Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)MethylaminesAcidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.GlutaminaseBiological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Leupeptins: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition. (1/1184)

1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed.  (+info)

Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. (2/1184)

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

Re-activation of the peptidyltransferase centre of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes after inactivation by exposure to low concentrations of magnesium ion. (3/1184)

1. The larger subrivosomal particles of rabbit reticulocytes retained full activity in the puromycin reaction and in poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis after 4h at 0 degrees C when buffered 0.5M-NH4Cl/10-30mM-MgCl2 was the solvent. 2. Activity in the puromycin reaction was diminished to approx 10% after 15-30 min at 0 degrees C when the concentration of MgCl2 was lowered to 2mM. 3. Activity was not restored when the concentration of MgCl2 was raised from 2mM to 10-30 mM at 0 degrees C. However, activity was recovered as measured by both assay systems when the ribosome fraction was heated to 37 degrees C at the higher concentrations of MgCl2. 4. Recovery of activity was noted during the course of the polyphenylalanine synthesis in 50 mM-KCl/5mM-MgCl2/25mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, at 37 degrees C. Re-activation was slow at 20 degrees C and below. 5. No more than about 5% of the protein moiety of the subparticle was lost in 0.5M-NH4Cl on decreasing MgCl2 concentration from 10mM to 2mM. No proteins were detected in the supernatant fractions by gel electrophoresis after ribosomes were separated by differential centrifugation. The supernatant fraction was not essential for the recovery of activity. However, at higher (e.g. 1M) concentrations of NH4Cl, proteins were split from the subparticle. 6. The loss and regain of activity found on lowering and restoring the concentration of MgCl2 at 0.5M-NH4Cl appears to arise from a conformational change that does not seem to be associated with a loss and regain of particular proteins. 7. A 2% decrease in E260 was noticed when the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, and the change in the spectrum indicated a net increase of approx. 100A-U base-pairs per subribosomal particle. 8. When the concentration of Mg2+ was restored, S20,W of the subparticle remained at 52+/- 1S until the sample was incubated at 37 degrees C when S20,W increased to 56 +/- 1S compared with the value of 58 +/- 1S for the subparticle as originally isolated.  (+info)

Reassembly of the peptidyltransferase centre of larger subparticles of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes from a core-particle and split-protein fraction. (4/1184)

We report the reconstruction, from a core-particle and split-protein fraction, of the larger subribosomal particle of rabbit reticulocytes. The reassembled particle was active in polyphenylalanine synthesis and in the puromycin reaction. The core-particles and split-protein fractions were obtained by treatment of the larger subparticle with salt solutions containing NH4+ and Mg2+ in the molar ratio 40:1 over the range 2.25-2.75 M-NH4Cl/56-69mM-MgCl2 at 0 degrees C. This treatment led to the loss of about eight proteins (approx. 17% of the protein moiety), which were found wholly or largely in the split-protein fraction as shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The core particle retained 5S rRNA and had much decreased (no more than 10% of control) ability to function in the puromycin reaction or in poly (U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. Activity was recovered when the recombined core-particle and split-protein fractions were dialysed overnight at 4 degrees C against 0.3M-NH4Cl/15mM-MgCl2/1mM-dithiothreitol/15% (v/v) glycerol/20mM-Tris/HCl, pH 7.6, and then heated for 1 h at 37 degreesEES C. The recovery was 40-80% of the original activity. Raising the concentration of MgCL2 to 300 mM in 2.5 M-NH4CL led to the removal of seven rather than eight proteins, and the core particle remained active in the puromycin reaction. We infer that the protein retained by raising the concentration of Mg2+ is an essential component of the peptidyltransferase centre of the ribosome.  (+info)

Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes. (5/1184)

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37, is a proteolytically inactive serine protease homologue that is released from activated granulocytes. However, HBP is not a biologically inactive molecule but rather a multifunctional protein with properties that include the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production from monocytes. We have previously demonstrated that HBP is internalized in monocytes. In the current study, we hypothesize that HBP is internalized in monocytes via endocytosis, and this internalization is an important mechanism by which HBP enhances LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Using whole blood from healthy donors and flow cytometry, we found that colchicine (0.1-10 mM), cytochalasin D (1000 microM), NH4Cl (10-50 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (0.1-3 microM) significantly reduced the affinity of FITC-HBP for CD14-positive monocytes. Using isolated human monocytes and ELISA, we found that colchicine (0.1 mM), cytochalasin D (30 and 300 microM), NH4Cl (30 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) significantly reduced the effect of HBP (10 microg/ml) to enhance LPS (10 ng/ml)-induced TNF-alpha release after 24 h. These findings demonstrate that internalization of HBP in monocytes is essential for the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Transport of HBP to an activating compartment depends on intact F-actin polymerization and endosomal acidification, an important mechanism for endosomal protein sorting and trafficking.  (+info)

MHC class I-restricted presentation of maleylated protein binding to scavenger receptors. (6/1184)

Pathways for loading exogenous protein-derived peptides on MHC class I are thought to be present mainly in monocyte-lineage cells and to involve phagocytosis- or macropinocytosis-mediated antigenic leakage into either cytosol or extracellular milieu to give peptide access to MHC class I. We show that maleylation of OVA enhanced its presentation to an OVA-specific MHC class I-restricted T cell line by both macrophages and B cells. This enhanced presentation involved uptake through receptors of scavenger receptor (SR)-like ligand specificity, was TAP-1-independent, and was inhibited by low levels (2 mM) of ammonium chloride. No peptide loading of bystander APCs by maleylated (maleyl) OVA-pulsed macrophages was detected. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA showed enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation through receptor-mediated uptake and remained highly sensitive to 2 mM ammonium chloride. However, if receptor binding of maleyl-OVA was inhibited by maleylated BSA, the residual presentation was relatively resistant to 2 mM ammonium chloride. Maleyl-OVA directly introduced into the cytosol via osmotic lysis of pinosomes was poorly presented, confirming that receptor-mediated presentation of exogenous maleyl-OVA was unlikely to involve a cytosolic pathway. Demaleylated maleyl-OVA was well presented as a cytosolic Ag, consistent with the dependence of cytosolic processing on protein ubiquitination. Thus, receptor-specific delivery of exogenous protein Ags to APCs can result in enhanced MHC class I-restricted presentation, suggesting that the exogenous pathway of peptide loading for MHC class I may be a constitutive property dependent mainly on the quantity of Ag taken up by APCs.  (+info)

Activation of the proteasomes of sand dollar eggs at fertilization depends on the intracellular pH rise. (7/1184)

The mechanism of the activation of intracellular proteasomes at fertilization was measured in living sand dollar eggs using the membrane-impermeant fluorogenic substrate, succinyl-Phe-Leu-Arg-coumarylamido-4-methanesulfonic acid. When the substrate was microinjected into unfertilized eggs, the initial velocity of hydrolysis of the substrate (V0) was low. V0 measured 5 to 10 min after fertilization was five to nine times the prefertilization level and remained high throughout the first cell cycle. Hydrolysis of the substrate was inhibited by clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, a specific inhibitor of the proteasome. There has been in vitro evidence that calcium may be involved in regulation of proteasome activity to either inhibit the increase in peptidase activity associated with PA 28 binding to the 20S proteasome or stimulate activity of the PA 700-proteasome complex. Since both intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) increase after fertilization, hydrolysis of the proteasome substrate was measured under conditions in which [Ca2+]i and pHi were varied independently during activation. When the pHi of unfertilized eggs was elevated by exposure to 15 mM ammonium chloride in pH 9 seawater, V0 increased to a level comparable to that measured after fertilization. In contrast, [Ca2+]i elevation without pHi change, induced by calcium ionophore in sodium-free seawater, had no effect on V0 in the unfertilized egg. Moreover, when unfertilized eggs were microinjected with buffers modulating pHi, V0 increased in a pH-dependent manner. These results indicate that the pHi rise at fertilization is the necessary prerequisite for activation of the proteasome, an essential component in the regulation of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Regulation of thick ascending limb ion transporter abundance in response to altered acid/base intake. (8/1184)

Changes in ammonium excretion with acid/base perturbations are dependent on changes in medullary ammonium accumulation mediated by active NH4+ absorption by the medullary thick ascending limb. To investigate whether alterations in the abundance of medullary thick ascending limb ion transporters, namely the apical Na+/K+(NH4+)/2Cl- -cotransporter (BSC-1), the apical Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE3), and the Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit, may be responsible in part for altered medullary ammonium accumulation, semiquantitative immunoblotting studies were performed using homogenates from the inner stripe of the rat renal outer medulla. After 7 d of NH4Cl (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) loading (associated with increased medullary ammonium accumulation), neither BSC-1 nor Na+/K+ -ATPase protein expression was altered, but NHE3 protein abundance was significantly increased. On the other hand, both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase protein abundance was increased significantly in rats fed NaHCO3 (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d) for 7 d. Rats fed a high-NaCl diet (7.7 mEq Na+/220 g body wt per d) for 5 d also showed marked increases in both BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase expression. The expression level of NHE3 protein did not change with either NaHCO3 or high NaCl intake. None of these three transporters showed a significant difference in abundance between the groups fed equimolar (7.2 mmol/220 g body wt per d for 7 d) NaHCO3 or NaCl. It is concluded that outer medullary BSC-1 and Na+/K+ -ATPase alpha1-subunit protein abundance is increased by chronic Na+ loading but not by acid/base perturbations and that outer medullary NHE3 protein abundance is increased by chronic NH4Cl loading.  (+info)

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The percent of ammonium chloride listed is in regards to the total weight of the ingredients used. After making a few batches, I have found that adding the ammonium chloride along with the sugar offers great results. Finally, here is an equation to figure out how much ammonium chloride to use, given you know what percentage you want to have:. K = Known Weight of Ingredients (Everything in the recipe except for Ammonium Chloride). X = Weight of Ammonium Chloride. Z = Xs % of Total Weight of Ingredients expressed as a decimal (e.g. 0.06 for 6%). T = Total Weight of Ingredients. Step 1: T = K / (1-Z). Step 2: T - K = X. Step 3: Make some salmiak licorice.. ...
Ammonium chloride based smoke is irritating to the eyes and lungs as it contains some remaining HCl and NH3. Ammonium chloride itself is not poisonous and is even used in some type of candy. But as with all fine powders a dust mask must be worn, and since ammonium chloride is irritating to the skin and damaging to the eyes, gloves and goggles are important. Acording to Shimizu, ammonium chloride forms an exception to the rule that ammonium compounds should not be mixed with chlorates. Due to the lower solubility of potassium chlorate (compared to ammonium chlorate) no ammonium chlorate should form. I personally would still use these mixtures with great caution (or avoid them) since it seems inevitable that small amounts of ammonium chlorate will still form. The lower solubility of potassium chlorate will make it the -main- product in a double decomposition reaction but not the -only- product. It is strongly advised not to mix with metal powders, specifically copper, because it will become ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ammonium chloride supplementation on urine pH and urinary fractional excretion of electrolytes in goats. AU - Mavangira, Vengai. AU - Cornish, Jennifer M.. AU - Angelos, John A. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Objective-To determine whether dietary supplementation with ammonium chloride would affect urine pH or urinary fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes in goats fed grass hay. Design-Clinical trial. Animals-15 yearling castrated male goats. Procedures-In the dose response study, 3 yearling goats fed orchard grass hay and water ad libitum were administered ammonium chloride at either 200, 400, or 500 mg/kg (91, 182, or 227 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours. In the FE study, 8 goats fed orchard grass hay were randomly divided into either a treatment (n = 4) or a control group (4). In the treatment group, ammonium chloride was administered at 450 mg/kg (2.25% of dry matter intake [DMI]), PO, every 24 hours for 8 days. The FE of electrolytes was compared between ...
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Chemical structure - NH4Cl. Shipped in a resealable foil bag. Ammonium Chloride is used in fluxes, chemistry experiments, textiles, along with a lot of other uses. As with all chemicals, ammonium chloride should be handled with care. MSDS and Spec Sheets can be found here. ...
Ammonium chloride is a white salt which is usually used in dry cells. This brief video demonstrates the synthesis of ammonium chloride.
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As a consequence of a reprogrammed metabolism, cancer cells are dependent on the amino acid l-glutamine for their survival, a phenomenon that currently forms the basis for the generation of new, cancer-specific therapies. In this paper, we report on the role which ammonium ions, a product of glutaminolysis, play on the survival of l-glutamine-deprived Sp2/0-Ag14 mouse hybridoma cells. The supplementation of l-glutamine-starved Sp2/0-Ag14 cell cultures with either ammonium acetate or ammonium chloride resulted in a significant increase in viability. This effect did not depend on the ability of cells to synthesize l-glutamine, and was not affected by the co-supplementation with α-ketoglutarate. When we examined the effect of ammonium acetate and ammonium chloride on the induction of apoptosis by glutamine deprivation, we found that ammonium salts did not prevent caspase-3 activation or cytochrome c leakage, indicating that they did not act by modulating core apoptotic processes. However, both ammonium
Ammonium chloride 12125-02-9,Mainly used in dry batteries, ammonium salts, tanning, electroplating, precision casting, medicine, photography, electrodes, adhesives_OKCHEM
US EPA PC Code ); 069167 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68956-79-6 (CAS number); 68956796; 68956796 (CAS number without hyphens); Alkyl* dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride *(60%C14, 30%C16, 5%C12, 5%C18); Alkyl*dimethylethylbenzylammoniumchloride*60%C1430%C165%C125%C18; Quaternary ammonium compounds, C12-18-alkyl((ethylphenyl)methyl)dimethyl, ...
Nominated Substances: Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. Nomination Date: 12/22/1987 Nominator: NIEHS Rationale: High production, potential for exposure, lack of toxicity data, structural interest in quaternary ammonium compounds. NTP Principles: Pre 1993 - 3, 8 Status: Selected ...
US EPA PC Code ); (US EPA PC Code ); 069175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68391-01-5 (CAS number); 68391015 (CAS number without hyphens); 769175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); Alkyl* dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride *(67%C12, 25%C14, 7%C16, 1%C18); Alkyl*dimethylbenzylammoniumchloride*67%C1225%C147%C161%C18; Maquat LC12S-50%; N-alkyl (67% C12, 25% C14, 7% C16, 1% C18) dimethyl benzyl ammonium ...
The report generally describes diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride(dadmac), examines its uses, production methods, patents. Diallyl dimethyl ammonium
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Ammonium Chloride is a white, crystalline solid with a number of uses. Industrially, the substance is used in soldering and textile printing and as a c...
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All of the shorter proteins specific improperly to the mobile area.We even further characterized pH regulation in the AP1 cell line that contains the NHE1 6747-15-5 protein with the MEDChem Express 1009298-09-2 sequence shortened to amino acid 735. In Fig 3C we illustrate the Na+/H+ exchanger activity of the protein that was corrected for the sum of NHE1 protein expressed and focused to the mobile area. The effects demonstrate that the level of action of this protein is nonetheless reduced relative to that of the management.We when compared the intracellular pH of wild type cells with that of the NHE1 protein with the sequence shortened to amino acid 735. Equally the resting intracellular pH, prior to ammonium chloride treatment method, and the degree of acidification induced by ammonium chloride , did not change amongst wild form and 735-NHE1 protein that contains cells. Cells recovering from an acute acid load induced by ammonium chloride, attain a plateau three minutes after recovery ...
Active Ingredients:. Octyl decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 1.627%. Dioctyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 0.814%. Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 0.814%. Alkyl (50% C14, 40% C12, 10% C16) dimethyl benzyl ammounium chloride 2.170%. Inert Ingredients 94.575%. Total 100.000% EPA Registration Number: 1839-169-82023. EPA EST. Number: 62620-OR-1. ...
You really need to add some water to your experiment. Sugar (sucrose) will aid the solubilization of lime. I would prepare a 10% sucrose solution and add that to the lime. Stir for 5 minutes or so and then add the ammonium chloride. The lime does not need to completely dissolve. I would use a 5:1 ratio of sucrose solution to lime. The amount of ammonium chloride should be 1.5 times the amount of the lime added ...
Read at Washington, D. C., 1930, by F. J. Liscom Chicago Branch. How does iron get into the bath?. In what form is it held in solution?. What effect does it have on the anode?. Effect on the steel tank and steel anode rods of a silver solution?. Work is pickled in sulphuric acid-hydrochloric acid?. Neutralizing of pickling acid?. Rinse water as source of impurities in-plating solutions?. Effect of ammonium chloride in nickel solution?. Effect of ammonium chloride in acid copper solution on the anode?. Effect of chlorides in a silver bath-sodium chloride-ammonium chloride-and mixture of both?. Why the addition of sal ammoniac to cyanide solutions?. Introduction of Iron Into Alkaline Cleaning and Plating Solutions. From time to time a request for credit comes through the mail for a steel plating tank that has failed, i. e., showed signs of corrosion or actually perforated. Many tanks have been replaced with new ones only to have a repeat request for another. There have been so many steel tanks ...
NH4 Cl ; isometric; and colorless. When dissolved in water, it is used as an electrolyte for some primary cells. Obtained as a byproduct in gas manufacture. Used as a flux in soldering. Also called sal ammoniac. Crispin Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Scientists at the Toko University, Puzih City, in the investion of Calvatia lilacina protein-extract induces apoptosis through glutathione depletion in human colorectal carcinoma cells, reported that a novel protein extract isolated from Calvatia lilacina (CL) can induce cell death against four types of human colorectal cancer cells. Importantly, CL was shown to be free of apoptotic effects against normal rat liver cells. We have also identified that CL-induced glutathione (GSH) depletion is the major contributor responsible for the apoptotic cell death induction of SW 480 cells, as evidenced by the observation that exogenously added N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or GSH, but not vitamin C, could offer a near complete protection of CL-treated cells against apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) evoked a drop in the transmembrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) in the CL-induced apoptotic cell death(2 ...
Methanogenic grannules from sewage-fed 298-day old UASB reactor having high abundance of Nitrospira sp. were evaluated for simultaneous methanogenesis and nitrification. Batch experiments were conducted under anaerobic and oxygen limited condition using either 0.04% (v/v) methanol (C) or ammonium chloride (3
Ive read all the cycling information. I had plain dechlorinated water in the tank for several weeks. No live plants or anything. Plenty of aeration. I bought Dr. Tims Ammonium Chloride and followed directions. After a couple of times adding every few days I finally got an ammonia reading around 1.0. Meantime I had already added an old biomax bag from another aquarium as well as a sponge behind the filter pad. After I got the ammonia reading I poured the sludge from cleaning my other
albumen paper: Light-sensitive paper prepared by coating with albumen, or egg white, and a salt (e.g., ammonium chloride) and sensitized by an aftertreatment with a solution of silver nitrate....
Repeat steps 2b-c for the solutions containing 5.00, 4.50, and 4.00 gof ammonium chloride. Note: A cold-water bath may be needed to hasten the crytallization of the 4.00g sample. Conclusion The solubility of a solid dissolved in a liquid is often larger when the temperature is higher, but smaller when the temperature is lower. We demonstrated this effect by allowing a hot salt solution to cool and then observing the temperature at which the solid begins to crystallize. Bibliography Chemistry lab manual pg. 71- ...
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Weak bases MCAT tutorial video - learn how to find pH and pOH for weak bases using both ka and kb values. Learn the concepts along with non-calculator tricks and shortcuts to help you save time on your exam
HPLC Application #24183: Sugars Sample on Sphereclone 5 µm NH2 HPLC-RI original 20min. Column used: SphereClone™ 5 µm NH2 80 A, LC Column 150 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00F-4147-E0
Get an answer for Classify if NH^4NO^3 is a strong or weak acid, a strong or weak base, or a salts? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
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The dissolution kinetics of malachite ore in ammonium chloride solutions has been investigated with respect to the effects of ammonium chloride concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio, stirring speed, and reaction temperature. It was determined that the dissolution rate increased with increasing ammonium chloride concentration, stirring speed, and reaction temperature. However, increasing particle diameter and solid to liquid ratio decreased the dissolution rate. Examination of data by heterogeneous model suggested that the dissolution rate is controlled by mixture kinetics. The following mathematical model was proposed to represent the reaction kinetics. ...
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ACK (Ammonium-Chloride-Potassium) lysing buffer[edit]. ACK is used for lysis of red blood cells in biological samples where ... and cationic detergents like ethyl trimethyl ammonium bromide are denaturing (will disrupt protein functions).[6] Detergents ...
... ammonium chloride • alcohol • camphor sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) • hydrochloric acid • nitric acid • acetic acid • formic ...
Ammonium chloride. NH4Cl. 3.3 oz/gal. 24.7 g/L. Boric acid. H3BO3. 4 oz/gal. 29.96 g/L. ... All-chloride[edit]. All-Chloride solutions allow for the deposition of thick nickel coatings. They do this because they run at ... Sulfate-chloride[edit]. A Sulfate-Chloride bath operates at lower voltages than a Watts bath and provide a higher rate of ... Nickel chloride. NiCl2·6H2O. 60-150 g/L. 8-20 oz/gal. 30-45 g/L. 4-6 oz/gal. ...
Ammonium chloride Solid NH4Cl −314.55 Nitrogen dioxide Gas NO2 33.2 ...
ammonium agents. *ultra-short duration: Gantacurium. *short duration: Mivacurium. *Chandonium. *intermediate duration: ... Dimethyltubocurarinium chloride (INN; also known as metocurine chloride (USAN) and dimethyltubocurarine chloride) is a non- ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dimethyltubocurarinium_chloride&oldid=898926034" ...
Ammonium salts, e.g. Ammonium chloride, sulphate and nitrate. Metal salts e.g. Magnesium chloride, Zinc nitrate, Zinc chloride ... Catalyst mixture e.g. magnesium chloride with added organic and inorganic acids or acid donors. The purpose of the additives is ... chloride, bromite, hydrogen peroxide) Depending on the sizing materials that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a ... with the addition of either sodium chloride, sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate. Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather ...
Titrations for cobalt and nickel are carried out in an ammoniacal environment; buffered with ammonia:ammonium chloride solution ... Endpoints are very sharp, and with care, chloride concentrations down to 15 mg/L can be analyzed. Bromide and chloride may be ... For instance, benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary type cationic surfactant) may be determined in cleaners and algaecides for ... The reaction of silver nitrate with chloride is strongly exothermic. For instance, the reaction enthalpy of Ag+ with Cl− is a ...
When ammonium chloride salt is placed on ice when the ambient temperature is greater than −17.8 °C (0 °F), the salt melts some ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). 5. −15.5 °C / 4 °F / 257.5 K. ... A mixture of ammonium chloride, water, and ice form a ... Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). 1. −15.5 °C / 4 °F / 257.5 K. ... Calcium chloride (CaCl2). 3. Sulphuric acid, dilute (H2SO4). 10 ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). 5. −12 °C / 10 °F / 261 K. ...
... can be synthesized by: catalytic hydration of butyronitrile; reaction of butyryl chloride with ammonium salts; ...
Liquorice candy flavoured with ammonium chloride. Polkagris Traditional peppermint stick candy from Gränna, also made in other ...
... ammonium chloride is also produced. The following scheme shows the reaction mechanism: By addition of hydrogen chloride the ... chloride (3a and 3b). The resulting salt (4) precipitates after some time as aldimine tin chloride (5). Hydrolysis of 5 ... However, it has been found that this step is unnecessary and the aldimine tin chloride can be hydrolysed directly in the ... In the past, the reaction was carried out by precipitating the aldimine-tin chloride, washing it with ether and then ...
One method entails treating formaldehyde with ammonium chloride. NH4Cl + H2CO → [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2O [CH2=NH2]Cl + H2CO + H2O → [ ...
... a unit for zinc and ammonium chloride production; and an air preheater. Capacity was doubled between 1975 and 1984. A second ...
... sodium chloride. The salty taste is due to ammonium chloride. Strong, salty sweets are also popular in Nordic countries. Dried ... Mixing it with ammonium chloride (salmiak) is also popular. A popular liquorice in the Netherlands is known as zoute drop ( ...
Dax, E. C. (1940) Convulsion therapy by ammonium chloride. Journal of Mental Science 86: 660-667. Dax, E. C. (1951) Indications ...
... and ammonium chloride, ammonium phosphate, borax, and various acids. These early attempts found application in reducing the ...
This is one explanation given why 0 °F is −17.78 °C, but the ammonium chloride cooling temperature actually is −3 °C, whereas ... "Sal Armoniac" was an impure form of ammonium chloride. The French chemist Nicolas Lémery (1645 - 1715) discussed it in his book ... and ammonium chloride (salis Armoniaci). This is a frigorific mixture which stabilizes its temperature automatically: that ...
He initially made ammonia, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride. Karl Ludwig Reimann, a chemist, joined the business in 1828 ...
Common fluxes are: ammonium chloride or rosin for soldering tin; hydrochloric acid and zinc chloride for soldering galvanized ... The compounds used include metal halides (most often zinc chloride or ammonium chloride), hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ... zinc chloride, which at high temperatures reacts with moisture, forming oxychloride and hydrochloric acid ammonium chloride, ... At high temperatures, copper oxide reacts with hydrogen chloride to water-soluble and mechanically weak copper chloride, and ...
Tetramethyl ammonium chloride reacts with BCl3 to make (CH3)4NBCl4. Then the tetrachloroborate is reacted with N2O4 at around - ... The density of tetramethyl ammonium nitratoborate is 1.555. It is colourless and crystalline. As tetramethyl ammonium ... Above 112° it is exothermic, and a solid is left if it is heated to 160 °C. Tetramethyl ammonium nitratoborate is insoluble in ... It has formula [B(NO3)4]−. It can form salts with large cations such as tetramethyl ammonium nitratoborate, or tetraethyl ...
"Sal Armoniac" was an impure form of ammonium chloride. The French chemist Nicolas Lémery (1645 - 1715) discussed it in his book ... and ammonium chloride (salis Armoniaci).[6] This is a frigorific mixture which stabilizes its temperature automatically: that ... ammonium chloride).[2] Further limits were established as the melting point of ice (32 °F) and his best estimate of the average ... but the ammonium chloride cooling temperature actually is −3 °C, whereas that of NaCl is −21.1 °C; the other explanation is ...
Evaluation of ammonium chloride as a urinary acidifier in the cat. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1984 ... This is to maintain the plasma's electrical balance, as the chloride anions have been extracted. The bicarbonate content causes ... During hydrochloric acid secretion in the stomach, the gastric parietal cells extract chloride anions, carbon dioxide, water ...
... is also the archaic name for the chemical compound ammonium chloride. The Romans called the ammonium chloride ... Sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) was the electrolyte in Leclanche cells, a forerunner of the dry battery; a carbon rod and a ... Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl. It forms colorless, white, or yellow-brown crystals in the ... In any case, that salt ultimately gave ammonia and ammonium compounds their name. It typically forms as encrustations formed by ...
The quaternary ammonium compound Dimethyloctadecyl (3-trimethoxysilyl propyl) ammonium chloride (Si-QAC) has been found to have ... Many other quaternary ammonium compounds are known to have antimicrobial properties (e.g. alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride ... 1972). "Surface-Bonded Antimicrobial Activity of an Organosilicon Quaternary Ammonium Chloride". Applied Microbiology. 24 (6): ... Quaternary ammonium ion-containing polymers (PQA) have been proven to effectively kill cells and spores through their ...
Part V. The reciprocal salt-pair, ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride; J. Chem. Soc., Trans., 1923, 123, 841 - 849 (with ... 40 186-192 (with William Donald Urry) The properties of ammonium nitrate. ...
... mineral salt Ammonium carbonate - mineral salt Ammonium chloride - mineral salt Ammonium ferric citrate - food acid Ammonium ... mineral salt Ammonium lactate - food acid Ammonium malate - food acid Ammonium phosphates - mineral salt Ammonium phosphatides ... Amchur (mango powder) Ammonium acetate - preservative, acidity regulator Ammonium adipates - acidity regulator Ammonium ... emulsifier Ammonium polyphosphates - anti-caking agent Ammonium sulfate - mineral salt, improving agent Amylases - flour ...
C8-18-Alkydimethylbenzyl ammonium chlorides. 063449-41-2. 0.1-1.0. Cocamide MEA. 068140-00-1. ...
Zinc ammonium chloride is a Class 9 hazardous material (Miscellaneous) according to the U.S. DOT. "Zinc Ammonium Chloride". ... Zinc ammonium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2ZnCl4. It is the ammonium salt of tetrachlorozincate. ... Zinc ammonium chloride flux in aqueous solution is applied to the steel to reduce any oxides that are formed and/or inhibit ... Hironori Matsunaga (1982). "X-Ray Structural Study of the Successive Phase Transitions in Ammonium Tetrachlorozincate, (NH4) ...
... is a ammonium salt (CHEBI:47704) ammonium chloride (CHEBI:31206) is a inorganic chloride (CHEBI ... CHEBI:31206 - ammonium chloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks copper and its ... This produces toxic and irritating fumes (nitrogen oxides, ammonia and hydrogen chloride). The solution in water is a weak acid ...
Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl dimethyl octadecyl ammonium chloride, U.S.National Library of ... Dimethyloctadecyl(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium chloride (DTSACl) is a disinfectant used as a preservative and fungicide. ... Medicine, May 2017 "Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride solution". Sigma-Aldrich. ...
... fume; Ammonium uriate; Katapone VV-328; Quaternary ammonium chloride *Information on this page: *Mass ... Other names: (NH4)Cl; Ammonium chloride ((NH4)Cl); Amchlor; Ammoneric; Ammoniumchlorid; Ammonium muriate; Chlorid amonny; ...
Ammonium chloride is a combination of two necessary elements for plant growth -- nitrogen and chlorine. Both are naturally ... Ammonium chloride increased crop yields by up to 40 percent over crops with no chloride added, according to a multi-year study ... Ammonium chloride is a medium-strength nitrogen fertilizer compared to other ammonium-based products. The nitrogen percentage ... Ammonium chloride is a combination of two necessary elements for plant growth -- nitrogen and chlorine. Both are naturally ...
Synonym(s): AMMONIUM CHLORIDE ( (NH4) CL) ; AMMONIUM MURIATE; SAL AMMONIAC; SALMIAC; AMCHLOR; AMMONERIC; AMMONIUM CHLORIDE ( ... About AMMONIUM CHLORIDE: Ammonium Chloride is an inorganic salt.. Function(s): Fragrance Ingredient; Viscosity Increasing Agent ...
Alkalis & their carbonates, lead & silver salts, strong oxidizers, ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, bromine trifluoride [ ...
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... the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the ... For related crystal structures containing the tri-benzyl-ammonium cation, see: Kozhomuratova et al. (2007. ); Jarvinen et al. ( ... The asymmetric unit of tribenzylammonium chloride consists of one third of a (C6H5CH2)3NH+ cation and an Cl- anion (Fig. 1). ... tribenzylammonium chloride C21H21NH+·Cl-, from the reaction of [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] with Sn(CH3)3Cl. Together with C21H21NH+· ...
ammonium chloride synonyms, ammonium chloride pronunciation, ammonium chloride translation, English dictionary definition of ... ammonium chloride. n. A slightly hygroscopic, white crystalline compound, NH4Cl, used in dry cells, as a soldering flux, and as ... Ammonium acetate Ammonium chloride Ammonium fluoride,Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate ,Ammonium meta vandate (mono vandate,Ammonium ... ammonium Acetate Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Fluoride,ammonium Ferrous Sulphate ,ammonium Meta Vandate (mono Vandate,ammonium ...
No se debe utilizar esta información para decidir si se debe tomar este medicamento o cualquier otro. Solamente el proveedor de atención médica tiene el conocimiento y la capacitación para decidir qué medicamentos son adecuados para un paciente específico. Esta información no recomienda ningún medicamento como seguro, eficaz o aprobado para tratar a ningún paciente o enfermedad. Es solamente un breve resumen de información general sobre este medicamento. NO incluye toda la información sobre los usos, las instrucciones, las advertencias, las precauciones, las interacciones, los efectos secundarios o los riegos posibles que podrían aplicarse a este medicamento. Esta información no constituye asesoramiento médico específico y no reemplaza la información que usted recibe de su proveedor de atención médica. Debe hablar con el proveedor de atención médica para obtener información completa sobre los riesgos y los beneficios de tomar este medicamento.. ...
Sal Ammoniac, Ammonium Muriate. Source Neutralize Gas Liquor with Sulphuric Acid, converting all to Ammonium Sulphate. 2Nh4ho ... Ammonium Chloride. Amnonii Chloridum. Ammonium Chloride. Nh4c1 = 53.38. Synonyms. - Sal Ammoniac, Ammonium Muriate. ... Troches of Ammonium Chloride. Ammonium Chloride, 10; Extract of Glycyrrhiza, 25; Tragacanth, l2; Sugar, 50 gm.; Syrup of Tolu, ... Action of Ammonium Chloride. Locally applied, ammonium chloride increases the secretion of mucous membranes, and to a slight ...
Ammonium chloride. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] Trade names [23] IUPAC names [15] ...
Ammonium chloride is an acid, although it is only mildly acidic. It is often used as a medication to treat people whose blood ... Ammonium chloride is an acid, although it is only mildly acidic. It is often used as a medication to treat people whose blood ... Ammonium chloride also has a number of other uses; like most chemical compounds, its uses vary widely. For instance, the ... Equation for Dissolution of Ammonium Chloride * Chemical Formula for Ammonium Chloride * Ammonium Chloride Mixed with Water ...
Poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) was modified with epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETA) through interfacial ... Modification of SMA Using Epoxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride for Carbon Black Dispersing ...
Your FREE PDF is on its way. Please check your email. You will also be receiving the weekly Make: Newsletter to keep you inspired with new projects and more product reviews.. ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for ammonium chloride/chlorpheniramine/dextromethorphan/ephedrine/ipecac/ ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine Rating. No reviews - Add your ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine Disease Interactions. *Drug ... Ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / ephedrine / ipecac / phenylephrine drug interactions. There are 985 ...
... Nomination Summary for Benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride ( ... Rationale: High production, potential for exposure, lack of toxicity data, structural interest in quaternary ammonium compounds ...
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, BENZYL-C8-18-ALKYLDIMETHYL, CHLORIDES can be found in 3 products. ... Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants Cause Subfertility in Mice by Targeting both Male and Female Reproductive Processes. ... Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 50, ... A peer-reviewed publication reports some quaternary ammonium compounds cause reproductive toxicity in animals. ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between 5-HTP and ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine. View ... Drug interactions between 5-HTP and ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine. Edit this list ... Applies to: ammonium chloride / chlorpheniramine / codeine / phenylephrine and 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) ...
D08AJ06 - Didecyldimethylammonium chloride*V07AV - Technical Disinfectants. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, ...
... ammonium chloride buy online Wholesalers - choose ammonium chloride buy from 431 list of China ammonium chloride buy ... ammonium chloride buy. 431 Results. All Verified ammonium chloride buy suppliers & ammonium chloride buy manufacturers have ... Ammonium chloride CAS: 12125-02-9 English name: Ammonium chloride Chinese name: Ammonium chloride MF: ClH4N MW: 53.49146 ... Synonyms: Hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride solution, N-N-N trimethyl chloride, CTAC, Quaternary ammonium compound, Aliquat ...
... chloride , C25H44ClNO2 , CID 106131 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
  • The operation focuses on identification, monitoring and seizure of consignments of all illicit precursor chemicals especially Acetic Anhydride, Acetyl Chloride, Acetic Acid and Ammonium Chloride , being transported to Afghanistan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As with all chemicals, ammonium chloride should be handled with care. (alphachemicals.com)
  • It also assesses the dynamics of country's foreign trade in ammonium chloride in 2007-2017. (marketpublishers.com)
  • In this report, the global Ammonium Chloride market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (bigmarketresearch.com)
  • An inorganic chloride having ammonium as the counterion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ammonium Chloride is an inorganic salt. (ewg.org)
  • Spectrum carries high quality ammonium chloride which is an inorganic white crystalline salt considered highly soluble in water. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Poly Aluminium Chloride short for PAC is a new type high performance inorganic macromolecule flocculating agent and its hydrolysis products of AlCl3 and Al OH 3 The poly aluminium chloride is freely soluble into water and has quite strong adsorptivity many physic chemical reaction such as sedimentation adsorption. (akdchemical.nl)
  • Poly aluminium chloride PAC is a new type high efficiency inorganic polymer coagulant adopting advanced manufacturing technique and quality raw material show the features of low impurity high molecula weight and superior coagulating effect Company profile Established in 1999 located in Yanzhou Chemical Industrial Park. (akdchemical.nl)
  • Poly aluminium chloride PAC is a new type high efficiency inorganic polymer coagulant adopting advanced manufacturing technique and quality raw material show the features of low impurity high molecula weight and superior coagulating effect I Poly Aluminium Chloride Properties 1 Its dosage lower than aluminum sulfate. (akdchemical.nl)
  • Ammonium chloride which is inexpensive and readily available reagent catalyzes the thia-michael addition reaction of thiols in water efficiently. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tricaprylylmethylammonium Chloride, also known as aliquat 336, is used as a metal extraction reagent and a phase transfer catalyst. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • A sample of solid ammonium chloride was placed in an evacuated container and then heated so that it decomposed to ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride gas. (bartleby.com)
  • In addition to being the principal method for the manufacture of ammonium chloride, that method is used to minimize ammonia release in some industrial operations. (chemtradeasia.com)
  • Chloride, a salt form of the element, should not be confused with chlorine, the gas form of the element which is manufactured from chloride. (ehow.com)
  • It is the ammonium salt of tetrachlorozincate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013). In the course of our ongoing studies on organotin(IV) chemistry, we serendipitously isolated the title salt, tribenzylammonium chloride C 21 H 21 NH + ·Cl - , from the reaction of [(C 6 H 5 CH 2 ) 3 NH] 2 [HPO 4 ] with Sn(CH 3 ) 3 Cl. (iucr.org)
  • In order to improve the utilization rate of raw salt in soda production, China's famous chemist Hou Debang successfully created soda and ammonium chloride dual manufacture process in sichuan in 1943. (eceurope.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is a white salt which is usually used in dry cells. (dnatube.com)
  • as, chloride of sodium (common salt). (freedictionary.org)
  • Also it is used in galvanizing, tinning, medicine, candle making, adhesive, chromizing and precision casting and producing dry and storage batteries and other ammonium salt. (richase.com)
  • Salt: Sodium chloride. (albasancamillo.it)
  • Ammonium chloride is a clear white water soluble crystalline salt of ammonia in its pure state. (albasancamillo.it)
  • In general, ammonium chloride should not be administered to uremic patients as it may intensify the metabolic acidosis already existing in some of these patients. (elephantcare.org)
  • In conclusion, negative DCAD induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion resulted in a metabolic acidosis, had a negative influence on performance, and increased serum enzymes indicating potential liver and kidney damage in lactating dairy cows. (ajas.info)
  • The small amounts of ammonium in cough mixtures will hardly affect breastfeeding or the infant. (e-lactancia.org)
  • I personally would still use these mixtures with great caution (or avoid them) since it seems inevitable that small amounts of ammonium chlorate will still form. (pyrodata.com)
  • The report will be of considerable interest primarily to relevant strategic planners, senior company officials and importers/exporters, since it features invaluable information on ammonium chloride export/import operations in Hungary. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is a combination of two necessary elements for plant growth -- nitrogen and chlorine. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is one of many forms of nitrogen that are used on crops, lawns and gardens. (ehow.com)
  • The chloride also significantly increased the time it took for nitrogen to disappear from unlimed soil. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonium chloride is used as one of main nitrogen source for the fertilizers. (chemtradeasia.com)
  • The ammonium cation is converted by the liver to urea with the release of a hydrogen ion. (elephantcare.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to determine ammonium chloride tolerance of lactating dairy cows, by examining effects of negative dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) induced by ruminal ammonium chloride infusion on performance, serum and urine minerals, serum metabolites and enzymes of lactating dairy cows. (ajas.info)