM-MgCl2/25mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, at 37 degrees C. Re-activation was slow at 20 degrees C and below. 5. No more than about 5% of the protein moiety of the subparticle was lost in 0.5M-NH4Cl on decreasing MgCl2 concentration from 10mM to 2mM. No proteins were detected in the supernatant fractions by gel electrophoresis after ribosomes were separated by differential centrifugation. The supernatant fraction was not essential for the recovery of activity. However, at higher (e.g. 1M) concentrations of NH4Cl, proteins were split from the subparticle. 6. The loss and regain of activity found on lowering and restoring the concentration of MgCl2 at 0.5M-NH4Cl appears to arise from a conformational change that does not seem to be associated with a loss and regain of particular proteins. 7. A 2% decrease in E260 was noticed when the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, and the change in the spectrum indicated a net increase of approx. 100A-U base-pairs per subribosomal particle. 8. When the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, S20,W of the subparticle remained at 52+/- 1S until the sample was incubated at 37 degrees C when S20,W increased to 56 +/- 1S compared with the value of 58 +/- 1S for the subparticle as originally isolated.  (+info)

Reassembly of the peptidyltransferase centre of larger subparticles of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes from a core-particle and split-protein fraction. (4/1184)

We report the reconstruction, from a core-particle and split-protein fraction, of the larger subribosomal particle of rabbit reticulocytes. The reassembled particle was active in polyphenylalanine synthesis and in the puromycin reaction. The core-particles and split-protein fractions were obtained by treatment of the larger subparticle with salt solutions containing NH4+ and Mg2+ in the molar ratio 40:1 over the range 2.25-2.75 M-NH4Cl/56-69mM-MgCl2 at 0 degrees C. This treatment led to the loss of about eight proteins (approx. 17% of the protein moiety), which were found wholly or largely in the split-protein fraction as shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The core particle retained 5S rRNA and had much decreased (no more than 10% of control) ability to function in the puromycin reaction or in poly (U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. Activity was recovered when the recombined core-particle and split-protein fractions were dialysed overnight at 4 degrees C against 0.3M-NH4Cl/15mM-MgCl2/1mM-dithiothreitol/15% (v/v) glycerol/20mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, and then heated for 1 h at 37 degreesEES C. The recovery was 40-80% of the original activity. Raising the concentration of MgCL2 to 300 mM in 2.5 M-NH4CL led to the removal of seven rather than eight proteins, and the core particle remained active in the puromycin reaction. We infer that the protein retained by raising the concentration of Mg2+ is an essential component of the peptidyltransferase centre of the ribosome.  (+info)

Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes. (5/1184)

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37, is a proteolytically inactive serine protease homologue that is released from activated granulocytes. However, HBP is not a biologically inactive molecule but rather a multifunctional protein with properties that include the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production from monocytes. We have previously demonstrated that HBP is internalized in monocytes. In the current study, we hypothesize that HBP is internalized in monocytes via endocytosis, and this internalization is an important mechanism by which HBP enhances LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Using whole blood from healthy donors and flow cytometry, we found that colchicine (0.1-10 mM), cytochalasin D (1000 microM), NH4Cl (10-50 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (0.1-3 microM) significantly reduced the affinity of FITC-HBP for CD14-positive monocytes. Using isolated human monocytes and ELISA, we found that colchicine (0.1 mM), cytochalasin D (30 and 300 microM), NH4Cl (30 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) significantly reduced the effect of HBP (10 microg/ml) to enhance LPS (10 ng/ml)-induced TNF-alpha release after 24 h. These findings demonstrate that internalization of HBP in monocytes is essential for the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Transport of HBP to an activating compartment depends on intact F-actin polymerization and endosomal acidification, an important mechanism for endosomal protein sorting and trafficking.  (+info)

MHC class I-restricted presentation of maleylated protein binding to scavenger receptors. (6/1184)

Pathways for loading exogenous protein-derived peptides on MHC class I are thought to be present mainly in monocyte-lineage cells and to involve phagocytosis- or macropinocytosis-mediated antigenic leakage into either cytosol or extracellular milieu to give peptide access to MHC class I. We show that maleylation of OVA enhanced its presentation to an OVA-specific MHC class I-restricted T cell line by both macrophages and B cells. This enhanced presentation involved uptake through receptors of scavenger receptor (SR)-like ligand specificity, was TAP-1-independent, and was inhibited by low levels (2 mM) of ammonium chloride. No peptide loading of bystander APCs by maleylated (maleyl) OVA-pulsed macrophages was detected. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA showed enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation through receptor-mediated uptake and remained highly sensitive to 2 mM ammonium chloride. However, if receptor binding of maleyl-OVA was inhibited by maleylated BSA, the residual presentation was relatively resistant to 2 mM ammonium chloride. Maleyl-OVA directly introduced into the cytosol via osmotic lysis of pinosomes was poorly presented, confirming that receptor-mediated presentation of exogenous maleyl-OVA was unlikely to involve a cytosolic pathway. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA was well presented as a cytosolic Ag, consistent with the dependence of cytosolic processing on protein ubiquitination. Thus, receptor-specific delivery of exogenous protein Ags to APCs can result in enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation, suggesting that the exogenous pathway of peptide loading for MHC class I may be a constitutive property dependent mainly on the quantity of Ag taken up by APCs.  (+info)

Activation of the proteasomes of sand dollar eggs at fertilization depends on the intracellular pH rise. (7/1184)

The mechanism of the activation of intracellular proteasomes at fertilization was measured in living sand dollar eggs using the membrane-impermeant fluorogenic substrate, succinyl-Phe-Leu-Arg-coumarylamido-4-methanesulfonic acid. When the substrate was microinjected into unfertilized eggs, the initial velocity of hydrolysis of the substrate (V0) was low. V0 measured 5 to 10 min after fertilization was five to nine times the prefertilization level and remained high throughout the first cell cycle. Hydrolysis of the substrate was inhibited by clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, a specific inhibitor of the proteasome. There has been in vitro evidence that calcium may be involved in regulation of proteasome activity to either inhibit the increase in peptidase activity associated with PA 28 binding to the 20S proteasome or stimulate activity of the PA 700-proteasome complex. Since both intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) increase after fertilization, hydrolysis of the proteasome substrate was measured under conditions in which [Ca2+]i and pHi were varied independently during activation. When the pHi of unfertilized eggs was elevated by exposure to 15 mM ammonium chloride in pH 9 seawater, V0 increased to a level comparable to that measured after fertilization. In contrast, [Ca2+]i elevation without pHi change, induced by calcium ionophore in sodium-free seawater, had no effect on V0 in the unfertilized egg. Moreover, when unfertilized eggs were microinjected with buffers modulating pHi, V0 increased in a pH-dependent manner. These results indicate that the pHi rise at fertilization is the necessary prerequisite for activation of the proteasome, an essential component in the regulation of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake. (8/1184)

Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading.  (+info)

*Roccal-D

Its active ingredients include quaternary ammonium compounds from the family of benzalkonium chlorides and ... Benzalkonium chloride is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. The greatest ... didecyldimethylammonium chloride. These compounds are nitrogenous cationic surface active agents. ...

*Lysol

August 2006). Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (ADBAC) (PDF) (Report). U.S. ... dimethylbenzyl ammonium saccharinate, 0.10%; microbiocide Alkyl (C12-C18) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride, 0.08%; antiseptic ... The active ingredient in many of the Lysol products is benzalkonium chloride. The active ingredient in the Lysol Power and Free ... One of the active ingredients, benzalkonium chloride, is highly toxic to fish (LC50 = 280 μg ai/L), very highly toxic to ...

*Stearalkonium chloride

Stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, chemicalland21.com Stearalkonium chloride, Household Products Database "Final Report ... Stearalkonium chloride is a type of benzalkonium chloride which is used as an anti-static agent, a surfactant and an ... Toxicology studies have determined that stearalkonium chloride is safe and non-toxic at the concentrations typically used in ... Benzalkonium chloride Polyaminopropyl biguanide, an alternative preservative for contact lens solutions ...

*Distal renal tubular acidosis

The test usually performed is the short ammonium chloride test, in which ammonium chloride capsules are used as the acid load. ... an alternative to ammonium chloride". Kidney Int. 71 (12): 1310-6. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5002220. PMID 17410104. Lewis D (1992). " ...

*Carbachol

... is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound. It is not well absorbed in the gastro- ... Since carbachol is poorly absorbed through topical administration, benzalkonium chloride is mixed in to promote absorption. ... which is mediated through the calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin 1. Carbachol may be prepared in a 2 step process ...

*Didecyldimethylammonium chloride

Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride - longer di-C18 analogue "Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride", Household Products Database ... Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is an antiseptic/disinfectant that is used in many biocidal applications. They cause ... US Department of Health and Human Services, 2016 Record of didecyldimethylammonium chloride in the GESTIS Substance Database of ...

*Zinc ammonium chloride

... is a Class 9 hazardous material (Miscellaneous) according to the U.S. DOT. "Zinc Ammonium Chloride". ... Zinc ammonium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2ZnCl4. It is the ammonium salt of tetrachlorozincate. ... Zinc ammonium chloride flux in aqueous solution is applied to the steel to reduce any oxides that are formed and/or inhibit ... Hironori Matsunaga (1982). "X-Ray Structural Study of the Successive Phase Transitions in Ammonium Tetrachlorozincate, (NH4) ...

*Dimethyloctadecyl(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium chloride

Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl dimethyl octadecyl ammonium chloride, U.S.National Library of ... Dimethyloctadecyl(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium chloride (DTSACl) is a disinfectant used as a preservative and fungicide. ... Medicine, May 2017 "Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride solution". Sigma-Aldrich. ...

*Outline of alchemy

... ammonium chloride • alcohol • camphor sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) • hydrochloric acid • nitric acid • acetic acid • formic ...

*Wet processing engineering

Ammonium salts, e.g. Ammonium chloride, sulphate and nitrate. Metal salts e.g. Magnesium chloride, Zinc nitrate, Zinc chloride ... Catalyst mixture e.g. magnesium chloride with added organic and inorganic acids or acid donors. The purpose of the additives is ... chloride, bromite, hydrogen peroxide) Depending on the sizing materials that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a ... with the addition of either sodium chloride, sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate. Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather ...

*Thermometric titration

Titrations for cobalt and nickel are carried out in an ammoniacal environment; buffered with ammonia:ammonium chloride solution ... Endpoints are very sharp, and with care, chloride concentrations down to 15 mg/L can be analyzed. Bromide and chloride may be ... For instance, benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary type cationic surfactant) may be determined in cleaners and algaecides for ... The reaction of silver nitrate with chloride is strongly exothermic. For instance, the reaction enthalpy of Ag+ with Cl− is a ...

*Stephen aldehyde synthesis

... ammonium chloride is also produced. The following scheme shows the reaction mechanism: By addition of hydrogen chloride the ... chloride (3a and 3b). The resulting salt (4) precipitates after some time as aldimine tin chloride (5). Hydrolysis of 5 ... However, it has been found that this step is unnecessary and the aldimine tin chloride can be hydrolysed directly in the ... In the past, the reaction was carried out by precipitating the aldimine-tin chloride, washing it with ether and then ...

*Methylamine

One method entails treating formaldehyde with ammonium chloride. NH4Cl + H2CO → [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2O [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2CO + H2O → [ ...

*Copșa Mică works

... a unit for zinc and ammonium chloride production; and an air preheater. Capacity was doubled between 1975 and 1984. A second ...

*Liquorice

... sodium chloride. The salty taste is due to ammonium chloride. Strong, salty sweets are also popular in Nordic countries. Dried ... Mixing it with ammonium chloride (salmiak) is also popular. A popular liquorice in the Netherlands is known as zoute drop ( ...

*Eric Cunningham Dax

Dax, E. C. (1940) Convulsion therapy by ammonium chloride. Journal of Mental Science 86: 660-667. Dax, E. C. (1951) Indications ...

*Fire-safe polymers

... and ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphate, borax, and various acids. These early attempts found application in reducing the ...

*Fahrenheit

This is one explanation given why 0 °F is −17.78 °C, but the ammonium chloride cooling temperature actually is −3 °C, whereas ... "Sal Armoniac" was an impure form of ammonium chloride. The French chemist Nicolas Lémery (1645 - 1715) discussed it in his book ... and ammonium chloride (salis Armoniaci). This is a frigorific mixture which stabilizes its temperature automatically: that ...

*Johann Benckiser

He initially made ammonia, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride. Karl Ludwig Reimann, a chemist, joined the business in 1828 ...

*List of alchemical substances

... cuprous chloride), formed by heating copper with corrosive sublimate. Sal Ammoniac - ammonium chloride. Sal Petrae (Med. Latin ... Spiritus fumans - stannic chloride, formed by distilling tin with corrosive sublimate. Tin salt - hydrated stannous chloride. ... CaSO4 Horn Silver/Argentum Cornu - a weathered form of chlorargyrite, an ore of silver chloride. Luna cornea - silver chloride ... Na2CO3 Nitrum Flammans - ammonium nitrate. Oil of Vitriol/Spirit of Vitriol - sulfuric acid, a weak version can be formed by ...

*Flux (metallurgy)

Common fluxes are: ammonium chloride or rosin for soldering tin; hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride for soldering galvanized ... The compounds used include metal halides (most often zinc chloride or ammonium chloride), hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ... zinc chloride, which at high temperatures reacts with moisture, forming oxychloride and hydrochloric acid ammonium chloride, ... At high temperatures, copper oxide reacts with hydrogen chloride to water-soluble and mechanically weak copper chloride, and ...

*Tetranitratoborate

Tetramethyl ammonium chloride reacts with BCl3 to make (CH3)4NBCl4. Then the tetrachloroborate is reacted with N2O4 at around - ... The density of tetramethyl ammonium nitratoborate is 1.555. It is colourless and crystalline. As tetramethyl ammonium ... Above 112° it is exothermic, and a solid is left if it is heated to 160 °C. Tetramethyl ammonium nitratoborate is insoluble in ... It has formula [B(NO3)4]−. It can form salts with large cations such as tetramethyl ammonium nitratoborate, or tetraethyl ...

*Alkaline tide

Evaluation of ammonium chloride as a urinary acidifier in the cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1984 ... This is to maintain the plasma's electrical balance, as the chloride anions have been extracted. The bicarbonate content causes ... During hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach, the gastric parietal cells extract chloride anions, carbon dioxide, water ...

*Sal ammoniac

... is also the archaic name for the chemical compound ammonium chloride. The Romans called the ammonium chloride ... Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) was the electrolyte in Leclanche cells, a forerunner of the dry battery; a carbon rod and a ... Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl. It forms colorless, white, or yellow-brown crystals in the ... In any case, that salt ultimately gave ammonia and ammonium compounds their name. It typically forms as encrustations formed by ...

*Antimicrobial surface

The quaternary ammonium compound Dimethyloctadecyl (3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) has been found to have ... Many other quaternary ammonium compounds are known to have antimicrobial properties (e.g. alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride ... 1972). "Surface-Bonded Antimicrobial Activity of an Organosilicon Quaternary Ammonium Chloride". Applied Microbiology. 24 (6): ... Quaternary ammonium ion-containing polymers (PQA) have been proven to effectively kill cells and spores through their ...

*List of food additives

... mineral salt Ammonium carbonate - mineral salt Ammonium chloride - mineral salt Ammonium ferric citrate - food acid Ammonium ... mineral salt Ammonium lactate - food acid Ammonium malate - food acid Ammonium phosphates - mineral salt Ammonium phosphatides ... Amchur (mango powder) Ammonium acetate - preservative, acidity regulator Ammonium adipates - acidity regulator Ammonium ... emulsifier Ammonium polyphosphates - anti-caking agent Ammonium sulfate - mineral salt, improving agent Amylases - flour ...

*Dry cell

Instead, the ammonium chloride was mixed with Plaster of Paris to create a paste, with a small amount of zinc chloride added in ... In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. Many experimenters tried to immobilize the electrolyte of ... The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte ... and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a ...
Global Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride Industry 2015 Market Research Report was a professional and depth research report on Global Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride industry that you would know the worlds major regional market conditions of Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride industry, the main region including North American, Europe and Asia etc, and the main country including United States ,Germany ,Japan and China etc.. The report firstly introduced Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride basic information including Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride definition, classification, application and industry chain overview; Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride industry policy and plan, Dimethyl Diallyl Ammonium Chloride product specification, manufacturing process, cost structure etc. Then we deeply analyzed the worlds main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc.. In the end, the report ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ammonium chloride supplementation on urine pH and urinary fractional excretion of electrolytes in goats. AU - Mavangira, Vengai. AU - Cornish, Jennifer M.. AU - Angelos, John A. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Objective-To determine whether dietary supplementation with ammonium chloride would affect urine pH or urinary fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes in goats fed grass hay. Design-Clinical trial. Animals-15 yearling castrated male goats. Procedures-In the dose response study, 3 yearling goats fed orchard grass hay and water ad libitum were administered ammonium chloride at either 200, 400, or 500 mg/kg (91, 182, or 227 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours. In the FE study, 8 goats fed orchard grass hay were randomly divided into either a treatment (n = 4) or a control group (4). In the treatment group, ammonium chloride was administered at 450 mg/kg (2.25% of dry matter intake [DMI]), PO, every 24 hours for 8 days. The FE of electrolytes was compared between ...
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Synonyms: STAC; Trimethylstearyl ammonium chloride; Octadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride; Trimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride, SCHERCENOL SE, 13-Docosenoic acid, octadecyl ester, Octadecyl 13-Docosenoate; Octadecyl (Z)-docos-13-enoate ...
Additives China, Ammonium Chloride 99 5%min Industrial Grade, Description Product name:Ammonium Chloride H.S. No.: 2827109000 CAS.No.: 12125-02-9 Purity:99.5%min About Ammonium Chlor...
Define ammonium chloride: a white crystalline volatile salt NH4Cl that is used in dry cells and as an expectorant -called also sal ammoniac
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The report generally describes bisoctyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Bisoctyl dimethyl ammonium chloride
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As a consequence of a reprogrammed metabolism, cancer cells are dependent on the amino acid l-glutamine for their survival, a phenomenon that currently forms the basis for the generation of new, cancer-specific therapies. In this paper, we report on the role which ammonium ions, a product of glutaminolysis, play on the survival of l-glutamine-deprived Sp2/0-Ag14 mouse hybridoma cells. The supplementation of l-glutamine-starved Sp2/0-Ag14 cell cultures with either ammonium acetate or ammonium chloride resulted in a significant increase in viability. This effect did not depend on the ability of cells to synthesize l-glutamine, and was not affected by the co-supplementation with α-ketoglutarate. When we examined the effect of ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride on the induction of apoptosis by glutamine deprivation, we found that ammonium salts did not prevent caspase-3 activation or cytochrome c leakage, indicating that they did not act by modulating core apoptotic processes. However, both ammonium
US EPA PC Code ); 069167 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68956-79-6 (CAS number); 68956796; 68956796 (CAS number without hyphens); Alkyl* dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride *(60%C14, 30%C16, 5%C12, 5%C18); Alkyl*dimethylethylbenzylammoniumchloride*60%C1430%C165%C125%C18; Quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-18-alkyl((ethylphenyl)methyl)dimethyl, ...
Nominated Substances: Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. Nomination Date: 12/22/1987 Nominator: NIEHS Rationale: High production, potential for exposure, lack of toxicity data, structural interest in quaternary ammonium compounds. NTP Principles: Pre 1993 - 3, 8 Status: Selected ...
US EPA PC Code ); (US EPA PC Code ); 069175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68391-01-5 (CAS number); 68391015 (CAS number without hyphens); 769175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); Alkyl* dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride *(67%C12, 25%C14, 7%C16, 1%C18); Alkyl*dimethylbenzylammoniumchloride*67%C1225%C147%C161%C18; Maquat LC12S-50%; N-alkyl (67% C12, 25% C14, 7% C16, 1% C18) dimethyl benzyl ammonium ...
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Ammonium chloride also known as Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, sal armagnac, sal armoniac or salt armoniack is, in its pure form, a clear white water soluble crystalline salt of ammonia. [1 ...
Specifications Professionally supply ALL TYPES of NH4Cl: Technical Grade, Food Grade, Feed Grade, Medical Grade Ammonium Chloride 99.5%min Property: It is in white powder form, highly soluble in water, the solutions are mildly acidic. It is the .....
Product: ammonium chloride for industrial Formula: nh4cl Appearance: white powdered crystals Period of validity2 years Appearance white powdered crystals
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Allyldiethyl((2,6-xylylcarbamoyl)methyl)ammonium chloride | C17H27ClN2O | CID 21463 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Ammonium Chloride is a white, crystalline solid with a number of uses. Industrially, the substance is used in soldering and textile printing and as a c...
This report focuses on the Ammonium Chloride in Global Market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.
(2,3-Dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-ylmethyl)[2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]ammonium chloride/AFI2170583 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
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All of the shorter proteins specific improperly to the mobile area.We even further characterized pH regulation in the AP1 cell line that contains the NHE1 6747-15-5 protein with the MEDChem Express 1009298-09-2 sequence shortened to amino acid 735. In Fig 3C we illustrate the Na+/H+ exchanger activity of the protein that was corrected for the sum of NHE1 protein expressed and focused to the mobile area. The effects demonstrate that the level of action of this protein is nonetheless reduced relative to that of the management.We when compared the intracellular pH of wild type cells with that of the NHE1 protein with the sequence shortened to amino acid 735. Equally the resting intracellular pH, prior to ammonium chloride treatment method, and the degree of acidification induced by ammonium chloride , did not change amongst wild form and 735-NHE1 protein that contains cells. Cells recovering from an acute acid load induced by ammonium chloride, attain a plateau three minutes after recovery ...
Active Ingredients:. Octyl decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 1.627%. Dioctyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 0.814%. Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 0.814%. Alkyl (50% C14, 40% C12, 10% C16) dimethyl benzyl ammounium chloride 2.170%. Inert Ingredients 94.575%. Total 100.000% EPA Registration Number: 1839-169-82023. EPA EST. Number: 62620-OR-1. ...
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You really need to add some water to your experiment. Sugar (sucrose) will aid the solubilization of lime. I would prepare a 10% sucrose solution and add that to the lime. Stir for 5 minutes or so and then add the ammonium chloride. The lime does not need to completely dissolve. I would use a 5:1 ratio of sucrose solution to lime. The amount of ammonium chloride should be 1.5 times the amount of the lime added ...
Read at Washington, D. C., 1930, by F. J. Liscom Chicago Branch. How does iron get into the bath?. In what form is it held in solution?. What effect does it have on the anode?. Effect on the steel tank and steel anode rods of a silver solution?. Work is pickled in sulphuric acid-hydrochloric acid?. Neutralizing of pickling acid?. Rinse water as source of impurities in-plating solutions?. Effect of ammonium chloride in nickel solution?. Effect of ammonium chloride in acid copper solution on the anode?. Effect of chlorides in a silver bath-sodium chloride-ammonium chloride-and mixture of both?. Why the addition of sal ammoniac to cyanide solutions?. Introduction of Iron Into Alkaline Cleaning and Plating Solutions. From time to time a request for credit comes through the mail for a steel plating tank that has failed, i. e., showed signs of corrosion or actually perforated. Many tanks have been replaced with new ones only to have a repeat request for another. There have been so many steel tanks ...
NH4 Cl ; isometric; and colorless. When dissolved in water, it is used as an electrolyte for some primary cells. Obtained as a byproduct in gas manufacture. Used as a flux in soldering. Also called sal ammoniac. Crispin Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms
Rights: This volume was digitized and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy. If you are the author of this work and would like to have online access removed, please contact the Library Administration Office, 785-532-7400, [email protected] ...
Venta de sales de cloruro de zinc y cloruro de amonio. Producimos Sal Doble, Triple y Simple, así como cualquier combinación de Cloruro de Zinc y Cloruro de Amonio que el cliente pueda requerir.
Scientists at the Toko University, Puzih City, in the investion of Calvatia lilacina protein-extract induces apoptosis through glutathione depletion in human colorectal carcinoma cells, reported that a novel protein extract isolated from Calvatia lilacina (CL) can induce cell death against four types of human colorectal cancer cells. Importantly, CL was shown to be free of apoptotic effects against normal rat liver cells. We have also identified that CL-induced glutathione (GSH) depletion is the major contributor responsible for the apoptotic cell death induction of SW 480 cells, as evidenced by the observation that exogenously added N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or GSH, but not vitamin C, could offer a near complete protection of CL-treated cells against apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) evoked a drop in the transmembrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) in the CL-induced apoptotic cell death(2 ...
Methanogenic grannules from sewage-fed 298-day old UASB reactor having high abundance of Nitrospira sp. were evaluated for simultaneous methanogenesis and nitrification. Batch experiments were conducted under anaerobic and oxygen limited condition using either 0.04% (v/v) methanol (C) or ammonium chloride (3
Ive read all the cycling information. I had plain dechlorinated water in the tank for several weeks. No live plants or anything. Plenty of aeration. I bought Dr. Tims Ammonium Chloride and followed directions. After a couple of times adding every few days I finally got an ammonia reading around 1.0. Meantime I had already added an old biomax bag from another aquarium as well as a sponge behind the filter pad. After I got the ammonia reading I poured the sludge from cleaning my other
In this demonstration you can observe an endothermic reaction. Solid hydrated barium hydroxide is mixed with solid ammonium chloride in a beaker. The liquid produced evolves ammonia gas and the temperature drops dramatically to about -20 °C.
albumen paper: Light-sensitive paper prepared by coating with albumen, or egg white, and a salt (e.g., ammonium chloride) and sensitized by an aftertreatment with a solution of silver nitrate....
Repeat steps 2b-c for the solutions containing 5.00, 4.50, and 4.00 gof ammonium chloride. Note: A cold-water bath may be needed to hasten the crytallization of the 4.00g sample. Conclusion The solubility of a solid dissolved in a liquid is often larger when the temperature is higher, but smaller when the temperature is lower. We demonstrated this effect by allowing a hot salt solution to cool and then observing the temperature at which the solid begins to crystallize. Bibliography Chemistry lab manual pg. 71- ...
Weak bases MCAT tutorial video - learn how to find pH and pOH for weak bases using both ka and kb values. Learn the concepts along with non-calculator tricks and shortcuts to help you save time on your exam
HPLC Application #24183: Sugars Sample on Sphereclone 5 µm NH2 HPLC-RI original 20min. Column used: SphereClone™ 5 µm NH2 80 A, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4147-E0
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The development of eco-friendly and environmentally benign catalytic systems is one of the main themes of modern organic synthesis. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is a very inexpensive and readily available catalyst; it has been reported as a catalyst for the synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds (Shaabani et al. 2003; Dabiri et al. 2009; Fortenberrya et al. 2013; Foroughifarab et al. 2011; Maleki and Salehabadi 2010; Shaabani et al. 2008; Hussein 2015). There are many bioactive molecules which possess various heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, always taken the attention of chemists over the years mainly because of their biological significance. Pyrano derivatives have well-known biological effects, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (El-Zohry et al. 2008a). Indolinone and spiro-indoline derivatives have possessed broad-spectrum therapeutic activities such as anticonvulsants (Ragavendran et al. 2007; Azam et al. 2009; Sridhar et al. 2002), antibacterial (Rahman et ...
... definition, a white, crystalline, water-soluble powder, NH 4 Cl, which produces a cooling sensation on the tongue, used chiefly in the manufacture of dry cells, in electroplating, and in medicine as an expectorant. See more.
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Fahrenheit proposed his temperature scale in 1724, basing it on two reference points of temperature. In his initial scale (which is not the final Fahrenheit scale), the zero point is determined by placing the thermometer in a mixture of ice, water, and ammonium chloride (salis Armoniaci).[7] This is a frigorific mixture which stabilizes its temperature automatically: that stable temperature was defined as 0 °F (−17.78 °C). The second point, 96 degrees, was approximately the human bodys temperature (sanguine hominis sani, the blood of a healthy man).[8]. According to a story in Germany, Fahrenheit actually chose the lowest air temperature measured in his hometown Danzig in winter 1708/09 as 0 °F, and only later had the need to be able to make this value reproducible using brine.[9] This is one explanation given why 0 °F is −17.78 °C, but the ammonium chloride cooling temperature actually is −3 °C, whereas that of NaCl is −21.1 °C; the other explanation is that he did not have a ...
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Get an answer for Given the following aqueous reactants, write a balanced chemical equation to describe the reaction that occurs when they are mixed. Include the formulas and physical states of each reactant and product. If there is no product state no reaction. Do not write ionic equations for each reaction. (They want net ionic equations.) a) sodium chloride and sliver nitrate b) copper (II) chloride and sodium nitrate c) potassium hydroxide and ammonium chloride Please help :) and find homework
There is no doubt that the contribution of microbially mediated bioprocesses toward maintenance of life on earth is vital. However, understanding these microbes in situ is currently a bottleneck, as most methods require culturing these microorganisms to suitable biomass levels so that their phenotype can be measured. The development of new culture-independent strategies such as stable isotope probing (SIP) coupled with molecular biology has been a breakthrough toward linking gene to function, while circumventing in vitro culturing. In this study, for the first time we have combined Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, as metabolic fingerprinting approaches, with SIP to demonstrate the quantitative labeling and differentiation of Escherichia coli cells. E. coli cells were grown in minimal medium with fixed final concentrations of carbon and nitrogen supply, but with different ratios and combinations of 13C/12C glucose and 15N/14N ammonium chloride, as the sole ...
Non-woven bioactive, water and alcohol-repellent medical fabrics are described. The fabric is provided with a bioactive finish which is substantive on the fabric and is able to destroy migrating and cross-contaminating bacteria, algae and fungi. The bioactive material is 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyloctadecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and is present to the extent of about 0.15 to about 1.05% on the basis of the fabric weight. A fluoropolymer provides the necessary alcohol and saline repellency. The described fabrics have numerous medical uses such as surgeons gowns, medical drapes, isolation gowns and instrument wraps.
HPLC Part: CH0-3868 Capcell Pak® 5 µm NH2 UG 80 Å, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Recomended Use: Chelating compounds Separation Mode: Normal Phase Solid Support: Polymer Format: Column USP Designation: N/A
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Calculate the equilibrium concentration of NH3,Cu^2+,[ Cu(NH3)]^2+ ,[Cu(NH3)2]^2+,[Cu(NH3)3]^2+,and[Cu(NH3)4]^2+ in a solution made by mixing 500.0 ml of 3.00 M NH3 with 500.0 ml of 2.00*10^-3 M Cu(NO3)2. The sequential equilibria ...
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CAS 7439-97-6 7646-85-7 12125-02-9 1313-13-9 1333-86-4 7782-42-5 7439-96-5 1314-13-2 7664-41-7 DISCHARGED BATTERY DRY CARBON-ZINC, MK112-1 mercury
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Article Poly-(acryl amine-co-dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride) graft starch flocculant for cleaning-up of wastewater. Graft starch flocculant (GSF) was synthesized by copolymerization of carboxymethylated soluble starch, acryl amine and dimethyldial...
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The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperammonemic efficacy of the leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata, an indigenous plant used in Ayurvedic Medicine in India (PPEt), on blood ammonia, plasma urea, uric acid, non-protein nitrogen and serum creatinine in control and ammonium chloride induced hyperammonemic rats. The levels of blood ammonia, circulatory urea, uric acid, non-protein nitrogen and creatinine increased significantly in rats treated with ammonium chloride and decreased significantly in rats treated with PPEt and ammonium chloride. There were no significant changes in the body weights of the experimental animals when compared to controls. The antihyperammonemic effect of PPEt could be attributed to (1) its nephroprotective effect by means of detoxifying excess urea and creatinine, (2) its free radical scavenging property, and (3) its antioxidant property. The exact mechanism of antihyperammonemic effect PPEt has still to be investigated and isolation of the active ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds are any of a group of ammonium salts in which organic radicals have been substituted for all four hydrogens of the original ammonium cation. They has a central nitrogen atom which is joined to four organic radicals and one acid radical. The organic radicals may be alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl, and the nitrogen can be part of a ring system. They are prepared by treatment of an amine with an alkylating agent. They show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water and strong electrolytes. Such compounds include ...
A three-component reaction of an alpha ,alpha -disubstituted alpha -isocyanoacetamide, an aldehyde and an amino alc. afforded 5-iminooxazolines, which, upon sapon., cyclized under acidic conditions to provide the macrocyclodepsipeptides in good overall yields. [on SciFinder (R)]. Keywords: Alcohols Role: RCT (Reactant) ; RACT (Reactant or reagent) (amino; prepn. of iminooxazolines via ammonium chloride-promoted three-component reaction of isocyanoacetamides ; aldehydes and amino alcs.); Peptides Role: SPN (Synthetic preparation) ; PREP (Preparation) (depsipeptides ; macrocyclic; prepn. of macrocyclodepsipeptides via cyclization of iminooxazolines); Aldehydes Role: RCT (Reactant) ; RACT (Reactant or reagent) (prepn. of iminooxazolines via ammonium chloride-promoted three-component reaction of isocyanoacetamides ; aldehydes and amino alcs.); Ugi reaction (prepn. of isocyanoacetamides via Ugi reaction of ketones ; ammonium formate and isocyanoacetates); Ketones Role: RCT (Reactant) ; RACT (Reactant ...
White crystal or power, soluble in alcohols and hot water, antistatic and moldproof, capable of sterilizing and softening, compatible with cationic surfactants, nonionic surfactants as well as zwitterionic surfactants. Physical Property: Value...
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Ammonium Chloride.- NH 4 Cl.. Common name.- Sal Ammoniac.. General Analysis.-. Ammonium Muriaticum diminishes the plasticity of the blood, and promotes glandular secretion and the absorption of fibrinous exudations.. It also increases the elimination of urea.. Its most characteristic action is upon the mucous membranes, whose secretions are greatly increased.. Characteristic symptoms.. Mind.- (Ammonium muriaticum). Apprehensive and gloomy ; desire to cry.. Head.- (Ammonium muriaticum). Vertigo and fullness of the head, as if it were very heavy.. Eyes.- (Ammonium muriaticum). Sensation in left eye as if a body arose, which impeded sight.. Yellow spots before the eyes.. Nose.- (Ammonium muriaticum). Coryza, with stoppage ; great soreness and tenderness of the nose, and loss of smell.. Watery, acrid coryza, corroding the lips. (Ars., Cepa, Merc. cor.). Mouth.- (Ammonium muriaticum). Vesicles on tip of tongue, with burning pain. (Ars., Merc. cor.). Throat.- (Ammonium muriaticum). Sore throat, with ...
In an 18d-long, static test, growth of Chlorella vulgaris was inhibited by 50 % at approx. 2700 mg/L Ammonium sulphate = 3231 mg Ammonium hydrogencarbonate (Tam and Wong 1996). This result is underlined by observations of Przytocka-Jisiak et al. (1977), using ammonium chloride as test substance, where an EC50(5d) of 1921 mg/L (value related to ammonium hydrogencarbonate) was determined for Chlorella vulgaris. According to U.S. EPA (1985), plant species are more tolerant than invertebrates or fishes. It should be noted that ammonia might be assimilated by aquatic plants as a nitrogen source. ...
The in vivo metabolism of insulin is a complex process in which liver, kidney, and muscle are major participants. In this study we evaluated the effect of spontaneous hyperglycemic nonketoacidotic diabetes (DH) and ketoacidotic diabetes (DKA) on insulin clearance and degradation by these organs. Livers, hindlimbs, and kidneys from nondiabetic controls and DH and DKA Bio-Breed rats were isolated and perfused with artificial media. Liver clearance of immunoreactive insulin (ml/min) was significantly higher in DH rats, 6.0 +/- 0.2, but significantly lower in DKA rats, 3.4 +/- 0.5, compared with controls, 4.6 +/- 0.2. Acidosis alone induced by ammonium chloride loading, did not impair liver insulin clearance (4.8 +/- 0.4 ml/min). Muscle responded differently to the diabetic state in that insulin clearance was not altered by DH and DKA. Renal (organ) clearance of insulin was significantly depressed in the DKA state when compared with controls (0.52 +/- 0.04 and 0.75 +/- 0.07 ml X min-1 X g-1, ...
formula I or ketoamide intermediates to prepare compounds of formula I is to to add 1- 20 equivalents but most preferably 5 equivalents of a commercially available solution of 32% peracetic acid in dilute aq acetic acid to the reaction flask containing the completed reaction described in Step A. The reaction is typically stirred at the same temperature at which the alkylation reaction was conducted (for the Step A reactions with an acid chloride in THF -78° and for the step A reactions in DMF ~ -42°) for a period of Ih and then allowed to warm to ambient temperature if not already at that tmeperature. The reaction mixture is then either allowed to react further or immediately diluted with saturated aq. ammonium chloride and EtOAc. For relatively insoluble acid products which precipatate, the resultant precipitate is isolated by filtration as the oxoacetyl product ZC(O)C(O)Y. For organic soluble acid products, the acid is extracted into the organic layer and the layers separated. The organic ...
Reduction of the nitro group occurred when [14C]misonidazole was treated with zinc dust in aqueous solution in the presence of ammonium chloride. When the reduction mixture was allowed to react with calf thymus DNA or bovine albumin, radioactivity was bound to both DNA and protein. Under the same conditions, misonidazole did not bind to these macromolecules. Analysis of the reduction mixture indicated that the hydroxylamine, amine, and hydrazo derivatives of mizonidazole were the major products. In a number of tissues of C3H mice after administration of [14C]misonidazole, radioactivity was detected in the DNA, RNA, and protein fractions. Similar results were also obtained with Chinese hamster ovary cells incubated with the drug in the absence of oxygen. It is postulated that nitroreduction and binding of the nitroreduction products to macromolecules is a probable mechanism for the mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of misonidazole.. ...
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Daugaard, A. E. and Hvilsted, S. (2008), The Influence of Pendant Carboxylic Acid Loading on Surfaces of Statistical Poly[(4-hydroxystyrene)-co-styrene]s. Macromol. Rapid Commun., 29: 1119-1125. doi: 10.1002/marc.200800113 ...
Macroporous weak base anion resins from Purolite have excellent mechanical, osmotic, and chemical stability, combined with the capability of very fast rates of ion exchange, making them particularly suitable for the removal of high molecular weight organic materials from aqeous solutions. The particle size range can also be specially designed to suit continuous process operation, or for operation at higher than average flow rates.
NH3 is not a strong base. A weak base is defined as a base that does not completely dissociate into ions when in a solution. Weak bases are also known as weak electrolytes and reactions with them...
[115 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Ammonium Silicofluoride Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Ammonium Silicofluoride Revenue,...
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Shijiazhuang Yuanchem Imp.& Exp. Corp. Ltd. BARIUM CHLORIDE,SODIUM METASILICATE,FORMIC ACID,ZINC AMMONIUM CHLORIDE,ZINC CHLORIDE,SULFAMIC ACID,GARLIC POWDER
Global and Chinese Phenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CAS 98-04-4) Industry, 2017 Market Research Report Size and Share Published in 2017-06-04 Available for US$ 3000 at Researchmoz.us
Methylamine Hydrochloride from Ammonium Chloride and Formalin [4]. In a 5 liter round-bottomed flask, fitted with a stopper holding a condenser set for downward distillation and a thermomether which will extend well into the liquid, are placed 4 kg (3711 ml, 47-53 moles) of technical formaldehyde (35-40 percent; d 1.078 at 20 C) and 2 kg (37 moles) of technical ammonium chloride. The mixture is heated on the steam bath until no more distillate comes over and then over a flame until the temperature of the solution reaches 104 C. The temperature is held at this point until no more distillate comes over (four to six hours). The distillate, which consists of methylal (bp 42-43 C), methylformate and water may be treated with NaOH solution to recover methylal and sodium formate. The contents of the reaction flask are cooled too room temp and the ammonium chloride which separates is filtered off. The mother liquor is concentrated on the steam bath under reduced pressure to 2500 ml, and again cooled to ...
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A method of improving the stability and broadening the range of pH stability of an aqueous solution of from about 0.001% to 5% by weight of a water soluble organosilane containing hydrolyzable groups such as methyltrimethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethyldi(decyl) ammonium chloride by the use of 0.05% to 10% by weight of a water soluble organic quaternary ammonium compound having at least one nitrogen-bonded hydrocarbon group of at least 8 carbon atoms and being free of silicon atoms, such as benzalkonium chloride, along with from about 0.5% to 30% by weight of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of nonionic, amphoteric sarcosine anionic, and cationic surfactants other than the water soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. The pH of the solution can be adjusted to from about 1 to about 13.5 with a suitable acid or base. The resulting stable aqueous solutions are useful for depositing the water soluble
Abstract: Determined optimum fermentation medium of Pseudomonas sp. koreensis that carbon, nitrogen species were glucose and ammonium chloride by single factor test. At the same time, with changing concentration of each component in culture medium, test results showed that three factors of glucose, ammonium chloride and potassium hydrogen phosphate were major on PHB yield. Based on single factor test, using Design Expert8.0 to design Box-Behnken response response surface experimental with three factors and three levels, five central points in 17 groups, fit regression equation was get. Finally, determined optimum fermentation medium was glucose concentration 16.64g/L, chloride concentration 3.94g/L and potassium hydrogen phosphate concentration 1.45g/L, PHB production reached 3.18g/L, compared with before optimization increased by 1.8 times, effect was significant. ...
A solution of sodium amide in liquid ammonia is prepared according to the procedure described on p. 763 using a 4-l. Dewar flask equipped with a plastic cover (Note 2) and a mechanical stirrer. Anhydrous liquid ammonia (3 l.) is introduced through a small hole in the plastic cover, and 1.5 g. of hydrated ferric nitrate is added followed by 65 g. (2.8 g. atoms) of clean, freshly cut sodium. The mixture is stirred until all the sodium is converted into sodium amide, after which 134 g. (1.26 moles) of 3-chloro-2-buten-1-ol is added over a period of 30 minutes. The mixture is stirred overnight, then 148 g. (2.8 moles) of solid ammonium chloride is added in portions at a rate that permits control of the exothermic reaction. The mixture is transferred to a metal bucket (5-l., preferably of stainless steel) and allowed to stand overnight in the hood while the ammonia evaporates. The residue is extracted thoroughly with five 250-ml. portions of ether, which is removed by distillation through a 20-cm. ...
The cell volume fraction ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae accessible tod-xylose and other nonmetabolized sugars was found to correspond to 100% of cell water in resting yeast over a range of osmolarities of the medium. This sugar space was decreásed to 60% by nitrogen deficiency and to 82% by phosphorus deficiency. The space of N-deficient cells was significantly raised by pre-incubation with ammonium chloride, amino-acids and nucleotides from the yeast extract and by adenosine triphosphate while that of P-deficient cells was not significantly altered by analogous treatment. The xylose space was found to be markedly lower in growing than in resting cells. Urea (0.3-6%) had a depressing effect on the sugar space size while a variety of metabolic inhibitors were without influence. TheKm andV values ofd-xylose uptake bySaccharomyces cerevisiae R XII at 30° were found to be 180-192 mM and 680-730 mg. xylose/ml. cell volume/hr., respectively. These values were not affected by N-deficiency and by enrichment with
Red blood cells were lysed by adding lysis buffer (distilled water containing 0.15 m ammonium chloride, 0.01 m potassium bicarbonate and 0.08 mm tetrasodium EDTA, pre-warmed to 37°C) to 500 μL EDTA-treated whole blood, mixing continuously for 5 min. Cells were washed twice and reconstituted in 500 μL flow buffer [1% bovine serum albumin (BSA)/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)]. Monoclonal antibodies directed against CD4, CD8 or CD28 (Immunotech, Marseilles, France) conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), phycoerythrin (PE) or phycoerythrin cyanin 5.1 (PCy5) and 50 μL cells were added to flow tubes. Tubes were vortexed and incubated for 15 min at room temperature. A volume of 100 μL IntraPrep Permeabilization Reagent 1 (Immunotech) was then added and tubes were vortexed and incubated for 15 min at room temperature.. Cells were washed in flow buffer and 100 μL IntraPrep Permeabilization Reagent 2 was added without mixing. Tubes were incubated for 5 min at room temperature, then ...
This free video science lesson from the Home Scientist demonstrates a simple technique for creating ammonium chloride from hydrochloric acid and ammonia. For all of the relevant details and detailed, step-by-step instructions, as well as to get started trying this experiment yourself, watch this home-science how-to.
Diphenhydramine + guaifenesin + bromhexine + ammonium chloride is used in the treatment of common cold symptoms.get complete information about diphenhydramine + guaifenesin + bromhexine + ammonium chloride including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with diphenhydramine + guaifenesin + bromhexine + ammonium chloride at 1mg.com
Fibrous cellulose materials useful in the manufacture of soft, absorbent paper products such as paper towels, facial tissues, and toilet tissue are disclosed. The paper products contain a vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compound. Examples of preferred vegetable oil based quaternary ammonium chemical softening compounds include diester di(oleyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride (DEDODMAC) (i.e., di(octadec-z-9-eneoyloxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium chloride) derived from canola oil and/or high oleic safflower oil. Variables that need to be adjusted to maximize the fluidity of vegetable oil based acyl groups include the cis/trans isomer ratio or the Iodine Value (IV) of the fatty acyl groups. The tissue softness is further enhanced by controlling the purity of the fatty acyl groups and the di-substituted versus mono-substituted long chain hydrocarbyl substituent ratio in the quaternary ammonium compounds.
0042] It has further been found out that the use of cationic polymer consisting of a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and vinylimidazole and a homopolymer of dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride in the intermediate treatment composition improves the permanent shaping of hair as well in terms of curl appearance and natural look and feel of hair. Therefore, in another preferred form of the present invention, permanent shaping of hair is carried our with a process wherein hair is washed or shampooed first and subsequently a reducing agent comprising composition is applied onto hair and after 1 to 45 min, preferably 1 to 30 min of processing time, depending on the hair strength, rinsed off from hair with tap water and an intermediate treatment composition comprising cationic polymer consisting of a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone and vinylimidazole and a homopolymer of dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride is applied and without rinsing off an oxidizing composition comprising at least one oxidizing agent, ...
1. Glutamine hydrolysis in liver mitochondria was studied by measuring the production of glutamate under conditions where this compound could not be further metabolized. 2. Glutaminase activity in intact mitochondria was very low in the absence of activators. 3. Glutamine hydrolysis was markedly stimulated by NH4Cl and also by HCO3- ions. 4. The stimulation by each of these compounds was much decreased if the mitochondria were uncoupled. 5. Maximum rates of glutamine hydrolysis required the addition of phosphate. A correlation was observed between the activity of glutaminase in the presence of NH4Cl plus HCO3- and the intramitochondrial content of ATP. 6. In disrupted mitochondria, NH4Cl stimulated glutaminase to a much smaller extent than in intact mitochondria. The NH4Cl stimulation in disrupted mitochondria was much increased by the addition of ATP. KHCO3 also stimulated glutaminase activity in disrupted mitochondria, and ATP increased the magnitude of this stimulation. 7. It was concluded ...
This study was undertaken to assess the toxicity of ammonia/ammonium to key species within the vermifiltration process. The key species, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, was subjected to a series of tests in solid phase mesocosms and full‐scale units. The solid phase tests showed a relatively low toxicity to ammonium with ammonium chloride having an LC50 for ammonium of 1.49 g/kg. Ammonium sulfate did not show an effect on mortality at 2 g/kg ammonium. The full‐scale units showed that ammonia hydroxide can change the pH and concentration of ammonia in wastewater and while it caused some mortality to the worms its overall affect on system functioning was minimal with no significant difference in terms of worm survival found between treatments. The affect on nitrifying bacteria was also minimal with no linear trend shown with ammonia concentration.. ...
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Ammonium ChlorideAmmonium Chloride

... fume; Ammonium uriate; Katapone VV-328; Quaternary ammonium chloride *Information on this page: *Mass ... Other names: (NH4)Cl; Ammonium chloride ((NH4)Cl); Amchlor; Ammoneric; Ammoniumchlorid; Ammonium muriate; Chlorid amonny; ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=12125-02-9&Units=SI&cMS=on

ICSC 1051 -    AMMONIUM CHLORIDEICSC 1051 - AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

Reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks copper and its ... This produces toxic and irritating fumes (nitrogen oxides, ammonia and hydrogen chloride). The solution in water is a weak acid ...
more infohttps://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_card_id=1051

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGAMMONIUM CHLORIDE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Synonym(s): AMMONIUM CHLORIDE ( (NH4) CL) ; AMMONIUM MURIATE; SAL AMMONIAC; SALMIAC; AMCHLOR; AMMONERIC; AMMONIUM CHLORIDE ( ... About AMMONIUM CHLORIDE: Ammonium Chloride is an inorganic salt.. Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Viscosity Increasing Agent ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/700366/AMMONIUM_CHLORIDE/

IUCr) Tri-benzyl-ammonium chlorideIUCr) Tri-benzyl-ammonium chloride

... the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the ... For related crystal structures containing the tri-benzyl-ammonium cation, see: Kozhomuratova et al. (2007. ); Jarvinen et al. ( ... The asymmetric unit of tribenzylammonium chloride consists of one third of a (C6H5CH2)3NH+ cation and an Cl- anion (Fig. 1). ... tribenzylammonium chloride C21H21NH+·Cl-, from the reaction of [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] with Sn(CH3)3Cl. Together with C21H21NH+· ...
more infohttp://journals.iucr.org/e/issues/2014/05/00/wm5019/index.html

4. Amnonii Chloridum. Ammonium Chloride4. Amnonii Chloridum. Ammonium Chloride

Sal Ammoniac, Ammonium Muriate. Source Neutralize Gas Liquor with Sulphuric Acid, converting all to Ammonium Sulphate. 2Nh4ho ... Ammonium Chloride. Amnonii Chloridum. Ammonium Chloride. Nh4c1 = 53.38. Synonyms. - Sal Ammoniac, Ammonium Muriate. ... Troches of Ammonium Chloride. Ammonium Chloride, 10; Extract of Glycyrrhiza, 25; Tragacanth, l2; Sugar, 50 gm.; Syrup of Tolu, ... Action of Ammonium Chloride. Locally applied, ammonium chloride increases the secretion of mucous membranes, and to a slight ...
more infohttps://chestofbooks.com/health/materia-medica-drugs/Pharmacy-Pharmacology-And-Therapeutics/4-Amnonii-Chloridum-Ammonium-Chloride.html

Ammonium chloride - Substance Information - ECHAAmmonium chloride - Substance Information - ECHA

Ammonium chloride. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] Trade names [23] IUPAC names [15] ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.031.976

Ammonium Chloride Price Wholesale, Home Suppliers - AlibabaAmmonium Chloride Price Wholesale, Home Suppliers - Alibaba

Various High Quality Ammonium Chloride Price Products from Global Ammonium Chloride Price Suppliers and Ammonium Chloride Price ... Tags: Ammonium Chloride Price For All Grades 99.5%min Big Factory Supply , Ammonium Chloride Price , Ammonium Chloride Producer ... Tags: 99.5%min Ammonium Chloride Price , Ammonium Chloride Industrial Grade , Ammonium Chloride Tech Grade 99.5% , View larger ... Tags: Ammonium Chloride 99.5% Purity , Ammonium Chloride Industrial Grade , Ammonium Chloride Best Price , View larger image ...
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Ammonium Chloride: Pediatric Medication | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterAmmonium Chloride: Pediatric Medication | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

No se debe utilizar esta información para decidir si se debe tomar este medicamento o cualquier otro. Solamente el proveedor de atención médica tiene el conocimiento y la capacitación para decidir qué medicamentos son adecuados para un paciente específico. Esta información no recomienda ningún medicamento como seguro, eficaz o aprobado para tratar a ningún paciente o enfermedad. Es solamente un breve resumen de información general sobre este medicamento. NO incluye toda la información sobre los usos, las instrucciones, las advertencias, las precauciones, las interacciones, los efectos secundarios o los riegos posibles que podrían aplicarse a este medicamento. Esta información no constituye asesoramiento médico específico y no reemplaza la información que usted recibe de su proveedor de atención médica. Debe hablar con el proveedor de atención médica para obtener información completa sobre los riesgos y los beneficios de tomar este medicamento.. ...
more infohttps://www.mskcc.org/es/cancer-care/patient-education/ammonium-chloride

Bardac (Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride)Bardac (Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride)

D08AJ06 - Didecyldimethylammonium chloride*V07AV - Technical Disinfectants. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, ...
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Ammonium chloride - definition of ammonium chloride by The Free DictionaryAmmonium chloride - definition of ammonium chloride by The Free Dictionary

ammonium chloride synonyms, ammonium chloride pronunciation, ammonium chloride translation, English dictionary definition of ... ammonium chloride. n. A slightly hygroscopic, white crystalline compound, NH4Cl, used in dry cells, as a soldering flux, and as ... Ammonium acetate Ammonium chloride Ammonium fluoride,Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate ,Ammonium meta vandate (mono vandate,Ammonium ... ammonium Acetate Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Fluoride,ammonium Ferrous Sulphate ,ammonium Meta Vandate (mono Vandate,ammonium ...
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Nomination Summary for Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (N88304)Nomination Summary for Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (N88304)

... Nomination Summary for Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride ( ... Rationale: High production, potential for exposure, lack of toxicity data, structural interest in quaternary ammonium compounds ...
more infohttps://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/testing/noms/search/summary/nm-n88304.html

Is Ammonium Chloride an Acid or a Base? | Reference.comIs Ammonium Chloride an Acid or a Base? | Reference.com

Ammonium chloride is an acid, although it is only mildly acidic. It is often used as a medication to treat people whose blood ... Ammonium chloride is an acid, although it is only mildly acidic. It is often used as a medication to treat people whose blood ... Ammonium chloride also has a number of other uses; like most chemical compounds, its uses vary widely. For instance, the ... Equation for Dissolution of Ammonium Chloride * Chemical Formula for Ammonium Chloride * Ammonium Chloride Mixed with Water ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/ammonium-chloride-acid-base-fcd61edc87abe1a0

3-Mercaptopropyl)ammonium chloride | C3H10ClNS - PubChem3-Mercaptopropyl)ammonium chloride | C3H10ClNS - PubChem

3-Mercaptopropyl)ammonium chloride , C3H10ClNS , CID 197870 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/197870

Ammonium chloride Archives | Make: DIY Projects and Ideas for MakersAmmonium chloride Archives | Make: DIY Projects and Ideas for Makers

Your FREE PDF is on its way. Please check your email. You will also be receiving the weekly Make: Newsletter to keep you inspired with new projects and more product reviews.. ...
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ammonium chloride buy -  ammonium chloride buy online Wholesalersammonium chloride buy - ammonium chloride buy online Wholesalers

... ammonium chloride buy online Wholesalers - choose ammonium chloride buy from 431 list of China ammonium chloride buy ... ammonium chloride buy. 431 Results. All Verified ammonium chloride buy suppliers & ammonium chloride buy manufacturers have ... Ammonium chloride CAS: 12125-02-9 English name: Ammonium chloride Chinese name: Ammonium chloride MF: ClH4N MW: 53.49146 ... Synonyms: Hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride solution, N-N-N trimethyl chloride, CTAC, Quaternary ammonium compound, Aliquat ...
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Ammonium chloride/chlorpheniramine/dextromethorphan/ephedrine/ipecac/phenylephrine Disease Interactions - Drugs.comAmmonium chloride/chlorpheniramine/dextromethorphan/ephedrine/ipecac/phenylephrine Disease Interactions - Drugs.com

Comprehensive disease interaction information for ammonium chloride/chlorpheniramine/dextromethorphan/ephedrine/ipecac/ ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine Rating. No reviews - Add your ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine Disease Interactions. *Drug ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine drug interactions. There are 985 ...
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Chemical Summary for Alkyltrimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorideChemical Summary for Alkyltrimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride

This database and website are updated and enhanced by Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA). The project is made possible by our Sponsors and by PANNA general funds. We need your support to maintain and improve this system. Please support the database and website - donate to PANNA ...
more infohttp://www.pesticideinfo.org/Summary_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC38591

Ammonium Chlorides | Organic Chemicals | Spectrum ChemicalAmmonium Chlorides | Organic Chemicals | Spectrum Chemical

Get Ammonium Chlorides Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab ... Ammonium Chlorides Ammonium Chlorides. Spectrum carries high quality ammonium chloride which is an inorganic white crystalline ... ammonium Chloride TCI-T1307 , 104162-48-3 , C42H84ClNO2 , TCI America Trimethyl2,3-(dioleyloxy)propylammonium Chloride ... ammonium Chloride TCI-T2246 , 84901-27-9 , C12H30ClNO3Si , TCI America Trimethyl3-(triethoxysilyl)propylammonium Chloride ...
more infohttps://www.spectrumchemical.com/OA_HTML/Chemicals_TCI-Organic-Chemicals_Structure-of-Chemicals_Quaternary-Ammonium-Compounds_Ammonium-Chlorides.jsp?queryStr=T

Ammonium Chloride Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters in IndiaAmmonium Chloride Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters in India

Contact to Ammonium Chloride Exporters in India, Ammonium Chloride Wholesalers, Ammonium Chloride Distributors and Traders from ... Search Indian Ammonium Chloride Manufacturers and Suppliers Details - ... Deals in chloride bars, Ammonium Chloride, chloride tablets, chloride cakes, Ammonium Chloride Bars ... Calcium Chloride Granular, Zinc Chloride, Manganese Carbonate, Ferric Chloride, Lithium Bromide, ammonium chloride, Caustic ...
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5-HTP and ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine Drug Interactions - Drugs.com5-HTP and ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine Drug Interactions - Drugs.com

A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between 5-HTP and ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine. View ... Drug interactions between 5-HTP and ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine. Edit this list ... Applies to: ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine and 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/drug-interactions/5-htp-with-ammonium-chloride-chlorpheniramine-codeine-phenylephrine-1-10727-178-0.html

Calmylin (Ammonium Chloride; Codeine Phosphate; Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) RatiopharmCalmylin (Ammonium Chloride; Codeine Phosphate; Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Ratiopharm

Liquid; Oral; Ammonium Chloride 125 mg; Codeine Phosphate 3.33 mg; Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride 12.5 mg / 5 ml. ...
more infohttp://drugs-about.com/drugs-c/calmylin.html

Chemical Database: Alkyl (C12016) Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Chemical Database: Alkyl (C12016) Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

Ammonium, alkyl(C12-C16) dimethylbenzyl-, chlorides*Barquat MB 80*Benzyl-C12-C16-alkyldimethyl ammonium chlorides*Bioquat 501* ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-16-alkyldimethyl, chlorides*Quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl-C12-C16- ... Alkyl (C12016) Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride*Alkyl(C12-16) Dimethylbenzylammonium Chloride* ... Alkyl (C12016) Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride. Identifications. *CAS Number: 68424-85-1*Synonyms/Related:* ...
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Chemical Database: Methylbis(2-Hydroxyethyl)(Tallowalkyl)Ammonium Chloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Chemical Database: Methylbis(2-Hydroxyethyl)(Tallowalkyl)Ammonium Chloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

Ammonium Chloride. Identifications. *CAS Number: 67784-77-4*Synonyms/Related:*Methylbis(2-Hydroxyethyl) (Tallowalkyl) Ammonium ... Chemical Database - Methylbis(2-Hydroxyethyl)(Tallowalkyl)Ammonium Chloride. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - 2018. Accessed ... Ammonium Chloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com),/a,- This page contains information on the chemical Methylbis(2-Hydroxyethyl)( ... Chloride Related Resources. *USDOT Hazardous Materials Table 49 CFR 172.101. An online version of the USDOTs listing of ...
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Hungary Trade of Ammonium Chloride: Import, Export, Market ProspectsHungary Trade of Ammonium Chloride: Import, Export, Market Prospects

This market research report examines the foreign trade of Hungary and its perspectives on the global market for ammonium ... HUNGARY TRADE OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE. 1.1. Ammonium Chloride description. 1.2. Hungary share in world trade of ammonium chloride ... Key consumers of ammonium chloride from Hungary (2007-2017). 2.2. Hungary exports of ammonium chloride, segmented by region and ... Major suppliers of ammonium chloride for Hungary (2007-2017). 3.2. Hungary imports of ammonium chloride, segmented by region ...
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  • 2013). In the course of our ongoing studies on organotin(IV) chemistry, we serendipitously isolated the title salt, tribenzylammonium chloride C 21 H 21 NH + ·Cl - , from the reaction of [(C 6 H 5 CH 2 ) 3 NH] 2 [HPO 4 ] with Sn(CH 3 ) 3 Cl. (iucr.org)
  • In order to improve the utilization rate of raw salt in soda production, China's famous chemist Hou Debang successfully created soda and ammonium chloride dual manufacture process in sichuan in 1943. (eceurope.com)
  • It is the ammonium salt of tetrachlorozincate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This produces toxic and irritating fumes (nitrogen oxides, ammonia and hydrogen chloride). (ilo.org)
  • The earliest production of ammonium chloride was invented in 1884 by the German, made from ammonia and hydrochloric acid. (eceurope.com)
  • Zinc ammonium chloride flux in aqueous solution is applied to the steel to reduce any oxides that are formed and/or inhibit them from forming altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc ammonium chloride is a Class 9 hazardous material (Miscellaneous) according to the U.S. DOT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substances used included acid, methyl ethyl ketone, bleach, a petrol substance, chemical ammonium chloride in powder form and hydrochloric acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spectrum specializes in providing the top ammonium chlorides if you do not see the product, grade, or form of the ingredient you require, just contact our chemical specialist at 800-772-8786. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • The operation focuses on identification, monitoring and seizure of consignments of all illicit precursor chemicals especially Acetic Anhydride, Acetyl Chloride, Acetic Acid and Ammonium Chloride , being transported to Afghanistan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, at least 350 bags of ammonium chloride and acid bottles were recovered and two persons taken into custody in a raid at a warehouse on Basant road near Mission Chowk of Balochistan province by Frontier Constabulary (FC). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Is Ammonium Chloride an Acid or a Base? (reference.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is an acid, although it is only mildly acidic. (reference.com)
  • It also assesses the dynamics of country's foreign trade in ammonium chloride in 2007-2017. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Dimethyloctadecyl(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium chloride (DTSACl) is a disinfectant used as a preservative and fungicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium chloride which is inexpensive and readily available reagent catalyzes the thia-michael addition reaction of thiols in water efficiently. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tricaprylylmethylammonium Chloride, also known as aliquat 336, is used as a metal extraction reagent and a phase transfer catalyst. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • The report will be of considerable interest primarily to relevant strategic planners, senior company officials and importers/exporters, since it features invaluable information on ammonium chloride export/import operations in Hungary. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Show all 68 recent products that contain AMMONIUM CHLORIDE. (ewg.org)