An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
'Methylamines' are organic compounds consisting of a methyl group (CH3) linked to an amino group (-NH2), with the general formula of CH3-NH-R, where R can be a hydrogen atom or any organic group, and they exist as colorless gases or liquids at room temperature.
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, playing a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism and amino acid homeostasis within various tissues and cells, including the brain, kidney, and immune cells.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition. (1/1184)

1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed.  (+info)

Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. (2/1184)

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

Re-activation of the peptidyltransferase centre of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes after inactivation by exposure to low concentrations of magnesium ion. (3/1184)

1. The larger subrivosomal particles of rabbit reticulocytes retained full activity in the puromycin reaction and in poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis after 4h at 0 degrees C when buffered 0.5M-NH4Cl/10-30mM-MgCl2 was the solvent. 2. Activity in the puromycin reaction was diminished to approx 10% after 15-30 min at 0 degrees C when the concentration of MgCl2 was lowered to 2mM. 3. Activity was not restored when the concentration of MgCl2 was raised from 2mM to 10-30 mM at 0 degrees C. However, activity was recovered as measured by both assay systems when the ribosome fraction was heated to 37 degrees C at the higher concentrations of MgCl2. 4. Recovery of activity was noted during the course of the polyphenylalanine synthesis in 50 mM-KCl/5mM-MgCl2/25mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, at 37 degrees C. Re-activation was slow at 20 degrees C and below. 5. No more than about 5% of the protein moiety of the subparticle was lost in 0.5M-NH4Cl on decreasing MgCl2 concentration from 10mM to 2mM. No proteins were detected in the supernatant fractions by gel electrophoresis after ribosomes were separated by differential centrifugation. The supernatant fraction was not essential for the recovery of activity. However, at higher (e.g. 1M) concentrations of NH4Cl, proteins were split from the subparticle. 6. The loss and regain of activity found on lowering and restoring the concentration of MgCl2 at 0.5M-NH4Cl appears to arise from a conformational change that does not seem to be associated with a loss and regain of particular proteins. 7. A 2% decrease in E260 was noticed when the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, and the change in the spectrum indicated a net increase of approx. 100A-U base-pairs per subribosomal particle. 8. When the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, S20,W of the subparticle remained at 52+/- 1S until the sample was incubated at 37 degrees C when S20,W increased to 56 +/- 1S compared with the value of 58 +/- 1S for the subparticle as originally isolated.  (+info)

Reassembly of the peptidyltransferase centre of larger subparticles of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes from a core-particle and split-protein fraction. (4/1184)

We report the reconstruction, from a core-particle and split-protein fraction, of the larger subribosomal particle of rabbit reticulocytes. The reassembled particle was active in polyphenylalanine synthesis and in the puromycin reaction. The core-particles and split-protein fractions were obtained by treatment of the larger subparticle with salt solutions containing NH4+ and Mg2+ in the molar ratio 40:1 over the range 2.25-2.75 M-NH4Cl/56-69mM-MgCl2 at 0 degrees C. This treatment led to the loss of about eight proteins (approx. 17% of the protein moiety), which were found wholly or largely in the split-protein fraction as shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The core particle retained 5S rRNA and had much decreased (no more than 10% of control) ability to function in the puromycin reaction or in poly (U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. Activity was recovered when the recombined core-particle and split-protein fractions were dialysed overnight at 4 degrees C against 0.3M-NH4Cl/15mM-MgCl2/1mM-dithiothreitol/15% (v/v) glycerol/20mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, and then heated for 1 h at 37 degreesEES C. The recovery was 40-80% of the original activity. Raising the concentration of MgCL2 to 300 mM in 2.5 M-NH4CL led to the removal of seven rather than eight proteins, and the core particle remained active in the puromycin reaction. We infer that the protein retained by raising the concentration of Mg2+ is an essential component of the peptidyltransferase centre of the ribosome.  (+info)

Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes. (5/1184)

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37, is a proteolytically inactive serine protease homologue that is released from activated granulocytes. However, HBP is not a biologically inactive molecule but rather a multifunctional protein with properties that include the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production from monocytes. We have previously demonstrated that HBP is internalized in monocytes. In the current study, we hypothesize that HBP is internalized in monocytes via endocytosis, and this internalization is an important mechanism by which HBP enhances LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Using whole blood from healthy donors and flow cytometry, we found that colchicine (0.1-10 mM), cytochalasin D (1000 microM), NH4Cl (10-50 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (0.1-3 microM) significantly reduced the affinity of FITC-HBP for CD14-positive monocytes. Using isolated human monocytes and ELISA, we found that colchicine (0.1 mM), cytochalasin D (30 and 300 microM), NH4Cl (30 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) significantly reduced the effect of HBP (10 microg/ml) to enhance LPS (10 ng/ml)-induced TNF-alpha release after 24 h. These findings demonstrate that internalization of HBP in monocytes is essential for the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Transport of HBP to an activating compartment depends on intact F-actin polymerization and endosomal acidification, an important mechanism for endosomal protein sorting and trafficking.  (+info)

MHC class I-restricted presentation of maleylated protein binding to scavenger receptors. (6/1184)

Pathways for loading exogenous protein-derived peptides on MHC class I are thought to be present mainly in monocyte-lineage cells and to involve phagocytosis- or macropinocytosis-mediated antigenic leakage into either cytosol or extracellular milieu to give peptide access to MHC class I. We show that maleylation of OVA enhanced its presentation to an OVA-specific MHC class I-restricted T cell line by both macrophages and B cells. This enhanced presentation involved uptake through receptors of scavenger receptor (SR)-like ligand specificity, was TAP-1-independent, and was inhibited by low levels (2 mM) of ammonium chloride. No peptide loading of bystander APCs by maleylated (maleyl) OVA-pulsed macrophages was detected. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA showed enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation through receptor-mediated uptake and remained highly sensitive to 2 mM ammonium chloride. However, if receptor binding of maleyl-OVA was inhibited by maleylated BSA, the residual presentation was relatively resistant to 2 mM ammonium chloride. Maleyl-OVA directly introduced into the cytosol via osmotic lysis of pinosomes was poorly presented, confirming that receptor-mediated presentation of exogenous maleyl-OVA was unlikely to involve a cytosolic pathway. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA was well presented as a cytosolic Ag, consistent with the dependence of cytosolic processing on protein ubiquitination. Thus, receptor-specific delivery of exogenous protein Ags to APCs can result in enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation, suggesting that the exogenous pathway of peptide loading for MHC class I may be a constitutive property dependent mainly on the quantity of Ag taken up by APCs.  (+info)

Activation of the proteasomes of sand dollar eggs at fertilization depends on the intracellular pH rise. (7/1184)

The mechanism of the activation of intracellular proteasomes at fertilization was measured in living sand dollar eggs using the membrane-impermeant fluorogenic substrate, succinyl-Phe-Leu-Arg-coumarylamido-4-methanesulfonic acid. When the substrate was microinjected into unfertilized eggs, the initial velocity of hydrolysis of the substrate (V0) was low. V0 measured 5 to 10 min after fertilization was five to nine times the prefertilization level and remained high throughout the first cell cycle. Hydrolysis of the substrate was inhibited by clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, a specific inhibitor of the proteasome. There has been in vitro evidence that calcium may be involved in regulation of proteasome activity to either inhibit the increase in peptidase activity associated with PA 28 binding to the 20S proteasome or stimulate activity of the PA 700-proteasome complex. Since both intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) increase after fertilization, hydrolysis of the proteasome substrate was measured under conditions in which [Ca2+]i and pHi were varied independently during activation. When the pHi of unfertilized eggs was elevated by exposure to 15 mM ammonium chloride in pH 9 seawater, V0 increased to a level comparable to that measured after fertilization. In contrast, [Ca2+]i elevation without pHi change, induced by calcium ionophore in sodium-free seawater, had no effect on V0 in the unfertilized egg. Moreover, when unfertilized eggs were microinjected with buffers modulating pHi, V0 increased in a pH-dependent manner. These results indicate that the pHi rise at fertilization is the necessary prerequisite for activation of the proteasome, an essential component in the regulation of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake. (8/1184)

Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading.  (+info)

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and can be produced by combining ammonia (NH3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ammonium chloride is commonly used as a source of hydrogen ions in chemical reactions, and it has a variety of industrial and medical applications.

In the medical field, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear from the lungs. It may also be used to treat conditions such as metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body that can lead to symptoms such as confusion, muscle twitching, and irregular heartbeat.

However, it is important to note that ammonium chloride can have side effects, including stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and should not be taken in large amounts or for extended periods of time without medical supervision.

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of disinfectants and antiseptics that contain a nitrogen atom surrounded by four organic groups, resulting in a charged "quat" structure. They are widely used in healthcare settings due to their broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to their death. Common examples include benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. It is important to note that some microorganisms have developed resistance to QACs, and they may not be effective against all types of pathogens.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Monensin is a type of antibiotic known as a polyether ionophore, which is used primarily in the veterinary field for the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis, a parasitic disease caused by protozoa in animals. It works by selectively increasing the permeability of cell membranes to sodium ions, leading to disruption of the ion balance within the cells of the parasite and ultimately causing its death.

In addition to its use as an animal antibiotic, monensin has also been studied for its potential effects on human health, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels and improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. However, it is not currently approved for use in humans due to concerns about toxicity and potential side effects.

Chloroquine is an antimalarial and autoimmune disease drug. It works by increasing the pH or making the environment less acidic in the digestive vacuoles of malaria parasites, which inhibits the polymerization of heme and the formation of hemozoin. This results in the accumulation of toxic levels of heme that are harmful to the parasite. Chloroquine is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus, and photodermatitis.

The chemical name for chloroquine is 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline, and it has a molecular formula of C18H26ClN3. It is available in the form of phosphate or sulfate salts for oral administration as tablets or solution.

Chloroquine was first synthesized in 1934 by Bayer scientists, and it has been widely used since the 1940s as a safe and effective antimalarial drug. However, the emergence of chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria parasites has limited its use in some areas. Chloroquine is also being investigated for its potential therapeutic effects on various viral infections, including COVID-19.

Acidosis is a medical condition that occurs when there is an excess accumulation of acid in the body or when the body loses its ability to effectively regulate the pH level of the blood. The normal pH range of the blood is slightly alkaline, between 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH falls below 7.35, it is called acidosis.

Acidosis can be caused by various factors, including impaired kidney function, respiratory problems, diabetes, severe dehydration, alcoholism, and certain medications or toxins. There are two main types of acidosis: metabolic acidosis and respiratory acidosis.

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid or is unable to eliminate it effectively. This can be caused by conditions such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, kidney failure, and ingestion of certain toxins.

Respiratory acidosis, on the other hand, occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the body, leading to an accumulation of acid. This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and sedative overdose.

Symptoms of acidosis may include fatigue, shortness of breath, confusion, headache, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment for acidosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and dialysis.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Chloride channels are membrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps, allowing the selective passage of chloride ions (Cl-) across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of neuronal excitability, maintenance of resting membrane potential, fluid and electrolyte transport, and pH and volume regulation of cells.

Chloride channels can be categorized into several groups based on their structure, function, and mechanism of activation. Some of the major classes include:

1. Voltage-gated chloride channels (ClC): These channels are activated by changes in membrane potential and have a variety of functions, such as regulating neuronal excitability and transepithelial transport.
2. Ligand-gated chloride channels: These channels are activated by the binding of specific ligands or messenger molecules, like GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) or glycine, and are involved in neurotransmission and neuromodulation.
3. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): This is a chloride channel primarily located in the apical membrane of epithelial cells, responsible for secreting chloride ions and water to maintain proper hydration and mucociliary clearance in various organs, including the lungs and pancreas.
4. Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs): These channels are activated by increased intracellular calcium concentrations and participate in various physiological processes, such as smooth muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and cell volume regulation.
5. Swelling-activated chloride channels (ClSwells): Also known as volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), these channels are activated by cell swelling or osmotic stress and help regulate cell volume and ionic homeostasis.

Dysfunction of chloride channels has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, myotonia congenita, epilepsy, and certain forms of cancer.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

Methylamines are organic compounds that contain a methyl group (CH3) and an amino group (-NH2). They have the general formula of CH3-NH-R, where R can be a hydrogen atom or any organic group. Methylamines are derivatives of ammonia (NH3), in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by methyl groups.

There are several types of methylamines, including:

1. Methylamine (CH3-NH2): This is the simplest methylamine and is a colorless gas at room temperature with a strong odor. It is highly flammable and reactive.
2. Dimethylamine (CH3)2-NH: This is a colorless liquid at room temperature with an unpleasant fishy odor. It is less reactive than methylamine but still highly flammable.
3. Trimethylamine (CH3)3-N: This is a colorless liquid at room temperature that has a strong, unpleasant odor often described as "fishy." It is less reactive than dimethylamine and is used in various industrial applications.

Methylamines are used in the production of various chemicals, including pesticides, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. They can also be found naturally in some foods and are produced by certain types of bacteria in the body. Exposure to high levels of methylamines can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects.

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a medical condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to properly excrete acid into the urine, leading to an accumulation of acid in the bloodstream. This results in a state of metabolic acidosis.

There are several types of RTA, but renal tubular acidosis type 1 (also known as distal RTA) is characterized by a defect in the ability of the distal tubules to acidify the urine, leading to an inability to lower the pH of the urine below 5.5, even in the face of metabolic acidosis. This results in a persistently alkaline urine, which can lead to calcium phosphate stones and bone demineralization.

Type 1 RTA is often caused by inherited genetic defects, but it can also be acquired due to various kidney diseases, drugs, or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of type 1 RTA may include fatigue, weakness, muscle cramps, decreased appetite, and vomiting. Treatment typically involves alkali therapy to correct the acidosis and prevent complications.

Ammonium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula (NH4)2SO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and is commonly used in fertilizers due to its high nitrogen content. In a medical context, it can be used as a laxative or for lowering the pH of the gastrointestinal tract in certain medical conditions. It may also be used in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis, a condition characterized by an excessively high pH in the blood. However, its use in medical treatments is less common than its use in agricultural and industrial applications.

Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones or nephrolithiasis, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside the urinary system. These calculi can develop in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The formation of urinary calculi typically occurs when there is a concentration of certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, or struvite, in the urine. When these substances become highly concentrated, they can crystallize and form small seeds that gradually grow into larger stones over time.

The size of urinary calculi can vary from tiny, sand-like particles to large stones that can fill the entire renal pelvis. The symptoms associated with urinary calculi depend on the stone's size, location, and whether it is causing a blockage in the urinary tract. Common symptoms include severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; blood in the urine (hematuria); fever and chills; and frequent urge to urinate or painful urination.

Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. Larger stones may require medical intervention, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) to break up or remove the stone. Preventive measures include maintaining adequate hydration, modifying dietary habits, and taking medications to reduce the risk of stone formation.

Benzalkonium compounds are a group of related chemicals that have antimicrobial properties. They are commonly used as disinfectants and preservatives in various products such as eye drops, nasal sprays, skin creams, and household cleaners. Benzalkonium compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, leading to their death. They are often used in low concentrations and are generally considered safe for topical use, but they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Prolonged or frequent use of products containing benzalkonium compounds may also lead to the development of bacterial resistance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Household Products" is not a term with a specific medical definition. Household products generally refer to items that are used in the home for cleaning, maintenance, and personal care. They can include things like cleaning supplies, laundry detergent, dish soap, personal care products (such as shampoo, toothpaste, and lotion), and other similar items. However, there is no medical context in which "household products" has a specific or technical meaning. If you have any concerns about the safety or health effects of a particular household product, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or reaching out to the manufacturer for more information.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

Ricin is defined as a highly toxic protein that is derived from the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis). It can be produced as a white, powdery substance or a mistable aerosol. Ricin works by getting inside cells and preventing them from making the proteins they need. Without protein, cells die. Eventually, this can cause organ failure and death.

It is not easily inhaled or absorbed through the skin, but if ingested or injected, it can be lethal in very small amounts. There is no antidote for ricin poisoning - treatment consists of supportive care. Ricin has been used as a bioterrorism agent in the past and continues to be a concern due to its relative ease of production and potential high toxicity.

Ammonium compounds are chemical substances that contain the ammonium ion (NH4+). The ammonium ion is formed when ammonia (NH3) reacts with a hydrogen ion (H+) to form a bond. Ammonium compounds can be found in a variety of forms, including salts, acids, and bases.

In medicine, ammonium compounds may be used for various purposes. For example, ammonium chloride is sometimes used as a expectorant to help loosen mucus in the airways, while ammonium bicarbonate is used as a systemic alkalizer to treat metabolic acidosis.

However, it's important to note that some ammonium compounds can be toxic in high concentrations. For instance, exposure to high levels of ammonia gas (NH3) can cause respiratory irritation and damage to the lungs. Similarly, ingesting large amounts of ammonium chloride can lead to stomach upset, vomiting, and potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

Therefore, it's essential to use ammonium compounds only under the guidance of a healthcare professional and to follow recommended dosages carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is a separation technique that combines the principles of capillary electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In CEC, an electric field is applied to a liquid flowing through a narrow fused-silica capillary tube packed with a stationary phase.

The analytes (the substances being separated) are carried by the electroosmotic flow of the liquid and interact with the stationary phase as they migrate through the capillary, resulting in separation based on both charge and size/hydrophobicity. CEC offers high efficiency, resolution, and sensitivity for the separation of a wide range of analytes, including small molecules, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids.

The medical definition of Capillary Electrochromatography is not commonly used as it is primarily employed in research settings for the analysis of various biological samples, pharmaceuticals, and environmental pollutants.

Vinyl Chloride is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It's an organochloride with the formula C2H3Cl, and it's a colorless gas at room temperature that is used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics.

However, Vinyl Chloride is relevant to medical professionals because exposure to this compound has been linked to an increased risk of a rare form of liver cancer called hepatic angiosarcoma, as well as other health problems such as neurological damage and immune system suppression. Therefore, occupational exposure to Vinyl Chloride is regulated by organizations like the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

Endocytosis is the process by which cells absorb substances from their external environment by engulfing them in membrane-bound structures, resulting in the formation of intracellular vesicles. This mechanism allows cells to take up large molecules, such as proteins and lipids, as well as small particles, like bacteria and viruses. There are two main types of endocytosis: phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking). Phagocytosis involves the engulfment of solid particles, while pinocytosis deals with the uptake of fluids and dissolved substances. Other specialized forms of endocytosis include receptor-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which allow for the specific internalization of molecules through the interaction with cell surface receptors.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Alkalies are a type of basic compound that has a pH level greater than 7. They are also known as bases and can neutralize acids. Alkalies can react with acids to form salts and water. Some common alkalies include sodium hydroxide (lye), potassium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide. When in solution, alkalies can increase the pH level of a substance, making it more basic or alkaline. They are widely used in various industries for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and processing.

Amantadine is an antiviral medication that is primarily used to prevent and treat certain types of influenza (flu). It works by stopping the virus from multiplying in your body. In addition to its antiviral properties, amantadine also has central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and dopaminergic effects, which make it useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and various movement disorders.

The medical definition of Amantadine is:

A synthetic symmetrical tricyclic amine used as an antiviral agent to treat and prevent influenza A infection and as an anti-parkinsonian drug to control extrapyramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptic agents. The antiviral effect may be due to interference with viral uncoating or replication. The anti-parkinsonian effect may be due to a combination of dopamine agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist properties. (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th edition)

Please note that the use of Amantadine for various medical conditions should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they will consider potential benefits and risks and provide appropriate guidance.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Glutamine is defined as a conditionally essential amino acid in humans, which means that it can be produced by the body under normal circumstances, but may become essential during certain conditions such as stress, illness, or injury. It is the most abundant free amino acid found in the blood and in the muscles of the body.

Glutamine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, energy production, and acid-base balance. It serves as an important fuel source for cells in the intestines, immune system, and skeletal muscles. Glutamine has also been shown to have potential benefits in wound healing, gut function, and immunity, particularly during times of physiological stress or illness.

In summary, glutamine is a vital amino acid that plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of various tissues and organs in the body.

Nigericin is not typically considered to have a "medical definition" as it is not a medication or therapeutic agent used in human medicine. However, it is a chemical compound that has been studied in laboratory research for its potential effects on various biological processes.

Nigericin is a polyether antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It functions as an ionophore, which is a type of molecule that can transport ions across cell membranes. Specifically, nigericin can transport potassium (K+) and hydrogen (H+) ions across membranes, which can affect the balance of these ions inside and outside of cells.

In laboratory research, nigericin has been used to study various cellular processes, including the regulation of intracellular pH, mitochondrial function, and inflammation. However, it is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine due to its potential toxicity and narrow therapeutic window.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Brefeldin A is a fungal metabolite that inhibits protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. It disrupts the organization of the Golgi complex and causes the redistribution of its proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. Brefeldin A is used in research to study various cellular processes, including vesicular transport, protein trafficking, and signal transduction pathways. In medicine, it has been studied as a potential anticancer agent due to its ability to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cancer cells. However, its clinical use is not yet approved.

Macrolides are a class of antibiotics derived from natural products obtained from various species of Streptomyces bacteria. They have a large ring structure consisting of 12, 14, or 15 atoms, to which one or more sugar molecules are attached. Macrolides inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing peptide bond formation. Common examples of macrolides include erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. They are primarily used to treat respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Chloride" (PVC) is not a medical term. It is a type of synthetic plastic polymer material. PVC is commonly used in various industrial, commercial, and consumer products, such as pipes, cable insulation, clothing, and inflatable items.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, please provide them, and I would be happy to help you find a relevant answer.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine, which is a type of amino acid, into glutamate and ammonia. This reaction is an essential part of nitrogen metabolism in many organisms, including humans. There are several forms of glutaminase found in different parts of the body, with varying properties and functions.

In humans, there are two major types of glutaminase: mitochondrial and cytosolic. Mitochondrial glutaminase is primarily found in the kidneys and brain, where it plays a crucial role in energy metabolism by converting glutamine into glutamate, which can then be further metabolized to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a major source of cellular energy.

Cytosolic glutaminase, on the other hand, is found in many tissues throughout the body and is involved in various metabolic processes, including nucleotide synthesis and protein degradation.

Glutaminase activity has been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, where some tumors have been shown to have elevated levels of glutaminase expression, allowing them to use glutamine as a major source of energy and growth. Inhibitors of glutaminase are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. They are essentially fluid-filled sacs that store various substances, such as enzymes, waste products, and nutrients. In plants, vacuoles often contain water, ions, and various organic compounds, while in fungi, they may store lipids or pigments. Vacuoles can also play a role in maintaining the turgor pressure of cells, which is critical for cell shape and function.

In animal cells, vacuoles are typically smaller and less numerous than in plant cells. Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. Lysosomes can be considered a type of vacuole, but they are more specialized in their function.

Overall, vacuoles are essential for maintaining the health and functioning of cells by providing a means to store and dispose of various substances.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

Leupeptins are a type of protease inhibitors, which are substances that can inhibit the activity of enzymes called proteases. Proteases play a crucial role in breaking down proteins into smaller peptides or individual amino acids. Leupeptins are naturally occurring compounds found in some types of bacteria and are often used in laboratory research to study various cellular processes that involve protease activity.

Leupeptins can inhibit several different types of proteases, including serine proteases, cysteine proteases, and some metalloproteinases. They work by binding to the active site of these enzymes and preventing them from cleaving their protein substrates. Leupeptins have been used in various research applications, such as studying protein degradation, signal transduction pathways, and cell death mechanisms.

It is important to note that leupeptins are not typically used as therapeutic agents in clinical medicine due to their potential toxicity and lack of specificity for individual proteases. Instead, they are primarily used as research tools in basic science investigations.

Triamcinolone Acetonide is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of corticosteroids. It is used in the form of topical creams, ointments, and sprays to reduce skin inflammation, itching, and allergies. It can also be administered through injection for the treatment of various conditions such as arthritis, bursitis, and tendonitis. Triamcinolone Acetonide works by suppressing the immune system's response, reducing inflammation, and blocking the production of substances that cause allergies.

It is important to note that prolonged use or overuse of triamcinolone acetonide can lead to side effects such as thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and increased susceptibility to infections. Therefore, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Ammonium hydroxide is a solution of ammonia (NH3) in water, and it is also known as aqua ammonia or ammonia water. It has the chemical formula NH4OH. This solution is composed of ammonium ions (NH4+) and hydroxide ions (OH-), making it a basic or alkaline substance with a pH level greater than 7.

Ammonium hydroxide is commonly used in various industrial, agricultural, and laboratory applications. It serves as a cleaning agent, a pharmaceutical aid, a laboratory reagent, and a component in fertilizers. In chemistry, it can be used to neutralize acids or act as a base in acid-base reactions.

Handling ammonium hydroxide requires caution due to its caustic nature. It can cause burns and eye damage upon contact, and inhalation of its vapors may lead to respiratory irritation. Proper safety measures, such as wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eyewear, should be taken when handling this substance.

Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic protease that plays a role in intracellular protein degradation and turnover. It is produced as an inactive precursor and is activated by cleavage into two subunits within the acidic environment of the lysosome. Cathepsin D is also known to be secreted by certain cells, where it can contribute to extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue degradation. In addition, abnormal levels or activity of cathepsin D have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Mercuric chloride, also known as corrosive sublimate, is defined medically as a white or colorless crystalline compound used historically as a topical antiseptic and caustic. It has been used in the treatment of various skin conditions such as warts, thrush, and some parasitic infestations. However, its use is limited nowadays due to its high toxicity and potential for serious side effects, including kidney damage, digestive problems, and nervous system disorders. It is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with care.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Endosomes are membrane-bound compartments within eukaryotic cells that play a critical role in intracellular trafficking and sorting of various cargoes, including proteins and lipids. They are formed by the invagination of the plasma membrane during endocytosis, resulting in the internalization of extracellular material and cell surface receptors.

Endosomes can be classified into early endosomes, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes based on their morphology, molecular markers, and functional properties. Early endosomes are the initial sorting stations for internalized cargoes, where they undergo sorting and processing before being directed to their final destinations. Late endosomes are more acidic compartments that mature from early endosomes and are responsible for the transport of cargoes to lysosomes for degradation.

Recycling endosomes, on the other hand, are involved in the recycling of internalized cargoes back to the plasma membrane or to other cellular compartments. Endosomal sorting and trafficking are regulated by a complex network of molecular interactions involving various proteins, lipids, and intracellular signaling pathways.

Defects in endosomal function have been implicated in various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, developmental abnormalities, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying endosomal trafficking and sorting is of great importance for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Membrane fusion is a fundamental biological process that involves the merging of two initially separate lipid bilayers, such as those surrounding cells or organelles, to form a single continuous membrane. This process plays a crucial role in various physiological events including neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, fertilization, viral infection, and intracellular trafficking of proteins and lipids. Membrane fusion is tightly regulated and requires the participation of specific proteins called SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptors) and other accessory factors that facilitate the recognition, approximation, and merger of the membranes. The energy required to overcome the repulsive forces between the negatively charged lipid headgroups is provided by these proteins, which undergo conformational changes during the fusion process. Membrane fusion is a highly specific and coordinated event, ensuring that the correct membranes fuse at the right time and place within the cell.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane, is an organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2. It is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild sweet aroma. In terms of medical definitions, methylene chloride is not typically included due to its primarily industrial uses. However, it is important to note that exposure to high levels of methylene chloride can cause harmful health effects, including irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract; headaches; dizziness; and, at very high concentrations, unconsciousness and death. Chronic exposure to methylene chloride has been linked to liver toxicity, and it is considered a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is highly soluble in water. Calcium chloride is commonly used as a de-icing agent, a desiccant (drying agent), and a food additive to enhance texture and flavor.

In medical terms, calcium chloride can be used as a medication to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) or hyperkalemia (high levels of potassium in the blood). It is administered intravenously and works by increasing the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, which helps to regulate various physiological processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

However, it is important to note that calcium chloride can have adverse effects if not used properly or in excessive amounts. It can cause tissue irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications. Therefore, its use should be monitored carefully by healthcare professionals.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

A phagosome is a type of membrane-bound organelle that forms around a particle or microorganism following its engulfment by a cell, through the process of phagocytosis. This results in the formation of a vesicle containing the ingested material, which then fuses with another organelle called a lysosome to form a phago-lysosome. The lysosome contains enzymes that digest and break down the contents of the phagosome, allowing the cell to neutralize and dispose of potentially harmful substances or pathogens.

In summary, phagosomes are important organelles involved in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Lithium Chloride (LiCl) is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medication or a clinical condition. However, it can be defined chemically as an inorganic compound consisting of lithium and chlorine. Its chemical formula is LiCl, and it is commonly used in laboratory settings for various purposes such as a drying agent or a component in certain chemical reactions.

It's worth noting that while lithium salts like lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are used medically to treat bipolar disorder, lithium chloride is not used for this purpose due to its higher toxicity compared to other lithium salts.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

... can also be used in the process of making albumen silver prints. The earliest mention of ammonium chloride ... Ammonium chloride has been used historically to produce low temperatures in cooling baths. Ammonium chloride solutions with ... by mass of ammonium chloride in water has a pH in the range 4.6 to 6.0. Some reactions of ammonium chloride with other ... ammonium chloride].) Bischof, p. 212. Sutton et al., p. 599. Ammonium chloride was also found on the island of Réunion in the ...
... is a Class 9 hazardous material (Miscellaneous) according to the U.S. DOT. Zinc Ammonium Chloride ... Zinc ammonium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2ZnCl4. It is the ammonium salt of tetrachlorozincate. ... Zinc ammonium chloride flux in aqueous solution is applied to the steel to reduce any oxides that are formed and/or inhibit ... Hironori Matsunaga (1982). "X-Ray Structural Study of the Successive Phase Transitions in Ammonium Tetrachlorozincate, (NH4) ...
Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl dimethyl octadecyl ammonium chloride, U.S.National Library of ... Dimethyloctadecyl(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium chloride (DTSACl) is a disinfectant used as a preservative and fungicide. ... ammonium chloride solution". Sigma-Aldrich. v t e (Articles without InChI source, Chemical pages without ChemSpiderID, Articles ...
... ammonium chloride • alcohol • camphor sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) • hydrochloric acid • nitric acid • acetic acid • formic ...
"Mercury ammonium chloride". (Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2014, Articles without EBI source, ... A variety of related amido and nitrido materials with chloride, bromide, and hydroxide are known. Before the toxicity of ... It arises from the reaction of mercury(II) chloride and ammonia (Calomel reaction), where the resulting mercuric amidochloride ... When heated to decomposition, emits very toxic and irritating fumes of hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides, and mercury, thus, ...
Titrations for cobalt and nickel are carried out in an ammoniacal environment; buffered with ammonia:ammonium chloride solution ... Endpoints are very sharp, and with care, chloride concentrations down to 15 mg/L can be analyzed. Bromide and chloride may be ... For instance, benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary-type cationic surfactant) may be determined in cleaners and algaecides for ... The reaction of silver nitrate with chloride is strongly exothermic. For instance, the reaction enthalpy of Ag+ with Cl− is a ...
ammonium chloride] or even sea salt". This combination forms a eutectic system, which stabilizes its temperature automatically ... Eutectic temperature of ammonium chloride and water is listed as −15.9 °C (3.38 °F) and as −15.4 °C (4.28 °F) in (respectively ... and ammonium chloride (a salt). The other limit established was his best estimate of the average human body temperature, ... was an impure form of ammonium chloride. The French chemist Nicolas Lémery (1645-1715) discussed it in his book Cours de Chymie ...
The filtrate on evaporation yields ammonium chloride. Ammonium sulfate forms many double salts (ammonium metal sulfates) when ... Ammonium sulfate is used on a small scale in the preparation of other ammonium salts, especially ammonium persulfate. Ammonium ... In November 2009, a ban on ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizers was imposed in the ... ammonium nickel sulfate which are known as Tutton's salts and ammonium ceric sulfate. Anhydrous double sulfates of ammonium ...
... can be synthesized by: catalytic hydration of butyronitrile; reaction of butyryl chloride with ammonium salts; ...
... ammonium chloride is also produced. The following scheme shows the reaction mechanism: By addition of hydrogen chloride the ... chloride (3a and 3b). The resulting salt (4) precipitates after some time as aldimine tin chloride (5). Hydrolysis of 5 ... However, it has been found that this step is unnecessary and the aldimine tin chloride can be hydrolysed directly in the ... In the past, the reaction was carried out by precipitating the aldimine-tin chloride, washing it with ether and then ...
One method entails treating formaldehyde with ammonium chloride. [NH4]Cl + CH2O → [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2O [CH2=NH2]Cl + CH2O + H2O ...
... a unit for zinc and ammonium chloride production; and an air preheater. Capacity was doubled between 1975 and 1984. A second ...
Mixing it with ammonium chloride (salmiak) is used. Salmiak liquorice in the Netherlands is known as zoute drop ('salty ...
Dax, E. C. (1940) Convulsion therapy by ammonium chloride. Journal of Mental Science 86: 660-667. Dax, E. C. (1951) Indications ...
Ammonium salts, e.g.Ammonium chloride, sulphate and nitrate. Metal salts e.g. Magnesium chloride, Zinc nitrate, Zinc chloride. ... Catalyst mixture e.g. magnesium chloride with added organic and inorganic acids or acid donors. The purpose of the additives is ... chloride, bromite, hydrogen peroxide) Depending on the sizing materials that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a ... with the addition of either sodium chloride, sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate. Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather ...
Salty Liquorice Aakkoset has a mild ammonium chloride content. The Cloetta marketing chief was asked in 2016 which of the ... from a more liquorice-intense flavour to a flavour with higher ammonium chloride content. Sales increased temporarily, but ...
... and ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphate, borax, and various acids. These early attempts found application in reducing the ...
He initially made ammonia, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride. Karl Ludwig Reimann, a chemist, joined the business in 1828 ...
The quaternary ammonium compound Dimethyloctadecyl (3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) has been found to have ... Many other quaternary ammonium compounds are known to have antimicrobial properties (e.g. alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride ... "Surface-bonded antimicrobial activity of an organosilicon quaternary ammonium chloride". Applied Microbiology. 24 (6): 859-863 ... Quaternary ammonium ion-containing polymers (PQA) have been proven to effectively kill cells and spores through their ...
triphenyl phosphine, tributyl phosphine, pyridine, bipyridine). A reaction with ammonium chloride yields the [Cl5VNCl]2− ion. ... Vanadium(V) chloride chlorimide is molecular. In the gas phase the V to N bond length is 1.651 Å, V to Cl bond length is 2.138 ... Vanadium(V) chloride chlorimide can be made by chlorinating vanadium nitride at 120°. Or chlorine azide can react with vanadium ... Vanadium (V) chloride chlorimide is a chemical compound containing vanadium in a +5 oxidation state bound to three chlorine ...
Gallium ammonium chloride is used for the leads in transistors. A major application of gallium is in LED lighting. The pure ...
Ammonium chloride (salmiak) and sulfur has been collected around fumaroles. The thick sulfur layers on the southeastern summit ...
... of ammonium chloride (salmiak salt) was not permitted in Germany at that point in time. Since then, the upper limit on ammonium ... Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) has a history of being used as a cough medicine, as it works as an expectorant. Finnish author ... Where and when ammonium chloride and liquorice were first combined to produce salty liquorice is unclear, but by the 1930s it ... In Sweden, for example, the most popular types of salty liquorice contain an average of 7% of ammonium chloride. In 2012, there ...
... in an organic halide with a formula of CH3NH3Cl. It is an ammonium salt composed of methylamine and ... The methyl group and other hydrogen atoms are bonded covalently to the nitrogen, with the chloride bonded ionically. " ... "Methylammonium chloride". Greatcell Solar Materials. Retrieved 10 April 2021. "GESTIS-Stoffdatenbank". gestis.dguv.de. ... Zhao, X. (2021). "Methylammonium Chloride reduces the bandgap width and trap densities for efficient perovskite photodetectors ...
In some designs, the ammonium chloride is replaced by zinc chloride. A reserve battery can be stored unassembled (unactivated ... The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte ... and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a ...
ISBN 978-0-7020-4841-8. Taton, DF; Hamar, D; Lewis, LD (15 February 1984). "Evaluation of ammonium chloride as a urinary ... This is to maintain the plasma's electrical balance, as the chloride anions have been extracted. The bicarbonate content causes ... During hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach, the gastric parietal cells extract chloride anions, carbon dioxide, water ...
Part V. The reciprocal salt-pair, ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride; J. Chem. Soc., Trans., 1923, 123, 841 - 849 (with ... 40 186-192 (with William Donald Urry) The properties of ammonium nitrate. ...
Industrial etching is usually done with ammonium persulfate or ferric chloride. For PTH (plated-through holes), additional ... in which the board is submerged in etching solution such as ferric chloride. Compared with methods used for mass production, ...
After oxidation to the volatile oxides, RuO 4 is separated from OsO 4 by precipitation of (NH4)3RuCl6 with ammonium chloride or ... Hydrogen is used to reduce ammonium ruthenium chloride yielding a powder. The product is reduced using hydrogen, yielding the ... chloride. Ruthenium forms a wide range compounds with carbon-ruthenium bonds. Grubbs' catalyst is used for alkene metathesis. ...
Na2SO4 Sal alembroth - salt composed of chlorides of ammonium and mercury. Sal ammoniac - ammonium chloride. Sal petrae (Med. ... Caustic volatile alkali - ammonium hydroxide. Corrosive sublimate - mercuric chloride, formed by subliming mercury, calcined ... Salt of hartshorn/Sal volatile - ammonium carbonate formed by distilling bones and horns. Tin salt - hydrated stannous chloride ... SbCl3 Butter of tin - hydrated tin(IV) chloride; see also spiritus fumans, another chloride of tin. Oil of tartar - ...
Ammonium chloride can also be used in the process of making albumen silver prints. The earliest mention of ammonium chloride ... Ammonium chloride has been used historically to produce low temperatures in cooling baths. Ammonium chloride solutions with ... by mass of ammonium chloride in water has a pH in the range 4.6 to 6.0. Some reactions of ammonium chloride with other ... ammonium chloride].) Bischof, p. 212. Sutton et al., p. 599. Ammonium chloride was also found on the island of Réunion in the ...
This page contains information on the chemical Ammonium, benzylbis(2-hydroxyethyl)undecyl-, chloride including: 3 synonyms/ ... Ammonium, benzylbis(2-hydroxyethyl) undecyl-, chloride. Identifications. *CAS Number: 102571-39-1*Synonyms/Related:*Ammonium, ... Chemical Database - Ammonium, benzylbis(2-hydroxyethyl)undecyl-, chloride. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - 2023. Accessed on ... Ammonium, benzylbis(2-hydroxyethyl)undecyl-, chloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com),/a,- This page contains information on the ...
Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride, Benzyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride, Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride ...
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Diets supplemented with either sodium chloride (NaCl) or NH4Cl were fed, by use of a 3 X 3 Latin-square design with 3 wk/period ... Abstract Objective-To evaluate the effects of a high-protein diet versus dietary supplementation with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl ... Objective-To evaluate the effects of a high-protein diet versus dietary supplementation with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) on ... Objective-To evaluate the effects of a high-protein diet versus dietary supplementation with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) on ...
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Be careful not to use too much ammonium chloride.. One level teaspoon of ammonium chloride is approximately 4.5 grams, 4.5 ... Fritz Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) can be used as a source of ammonia to initiate the growth of nitrifying bacteria without the ... Do not reapply ammonium chloride or add fish until both ammonia and nitrite levels are at or near zero concentration. Once ... you should either add a second dosage of ammonium chloride or add fish so as not to interupt the food source of your biological ...
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In laboratories, ammonium chloride is used as ammonia and ammonium chloride buffer solution in cooling bath. ... it is used as a thickening agent in ammonium based surfactant systems such as ammonium lauryl sulfate. Ammonium chloride is ... Ammonium chloride can be reversibly prepared by combining hydrogen chloride (gas) or hydrochloric acid (aqueous solution) or ... General Information about AMONIUM CHLORIDE. Ammonium chloride, whose chemical formula is NH4Cl, is an odorless, water-soluble ...
Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid compound that is used as a catalyst in 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones ...
Poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) Chemical Formula: C8H16N Cas no:26062-79-3 Purity:99% pH value(1% water solution):3.0- ... Technically named polydiallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) is widely used in dye factory high chroma wastewater decolorization ... Product Name: polydadmac (other name: Poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride). Chemical Formula: C8H16N. Cas no:26062-79-3. ... Polydadamc(Technically named polydiallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) is a cationic polymer and it can be completely dissolved in ...
Ammonium chloride is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia. Ammonium chloride is obtained as a by- ... Ammonium chloride is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia. Ammonium chloride is obtained as a by- ... Ammonium chloride is used as a flux in preparing metals to be tin coated, galvanized, or soldered. It is an expectorant in ... Ammonium chloride is used as a flux in preparing metals to be tin coated, galvanized, or soldered. It is an expectorant in ...
Is ammonium chloride base?. ammonium on its own is a base and chlorine is not an acid. so i think ammonium chloride is a base. ... Is Ammonium an Acid and Ammonium Hydroxide a Base?. No: Ammonium is a polyvalent cation that is not usually considered either ... Is Ammonium an Acid and Ammonium Hydroxide a Base?. No: Ammonium is a polyvalent cation that is not usually considered either ... Ammonium hydroxide is a base that produces ammonium salts of the anions of an acid with which the ammonium hydroxide reacts. ...
... quaternary ammonium chlorides, ammonium alkyl dimethyl (phenylmethyl) chlorides, or ammonium alkyl dimethyl benzyl chlorides, ... Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (mt) Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride ( ... Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (mt) Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride ( ... Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC/BKC (C12-C16)) (mt) Alkyl (C12-16) dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride ( ...
Ammonium Chloride *Ammonium Sulfate *Black Iron Oxide *Syn. Black Iron Oxide *Calcium Sulfate *Citric Acid *Copper Oxide * ... As with all chemicals, ammonium chloride should be handled with care. MSDS and Spec Sheets can be found here.. Please follow ... Ammonium Chloride is used in fluxes, chemistry experiments, textiles, along with a lot of other uses. ... Potassium Chloride *Potassium Sulfate *Red Iron Oxide *Sodium Molybdate *Sulfur *Urea *Zinc Sulfate ...
Tetrabutyl ammonium chloride hydrate-Moneide Chemicals
Ammonium Chloride, Grade: Extra pure, Synonyms: Sal ammoniac Sizes TK.200730.01002 -1 Kg TK.200730.05004 -5 kg TK.200730.25006 ... Ammonium Chloride Extra pure. Catalogue Number: TK.200730, Chemical Name: Ammonium Chloride, Grade: Extra pure, Synonyms: Sal ... Be the first to review "Ammonium Chloride Extra pure". Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * ... Buffer Solution pH1000 20 C Boric Acid Potassium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide. *Buffer Solution pH1000 20 C Boric Acid Potassium ...
Ammonium Chloride Lyse. 10X concentration. Dilute 10 mL stock with 90 mL double distilled water. Store at 4°C. ... 5 µL of 25 mM cobalt chloride; 0.5 µL (12.5 units) of TdT (all from Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN, USA), and 0.25 ... 5 µL of 25 mM cobalt chloride; 0.5 uL (12.5 units) of TdT (all from Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN, USA), and 0.25 ...
This bottle of reagent grade ammonium chloride is for use when fishless cycling. Delivery Australia wide. ... Decrease quantity for Ammonium Chloride 60ml - Dr Tim's Increase quantity for Ammonium Chloride 60ml - Dr Tim's ... This bottle of reagent grade ammonium chloride is for use when fishless cycling. Concentration is 40 mg/ml of total ammonia- ... Ammonium Chloride 60ml - Dr Tims. Ammonium Chloride 60ml - Dr Tims Regular price $11.95 ...
Get the best quality Cyclohexyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride from us. ... We are one of the leading manufacturer and exporter of Cyclohexyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride from Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. ... Ans - The quaternary ammonium salt cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) is a wetting agent or surfactant used in a ... It is a quaternary ammonium salt and belongs to the class of cationic surfactants. Cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is ...
Get the best quality Adamantyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride from us. ... We are one of the leading manufacturer and exporter of Adamantyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride from Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. ... Adamantyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is a type of organic salt and quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula ... 3. Is chloroadamantyl trimethyl ammonium safe?. Ans - When used as recommended, adamantyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is ...
Ammonium chloride-ammonium hydroxide Buffer Solution is used as buffer for protein crystallization and other biochemical ... Ammonium chloride-ammonium hydroxide Buffer. $295.00. $150.00. Catalog Number: B2010109 (100 mL). Ammonium chloride-ammonium ... ammonium chloride. FEMS Yeast Res. 2018 Sep 1;18(6):foy064.. 5: Sass MD. Effect of ammonium chloride on osmotic behavior of red ... Ammonium chloride-ammonium hydroxide Buffer Solution. Catalog number: B2010109. Lot number: Batch Dependent. Expiration Date: ...
Ammonium Chloride *Ammonium Sulfate *Sodium Percarbonate *Sodium Metasilicate *Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous *Sodium Bisulfite * ... Calcium Chloride *Citric Acid *Boric Acid *Acetic Acid *Formic Acid *Formic Acid IBC *Aluminum Sulfate *Soda Ash (Sodium ...
  • Cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is a chemical compound with the molecular formula (C 7 H 16 N)Cl. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is commonly used as an antistatic agent and a surfactant in industrial processes such as textile manufacturing, papermaking, and electroplating. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • As an antistatic agent, cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is used to prevent the buildup of static electricity on surfaces. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • As a surfactant, cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is used to reduce surface tension and increase the wetting and dispersing properties of liquids. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • In water treatment, cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is used as a disinfectant and algicide to control the growth of algae and other microorganisms in swimming pools, water tanks, and other water systems. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Overall, cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is a versatile chemical with many applications in various industries. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Ans - The quaternary ammonium salt cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) is a wetting agent or surfactant used in a number of commercial and industrial goods. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • 2. How is cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride used? (tatvachemicals.com)
  • 3. How should users use cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride safely? (tatvachemicals.com)
  • 4. Can you biodegrade cyclohexyl trimethyl ammonium chloride? (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Adamantyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is a type of organic salt and quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula C14H29ClN. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Ans - A variety of products use the chemical molecule adamantyl trimethyl ammonium chloride as a surfactant and antistatic agent. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Ans - Many diverse industries and uses employ adamantyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Ans - When used as recommended, adamantyl trimethyl ammonium chloride is generally regarded as harmless, although prolonged or excessive exposure might irritate the skin and eyes. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • Ans - Trimethyl amine and chloroform are mixed in an acidic solution to create adamantyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • All Verified poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride suppliers & poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride manufacturers have passed our Business License Check, they can provide quality poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride products. (opencroquet.org)
  • Cationic activated-adsorbent poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride cps 1000-400000 Appearance colorless, light color liquird mpa.s,25℃ 1000~3000 3000-6000 6000-9000 8000-12000 10,0000~40,0000 PH (1% water solution) 3.0~6.0 Solid content % 40±1% Note: our. (opencroquet.org)
  • Poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride )26062-79-3 Properties: It is colorless viscos liquid. (opencroquet.org)
  • Dicoalkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chrloride is excellent in softness, anti-static, foaming and hydrophobic properties. (tfmpage.com)
  • Dicoalkyl Dimethyl Ammonium has excellent properties such as softness, anti-statics, better dispersion and emulsification. (tfmpage.com)
  • Dicoalkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chrloride has excellent anti-static, soft and other properties. (tfmpage.com)
  • If you are interested in buying Dicoalkyl Dimethyl Ammonium, Chloride. (tfmpage.com)
  • Dicoalkyl Dimethyl ammonium Chloride's Product Performance is excellent, having anti-static, dispersing, emulsification and foaming effects. (tfmpage.com)
  • Dicoalkyl Dimethyl Ammonium has good softening, anti-static, and other properties. (tfmpage.com)
  • Technical Parameter of Dicoalkyl Dimethyl Ammonium has excellent soft properties and anti-static, as well as better emulsification. (tfmpage.com)
  • Packing & Shipping Dicoalkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride possesses excellent soft, antistatic and other qualities, with better dispersion. (tfmpage.com)
  • Dicoalkyl Dimethyl ammonium Chloride, which has excellent anti-static properties and better dispersion with emulsification effect, hydrophobicity, etc., is used to make many different types of packing. (tfmpage.com)
  • Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride has the characteristics of rich and fine foam, low degreasing power, low irritation to skin and hair, and good biodegradability. (tqhp.com)
  • Tqhp is a trusted global Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride . (tqhp.com)
  • Feel free to send an inquiry to get the latest price of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride if you would like to buy Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride in bulk. (tqhp.com)
  • Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride can improve the combability and softness of the hair, and its mild decontamination performance makes the skin comfortable after washing. (tqhp.com)
  • We have many different kinds of packing which depend on Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride quantity. (tqhp.com)
  • Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride DDAC is the most important type of quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants Because of its excellent softness, antistatic, emulsifying, antiseptic and bactericidal properties, it is widely used in textile printing and dyeing, washing products, oil exploitation and other industrial fields. (zhishangchem.com)
  • Diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC)_Shandong Crownchem Industries Co.,Ltd. (ccindustries.cn)
  • As a type of quaternary ammonium compounds, didodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DADMAC C12) was frequently detected in wastewater treatment plants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a product of the Solvay process used to produce sodium carbonate: CO2 + 2 NH3 + 2 NaCl + H2O → 2 NH4Cl + Na2CO3 Not only is that method the principal one for the manufacture of ammonium chloride, but also it is used to minimize ammonia release in some industrial operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by combining ammonia (NH3) with either hydrogen chloride (gas) or hydrochloric acid (water solution): NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl Ammonium chloride occurs naturally in volcanic regions, forming on volcanic rocks near fume-releasing vents (fumaroles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fritz Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) can be used as a source of ammonia to initiate the growth of nitrifying bacteria without the presence of animal life. (joshsfrogs.com)
  • Ammonium chloride, whose chemical formula is NH4Cl, is an odorless, water-soluble cubic crystalline salt obtained by the combination of salt with urine. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • Oct 7, 2019 - NH4Cl, Ammonium Chloride. (emancypunx.com)
  • Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-254134, Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) for your research needs. (emancypunx.com)
  • Diets supplemented with either sodium chloride (NaCl) or NH 4 Cl were fed, by use of a 3 X 3 Latin-square design with 3 wk/period (study 3). (avma.org)
  • It can also be obtained from the reaction of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • Ammonium chloride is obtained as a by-product in different chemical processes, particularly from the Solvay process for production of sodium carbonate from sodium chloride, ammonia, carbon dioxide and water. (thechemco.com)
  • AdvaCare Compound Ammonium Glycyrrhetate + Sodium Chloride Infusions are GMP certified. (advacarepharma.com)
  • AdvaCare Compound Ammonium Glycyrrhetate + Sodium Chloride Infusions are manufactured in our facilities located in China/India/USA. (advacarepharma.com)
  • As with all pharmaceuticals, some unwanted effects can occur from the use of Compound Ammonium Glycyrrhetate Sodium Chloride. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Always consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking Compound Ammonium Glycyrrhetate + Sodium Chloride Infusion. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Overdosage, application frequency, and treatment duration of compound ammonium glycyrrhetate + sodium chloride infusions should not be exceeded. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Compound ammonium glycyrrhetate + sodium infusions are not recommended for the treatment of infections due to inadequate efficacy. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Consult with your doctor about any medications you are taking, before your treatment with compound ammonium glycyrrhetate + sodium chloride infusions. (advacarepharma.com)
  • Kartnaller V, Mariano DC, Cajaiba J. Application of In-Line Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy Coupled with Calorimetry for the Determination of the Molar Enthalpy of Reaction between Ammonium Chloride and Sodium Nitrite. (chinafooding.com)
  • DMDMAC is a high purity, aggregated, quaternary ammonium salt and high charge density cationic monomer, it not contains any sodium chloride and other sundries. (waterdecolouringagent.com)
  • 2003. Final report on the safety assessment of ammonium, potassium, and sodium persulfate. (cdc.gov)
  • TCC's Ammonium Chloride, NH 4 Cl, is an inorganic, mildly acidic, white crystalline salt compound that is highly soluble in water. (thechemco.com)
  • DDAC is a cationic surfactant, a double-stranded ammonium salt compound. (tqhp.com)
  • As a hair shampoo, it is used as a thickening agent in ammonium based surfactant systems such as ammonium lauryl sulfate. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • To receive the latest information, send an inquiry Price Stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride You can buy bulk Stearyl dimethylbenzyl chloride. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • Dimethyl Octadecylhydroxyethyl Ammonium Nitrate has a stability limit of a 5% dilute acids dilute. (tatayoung.com)
  • Receptor model source attributions for Utah's Salt Lake City airshed and the impacts of wintertime secondary ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride aerosol. (moleculardepot.com)
  • Field measurements of the dissociation of ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride aerosols. (cdc.gov)
  • Some reactions of ammonium chloride with other chemicals are endothermic, such as its reaction with barium hydroxide and its dissolving in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium chloride was used in pyrotechnics in the 18th century but was superseded by safer and less hygroscopic chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with all chemicals, ammonium chloride should be handled with care. (alphachemicals.com)
  • There are a number of chemicals in cleaning and disinfecting products that can cause or exacerbate asthma because of their sensitizing or irritant properties, including quaternary ammonium compounds, ethanolamines, chlorhexidine, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthalaldehyde, hexachlorophene, and chloramine-T. (cdc.gov)
  • TRUNNANO is a reliable supplier for Dodecyl-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-methylazanium,chloride. (robocup2009.org)
  • DADMAC is a high purity, aggregated, quaternary ammonium salt and high charge density cationic monomer. (ccindustries.cn)
  • Many types of packing are available depending on the Tetradecyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorineide quantity. (tatayoung.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound used in pharmaceutical formulations as an antimicrobial preservative in applications similar to other cationic surfactants. (atamankimya.com)
  • It is a quaternary ammonium salt and belongs to the class of cationic surfactants. (tatvachemicals.com)
  • In laboratories, ammonium chloride is used as ammonia and ammonium chloride buffer solution in cooling bath. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • Modelled historical concentrations and depositions of ammonia and ammonium in Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • 1987. A long-range transport model for ammonia and ammonium for Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • Stearyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride features rich and fine foams, low degreasing potential, low irritation to skin or hair, and good biodegradability. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • Stearyl dimethylbenzylammonium chloride can enhance the combability, softness, and comfort of your hair after washing. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • We offer many types of packaging that are dependent on the quantity of Stearyl benzyl ammonium chloride. (cookingmamacookoff.com)
  • Known in most countries as ammonia, these substances, which are sublimed directly into gaseous, evaporate at temperatures of about 340 ° C, yielding equal volumes of ammonia and hydrogen chloride, short-lived since they are easily dissolved in water. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • Ammonium chloride can be reversibly prepared by combining hydrogen chloride (gas) or hydrochloric acid (aqueous solution) or together ammonia (NH3). (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • The gas does not consist of ammonium chloride molecules but ammonia and hydrogen chloride. (thechemco.com)
  • Chloride ions combine with hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid, thus correcting the alkalosis. (arshinefeed.com)
  • Objective -To evaluate the effects of a high-protein diet versus dietary supplementation with ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) on struvite crystal formation in the urine of clinically normal cats by measuring the urine concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl)-insoluble sediment, urine pH, struvite activity product (SAP), number of struvite crystals in urine, and urine volume. (avma.org)
  • Ammonium chloride is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia. (thechemco.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is also used in etching in the manufacture of printed circuits, as a fire extinguisher, an explosive in mineral winning and as a curing agent in formaldehyde-based adhesives. (thechemco.com)
  • How to manufacture ammonium chloride? (datavagyanik.com)
  • This product's technical name is Polydimethyl-Dialkelen- Ammonium Chloride /POLYDADMAC, it is cationic polymer and it can be completely dissolved in water with any concentration. (opencroquet.org)
  • 2.Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC) is a homopolymer of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC), well known as one part of Superfloc family. (opencroquet.org)
  • Who are suppliers/manufacturers of ammonium chloride manufacturing machinery and equipment? (datavagyanik.com)
  • Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. (wikipedia.org)
  • One level teaspoon of ammonium chloride is approximately 4.5 grams, 4.5 grams per 100 gallons of aquarium water will create an ammonia concentration of approximately 4 ppm. (joshsfrogs.com)
  • Do not reapply ammonium chloride or add fish until both ammonia and nitrite levels are at or near zero concentration. (joshsfrogs.com)
  • Inside a kitchen undergoing a scheduled inspection, this state appointed health inspector was about to test the concentration of this kitchen's quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC) disinfectant. (cdc.gov)
  • Active agent is a quaternary ammonium compound - benzalkonium chloride. (who.int)
  • It had a secondary use to provide white smoke, but its ready double decomposition reaction with potassium chlorate producing the highly unstable ammonium chlorate made its use very dangerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10: Mu X, Yang X, Zhang D, Liu C. Theoretical study of the reaction of chitosan monomer with 2,3-epoxypropyl-trimethyl quaternary ammonium chloride catalyzed by an imidazolium-based ionic liquid. (moleculardepot.com)
  • Gives reaction of NH 4 salt & chlorides. (rasinoherbs.co.in)
  • This may suggest that the behavioral response threshold is higher than the physiological response threshold of the primary chemoreceptor neurons or that the ammonium chloride must be associated with other compounds or certain physical attributes in order to evoke an ethological reaction from the studied species. (bvsalud.org)
  • It works as a flux by cleaning the surface of workpieces by reacting with the metal oxides at the surface to form a volatile metal chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reacts with metal oxides on the surface to form a wavy metal chloride, which is involved in cleaning the surfaces of the parts. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • Ammonium chloride-ammonium hydroxide Buffer Solution is a high quality research product used as buffer for protein crystallization. (moleculardepot.com)
  • In paleontology, ammonium chloride vapor is deposited on fossils, where the substance forms a brilliant white, easily removed and fairly harmless and inert layer of tiny crystals that covers up any coloration the fossil may have, and if lighted at an angle highly enhances contrast in photographic documentation of three-dimensional specimens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our products with Coco Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chlorides 50% active are SANISOL CR50. (kaochemicals-eu.com)
  • Studies on the physiological effects of sulfamic acid and ammonium sulfamate. (cdc.gov)
  • The dominant application of ammonium chloride is as a nitrogen source in fertilizers (corresponding to 90% of the world production of ammonium chloride) such as chloroammonium phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • TCC's Ammonium Chloride is mainly used as a nitrogen source in fertilizers, mostly for rice and wheat crops in Asia. (thechemco.com)
  • citation needed] Ammonium chloride, under the name sal ammoniac or salmiak is used as food additive under the E number E510, working as a yeast nutrient in breadmaking and as an acidifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sal ammoniac is a name of the natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. (chinafooding.com)
  • In several countries, ammonium chloride, under the name sal ammoniac or colloquially salmiak is used as food additive under the E number E510, commonly as a yeast nutrient in breadmaking. (chinafooding.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant in cough medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium chloride is used as a remover agent in cough syrup. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • Many colds and cough medicines on the market also contain ammonium chloride. (kimyaborsasi.com.tr)
  • 2. Due to the chemical stimulation of ammonium chloride to the mucous membranes, the amount of sputum is reflexively increased and the sputum is easily discharged, so it is beneficial to the removal of a small amount of sticky sputum that is difficult to cough up. (arshinefeed.com)
  • Fooding ensure you can buy Ammonium Chloride with a good price. (chinafooding.com)
  • There are several factors that will contribute to the price trend of ammonium chloride in the future. (datavagyanik.com)
  • These factors include price and availability of components and technology used in the ammonium chloride manufacturing, demand from the end-use industries, import-export trends and others. (datavagyanik.com)