A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
This molecule is tetrahedral, with planar nitrogen centers.[13] ... With ammonia, titanium nitride is formed. An illustrative ... This property reflects the fact that molecules of TiCl4 are weakly self-associate. Most metal chlorides are polymers, wherein ... This configuration leads to highly symmetrical structures, hence the tetrahedral shape of the molecule. TiCl4 adopts similar ...
Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur (these ... were thought then to be derived from ammonia. The vitamins were studied in the first half of the 20th century. ... Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are ... This is made possible by the fact that largely inert atmospheric nitrogen is changed in a nitrogen fixation process to ...
Nitrogen inversion in ammonia also entails transient formation of planar NH 3. Geometrical constraints in a molecule can cause ... Other molecules have a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs around a central atom; for example ammonia (NH 3) with the ... Tetrahedral molecules can be chiral. The bond angle for a symmetric tetrahedral molecule such as CH4 may be calculated using ... Methane and other perfectly symmetrical tetrahedral molecules belong to point group Td, but most tetrahedral molecules have ...
Many of the heavy metal simple imide molecules are linear. This is due to the filled 2p orbital of nitrogen donating electrons ... When barium vapour is heated with ammonia in an electrical discharge, the gaseous, molecular BaNH is formed. Molecules ScNH, ... The imido ligand is part of a nitrogen fixation cycle: Mo•N2 → Mo-N=N− → Mo-N=NH (diazenido) → Mo-N=NH2+ → Mo=N-NH2 (hydrazido ... Many imides have a cubic rock salt structure, with the metal and nitrogen occupying the main positions. The position of the ...
In ammonia the trigonal pyramid undergoes rapid nitrogen inversion. The electron pair arrangement of ammonia is tetrahedral: ... the molecule belongs to point group C3v. Some molecules and ions with trigonal pyramidal geometry are the pnictogen hydrides ( ... The nitrogen in ammonia has 5 valence electrons and bonds with three hydrogen atoms to complete the octet. This would result in ... Chem, Chemistry, Structures, and 3D Molecules[permanent dead link] Indiana University Molecular Structure Center Interactive ...
The molecule consists of a nitrogen atom with two methyl substituents and one proton. Dimethylamine is a weak base and the pKa ... This secondary amine is a colorless, flammable gas with an ammonia-like odor. Dimethylamine is commonly encountered ... Dimethylamine is produced by catalytic reaction of methanol and ammonia at elevated temperatures and high pressure: 2 CH3OH + ...
For example, nitrogen isotope reference materials include N-bearing molecules such ammonia (NH3), atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), ... For sulfur the scale is defined by IAEA-S-1 and is reported relative to VCDT, while for nitrogen the scale is both defined by ... "Nitrogen isotope abundance measurements". Iowa State University, Ames Laboratory ISC Technical Reports. Baertschi, P. (1976). " ... Each of the major stable isotope systems (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur) has a wide variety of references ...
Ammonia then performs a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon. The oxygen deprotonates hydrogen from nitrogen to form a ... The oxygen is protonated by abstracting hydrogen from the nitrogen atom, subsequently forming a water molecule that leaves, ... A notable example of the Leuckart reaction is its use in the synthesis of tetrahydro-1,4 benzodiazepin-5-one, a molecule that ... Ammonium ion is added forming an imine and releasing ammonia. The imine goes through hydrolysis to form the amine, which is ...
The ammonia molecule (NH3) has three pairs of electrons involved in bonding, but there is a lone pair of electrons on the ... For example in the molecule methyl isocyanate (H3C-N=C=O), the two carbons and one nitrogen are central atoms, and the three ... In effect, they considered nitrogen dioxide as an AX2E0.5 molecule, with a geometry intermediate between NO+ 2 and NO− 2. ... just as do the five bonding pairs of a PCl5 molecule. The steric number of a central atom in a molecule is the number of atoms ...
Ammonia molecule, where the Nitrogen atom can be either above or below the plane defined by the three Hydrogen atoms. H+ 2 ... The splitting of the energy levels of an atom or molecule when subjected to an external electric field is known as the Stark ... molecule, in which the electron may be localized around either of the two nuclei. The corrections to the Coulomb interaction ...
Ammonia and nitrate may serve as nitrogen sources in this case. It is a chemoorganoheterotroph with a small range of substrates ... This small range includes primarily aliphatic carbon molecules, Tweens (derivatives of fatty acid esters of sorbitan), and ...
Nitrogen is the most commonly used plant nutrient. Naturally occurring nitrogen (N2) is a diatomic molecule which makes up ... Commonly, anhydrous ammonia, ammonium nitrate, and urea are used as bioavailable sources of nitrogen. Other nutrients needed by ... Most plants cannot directly consume diatomic nitrogen, therefore nitrogen must be contained as a component of other chemical ... Like nitrogen, plants require these substances to live but they must be contained in other chemical substances such as ...
... like guanine and adenine could be synthesized from simple carbon and nitrogen sources like hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. ... a product molecule and two precursor molecules. The product molecule joins together the precursor molecules, which in turn ... Complex molecules, including organic molecules, form naturally both in space and on planets. There are two possible sources of ... These molecules were not present on early Earth, but other amphiphilic long-chain molecules also form membranes. Furthermore, ...
When ammonia comes into contact with the heated work piece it dissociates into nitrogen and hydrogen. The nitrogen then ... In this technique intense electric fields are used to generate ionized molecules of the gas around the surface to be nitrided. ... In gas nitriding the donor is a nitrogen-rich gas, usually ammonia (NH3), which is why it is sometimes known as ammonia ... In the plasma nitriding processes, nitrogen gas (N2) is usually the nitrogen carrying gas. Other gasses like hydrogen or Argon ...
The inhibitor hinders the oxidation of ammonia nitrogen, which supplies the nitrogenous BOD (nBOD). When performing the BOD5 ... whereas cBOD is produced by the breakdown of organic molecules. BOD5 is calculated by: Unseeded: B O D 5 = ( D 0 − D 5 ) P {\ ... Ammonia oxidation is inhibited. The sample is kept in a sealed container fitted with a pressure sensor. A substance that ... Oxygen is consumed and, as ammonia oxidation is inhibited, carbon dioxide is released. The total amount of gas, and thus the ...
... technique intense electric fields are used to generate ionized molecules of the gas around the surface to diffuse the nitrogen ... The atmosphere consisted of ammonia, hydrocarbon gases, and a small amount of other carbon-containing gases. This spurred the ... The shared attributes of this class of this process is the introduction of nitrogen and carbon in the ferritic state of the ... The gas used for plasma nitriding is usually pure nitrogen, since no spontaneous decomposition is needed (as is the case of ...
In effect, they considered nitrogen dioxide as an AX2E0.5 molecule, with a geometry intermediate between NO+. 2 and NO−. 2. ... The ammonia molecule (NH3) has three pairs of electrons involved in bonding, but there is a lone pair of electrons on the ... Odd-electron molecules[edit]. The VSEPR theory can be extended to molecules with an odd number of electrons by treating the ... Molecule type Shape[2]:413-414 Electron arrangement[2]:413-414 including lone pairs, shown in pale yellow Geometry[2]:413-414 ...
A lone pair of electrons from one of the nitrogen atoms on the Urea molecule creates a double bond with the central carbon, and ... As ureases they hydrolyze urea to produce ammonia and carbonic acid. As the bacteria are localized to the stomach ammonia ... A hydrogen bonds to one of the nitrogen atoms, breaking its bond with carbon, and releasing an NH3 molecule. Simultaneously, ... A pair of electrons from the nitrogen-carbon double bond returns to the nitrogen and neutralizes the charge on it, while the ...
Pan, Baobao; Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Deli (2016). "Ammonia Volatilization from Synthetic Fertilizers and ... Regarding its chemical structure, the molecule features tetrahedral phosphorus bonded to sulfur and three amido groups. NBPT ... intended to limit the release of nitrogen-containing gases following fertilization. ... Urease, pervasive in soil microorganisms, converts urea into ammonia, which is susceptible to volatilization if produced faster ...
For example, molecular nitrogen is an inert gas under ordinary conditions, existing as diatomic molecules, N 2. The presence of ... the Haber process uses such conditions to produce ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen. Inert atmospheres consisting of gases such ... Nevertheless, nitrogen gas does react with the alkali metal lithium to form compound lithium nitride (Li3N), even under ... "The Haber Process for the manufacture of ammonia". www.chemguide.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-08-26. "BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Noble gases ...
Both liberate ammonia upon heating in water ; however, the sulfamic acid reverts to sulfuric acid , in place of the CO2 that ... Sulphur-nitrogen compounds. Part I. The hydrolysis of sulphamate ion in perchloric acid". Journal of the Chemical Society ( ... In the solid state, the molecule of sulfamic acid is well described by a zwitterionic form. Aqueous solutions of sulfamic acid ... Furthermore, a neutron diffraction study located the hydrogen atoms, all three of which are 1.03 Å distant from the nitrogen. ...
Nitrogenase is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen molecules N2 into ammonia (NH3) through the ... 5 Structure and Spectroscopic Properties of Metallo-sulfur Clusters Nitrogen Fixation at the Millennium. Elsevier Science B. V ... but the terminal molybdenum is also a candidate for nitrogen fixation. G.J. Leigh. Ch. ... process known as nitrogen fixation. Containing iron and molybdenum, the cofactor is called FeMoco. Its stoichiometry is ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae can assimilate nitrogen from both inorganic (ammonia and ammonium) and organic forms (amino acids, ... Inositol - involved with the secondary messenger molecules that facilitate cell division.. *Trace amounts of calcium, chlorine ... and yeast assimilable nitrogen (ammonia and amino acids or YAN) but also minerals (such as magnesium) and vitamins (such as ... Hydrogen sulfide - Often produced by yeast during fermentation because of a nitrogen deficiency in the must. This can be done ...
Ammonia (as ammonium) is then excreted predominantly as urea, synthesised in the liver. Transamination can thus be linked to ... However, in the solid state and mildly acid water solutions, the molecule assumes an electrically neutral zwitterion structure ... Glutamate also plays an important role in the body's disposal of excess or waste nitrogen. Glutamate undergoes deamination, an ... In sufficiently acidic environments, the amino group gains a proton and the molecule becomes a cation with a single positive ...
"Health". Nitrogen Dioxide. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 14 February 2013. "The Regional Transport of Ozone: ... Hydrocarbons are the main components of petroleum fuels such as gasoline and diesel fuel.) These molecules react with sunlight ... heat, ammonia, moisture, and other compounds to form the noxious vapours, ground level ozone, and particles that comprise smog ... The major culprits from transportation sources are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO and NOx), volatile organic ...
... convert nitrogen gas into molecules such as ammonia. Immobilizing the protein onto an electrode surface and employing an ... Nitrogenase, an enzyme that contains a MoFe cluster, can be leveraged to fix atmospheric nitrogen, i.e. ... "Advances in Electrocatalysis for Energy Conversion and Synthesis of Organic Molecules". ChemPhysChem. 18 (19): 2573-2605. doi: ...
Several different molecules can serve as the nitrogen donor for the transamination, however, Hubbard et al suspect L-tyrosine ... Finally, 4-hydroxyphenylglycine transaminase (HpgT) transfers an ammonia moiety from a donor to 4-hydroxylbenzoylformate to ...
The molecule has a symmetric tetrahedral cage-like structure, similar to adamantane, whose four "corners" are nitrogen atoms ... It decomposes at an acidic pH to form formaldehyde and ammonia, and the formaldehyde is bactericidal; the mandelic acid adds to ... The molecule behaves like an amine base, undergoing protonation and N-alkylation (e.g. Quaternium-15). The dominant use of ... Although the molecular shape defines a cage, no void space is available at the interior for binding other atoms or molecules, ...
The reaction uses one water molecule and yields ammonia as a side-product: PADs are found in chordates but not in lower animals ... In the reaction from arginine to citrulline, one of the terminal nitrogen atoms of the arginine side chain is replaced by an ...
M. scandinavica also uses ammonia and nitrate as nitrogen sources. These precursor metabolites are incorporated via the ... Following incorporation of the methane molecule, the organism uses an incomplete TCA cycle to generate reducing power for other ...
... or ammonia, or into molecules that bind to receptors or other sites of drug action. Such labelled compounds are known as ... Radionuclides used in PET scanning are typically isotopes with short half-lives[3] such as carbon-11 (~20 min), nitrogen-13 (~ ... The molecule most commonly used for this purpose is F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sugar, for which the waiting ... Organic radiotracer molecules that will contain a positron-emitting radioisotope cannot be synthesized first and then the ...
First, an ultraviolet photon from the Sun hits a water molecule in the comet's coma and ionises it, knocking out an energetic ... The Rosetta mission found carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and methanol in the Coma of Comet 67P, as well as ... carbon and nitrogen in the coma, which they also called the comet's atmosphere.[13] Alice is an ultraviolet spectrograph, and ... This electron then hits another water molecule in the coma, breaking it apart into two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen, and ...
Nitrogen is an unreactive gas because breaking the strong triple bond in the dinitrogen molecule (N2) requires a lot of energy ... Ammonia solutionsEdit. The alkali metals dissolve slowly in liquid ammonia, forming ammoniacal solutions of solvated metal ... Each coordinated water molecule may be attached by hydrogen bonds to other water molecules. The latter are said to reside in ... Alkali metals in liquid ammonia Alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia or other donor solvents like aliphatic amines or ...
Some carbons have a mesopore (20 Å to 50 Å, or 2 to 5 nm) structure which adsorbs medium size molecules, such as the dye ... Tests of adsorption behaviour are usually done with nitrogen gas at 77 K under high vacuum, but in everyday terms activated ... ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCOH), mercury (Hg) and radioactive iodine-131(131I). This property is known as chemisorption. ... Sano H.; Ogawa H. (1975). "Preparation and application nitrogen containing active carbons". Osaka Kogyo Gijutsu Shirenjo. 26 (5 ...
Inorganic Molecules made thinkable, an interactive visualisation showing inorganic compounds for an array of common metal and ... Nitrogen triiodide - NI3. NO[edit]. *Nitrosonium octafluoroxenate(VI) - (NO). 2XeF. 8 ... Ammonia - NH3. *Ammonium azide - NH4N3. *Ammonium bicarbonate - NH4HCO3 ...
"Emergence of Novel Polynitrogen Molecule-like Species, Covalent Chains, and Layers in Magnesium-Nitrogen Mg x N y Phases under ... or ammonia:. 3. Mg. +. 2. NH. 3. →. 700. ∘. C. Mg. 3. N. 2. +. 3. H. 2. {\displaystyle {\begin{matrix}{}\\{\ce {{3Mg}+2NH3-,[{\ ... By passing dry nitrogen over heated magnesium:. 3. Mg. +. N. 2. →. 800. ∘. C. Mg. 3. N. 2. {\displaystyle {\begin{matrix}{}\\{\ ... Magnesium nitride, which possesses the chemical formula Mg3N2, is an inorganic compound of magnesium and nitrogen. At room ...
... such as nitrate assimilation and nitrogen fixation).[178][179] Researchers recently discovered archaeal involvement in ammonia ... In effect, the archaea fuse the tails of two phospholipid molecules into a single molecule with two polar heads (a ... Archaea carry out many steps in the nitrogen cycle. This includes both reactions that remove nitrogen from ecosystems (such as ... cell membranes are made of molecules known as phospholipids. These molecules possess both a polar part that dissolves in water ...
... the utility of the oxidation number concept for a covalent molecule, even a polar covalent molecule, is ambiguous. The silicon ... Ammonia, NH3. covalent nonmetal hydride. Water, H2O. covalent nonmetal hydride. Hydrogen fluoride, HF. covalent nonmetal ... Diluted silane mixtures with inert gases such as nitrogen or argon are even more likely to ignite when leaked into open air, ... The possible products include SiH4 and/or higher molecules in the homologous series SinH2n+2, a polymeric silicon hydride, or a ...
Smoke, chlorine, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and ammonia are common ... 2011) Smad molecules expression pattern in human bronchial airway induced by sulfur mustard. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 10: ... nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and ammonia are among the most important irritant gases. Hydrogen sulfide is also a potent cellular ... ammonia, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury), some patients develop bronchiolitis obliterans progressing to ARDS. ...
Ammonia, NH3, molecule the three N−H bonds have only a slight polarity (toward the more electronegative nitrogen atom). The ... If the bond dipole moments of the molecule do not cancel, the molecule is polar. For example, the water molecule (H2O) contains ... Polar molecules[edit]. The water molecule is made up of oxygen and hydrogen, with respective electronegativities of 3.44 and ... The ammonia molecule, NH3, is polar as a result of its molecular geometry. The red represents partially negatively charged ...
Zuckerkandl E, Pauling L (1965). "Molecules as documents of evolutionary history". J. Theor. Biol. 8 (2): 357-66. PMID 5876245 ... 2007). "Putative ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota in suboxic waters of the Black Sea: a basin-wide ecological study using 16S ... Mehta MP, Baross JA (2006). "Nitrogen fixation at 92 degrees C by a hydrothermal vent archaeon". Science 314 (5806): 1783-6. ... 2005). "Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon". Nature 437 (7057): 543-6. Bibcode:2005Natur.437..543K. ...
... and nitrogen (N2) into mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO. 2, collectively known as NOx, due to the high temperature and pressure. ... resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically contain between 9 and 25 carbon atoms per molecule.[8] ... as well as influence human health after reacting with ammonia, moisture, and other compounds. Modern diesel engines (Euro 6 & ... such as nitrogen oxide (NOx) adsorbers (still under development), to reduce emissions. Moreover, sulfur in the fuel is oxidized ...
Anpo, M; Thomas, J. M. (2006). "Single-site photocatalytic solids for the decomposition of undesirable molecules". Chemical ... Facile, one-step production of niacin (vitamin B3) and other nitrogen-containing pharmaceutical chemicals with a single-site ... Solvent-Free Production of Oxime and ε-Caprolactam with a Mixture of Air and Ammonia". Journal of the American Chemical Society ... Single-site photocatalytic solids for the decomposition of undesirable molecules (Focus Article)[32] ...
Usually, 50-100 kg/ha (45-90 lb/ac) of nitrogen in the form of urea or anhydrous ammonia is sufficient, as oats use about one ... The (1→3)-linkages break up the uniform structure of the beta-D-glucan molecule and make it soluble and flexible. In comparison ... Oats remove substantial amounts of nitrogen from the soil. They also remove phosphorus in the form of P2O5 at the rate of 0.25 ... A sufficient amount of nitrogen is particularly important for plant height and hence, straw quality and yield. When the prior- ...
When cosmic rays enter the Earth's atmosphere they collide with atoms and molecules, mainly oxygen and nitrogen. The ... Cosmic rays ionize the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere, which leads to a number of chemical reactions. Cosmic ... A second method detects the light from nitrogen fluorescence caused by the excitation of nitrogen in the atmosphere by the ...
The rRNA molecules are thought responsible for its enzymatic activity, as no amino acid molecules lie within 18Å of the ... Another proposal is that the dual-molecule system we see today, where a nucleotide-based molecule is needed to synthesize ... The ability to self-replicate, or synthesize other RNA molecules; relatively short RNA molecules that can synthesize others ... Nitrogen (molecular). *Nitrogen monohydride. *Nitrogen sulfide. *Oxygen (molecular). *Phosphorus monoxide. *Phosphorus ...
AlN is synthesized by the carbothermal reduction of aluminium oxide in the presence of gaseous nitrogen or ammonia or by direct ... "Can aluminum nitride nanotubes detect the toxic NH3 molecules?". Physica E. 44 (7-8): 1357-1360. doi:10.1016/j.physe.2012.02. ...
HNC is linked closely to the abundances of many other nitrogen containing molecules, for example, NH3 and CN.[11] The abundance ... The suffix ylidyne refers to the loss of three hydrogen atoms from the nitrogen atom in azanium (NH+. 4) See the IUPAC Red Book ... 1988). "Molecules in external galaxies: the detection of CN, C2H, and HNC, and the tentative detection of HC3N". Astronomy and ... Hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) is a linear triatomic molecule with C∞v point group symmetry. It is a zwitterion and an isomer of ...
An amine is a molecule which has a nitrogen atom that can behave as a base. An amine can be thought of coming from ammonia. The ... If one of the groups on the nitrogen is a carbonyl group, then the molecule is called amide. This has very different properties ... Since the nitrogen has a lone pair, it can do many reactions. It can take protons away from some acids. It can also be a ... Sometimes, a fourth group can be added to the nitrogen. This is called a quaternary ammonium cation. This is not an amine but ...
Halides, Quinones, Miscellaneous Nitrogen Compounds1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 70 (11): 3738-40. doi:10.1021/ ... involves the reduction of benzyl cyanide with hydrogen in liquid ammonia, in the presence of a Raney-Nickel catalyst, at a ... "β-phenylethylamine, a small molecule with a large impact". Webmedcentral. 4 (9). PMC 3904499. PMID 24482732. While diagnosis ...
Water molecules containing the heavier O-18 evaporate at a higher temperature than water molecules containing the normal Oxygen ... The next atmosphere, consisting largely of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, was produced by outgassing from volcanism ... and ammonia. As the solar nebula dissipated, the gases would have escaped, partly driven off by the solar wind.[10] ... Molecules of free oxygen did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until the rate of production of oxygen began to exceed ...
In ammoxidation, a hydrocarbon is partially oxidized in the presence of ammonia. This conversion is practiced on a large scale ... A nitrile group can be hydrolyzed, reduced, or ejected from a molecule as a cyanide ion. ... developments have shown that the nature of the metal counter-ion causes different coordination to either the nitrile nitrogen ...
The reduction of nitrate to nitrogen in the presence of an acid (denitrification): 2 NO−. 3 + 10 e− + 12 H+ → N2 + 6 H2O. ... Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. ... Oxidation is used in a wide variety of industries such as in the production of cleaning products and oxidizing ammonia to ... Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in the oxidation state of an atom, an ion, or of certain atoms in a molecule. ...
... metal behaves similarly to europium metal and the alkaline earth metals, dissolving in ammonia to form blue electride ... it is stored in airtight containers and in an inert atmosphere such as a nitrogen-filled dry box to protect it from air and ... soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its ...
Nikolaevich Semenov Nils Gabriel Sefström Niobite Niobite-tantalite Niobium nitrate Nitric acid Nitric oxide nitrogen Nitrogen ... Molecular dynamics Molecular mechanics Molecular modeling Molecular orbital molecule Molybdenite Molybdenum Molybdenum ... oxide Alunite Alvite amalgams Amazonite Amber Amblygonite Amedeo Avogadro Americium Amethyst amide amine amino acid Ammonia ...
Schneider J, Kroneck PM (2014). "Chapter 9: The Production of Ammonia by Multiheme Cytochromes c". In Kroneck PM, Torres ME. ... or nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the mitochondria can be lethal since they nitrate tyrosine residues of cytochrome c which leads to ... The cytochrome c molecule has been studied for the glimpse it gives into evolutionary biology. ... "The kinetics of the reaction of nitrogen dioxide with iron(II)- and iron(III) cytochrome c". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. ...
Over-fertilization with urine or other nitrogen fertilizers can result in too much ammonia for plants to absorb, acidic ... Urine has more hydrogen molecules than water and is less tightly bonded to other molecules. When electric current is applied to ... This also applies to excreta-based fertilizer since it also contains nitrogen. Excessive nitrogen which is not taken up by ... In particular nitrogen content in urine is related to quantity of protein in the diet. A high protein diet results in high urea ...
... was widely used to refer to a molecule or part thereof that contained one fewer hydrogen atoms than the molecule being modified ... Ammonia, NH3. covalent nonmetal hydride. Water, H2O. covalent nonmetal hydride. Hydrogen fluoride, HF. covalent nonmetal ... Nitrogen (molecular). *Nitrogen monohydride. *Nitrogen sulfide. *Oxygen (molecular). *Phosphorus monoxide. *Phosphorus ... The molecule is also relatively rigid: rotation about the C-C bond is a high energy process that requires breaking the π-bond. ...
For example, a hydrocarbon molecule that is described as CH3(CH2)50CH3, is a molecule with fifty repeating units. If the number ... If we look at the relative masses of oxygen and hydrogen in a water molecule, we see that 94% of the mass of a water molecule ... The connectivity of a molecule often has a strong influence on its physical and chemical properties and behavior. Two molecules ... Nitrogen (molecular). *Nitrogen monohydride. *Nitrogen sulfide. *Oxygen (molecular). *Phosphorus monoxide. *Phosphorus ...
While the use of urea as a source of yeast assimilable nitrogen (no longer legal in most countries) was the most common cause ... have beta-glucosidase enzymes that can break down monoglucosides which are aroma compounds attached to a sugar molecule. When ... into ammonia.[2] ... nitrogen source (such as amino acids and purines) for protein ... However, unlike wine yeast, lactic acid bacteria can not use the supplement diammonium phosphate as a nitrogen source.[2] ...
3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) ... a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. Label the diagram. ( ... 3) (b) Ammonia has the formula NH 3. It is made from nitrogen and hydrogen. How many atoms are in an ammonia molecule?... (c) ... Nitrogen Hydrogen Which diagram below, A, B, C or D, represents an ammonia molecule? A B C D Write your answer in the box. ...
This molecule is tetrahedral, with planar nitrogen centers.[13] ... With ammonia, titanium nitride is formed. An illustrative ... This property reflects the fact that molecules of TiCl4 are weakly self-associate. Most metal chlorides are polymers, wherein ... This configuration leads to highly symmetrical structures, hence the tetrahedral shape of the molecule. TiCl4 adopts similar ...
How sunlight energizes electrons to break nitrogen and form ammonia. Alfalfa, peanut, and soybean plants take in nitrogen and ... Newly designed molecule binds nitrogen. Wheat, millet and maize all need nitrogen to grow. Fertilisers therefore contain large ... Inert nitrogen forced to react with itself. Constituting over 78 % of the air we breathe, nitrogen is the element found the ... Scientists watch a molecule protect itself from radiation damage. When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells ...
A new smartphone app that enables people to see how atoms and molecules move in the world around them in unprecedented detail ... Ammonia synthesis through electroreduction of nitrogen on black phosphorus nanosheets. January 16, 2019 More than 100 years ... Smartphone app brings atoms and molecules to life like never before. October 23, 2018, University of Sheffield ... "What I really like about the Argon app is that it shows this movement of molecules in an attractive way that is easy to use and ...
... nitrogen transfer from glutamine to α-ketoglutarate producing two molecules of glutamate; and glutamine synthesis from ... Wild-type E. coli cultures were subjected to a sudden 13-fold increase in extracellular ammonia at t = 0, inducing a 2.5-fold ... At t = 0 the cultures were perturbed by addition of (a,d) 10 mM ammonia or (b) 2 mM glutamine. Plotted values are the glucose ... Glucose and ammonia availability are the inputs to the model. α-ketoglutarate inhibits its own production as well as glucose ...
Molecules derived from amino acids.. Creatine, biogenic amines, nitrogen oxides.. Synthesis and degradation of the eme group. ... Ammonia metabolism.. Urea cycle.. gluconeogenesis; Coordinated regulation of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis.. Ketogenesis. ... Lipids as signal molecules: eicosanoids, sphingolipid mediators. Proteins and Nitrogen Compounds *. Digestion and protein ... Nitrogen balance.. Turnover and intracellular protein degradation.. Synthesis and degradation of amino acids.. Glucose and ...
Nitrogen must first be processed, or "fixed", into a plant-usable form, usually ammonia. Some nitrogen fixation is done by ... Given the great reactivity of atomic nitrogen, elemental nitrogen usually occurs as molecular N2, dinitrogen. This molecule is ... or other nitrogen atoms, through pπ-pπ interactions.[22] Thus, for example, nitrogen occurs as diatomic molecules and therefore ... Liquid nitrogen readily evaporates to form gaseous nitrogen, and hence the precautions associated with gaseous nitrogen also ...
... thereby supplies energy to convert nitrogen to ammonia-the light-absorbing molecules vibrate in synch with the nitrogen. This ... Alfalfa, peanut, and soybean plants take in nitrogen and hydrogen from the air and turn it into ammonia, which helps the plants ... The drawing shows the prospective activation of a nitrogen molecule (blue spheres) held in the middle of the catalyst. Light is ... The added energy causes electrons to shift and makes the nitrogen molecules receptive to bonding with hydrogen and, thus, on ...
In the above example, increasing the temperature increases the likelihood that nitrogen and ammonia molecules will react with ... As ammonia is formed, some of it can begin to break down to form the original gases-nitrogen and hydrogen. At this point, we ... Over time, as nitrogen and hydrogen are used up to form ammonia, the rate of reaction (1) slows down. At the same time, the ... Thus, when nitrogen and hydrogen react, they produce not only ammonia, but a certain quantity of heat. If this system is at ...
The nitrogen in the breath you just took matches that in carlsbergite from a meteorite, which means it was probably formed at ... Pure nitrogen is stable and unreactive, so an unlikely source for organic molecules, but ammonia can easily react to help form ... What about nitrogen compounds elsewhere in our solar system? "It seems possible that ammonia and organic molecules were brought ... Nitrogen, for instance, can come as pure nitrogen gas or as ammonia, which also contains hydrogen. "This makes a hell of a ...
Predict the moles of ammonia that can be made using 22.4 g of nitrogen and unlimited amount of hydrogen and find homework help ... If two molecules of nitrogen react, four molecules of ammonia will be produced; three molecules of nitrogen will produce six ... The balanced equation shows us that when one molecule of nitrogen (`N_2`) reacts, two molecules of ammonia are produced. ... Since a nitrogen molecule contains two nitrogen atoms, its molar mass is twice the molar mass of atomic nitrogen:. molar mass ...
One nitrogen atom, three hydrogen atoms. Thats all it takes to make the basic ammonia molecule. This simple compound was one ... Tag: ammonia. Study: Ammonia-Packed Meteorites Could Have Provided Nitrogen for Early Life. By Andrew Moseman , March 1, 2011 ... In a new study this week, Sandra Pizzarello and colleagues tie the ammonia surplus to one of the more fascinating theories ... Under heat and pressure, GRA 95229 released almost nothing but ammonia, in amounts that constitute roughly 1 percent by mass of ...
Why ammonia? An ammonia molecule is composed of one nitrogen atom and three hydrogen atoms. Ammonia can be burned in internal ... Unburned ammonia and nitrogen oxides in the engines exhaust would be removed by a selective catalyst reduction system. Ammonia ... Ammonia-fueled vehicles operate in much the same way as gasoline-fueled vehicles: Liquid ammonia is burned with oxygen, ... But if ammonia could be produced with nuclear and renewable energy, the emissions associated with ammonia-fueled vehicles would ...
Stern stated they these species of molecules could explain the bright and dark spots of the surface. However, he emphasized ... Chraon has primarily water and ammonia hydrates on its surface; no detectable atmosphere (so far). Charons appearance is much ... Most evident in Earth-based spectroscopy is that there is molecular nitrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. ...
Stern stated they these species of molecules could explain the bright and dark spots of the surface. However, he emphasized ... Chraon has primarily water and ammonia hydrates on its surface; no detectable atmosphere (so far). Charons appearance is much ... Most evident in Earth-based spectroscopy is that there is molecular nitrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. ... was never damaged and was placed into cold storage and for two Bush terms was bathed in pure nitrogen gas to minimize any ...
Definition of ammonia assimilation. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... ammonia assimilation. Definition: the use of ammonia (or ammonium ions) in the net synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules, ... Synonym(s): ammonia fixation. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed ...
Convert ammonia and ammonium compounds into useful nitrates.. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into ... Ion containing one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. Used by plants and converted into many complex molecules.. ... Industrial chemical process which takes nitrogen and hydrogen gases and produces ammonia.. ... Bacteria that convert nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen gas. Not useful.. Efficiency. A measure in percentages of how ...
Ammonia - NH3. Ammonia is a kind of gas. Ammonia molecules (NH3) have hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in them. The air you breathe ... About four out of five of the molecules in Earths atmosphere is nitrogen gas! A molecule of nitrogen gas is made up of two ... Nitrogen. There is more nitrogen gas in the air than any other kind of gas. ... A methane molecule has carbon and hydrogen atoms in it. Methane is a greenhouse gas. That means it helps make Earth...more ...
Ammonia - NH3. Ammonia is a kind of gas. Ammonia molecules (NH3) have hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in them. The air you breathe ... About 4/5ths of Earths atmosphere is nitrogen gas! A molecule of nitrogen gas is made up of two nitrogen atoms. There are ... Nitrogen. There is more nitrogen gas in the air than any other kind of gas. ... Nitric acid has nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms in it. There is a very tiny bit of nitric acid gas in Earths atmosphere. ...
Ammonia - NH3. Ammonia is a kind of gas. Ammonia molecules (NH3) have hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in them. The air you breathe ... Nitric acid has nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms in it. There is a very tiny bit of nitric acid gas in Earths atmosphere. ... A methane molecule has carbon and hydrogen atoms in it. Methane is a greenhouse gas. That means it helps make Earth...more ... Traveling Nitrogen Classroom Activity Kit. Check out our online store - minerals, fossils, books, activities, jewelry, and ...
Information about the aquarium nitrogen cycle in freshwater & saltwater. Nitrification, de-nitrification, Heterotrophic ... Oxygen molecules are then affixed to the stripped nitrogen, forming the oxide nitrite (NO2). ... Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle. , Cycling Methods , Ammonia & Nitrates. How the Aquarium/Pond Nitrogen Cycle Works. Sections Included: ... FREQUENTLY ASKED NITROGEN CYCLE QUESTIONS & ANSWERS:. *What is the Nitrogen Cycle?. The nitrogen cycle is the process by which ...
The ammonia seizes the NOx molecules and breaks them into nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water. ... But urea first must be converted to ammonia. This transformation occurs instantly in the decomposition reactor (or catalytic ... After urea converts to ammonia, it swirls about the chamber with engine exhaust. ...
Ammonia molecules each contain only a single nitrogen atom and can thus serve as the raw material for a variety of nitrogen- ... Almost every nitrogen atom these contain comes from ammonia. The process used worldwide to produce ammonia was discovered at ... In these molecules, two nitrogen atoms are bound together by an extremely strong triple bond. The Haber-Bosch process is so far ... However, ammonia is advantageous in that it contains not only one nitrogen atom but also three hydrogen atoms. For this reason ...
How is ammonia separated from the unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber Process? and find homework help for other ... Joyce combines 9 atoms of hydrogen and 3 atoms of nitrogen to make 3 molecules of ammonia.Graph... ... This reaction is not efficient as nitrogen is a very stable molecule. Only close to 15% of the hydrogen and nitrogen sent over ... The liquid ammonia is extracted from the mixture and the remaining hydrogen and nitrogen gases are used for another cycle of ...
... are designated B-molecules. The solubility of nitrogen in fluid ammonia can be assumed to be nil, or alternatively we may ... Ammonia molecules in the gaseous state are designated a-molecules. Of course molecules constantly change places between the ... evaporation of fluid ammonia into the nitrogen. At this pressure then, the nitrogen behaves as a solvent for gaseous ammonia.. ... gas volume contains both helium molecules and ammonia molecules, the latter being differentiated as before into a-molecules- ...
The ammonia molecule readily undergoes nitrogen inversion at room temperature; a useful analogy is an umbrella turning itself ... Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. The simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless ... Nitrogen triiodide, a primary high explosive, is formed when ammonia comes in contact with iodine. Ammonia causes the explosive ... The molecules polarity, and especially, its ability to form hydrogen bonds, makes ammonia highly miscible with water. Ammonia ...
Every ammonia molecule forms hydrogen bonds and acts as a donor molecule. The sulfur atoms and the nitrogen atom N(4) operate ... The title compound represents after Na2S3 × NH3 the second trisulfide compound that contains ammonia molecules of ... Liquid ammonia was dried and stored over sodium. 100 mg (14.2 mmol) Li and 231 mg (7.2 mmol) S8 were placed in a baked out U- ... Therein, the lithium atoms are pseudo-tetrahedrally surrounded by three nitrogen and one sulfur atom. Mono cationic lithium ...
molecule ammonia will take the nitrogen, one pair of electrons, 3 unshared, ... nitrogen in it. The number of available electrons is equal to 4 for the carbon, 5 for the nitrogen, 1 for the hydrogens, so ... diatomic molecule and if we now simply take each nitrogen to have 1 lone pair on ... Next molecule were going to consider is actually a molecule called Methonol. ...
  • Here, we show how quantum computers can be used to elucidate the reaction mechanism for biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase, by augmenting classical calculation of reaction mechanisms with reliable estimates for relative and activation energies that are beyond the reach of traditional methods. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogenase as an example. (pnas.org)
  • In nature, the enzyme serves as a catalyst to help certain bacteria turn inert atmospheric nitrogen gas into reactive ammonia in a process called nitrogen reduction, or nitrogen fixation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and legumes has long been a focus of study because of the nitrogen fixation that occurs during the symbiosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes has been studied as a potential process regulating symbiosis on non-legume plants and a mechanism by which to increase nitrogen fixation in legumes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation is the process by which atmospheric nitrogen gas is converted into ammonia. (reed.edu)
  • This web site is not designed to be a comprehensive presentation on nitrogen fixation, but rather it is intended as a forum to present informative images that are not otherwise easily available. (reed.edu)
  • An iron-molybdenum cluster in nitrogenase deftly catalyzes the fixation of N2, a very inert molecule. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This was a global crisis in the making, but, Crookes warned, it was especially acute for white people: 'The fixation of nitrogen,' he announced, 'is a question of the not-far-distant future. (lrb.co.uk)
  • Nitrogen fixation is essential to life because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds , such as amino acids and proteins , nucleoside triphosphates and nucleic acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation is carried out naturally in soil by microorganisms termed diazotrophs that include bacteria such as Azotobacter and archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Looser non-symbiotic relationships between diazotrophs and plants are often referred to as associative, as seen in nitrogen fixation on rice roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen fixation occurs between some termites and fungi . (wikipedia.org)
  • All biological nitrogen fixation is effected by enzymes called nitrogenases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Abiotic nitrogen fixation has been omitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by German agronomist Hermann Hellriegel [10] and Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck . (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by a nitrogenase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microbial nif genes required for nitrogen fixation are widely distributed in diverse environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some archaea also fix nitrogen, including several methanogenic taxa , which are significant contributors to nitrogen fixation in oxygen-deficient soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dixon, R. and Kahn, D. (2004) Genetic regulation of biological nitrogen fixation. (blogspot.com)
  • Artturi Virtanen won the Chemistry Nobel in 1945 for biological studies of nitrogen fixation. (blogspot.com)
  • Motivated by a need to investigate novel nitrogen fixation mechanisms, we herein describe a highly textured physical catalyst, composed of N-doped carbon nanospikes, that electrochemically reduces dissolved N 2 gas to ammonia in an aqueous electrolyte under ambient conditions. (ornl.gov)
  • A RUDN University chemist has synthesized fluorescent compounds with "merry-go-round" molecules that can be used to create economical displays with organic LEDs (OLEDs). (phys.org)
  • this name is instead used in many languages, such as French , Italian , Russian , Romanian and Turkish , and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine , azides and azo compounds . (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia , nitric acid, organic nitrates ( propellants and explosives ), and cyanides , contain nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N 2 into useful compounds , but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue . (wikipedia.org)
  • This simple compound was one of the most important building blocks for the origin of life, scientists believe, providing the nitrogen that is crucial to many organic compounds. (discovermagazine.com)
  • What about nitrogen compounds elsewhere in our solar system? (newscientist.com)
  • Convert ammonia and ammonium compounds into useful nitrates. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Decompose proteins and urea from animal and plant material into ammonia and ammonium compounds. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • To understand the types of compounds which can be formed and the properties of those compounds, we have to understand how atoms bond together to form molecules. (coursera.org)
  • Tröger's base analogs (including the Hünlich's base) are examples of compounds whose nitrogen atoms are chirally stable stereocenters and therefore have significant optical activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • a compound that reacts with an acid to form a salt, as ammonia, calcium hydroxide, or certain nitrogen-containing organic compounds. (infoplease.com)
  • Legumes - plants like peas, beans and clover - harbour nodules of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots, converting free atmospheric nitrogen into compounds usable in plant metabolism, and you can plant legumes to give the soil a dose of fixed nitrogen. (lrb.co.uk)
  • Unlike molecular covalent compounds, ionic compounds do not yield well-defined "smallest particles" that would be consistent with the above definition of a molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The entire nitrogen content of all manufactured organic compounds is derived from ammonia. (bionity.com)
  • The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The resulting insights could lead to catalysts that efficiently move electrons to produce ammonia using less energy. (energy.gov)
  • Scientists have long struggled to synthesize a metal-based catalyst that can efficiently produce ammonia with a minimal carbon footprint because nitrogen is notoriously nonreactive. (energy.gov)
  • Dozens of chemical plants produce ammonia around the world. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The process used worldwide to produce ammonia was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century by chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Many chemical processes have ammonia as a reactant or produce ammonia as a by-product (e.g., nitric acid and nitrogen fertilizer production, urea manufacturing, hydro-denitrification process, DeNOx process). (springer.com)
  • The Haber process to produce ammonia from the nitrogen contained in the air was developed by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in 1909 and patented in 1910 . (academickids.com)
  • In this process, nitrogen and hydrogen gases combine directly on an iron catalyst at high pressure of 3000 lbf/in² (20 MPa) and temperature (500 C) to produce ammonia. (academickids.com)
  • unfortunately, the two nitrogen atoms in that molecule are extremely strongly bound together, such that very high energy is required to break that bond and produce ammonia. (grstiftung.ch)
  • In this project, we aim at exploring a completely different route for splitting nitrogen molecules to produce ammonia, based on plasmon-assisted heterogeneous catalysis. (grstiftung.ch)
  • a) The diagram represents an atom of nitrogen. (docplayer.net)
  • One nitrogen atom, three hydrogen atoms. (discovermagazine.com)
  • An ammonia molecule is composed of one nitrogen atom and three hydrogen atoms. (thebulletin.org)
  • Hydrogen bonds are a strong type of dipole-dipole interaction that only happens between molecules that have a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom. (reference.com)
  • Ion containing one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Almost every nitrogen atom these contain comes from ammonia. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Ammonia molecules each contain only a single nitrogen atom and can thus serve as the raw material for a variety of nitrogen-containing products. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • However, ammonia is advantageous in that it contains not only one nitrogen atom but also three hydrogen atoms. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • has a trigonal pyramidal configuration, with the nitrogen atom connected to three hydrogen atoms. (wolfram.com)
  • is the axial position of the nitrogen atom. (wolfram.com)
  • In one study the inversion in an aziridine was slowed by a factor of 50 by placing the nitrogen atom in the vicinity of a phenolic alcohol group compared to the oxidized hydroquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • That means there are 7 electrons in a nitrogen atom. (chem4kids.com)
  • In this compound, three hydrogen (H) atoms share their electrons with the nitrogen (N) atom. (chem4kids.com)
  • Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula N H 3 , since its molecule has a nitrogen atom with three hydrogen atoms all singly covalently bonded to the nitrogen as shown in the image at right. (academickids.com)
  • Plus, ammonia is tiny, made only of one nitrogen atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms. (icr.org)
  • Within this model, the AXE method is used in determining molecular geometry by counting the numbers of electrons and bonds related to the center atom(s) of the molecule. (wikibooks.org)
  • In ammonia (NH 3 ) for example, there are three hydrogen atoms and one lone pair of electrons surrounding the central nitrogen atom. (wikibooks.org)
  • In ammonia (NH3) molecule, the three hydrogen atoms form an equilateral triangle, the distance between the centers of the atoms being 16.28x10^-11 m, so that the center of the triangle is 9.40x10^-11 m from each hydrogen atom. (jiskha.com)
  • The nitrogen atom is at the apex of the pyramis, the three hydrogens consistuting the base. (jiskha.com)
  • A water molecule consists of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. (jiskha.com)
  • A water (H2O) molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. (jiskha.com)
  • In a molecule of methane, each hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with the central carbon atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The nitrogen atom in the molecule has a lone electron pair, and ammonia acts as a base, a proton acceptor. (bionity.com)
  • The oxygen is protonated by abstracting hydrogen from the nitrogen atom, subsequently forming a water molecule that leaves, forming N-formyl derivative, which is resonance stabilized. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Another kind of reaction, commonly called ammonolysis, occurs when one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule is replaced by some other atom or radical. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The shapes and bond angles of a variety of molecules are described, explained and discussed using valence shell electron pair repulsion theory ( VSEPR theory ) and patterns of shapes deduced for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 groups of bonding electrons or non-bonding electrons in the valence shell of the central atom of the molecule or ion. (docbrown.info)
  • The electron pair geometry is the arrangement of the (usually) pairs of bonding and non-bonding electrons around the central atom of the neutral molecule (or molecular ion). (docbrown.info)
  • for example, experiments can show that urea , the chief nitrogen-containing end product of protein metabolism in mammals , is formed exclusively in the liver . (britannica.com)
  • Modern high-efficiency ammonia/urea plants using natural gas and other hydrocarbon feed stocks can be built alongside natural gas power plants and oil sand extraction sites. (newswire.ca)
  • Prodrug rapidly converted PO to phenylacetylglutamine, which serves as substitute for urea and is excreted in the urine carrying 2 mol of nitrogen per mol of phenylacetylglutamine, assisting in clearance of nitrogenous waste. (medscape.com)
  • Glycerol phenylbutyrate is a nitrogen-binding agent for long-term management of adult and pediatric patients (including newborns) with urea cycle disorders who cannot be managed with dietary protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone. (medscape.com)
  • Ammonia control in children ages 2 months through 5 years with urea cycle disorders: comparison of sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate. (medscape.com)
  • The lack of arginine and ornithine in the urea cycle causes elevated levels of ammonia in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ammonia arises mostly from the hydrolysis of urea in urine, but additional ammonia is generated by the decomposition of other nitrogenous materials in sewage. (fivecreeks.org)
  • Anhydrous ammonia is used extensively in the nitrogen fertilizer industry where it can be applied directly as anhydrous ammonia or used as a feedstock in liquid nitrogen solutions, urea and others. (agmrc.org)
  • 4. The process according to claim 3 wherein the nitrogen containing fertilizer contains a component selected from the group consisting of ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, urea, calcium nitrate, and potassium nitrate. (google.com)
  • In general, cyanobacteria can use various inorganic and organic sources of combined nitrogen, such as nitrate , nitrite , ammonium , urea , or some amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pacific spiny dogfish shark is a master at recycling the ocean's toxic ammonia and converting it into useful urea, according to new research from University of British Columbia (UBC) zoologists. (eurekalert.org)
  • The urea -- the non-toxic nitrogen-containing substance which humans excrete in their urine -- keeps the fish from drying out in salty seawater. (eurekalert.org)
  • The sharks may use their uncanny ability to take in ammonia to build up urea stores. (eurekalert.org)
  • The nitrogen, in turn, may then combine to form ammonia, which we can expel as urea through urine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins ), in the nucleic acids ( DNA and RNA ) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules derived from amino acids. (unimi.it)
  • This makes a hell of a difference, particularly if you are interested in prebiotic molecules like amino acids," he says. (newscientist.com)
  • By feeding amino acids labeled with isotopic nitrogen to rats, it was discovered that the isotope was incorporated into many of the amino acids found in proteins of the liver and the gut, even though the total protein content of these tissues did not change. (britannica.com)
  • The ammonia is subsequently available for many important biological molecules such as amino acids, proteins, vitamins, and nucleic acids. (reed.edu)
  • A lack of certain amino acids can cause elevated levels of ammonia in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The plant then uses ammonia to assemble amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. (webring.com)
  • Ammonia is used by the plant to make amino acids - these amino acids are then assembled to make proteins. (webring.com)
  • They need nitrogen to assemble amino acids - these are the building blocks of proteins. (webring.com)
  • Nitrogen in the form of ammonia is the source of nitrogen for all the amino acids. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Higher organisms consume the fixed nitrogen to synthesize amino acids, nucleotides , and other nitrogen-containing biomolecules. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Proteins are made up of building blocks called amino acids, which in turn, contain the element nitrogen. (umn.edu)
  • the use of ammonia (or ammonium ions) in the net synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules, glutamine synthetase. (drugs.com)
  • The aquarium nitrogen cycle is simply put the method by which diffusion from the gills of the fish and their wastes, as well as other decomposing organic matter (such as uneaten fish food) is converted from Ammonia or Ammonium to Nitrites to Nitrates. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Without this process going on in your aquarium/pond the keeping of fish or other inhabitants would be nearly impossible as ammonia is highly toxic in even small quantities (ammonium is not, but is quickly converted to ammonia at higher pH), nitrites are also toxic although not as much as ammonia. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Ammonia is named for the Ammonians, worshipers of the Egyptian god Amun , who used ammonium chloride in their rituals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH 3 in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degree to which ammonia forms the ammonium ion depends on its concentration and the pH of the solution . (academickids.com)
  • Ammonia is found in small quantities as the ammonium carbonate in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. (academickids.com)
  • In the same way that nitrogen forms the tetravalent ammonium ion, phosphorus can form the tetravalent phosphonium ion, and form salts such as phosphonium iodide [PH 4 ] + [I − ], see Fig. B. (citizendium.org)
  • Synthetic ammonia is both a foundation stock for the manufacture of such nitrogenous fertilisers as ammonium nitrate or sulphate, and a substance which, in its liquid state, can be directly injected into the soil. (lrb.co.uk)
  • The degree to which ammonia forms the ammonium ion increases upon lowering the pH of the solution- at "physiological" pH (~7), about 99% of the ammonia molecules are protonated. (bionity.com)
  • Upon heating, ammonium formate first dissociates into formic acid and ammonia . (sciencemadness.org)
  • Ammonium ion is added forming an imine and releasing ammonia. (sciencemadness.org)
  • The solution is alkaline because much of the dissolved ammonia reacts with water, H 2 O, to form ammonium hydroxide, NH 4 OH, a weak base. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ammonium salts of weak acids are readily decomposed into the acid and ammonia. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For use in the laboratory, ammonia is prepared by heating an ammonium salt with a strong base. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ammonia sold for household use is a dilute water solution of ammonia in which ammonium hydroxide is the active cleansing agent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These particles consist of ammonium nitrate from nitrogen oxides and ammonium sulfate from sulfur oxides. (kth.se)
  • You can tell from the question that hydrogen and nitrogen are the reactants, and ammonia is the product. (enotes.com)
  • Hydrogen and nitrogen are both diatomic gases, as are all elements that are gases in their reference states, excluding noble gases. (enotes.com)
  • Ammonia molecules (NH3) have hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in them. (windows2universe.org)
  • Only close to 15% of the hydrogen and nitrogen sent over the catalyst is converted to ammonia. (enotes.com)
  • When this is done the high pressure helps convert the ammonia from gaseous to liquid form while the hydrogen and nitrogen continue to remain gases. (enotes.com)
  • The liquid ammonia is extracted from the mixture and the remaining hydrogen and nitrogen gases are used for another cycle of being passed over the catalyst to create more ammonia. (enotes.com)
  • If the molecules of nitrogen and hydrogen have two atoms each, how many atoms of hydrogen and nitrogen are there in one molecule of ammonia? (jiskha.com)
  • Hydrogen and nitrogen combine only with difficulty. (lrb.co.uk)
  • Ammonia could be stored onboard a motor vehicle where the elemental hydrogen and nitrogen are separated just before the hydrogen is fed into the fuel cell. (agmrc.org)
  • That statement means that more and more hydrogen and nitrogen are used up until they are both gone. (scienceclarified.com)
  • Creatine, biogenic amines, nitrogen oxides. (unimi.it)
  • Unburned ammonia and nitrogen oxides in the engine's exhaust would be removed by a selective catalyst reduction system. (thebulletin.org)
  • The study focuses on emissions of nitrogen oxides, or NOx, a type of gas that is produced in diesel exhaust. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Nitrogen can be fixed by lightning that converts nitrogen and oxygen into NO x ( nitrogen oxides ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Now a research team from KTH is developing new technology aimed at cleaning exhaust gases from ships, in order to prevent the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. (kth.se)
  • The process binds sulfur and nitrogen oxides to particles, hence removing them from the gas. (kth.se)
  • A methane molecule has carbon and hydrogen atoms in it. (windows2universe.org)
  • The researchers found that the modified nitrogenase could no longer fix nitrogen, but it could produce methane and hydrogen when the bacteria were illuminated. (scientificamerican.com)
  • However, the new nitrogenase isn't anywhere near as efficient at producing methane from carbon dioxide as it is at making ammonia from nitrogen gas. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The altered enzyme makes a thousand hydrogens for every molecule of methane. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Consider a simple covalent molecule, methane (CH 4 ). (wikibooks.org)
  • Because there are four groups, ammonia has a tetrahedral shape but unlike methane, the angle between the hydrogen atoms is slightly smaller, 107.3° . (wikibooks.org)
  • The mixture he used in his experiment consisted of ammonia, methane, hydrogen and water vapour to imitate the primitive atmosphere. (jesus-is-savior.com)
  • Miller knew that methane, ammonia, water vapour and hydrogen would not react with each other under natural conditions. (jesus-is-savior.com)
  • 5. The process according to claim 2, wherein the recovered more concentrated ammonia also contains argon and methane. (google.com)
  • 6. The process according to claim 5, further comprising the step of separating the argon and methane from the recovered more concentrated ammonia. (google.com)
  • The ices of water, ammonia and methane, present inside Neptune and Uranus, have very different properties to ice existing on Earth: they are hot and have a higher density than their melt. (esrf.eu)
  • Top image: Neptune's main constituents are water, ammonia and methane ices. (esrf.eu)
  • In the ethane molecule, the bonding picture according to valence orbital theory is very similar to that of methane. (bestlodging.com)
  • Strategies for synthesizing ammonia that are not dependent on the energy-intensive and methane-based Haber-Bosch process are critically important for reducing global energy consumption and minimizing climate change. (ornl.gov)
  • An excellent example is the comparison of the H-X-H angle for water, ammonia and methane, which I've discussed in detail on this page. (docbrown.info)
  • Ammonia-fueled vehicles operate in much the same way as gasoline-fueled vehicles: Liquid ammonia is burned with oxygen, producing energy that is harnessed to drive the vehicle's wheels. (thebulletin.org)
  • Most cars on the road can run on a mixture of 90 percent gasoline and 10 percent liquid ammonia, and could be modified to run on a mixture of up to 80 percent ammonia-at a cost of $1,000 to $5,000 per vehicle. (thebulletin.org)
  • [14] Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid ammonia is a strong ionizing solvent that can dissolve alkali metals to form colored, electrically conducting solutions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The title compound, [Li(NH 3 ) 4 ] + [Li(NH 3 ) 3 S 3 ] − , an ammo-niate of the previously unknown lithium tris-ulfide, was obtained from the reaction of lithium and sulfur in liquid ammonia. (iucr.org)
  • Liquid ammonia contains more hydrogen by volume than compressed hydrogen or liquid hydrogen. (agmrc.org)
  • Anhydrous (water-free) ammonia gas is easily liquefied under pressure (at 20°C liquid ammonia has a vapor pressure of about 120 lb per sq in. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Liquid ammonia is used in the chemical laboratory as a solvent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Compared to water, liquid ammonia is less likely to release protons (H + ions), is more likely to take up protons (to form NH 4 + ions), and is a stronger reducing agent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The app, developed by a team of scientists including Robert Shaw, a PhD student from the University's Department of Chemistry, gives people a chance to easily explore how atoms and molecules react to changes in the environment like never before. (phys.org)
  • Nitrogen will react with the needed amount of hydrogen until the nitrogen is all used up, at which point no more ammonia can be made. (enotes.com)
  • Pure nitrogen is stable and unreactive, so an unlikely source for organic molecules, but ammonia can easily react to help form the organic chemistry that underpins life. (newscientist.com)
  • How many moles of oxygen gas are needed to react with 23 moles of ammonia? (jiskha.com)
  • The energy in the plasma excites nitrogen molecules, one of the two components that go into making ammonia, allowing them to react more readily on the catalysts. (lifeboat.com)
  • The faster molecules move, the more likely they are to react with each other. (scienceclarified.com)
  • In the above example, increasing the temperature increases the likelihood that nitrogen and ammonia molecules will react with each other and the rate of reaction number (1) will increase. (scienceclarified.com)
  • This is a graphic illustration showing protonated water reacting with nitrogen molecules to form ammonia at a plasma-liquid interface. (eurekalert.org)
  • On heating 5.1 mole of solid NH4HS 30% decomposes into gaseous ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. (enotes.com)
  • Free ammonia, being a gaseous molecule, is easily stripped out from the solution. (environmental-expert.com)
  • However, dry deposition of gaseous and particulate reactive nitrogen species, especially ammonia, is also an important deposition process. (cas.cn)
  • A process for the separation of ammonia dissolved in a gaseous solvent is used to recover ammonia during the production of ammonia from a synthesis gas. (google.com)
  • The process can be used to remove ammonia from synthesis gas, or other gaseous solvents, by removing ammonia whose chemical potential decreases as the density of the solvent increases. (google.com)
  • Typically, a gaseous solvent containing the ammonia is passed through a bed of sorbent to sorb the ammonia onto the bed of sorbent, thereby producing a purified gaseous solvent. (google.com)
  • At least a portion of the gaseous solvent is then acted upon to increase its solvent capacity for the ammonia. (google.com)
  • The increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent is passed through the bed of sorbent in the opposite direction to desorb the ammonia from the bed of sorbent to provide an increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent. (google.com)
  • The ammonia may then be recovered from the increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent. (google.com)
  • recovering the gaseous solution of the ammonia dissolved in the portion of purified gaseous solvent to form a recovered portion of the gaseous solution. (google.com)
  • Here we report that exposure to gaseous ammonia released from stationary-phase bacterial cultures modifies the antibiotic resistance spectrum of all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (wiley.com)
  • Nitrogen is a fundamental ingredient for the formation of proteins and nucleic acids. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Which four elements are the primary components of important biological molecules, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates? (studystack.com)
  • 6 The study's authors referred to their meteorite-derived, nitrogen-rich ammonia to suggest that ancient meteorites seeded an imaginary ancient earth with enough nitrogen to build proteins and DNA. (icr.org)
  • Large molecules-such as DNA , RNA , and proteins -are described as macromolecules . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The gas is likely carried into tissues by Rhesus proteins -- channels already known to carry ammonia gas molecules across cell membranes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia can be produced, at an affordable cost, by a catalytic reaction between nitrogen (obtained from air, which is 78 percent nitrogen) and hydrogen (obtained by splitting water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen). (thebulletin.org)
  • Nitric acid has nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms in it. (windows2universe.org)
  • A molecule of hydrogen peroxide has oxygen and hydrogen atoms in it. (windows2universe.org)
  • Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can use oxygen and nitrite as electron acceptors. (portlandpress.com)
  • Acetylene inhibition tests showed that NO 2 -dependent and oxygen-dependent ammonia oxidation can be distinguished. (portlandpress.com)
  • The selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) of ammonia by oxygen to nitrogen and water vapour, according to the reaction given below, is one of the most promising methods for the removal of NH 3 from oxygen containing waste gases. (springer.com)
  • Ammonia gas reacts with molecular oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide gas and liquid water. (bartleby.com)
  • For the following reaction, 0.506 moles of ammonia are mixed with 0.458 moles of oxygen gas. (jiskha.com)
  • ammonia (g) + oxygen (g) nitrogen monoxide (g) + water (g) What is the FORMULA for the limiting reagent? (jiskha.com)
  • When 34.5 L ammonia and 39.5 L oxygen gas at STP burn, nitrogen monoxide and water are produced. (jiskha.com)
  • When ammonia gas is burned in oxygen the products formed are water and nitrogen monoxide gas. (jiskha.com)
  • Ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas according to the following equation: 4NH3 + 5O2----4NO + 6H2O a. (jiskha.com)
  • For the following reaction, 0.390 moles of nitrogen gas are mixed with 0.139 moles of oxygen gas. (jiskha.com)
  • Under certain conditions, nitrogen gas reacts with oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide gas. (jiskha.com)
  • How many total electrons are transferred for each molecule of nitrogen or oxygen? (jiskha.com)
  • Familiar examples are oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), hydrogen (H 2 ), fluorine (F 2 ), chlorine (Cl 2 ), and bromine (Br 2 ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Many nitrogen-fixing organisms exist only in anaerobic conditions, respiring to draw down oxygen levels, or binding the oxygen with a protein such as leghemoglobin . (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygen deprotonates the hydrogen from nitrogen to form a hydroxyl. (sciencemadness.org)
  • It burns in oxygen to form nitrogen gas, N 2 , and water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the reaction from arginine to citrulline, one of the terminal nitrogen atoms of the arginine sidechain is replaced by an oxygen. (bionity.com)
  • which works well if X is nitrogen or oxygen. (docbrown.info)
  • Then Nitrates are then either converted to free nitrogen (which is a gas that will not remain in the water) by plants or de-nitrifying anaerobic bacteria, or you remove/lower your nitrates by way of regular water changes, or by using chemical absorbents such as Purigen. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is incorporated into our aquarium water by way of nitrogen fixing bacteria and by Cyanobacteria (bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis) as ammonia (NH3). (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Ammonia added to the soil becomes a nutrient for the plant's roots and for soil bacteria, whose proliferation enriches the soil further with nutrients. (gardenguides.com)
  • Bacteria that convert nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen gas. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • A plant that has root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • As our research paper explains, Rhizobium Leguminosarum is a nitrogen-fixing bacteria. (webring.com)
  • Once the bacteria enter these nodules, they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, a nitrogen compound that plants are able to use. (webring.com)
  • Rhizobium Leguminosarum is a strain of bacteria that converts atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. (webring.com)
  • As a second response to the lipid carbohydrate molecule, root hairs with bacteria attached to them curl up, thus enclosing the bacteria. (webring.com)
  • After a few divisions, the bacteria lose their ability to divide and begin producing a nitrogen-fixing enzyme (called nitrogenase). (webring.com)
  • Sometimes this nitrogen is already present in the soil - it is made available through the work of soil bacteria. (webring.com)
  • As aquatic plants and animals die, bacteria break down large protein molecules containing nitrogen into ammonia. (fivecreeks.org)
  • Ammonia is then oxidized by specialized bacteria to form nitrites and nitrates. (fivecreeks.org)
  • Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria have symbiotic relationships with plant groups, especially legumes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Several obligately anaerobic bacteria fix nitrogen including many (but not all) Clostridium spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that the inability to import ammonia via the Amt gas channel or to synthesize polyamines prevent modification in the resistance profile of aerially exposed bacteria. (wiley.com)
  • Bacteria produce and sense a previously unsuspected diversity of small molecules used as chemical cues or signals to adapt to changing environments ( Straight and Kolter, 2009 ). (wiley.com)
  • This question refers to the chemical reaction for the synthesis of ammonia. (enotes.com)
  • Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. (bionity.com)
  • The goal of this project is to establish an original framework to develop an energy efficient, environmental friendly and sustainable method for the synthesis of ammonia, one of the most commonly produced industrial chemicals. (grstiftung.ch)
  • Consequently, today, the synthesis of ammonia consumes approx. (grstiftung.ch)
  • Ammonia synthesis consumes 3 to 5% of the world's natural gas, making it a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. (ornl.gov)
  • Transmission systems of molecules and ions through the membrane. (unimi.it)
  • The ammonia has 10 times as many H+ ions as the bleach. (studystack.com)
  • Ammonia reacts with certain metal ions to form complex ions called ammines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Researchers wondered if they could tweak nitrogenase to work with other stable and inert molecules. (scientificamerican.com)
  • [13] In free-living diazotrophs , nitrogenase-generated ammonia is assimilated into glutamate through the glutamine synthetase /glutamate synthase pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioelectroreduction of nitrogen to ammonia: the incorporation of nitrogenase within enzymatic biological fuel cells for simultaneous production of electrical energy and ammonia. (europa.eu)
  • During a chemical reaction, the molecules involved in the reaction gain energy until they reach a "point of no return" known as a transition state. (phys.org)
  • This quantum-mechanical connection is hypothesized to lower the reaction barrier, thus making the nonreactive molecule receptive to bonding with hydrogen. (energy.gov)
  • Our reaction starts with 22.4 g of nitrogen. (enotes.com)
  • We will create a table showing the quantity of each substance (hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia) at three stages: Before the reaction, the Change that takes place, and After the reaction. (enotes.com)
  • This reaction is not efficient as nitrogen is a very stable molecule. (enotes.com)
  • The more the molecules collide, the more bonds are being broken, and the faster the reaction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Without the enzyme, the nitrogen reduction reaction has a huge energy barrier and rarely occurs on its own. (scientificamerican.com)
  • At constant temperture and pressure, how many of nitrogen monoxide can be made by the reaction of 800. (jiskha.com)
  • Calculate the volume of nitrogen monoxide gas (@STP) that can be produced from the reaction of 5.00g of silver? (jiskha.com)
  • If the temperature is too low, the formation of ammonia is favoured but the reaction goes slowly. (lrb.co.uk)
  • If the temperature is too high, the reaction goes faster, but any ammonia produced tends to dissociate into its elements. (lrb.co.uk)
  • So, if ammonia is what you want, you need very cleverly to manipulate temperature, pressure, a catalyst and the design of the reaction vessel. (lrb.co.uk)
  • The chemical reactions that enable the process are oxidation with ozone and nitrate formation by an acid/ammonia reaction. (kth.se)
  • In the second reaction, ammonia breaks down to form nitrogen and hydrogen. (scienceclarified.com)
  • In the above example, suppose that the reaction begins when nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas are mixed with each other. (scienceclarified.com)
  • No ammonia exists at the beginning of the reaction, so equation (2) cannot occur. (scienceclarified.com)
  • A lot of nitrogen and hydrogen are available to keep the reaction going. (scienceclarified.com)
  • Over time, as nitrogen and hydrogen are used up to form ammonia, the rate of reaction (1) slows down. (scienceclarified.com)
  • At the same time, the amount of ammonia gets larger and the rate of reaction (2) becomes greater. (scienceclarified.com)
  • Finally, changing the concentration (number of molecules present) of substances in the reaction can change the equilibrium. (scienceclarified.com)
  • With more hydrogen molecules present, the rate of the forward reaction will increase. (scienceclarified.com)
  • In a fraction of a second, as light energizes the complex-and thereby supplies energy to convert nitrogen to ammonia-the light-absorbing molecules vibrate in synch with the nitrogen. (energy.gov)
  • We are given the amount of nitrogen in grams, however, so we need to convert it to moles. (enotes.com)
  • Convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into useful nitrates. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • The ornithine aminotransferase enzyme helps convert ornithine into another molecule called pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fueling stations are much easier to convert to dispensing ammonia than elemental hydrogen. (agmrc.org)
  • The amount the shark is able to take in through their gills and convert could amount to almost a third of the nitrogen they need from their diet. (eurekalert.org)
  • The basic principle is to convert harmful gas molecules into particles. (kth.se)
  • An ammonia molecule is not flat, but has the shape of a flattened tetrahedron known as a trigonal pyramid . (academickids.com)
  • Ammonia (NH 3 ) is not trigonal planar, however. (wikibooks.org)
  • The ammonia molecule has a trigonal pyramid shape, as predicted by VSEPR theory. (bionity.com)
  • Ammonia is one of the most extensively manufactured inorganic chemicals, used mainly for the production of fertilizers , explosives , and polymers . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The main uses of ammonia are in the production of fertilizers , explosives and polymers , but it is probably most familiar as an ingredient in household glass cleaners. (academickids.com)
  • Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of the planet as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. (bionity.com)
  • The U.S. annually stores, transports and uses 15 to 20 million tons of ammonia and ammonia based fertilizers in the nation's heartland. (agmrc.org)
  • Indeed, the entire agro-food industry relies on ammonia to produce fertilizers in order to provide sufficient food to the world population. (grstiftung.ch)
  • Researchers at the University of Notre Dame are developing a renewable energy approach for synthesizing ammonia, an essential component of fertilizers that support the world's food production needs. (lifeboat.com)
  • The 13th Annual Ammonia Fuel Conference at UCLA will bring together experts from around the world on anhydrous ammonia (NH 3 ), the leading-edge liquid fuel of the expanding green energy sector. (newswire.ca)
  • Anhydrous ammonia (ammonia without water) can be a substitute for petroleum as a transportation fuel. (agmrc.org)
  • The first utilization of liquid anhydrous ammonia as a fuel for motor-buses took place in Belgium during the year 1943. (agmrc.org)
  • Nitrogen in Earth's atmosphere has been traced back to the spinning disc of dust and gas that formed our solar system, and may even have yielded ammonia to fuel organic reactions. (newscientist.com)
  • Looking at the ratio of stable and unstable isotopes in the nitrogen, Harries found that it was very close to the ratio in the nitrogen that makes up three-quarters of Earth's atmosphere today. (newscientist.com)
  • That suggests they have a common origin, and the nitrogen in our atmosphere came from the protoplanetary disc. (newscientist.com)
  • About four out of five of the molecules in Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen gas! (windows2universe.org)
  • About 4/5ths of the air in Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen (N2). (windows2universe.org)
  • About 4/5ths of Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen gas! (windows2universe.org)
  • Nitrogen is very important in our biosphere, where nitrogen comprises 78% of the atmosphere, and is part of every living tissue. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Unfortunately, free nitrogen in the atmosphere is not in a form that is usable by plants or animals. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Inorganic nitrogen is added two ways: the atmosphere and new water. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Ammonia occurs in small quantities in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nitrogen is essential for all agricultural crops, but only legumes can access nitrogen from the atmosphere through symbiosis with rhizobia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dr. PAN also pointed out that there were a limited number of field studies investigating the bidirectional exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and plants, not to mention the impacts of ammonia on natural ecosystems. (cas.cn)
  • Chinese researchers investigated whether all the ammonia emitted from agriculture enters the atmosphere, and found that most of it does not end up in the air. (cas.cn)
  • When the gas gets oxidized and reacts with ammonia in the atmosphere, it forms fine particles and can travel for long distances before settling. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Plants need nitrogen to grow but they cannot get it directly from the atmosphere, which is 78 per cent nitrogen by volume. (lrb.co.uk)
  • Ammonia is found in small quantities in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. (bionity.com)
  • The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790 when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of nitric oxide (NO), which is generally detectable during ammonia oxidation, severely impairs ammonia oxidation by AOB. (portlandpress.com)
  • Silver reacts with nitric acid to form nitrogen monoxide, silver nitrate and water. (jiskha.com)
  • Another major application is its conversion to explosives, because nitric acid is made via oxidation of ammonia. (bionity.com)
  • Light is harvested (red) and electrons migrate (blue arrows) to ultimately make the nitrogen receptive to bonding with hydrogen. (energy.gov)
  • The added energy causes electrons to shift and makes the nitrogen molecules receptive to bonding with hydrogen and, thus, on the pathway to making ammonia. (energy.gov)
  • Knowing how the electrons move and interact with the complex's structure could help scientists translate this work to catalytic nitrogen functionalization. (energy.gov)
  • for the element of NITROGEN, you already know that the atomic number tells you the number of electrons. (chem4kids.com)
  • This way the nitrogen has a filled outer shell and the hydrogens have two electrons to fill their shells. (chem4kids.com)
  • Nitrogen shares its electrons with the chlorine atoms, so all of the atoms have their shells filled. (chem4kids.com)
  • Look at the carbon and the nitrogen, they are sharing six electrons! (chem4kids.com)
  • In some molecules, there are less than four pairs of valence electrons. (wikibooks.org)
  • The electrons (conceived as "electron clouds," not discrete particles) are said to occupy certain energy levels ("orbitals") within the molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although it is not always mentioned, it needs to be remembered that the positively charged nuclei in the atoms of a molecule play an essential role in holding the negatively charged electrons in their respective orbitals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Thus, both the atomic nuclei and the electrons are intimately involved in building each molecule. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Modern methods of quantitatively calculating the most stable (lowest energy) shapes of molecules can take several hours of supercomputer time, and is the domain of computational chemistry. (wikibooks.org)
  • Generally, each molecule is relatively stable and electrically neutral. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [3] While atoms are the original chemical building blocks of matter, the much, much more numerous stable molecules additionally serve as the building blocks of substances. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When there are charges on lot of atoms in an ion or molecule, that structure is not stable. (bestlodging.com)
  • We find in Escherichia coli that a sudden increase in nitrogen availability results in an almost immediate increase in glucose uptake. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, we find that α-ketoglutarate, which accumulates in nitrogen limitation, directly blocks glucose uptake by inhibiting enzyme I, the first step of the sugar-phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). (nih.gov)
  • They produce the first glucose and other molecules by photosynthesis. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Enzymatic biological fuel cells (EBFCs) utilise enzymes as biological catalysts to produce electrical energy from chemical energy, usually being fuelled by simple molecules such as glucose or ethanol, in the presence of O2. (europa.eu)
  • By ditching the nitrogen and transforming the remaining molecule into glucose, which the body uses for fuel. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), [2] dominates nitrogen chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a molecule consists of two atoms, it is described as diatomic , and if it contains more than two atoms, it is called polyatomic . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A number of diatomic molecules are composed of two atoms of the same element. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Other diatomic molecules, such as carbon monoxide (CO), consist of atoms of two different elements. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The team prepared a complex that grasps a nitrogen molecule (dinitrogen) and holds it between two molybdenum atoms. (energy.gov)
  • Its great economic importance results from a chemical peculiarity: nitrogen exists mainly in the form of dinitrogen molecules (N₂), which make up almost 80 per cent of the air we breathe. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • In this process, dinitrogen and hydrogen (H₂) are converted into ammonia. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • The new Priority Programme (SPP 2370) therefore aims to research environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternatives to turn dinitrogen into industrially usable nitrogen. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • [1] Atmospheric nitrogen is molecular dinitrogen , a relatively nonreactive molecule that is metabolically useless to all but a few microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The important thing was observed when ammonia assimilation the nitrate and nitrite values were goes to high, because in the nitrogen cycle naturally the ammonia converts into nitrate and nitrite by cyanobacteria (Graph. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nitrogen occurs in nateral waters as nitrate (NO 3 ), nitrite (NO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), and organically bound nitrogen. (fivecreeks.org)
  • Because of its many uses, ammonia is one of the most highly-produced inorganic chemicals. (academickids.com)
  • Ammonia oxidation (AO), the first step in nitrification, connects the most reduced and oxidized inorganic nitrogen species in the ocean. (nature.com)
  • We are to find the amount of ammonia, in moles , that can be made from a given amount, 22.4 grams , of nitrogen, in the presence of an excess of hydrogen. (enotes.com)
  • The molar mass of NH3, which is the chemical formula for ammonia, is about 17.03 grams per mole. (reference.com)
  • After the products return to STP, how many grams of nitrogen monoxide are present? (jiskha.com)
  • one volume of water dissolves about 1,200 volumes of the gas at 0°C (90 grams of ammonia in 100 cc of water), but only about 700 volumes at room temperature and still less at higher temperatures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They estimated that if just 5% of feed is wasted, a net income loss of $1.77/pig depending on the market can result and an additional 327 grams of nitrogen and 82 grams of phosphorus is excreted per pig. (umn.edu)
  • A new smartphone app that enables people to see how atoms and molecules move in the world around them in unprecedented detail has been developed by scientists at the University of Sheffield. (phys.org)
  • It gives people an opportunity to play around with atoms and molecules in a way that can be completely unique to them in order to learn more about the way they are influenced by environmental changes. (phys.org)
  • We hope that the app will enhance people's learning experiences and give them the ability to learn more about the behaviour of atoms and molecules in a way that hasn't been done before. (phys.org)
  • Dr Grant Hill, Lecturer in Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Sheffield, added: "Many chemical processes are dynamic - atoms and molecules move around and interact, or even collide with each other in order for chemical reactions to happen, but this detail is lost when looking at textbooks or hand-drawn molecules. (phys.org)
  • We know that atoms and molecules combine in fixed ratios, producing amounts of products in fixed ratios to the reactants and to each other, and all of these ratios, or relative amounts, are represented by the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. (enotes.com)
  • The structures and functions of substances can be attributed to the physical and chemical interactions of their atoms and molecules. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria inhabit nearly all illuminated environments on Earth and play key roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycle of the biosphere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen can combine with three chlorine (Cl) atoms, forming nitrogen trichloride , or NCl 3 . (chem4kids.com)
  • A different set of hybrid orbitals is formed in this molecule: the 2s and two 2p orbitals combine to form three sp 2 hybrid orbitals . (wikibooks.org)
  • Soil improvement with legumes, 5A) The Rhizobium combine this hydrogen with the atmospheric nitrogen in the conversion process. (webring.com)
  • Two liters of nitrogen combine with 6 L of hydrogen to form 4 L of ammonia. (jiskha.com)
  • A new study offers a firmer handle on measuring nitrogen isotopes in characterizing ammonia sources and therefore enhances our ability of quantifying which emissions may affect increasing ammonia in future. (cas.cn)
  • Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers , and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia can be burned in internal combustion engines with minor modifications - emitting only nitrogen and water vapor from the tailpipe, even when only low-cost emissions controls are used. (thebulletin.org)
  • of household-grade ammonia in 1 gallon of water. (gardenguides.com)
  • Solutions of one part ammonia with added ingredients such as one part Epsom salt or one part dish soap are also diluted in water, but to 1 qt. (gardenguides.com)
  • Green ammonia' gas (NH 3 ) is manufactured from air and water using clean renewable energy sources. (newswire.ca)
  • Hydrogen is 'captured' from breaking down water (H 2 O) in a sustainable process, while nitrogen comes from air (air is about 78 per cent nitrogen). (newswire.ca)
  • Anglian Water (AWS) has selected the Proam ammonia monitor to provide continuous ammonia measurement on final effluent discharge where accurate and reliable measurement is required. (environmental-expert.com)
  • It begins with the air-water-ammonia process in the centrifuge. (rexresearch.com)
  • Therefore, the effective SCO catalysts should operate at a relatively low-temperature range and additionally should result in the production of nitrogen and water vapour. (springer.com)
  • CO 3 2− , NO 3 − ) which together with water molecules are located in the interlayer space. (springer.com)
  • This shape gives the molecule an overall dipole moment and makes it polar so that ammonia very readily dissolves in water . (academickids.com)
  • Synthetic fertilizer, which contains rich reactive nitrogen, has sustained food production, but the nitrogen it emits is also a burden to the environment, such as air pollution, soil acidification, and water eutrophication. (cas.cn)
  • What is the tendency of water molecules to stick together is called what? (studystack.com)
  • Since low concentrations of ammonia will result in a yellow color and the creek water is often slighly yellow itself, collect approximately 2.5 ml of creek water in the second plastic test tube (0124). (fivecreeks.org)
  • Examples of polyatomic molecules are water (H 2 O), ammonia (NH 3 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • At moderate pressures and temperatures, ammonia ice is a molecular crystal where strong covalent bonds coexist with weaker hydrogen bonds, as in water ice. (esrf.eu)
  • The hydroxyl is protonated using hydrogen from formic acid, which allows for water molecule to leave. (sciencemadness.org)
  • Because ammonia was formerly obtained by destructive distillation of horns and hooves of animals, its water solution was called spirits of hartshorn. (encyclopedia.com)
  • in water solution it is sometimes called aromatic spirits of ammonia. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nitrogen can also leach into ground water and cause pollution. (umn.edu)
  • Now, researchers propose how a molybdenum-based compound can effectively use energy from sunlight to make nitrogen reactive and susceptible to forming the necessary bonds to create ammonia. (energy.gov)
  • The term unstable molecule is used for a very reactive, short-lived species, such as a "radical" or "molecular ion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • α-Ketoglutarate coordinates carbon and nitrogen utilization via enzyme I inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • The normal enzyme makes about two hydrogens for every [molecule of] ammonia," Harwood said. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This enzyme converts atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia - a compound that the plant is able to use. (webring.com)
  • Nitrite reduction by Nitrosomonas is observed under three conditions: (i) hydrogen-dependent denitrification, (ii) anoxic ammonia oxidation with nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and (iii) NO x -induced aerobic ammonia oxidation. (portlandpress.com)
  • NO x molecules play an important role in the conversion of ammonia and nitrite by AOB. (portlandpress.com)
  • Besides emitting zero greenhouse gases from vehicles, ammonia fuel could reduce the well-to-tank carbon emissions associated with the production and delivery of conventional fuels. (thebulletin.org)
  • In the Haber-Bosch process, the gases hydrogen H2 and nitrogen N2 are passed at high temperatures, in the range of 400-450 degrees Celsius, and at high pressures, close to 200 atmospheres, over a catalyst of iron prepared from a form of iron oxide called magnetite. (enotes.com)
  • Industrial chemical process which takes nitrogen and hydrogen gases and produces ammonia. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • For the kinetic theory of gases, these atoms are regarded as "monatomic molecules. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As ammonia is formed, some of it can begin to break down to form the original gases-nitrogen and hydrogen. (scienceclarified.com)
  • which processes excess nitrogen (in the form of ammonia) that is generated when protein is used by the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • From a manure management perspective two nutrients are of particular interest: nitrogen from the breakdown of protein, and the mineral phosphorus. (umn.edu)
  • Therefore, nitrogen is necessary to build protein. (umn.edu)
  • Are they or other protein sources responsible for you smelling like ammonia after you work out? (howstuffworks.com)
  • NH3, commonly referred to as ammonia, has a polar covalent bond. (reference.com)
  • Covalent molecules are bonded to other atoms by electron pairs. (wikibooks.org)
  • This repulsion causes covalent molecules to have distinctive shapes, known as the molecule's molecular geometry . (wikibooks.org)
  • Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • For a compound that would otherwise be chiral due to a nitrogen stereocenter, nitrogen inversion provides a low energy pathway for racemization, usually making chiral resolution impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because when wet, there are [[ammonia]] molecules in the structure of the compound, which helps to stabilize it. (sciencemadness.org)
  • ammonia, chemical compound, NH 3 , colorless gas that is about one half as dense as air at ordinary temperatures and pressures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ammonia gas (molecules which are basically one part nitrogen and three parts hydrogen) occurs in nature in only limited quantities. (newswire.ca)
  • and spraying nitrogen solution onto soil assumes that atmospheric deposition occurs mainly as rainfall (wet deposition)," says Dr. PAN. (cas.cn)
  • 2 into ammonia occurs at a metal cluster called FeMoco , an abbreviation for the iron- molybdenum cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia has been used as an industrial and agricultural chemical for more than a century, and it dissipates rapidly when released because it is lighter than air. (thebulletin.org)
  • This is the collision model, which explains chemical reactions in terms of collisions between molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If the collision is strong enough, it can break the chemical bonds in the reactants, resulting in a re-formation of atoms within different molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The giant chemical firm Badische Anilin und Soda-Fabrik (BASF) - later folded into I.G. Farben - had been funding Haber's research, doubling or tripling his already generous professorial salary at Karlsruhe, on the condition that he obtain company permission before publishing any details, and the terms of the BASF patent gave him 1.5 pfennigs for every kilo of ammonia produced using his process. (lrb.co.uk)
  • [2] In addition, a molecule is considered the smallest particle of a pure substance that retains its chemical composition and properties. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chemical reactions with nitrogen triiodide are not done due to its instability. (sciencemadness.org)
  • The Nobel Laureate is Fritz Haber (1918) who worked out a chemical method of synthesizing ammonia from nitrogen. (blogspot.com)
  • Ammonia takes part in many chemical reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Haber-Bosch process developed in the early 1900s for producing ammonia relies on non-renewable fossil fuels and has limited applications for only large, centralized chemical plants. (lifeboat.com)
  • The gamma rays emitted in lightning have enough energy to knock a neutron out of atmospheric nitrogen Castelvecchi, Davide (November 22, 2017). (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as the thirteenth century, ammonia was known to the alchemists in the form of sal ammoniac, which was mentioned by Albertus Magnus . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the form of sal-ammoniac, ammonia was known, however, to the alchemists as early as the 13th century , being mentioned by Albertus Magnus , while in the 15th century Basil Valentine showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalies on sal-ammoniac. (academickids.com)
  • This configuration leads to highly symmetrical structures, hence the tetrahedral shape of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular geometry shows the actual shape of the molecule. (docbrown.info)
  • The molecule readily undergoes inversion at room temperature, like an umbrella turning itself inside out in a strong wind. (wolfram.com)
  • Temperature-programmed experiments, SCO catalytic tests performed with various contact times and additional tests on the samples in the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia showed that the SCO process over the studied calcined hydrotalcites proceeds according to the internal SCR mechanism and oxidation of ammonia to NO is a rate-determining step in the low-temperature range. (springer.com)
  • The ammonia interconversion is rapid at room temperature, inverting 30 billion times per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • At standard temperature and pressure , ammonia is a gas . (academickids.com)
  • Similar to propane or liquid petroleum (LP) gas, ammonia is a gas at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure but a liquid at higher pressures (about 150 pounds per square inch at 75 degrees Fahrenheit). (agmrc.org)
  • On-going ammonia production requires both a very high pressure and a temperature, which are extremely energy greedy. (grstiftung.ch)
  • We have successfully developed a sustainable green method for ammonia production through nitrogen splitting at room temperature under atmospheric pressure using plasmonic aluminium nanostructures and semiconductor photoelectrodes. (grstiftung.ch)
  • This is how a new state of ammonia ice, called superionic ammonia, was discovered at high pressure and temperature. (esrf.eu)
  • It was deduced from the diffraction patterns that the nitrogen sub-lattice is the same as in the low temperature solid. (esrf.eu)
  • The present results thus validate this prediction but locate superionic ammonia at lower temperature than in the theoretical study (750 K instead of 1200 K). The exact boundaries of this superionic phase are of crucial importance as this determines whether such a state could exist in the giant icy planets. (esrf.eu)
  • An increase in temperature increases the rate at which molecules move. (scienceclarified.com)
  • Our findings reconcile field inconsistencies of temperature effects on AO, suggesting that predictive biogeochemical models need to include such differential warming mechanisms on this key nitrogen cycle process. (nature.com)
  • Pure cultures of three strains of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) isolated from marine habitats have shown that AOA growth rates are positively correlated with temperature until their optimum temperatures ( T opt ) are reached 18 . (nature.com)
  • To better predict the future of marine nitrogen biogeochemistry, we performed manipulation experiments to characterize the temperature responses of the marine AO microbial community relative to substrate changes across a broad environmental gradient. (nature.com)
  • It seems possible that ammonia and organic molecules were brought to other bodies like Mars and Europa," Harries says. (newscientist.com)
  • The first of these experiments to observe the formation of organic molecules, was realised by Groth and Suess in 1938. (jesus-is-savior.com)
  • You may be thinking to yourself, "if one mole of nitrogen produces two moles of ammonia, then this number of moles of nitrogen produces twice this many moles of ammonia. (enotes.com)
  • Running vehicles on ammonia could reduce emissions to levels far below those achieved by other alternative fuels, such as natural gas or ethanol derived from corn. (thebulletin.org)
  • With a phase-in of ammonia-fueled vehicles, however, far greater emissions reductions could be achieved during the same time frame. (thebulletin.org)
  • Using a software tool called LEAP (the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute's US center, I estimated the potential emissions reductions in the US transportation sector, through 2040, for two mitigation scenarios: In the first scenario, ammonia-fueled vehicles account for 10 percent of the light-duty fleet in 2020, 30 percent in 2030, and 50 percent in 2040. (thebulletin.org)
  • Ammonia is considered environmentally friendly because its use can help reduce global (carbon) GHG emissions. (newswire.ca)
  • Since nitrogen in the algae biomass is incorporated into the HTL oil, and since lipid extracted algae for generating heat and electricity are not co-produced by HTL, there are questions regarding implications for emissions and energy use. (springer.com)
  • All living organisms, from fish to plants, have great quantities of assimilated nitrogen in their tissues. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • Large quantities of atmospheric nitrogen exist in the soil as well, but plants are unable to utilize nitrogen in this form. (webring.com)
  • 2NH 3 is reversible, you need just the right conditions to drive it forward to produce significant quantities of ammonia (NH 3 ). (lrb.co.uk)
  • Ammonia is prepared commercially in vast quantities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It acts as a molecular dynamics simulator - a technique used by scientists to model the behaviour of atoms, molecules and large biological structures. (phys.org)
  • A molecular cloud is an interstellar cloud of dust, gas, and a variety of molecules ranging from molecular hydrogen (H2) to complex, carbon-containing organics. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • Observations of the structures of the molecules lead to a model to understand molecular geometries and properties related to those geometries. (coursera.org)
  • The science of molecules is called molecular chemistry or molecular physics , depending on the focus. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • and molecular physics deals with the laws governing the structures and physical properties of molecules. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Last introduction point: Be very careful when describing your deduction of a molecular shape to distinguish between the electron pair geometry and the actual molecular geometry of the molecule i.e. the actual shape ! (docbrown.info)
  • In living systems, ammonia plays several important roles, serving as a source of nitrogen for plants and helping maintain acid/base balance in animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated ammonia toxicity in mesophilic anaerobic digestion at various pH values and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. (environmental-expert.com)