Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Anabaena variabilis: A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Ammonia-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond by the elimination of AMMONIA. EC 4.3.1.Ethanolamine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 4.3.1.7.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.p-Fluorophenylalanine: 3-(p-Fluorophenyl)-alanine.Aspartate Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.Rhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.PhenylpropionatesATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Phycobiliproteins: Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Phycobilins: Open chain tetrapyrroles that function as light harvesting chromophores in PHYCOBILIPROTEINS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.AcetyleneAcetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.GlyoxylatesBacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC 1.18.6.1.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cytochromes c1: The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amidine-Lyases: These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Malate Synthase: An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.CitratesCarbon Tetrachloride PoisoningEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.GlutaminaseSulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Streptococcus anginosus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and L-ornithine ammonia-lyase (cyclizing). This enzyme participates in arginine and proline biosynthesis. It employs one ... name of this enzyme class is L-ornithine ammonia-lyase (cyclizing; L-proline-forming). Other names in common use include ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and 5-formimidoyltetrahydrofolate ammonia-lyase (cyclizing). This enzyme participates in folate metabolism by catabolising ... name of this enzyme class is 5-formimidoyltetrahydrofolate ammonia-lyase (cyclizing 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... ammonia-lyase, and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This enzyme participates in tyrosine metabolism. MacLeod NJ; ... In enzymology, a dihydroxyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3,4- ... 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (trans-caffeate-forming). Other names in common use include beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, an ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ethanolamine ⇌ {\ ... name of this enzyme class is ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (acetaldehyde-forming). This enzyme is also called ethanolamine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and L-threo-3-methylaspartate ammonia-lyase. This enzyme participates in c5-branched dibasic acid metabolism and nitrogen ... In enzymology, a methylaspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-threo-3- ... "Insights into Enzyme Evolution Revealed by the Structure of Methylaspartate Ammonia Lyase". Structure. 10 (1): 105-13. doi: ...
The enzyme is a member of the ammonia lyase family, which cleaves carbon-nitrogen bonds. Like other lyases, phenylalanine ... L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, PAL, and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is ... phenylalanine ammonia-lyases), EC 4.3.1.25 (tyrosine ammonia-lyases), and EC 4.3.1.26 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases). ... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting L-phenylalanine to ammonia and ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... aminodeoxygluconate ammonia-lyase, 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-gluconate ammonia-lyase, and D-glucosaminate ammonia-lyase. This enzyme ... In enzymology, a glucosaminate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucosaminate ... name of this enzyme class is D-glucosaminate ammonia-lyase (isomerizing 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-forming). Other names in ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and L-aspartate ammonia-lyase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. As of late ... In enzymology, an aspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-aspartate ⇌ {\ ... name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate ammonia-lyase (fumarate-forming). Other names in common use include aspartase, fumaric ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... beta-diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase, 2,3-diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase, and 2,3-diaminopropanoate ammonia-lyase. It employs ... In enzymology, a diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2,3- ... Nagasawa T, Tanizawa K, Satoda T, Yamada H (1988). "Diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase from Salmonella typhimurium Purification ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, a serine-sulfate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-serine O- ... name of this enzyme class is L-serine-O-sulfate ammonia-lyase (pyruvate-forming). This enzyme is also called (L-SOS)lyase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, a L-serine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-serine ⇌ {\ ... name of this enzyme class is L-serine ammonia-lyase (pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use include serine deaminase, L- ... hydroxyaminoacid dehydratase, L-serine deaminase, L-serine dehydratase, and L-serine hydro-lyase (deaminating). This enzyme ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, a carbamoyl-serine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction O-carbamoyl-L- ... and O-carbamoyl-L-serine ammonia-lyase (pyruvate-forming). It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. Copper AJ, Meister A ( ... name of this enzyme class is O-carbamoyl-L-serine ammonia-lyase (decarboxylating pyruvate-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, a threo-3-hydroxyaspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction threo-3 ... and threo-3-hydroxy-L-aspartate ammonia-lyase. N, Yamada H, Shimizu S (1999). "Purification and characterization of a novel ... name of this enzyme class is threo-3-hydroxy-L-aspartate ammonia-lyase (oxaloacetate-forming). Other names in common use ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, a 3-aminobutyryl-CoA ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-3- ... and L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA ammonia-lyase. Jeng I, Barker HA (October 1974). "Purification and properties of l-3-aminobutyryl ... name of this enzyme class is L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA ammonia-lyase (crotonoyl-CoA-forming). Other names in common use include L-3- ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... In enzymology, a beta-alanyl-CoA ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction beta-alanyl-CoA ... This enzyme is also called beta-alanyl coenzyme A ammonia-lyase. This enzyme participates in beta-alanine metabolism and ... name of this enzyme class is beta-alanyl-CoA ammonia-lyase (acryloyl-CoA-forming). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... erythro-3-hydroxy-Ls-aspartate hydro-lyase (deaminating), and erythro-3-hydroxy-Ls-aspartate ammonia-lyase. It employs one ... In enzymology, an erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... name of this enzyme class is erythro-3-hydroxy-Ls-aspartate ammonia-lyase (oxaloacetate-forming). Other names in common use ...
The enzyme also belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the class of carbon-sulfur lyases. The systematic name of this ... and ammonia. Found in plants, bacteria, and yeast, cystathionine beta-lyase is an essential part of the methionine biosynthesis ... nitrogen metabolism, and sulfur metabolism. Cystathionine beta-lyase is a tetramer composed of identical subunits, and is ... Other members include cystathionine gamma-synthase, cystathionine gamma-lyase, and methionine gamma lyase. Additionally, these ...
Category:EC 4.3 (carbon-nitrogen lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.3.1 *Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) ... Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... 4 Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase) *4.1 Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases) ... Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ...
... ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 --- aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 --- ethanolamine ammonia- ... ammonia) MeSH D08.811.464.259.400 --- carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor MeSH D08.811.464.259.400.300 --- ... lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.500 --- histidine ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.600 --- l-serine dehydratase MeSH ... tyrosine phenol-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.300 --- amidine-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.300.200 --- adenylosuccinate lyase MeSH ...
... or L-serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes. SDH is ... ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Results showed the secondary importance of the SDH pathway. Although there is much controversy ... The β enzymes are all lyases and catalyze reactions where Cα and Cβ participate. Overall, in the PLP-dependent enzymes, the PLP ... Each of the polar substituents of PLP is coordinated by functional groups: the pyridinium nitrogen of PLP is hydrogen-bonded to ...
... carbon to form the adenine nucledotide. Riboflavin is formed by a carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bond between a isoalloxazine and a ... Prenylcysteine lyase (PCLase) catalyzes the cleavage of prenylcysteine (a protein modification) to form an isoprenoid aldehyde ... The enzyme produces two glutamate molecules: one by the hydrolysis of glutamine (forming glutamate and ammonia), and the second ... Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases. Monoamine ...
Thus, like C-N lyases, the seq3-encoded enzyme is PLP dependent and the reaction products contain pyruvate and ammonia. ... phosphate and the production of 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicate that it is a carbon-nitrogen lyase. It was found to ... A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation. Vishal Singh Negi, Jon- ... A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation ...
The enzyme is a member of the ammonia lyase family, which cleaves carbon-nitrogen bonds. Like other lyases, phenylalanine ... L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, PAL, and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is ... phenylalanine ammonia-lyases), EC 4.3.1.25 (tyrosine ammonia-lyases), and EC 4.3.1.26 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases). ... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting L-phenylalanine to ammonia and ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically ammonia lyases, which cleave carbon-nitrogen bonds. The systematic ... and L-ornithine ammonia-lyase (cyclizing). This enzyme participates in arginine and proline biosynthesis. It employs one ... name of this enzyme class is L-ornithine ammonia-lyase (cyclizing; L-proline-forming). Other names in common use include ...
EC 4.3 Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases. EC 4.3.1 Ammonia-Lyases. EC 4.3.1.1 aspartate ammonia-lyase. EC 4.3.1.2 methylaspartate ammonia- ... L-aspartate ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.17 L-serine ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.18 D-serine ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.19 threonine ammonia- ... EC 4.3.1.23 tyrosine ammonia-lyase. EC 4.3.1.24 phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. EC 4.3.1.25 phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase. ... EC 4 Lyases. EC 4.1 Carbon-Carbon Lyases. EC 4.1.1 Carboxy-Lyases. EC 4.1.1.1 pyruvate decarboxylase. EC 4.1.1.2 oxalate ...
... and isocitrate lyase were assayed in Escherichia coli which had been grown on various sources of carbon and nitrogen. Induction ... of ethanolamine ammonia-lyase and of maximal levels of … ... The activities of the enzymes ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA- ... and isocitrate lyase were assayed in Escherichia coli which had been grown on various sources of carbon and nitrogen. Induction ... No evidence was found for structural relationships between ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase and ...
4.3 Carbon-nitrogen lyases (541 organisms) EC subclass 4.4", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, " ... L-serine ammonia-lyase), so that the overall reaction is: i.e., an elimination with rearrangement. The sub-subclasses of EC 4.3 ... are the ammonia-lyases (EC 4.3.1), lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc. (amidine-lyases; EC 4.3.2) and the amine-lyases (EC ... 4.1 Carbon-carbon lyases (2540 organisms) EC subclass 4.2", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", CAPTIONSIZE, " ...
... is the key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-Phenylalanine to ammonia and trans- cinnamic acid. In phenyl propano ... Agro-industrial wastes, nitrogen sources and carbon sources were also optimized for the maximum production of enzyme (58.77± ... Discovery of two cyanobacterial phenylalanine ammonia lyases: kinetic and structural characterization. Biochemistry 46, 1004-12 ... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-Phenylalanine to ammonia and trans- ...
Protein engineering conference (Greifswald, Germany, August 2012); Title of presentation: "Engineering ammonia lyases for ... "Discovery and engineering of new enzymes for carbon-nitrogen bond formation". ... "Engineering of methylaspartate ammonia lyase for synthesis of unnatural amino acids". Period covered: 11-10-2010 until 11-10- ... for carbon-carbon bond formation". Period covered: 01-07-2016 until 01-07-2020. ...
EC 4.3 Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases. This subclass contains the enzymes that release ammonia or one of its derivatives, with the ... as in EC 4.3.1.17 (L-serine ammonia-lyase), so that the overall reaction is ,C(-OH)-CH(-NH2)- → ,CH2-CO- + NH3. i.e., an ... EC 4.3.2), the amine-lyases (EC 4.3.3), and other carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC 4.3.99).. EC 4.4 Carbon-Sulfur Lyases. Enzymes ... EC 4.2 Carbon-Oxygen Lyases. These enzymes catalyse the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond. In the case of hydro-lyases (EC 4.2.1 ...
... carbon is gray; nitrogen is blue; oxygen is red). The front portion of the RsTAL tetramer has been cut-away to reveal the ... lyases such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) and histidine ammonia lyase (HAL) are engineered ... Tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and histidine ammonia lyase (HAL) catalyze the non-oxidative ... aromatic amino acid ammonia lyases phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) catalyze the deamination ...
... enzyme derived from Anabaena variabilis that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid . Both the U.S. Food and ... Pegvaliase is a recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) ... Ammonia-Lyases. *Carbon-Nitrogen Lyases. *Enzymes. *Enzymes and ... Pegvaliase is a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme that temporarily restores the levels of deficient enzyme and reduces ... Pegvaliase is a recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme derived from Anabaena variabilis that converts ...
4:50 PM - 5:10 PMThe Arabidopsis Qqs Orphan Gene Modulates Carbon and Nitrogen Allocation Across Species Ling Li, Ph. D. - Iowa ... 1:55 PM - 2:15 PMRole of Bifunctional Ammonia-lyase in Grass Cell Wall Biosynthesis Jaime Barros-Rios - University of North ... 5:30 PM - 5:32 PMatmyst4 Encodes a Functional Rhamnogalacturonan Lyase with Similarity to Family 4 Polysaccharide Lyases, ... 2:55 PM - 3:15 PMSensor Kinases Tor and gcn2 Orchestrate Translation and Autophagy in Response to Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulfur ...
Lysine ammonia lyases are not known, while ammonia lyases acting on histidine or 3-methylaspartate are among the known and ... characterized ammonia lyases that we aim at engineering in order to convert their specificity from their natural substrate to ... The enzyme activity necessary to directly convert Lys to 6-AHEA is an ammonia-lyase cleaving the carbon-nitrogen bond at the α- ... The enzyme activity necessary to directly convert Lys to 6-AHEA is an ammonia-lyase cleaving the carbon-nitrogen bond at the α- ...
The systems and methods utilize carbon nanotubes to enhance sensitiv ... Ammonia (NH3): 12NH3+I2+6H2O→2IO3−+12NH4++10e− ... Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2): NO2+2H++2e−→NO+H2O ... The enzyme may be a member of a group including, but not limited to, Oxidoreductases, Transferases, Hydrolases, Lyases, ... citrate lyase and pyruvate oxidase, sulphite oxidase, amyloglucosidase, α-amylase, glucose oxidase, immobilized penicillin ...
... fluid induces genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism suggesting that the bacteria may use carbon and nitrogen sources ... The induced gene hutH2 encodes a histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first step in the degradation of histidine to ... tomato HrpW protein has domains similar to harpins and pectate lyases and can elicit the plant hypersensitive response and bind ... On the other hand, the genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism are not highly expressed under the effect of bean leaf ...
Category:EC 4.3 (carbon-nitrogen lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.3.1 *Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) ... Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase)Edit. Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.1.1 *Ornithine decarboxylase (EC ... 4 Category:Lyases (EC 4) (Lyase) *4.1 Category:EC 4.1 (carbon-carbon lyases) ... Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma-lyase ...
Carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC 4.3). 4.3.1: ammonia-lyases. *Histidine ammonia-lyase ... Serine dehydratase or L-serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes. SDH is ... ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Results showed the secondary importance of the SDH pathway.[14][15] ... L-serine hydro-lyase. Enzyme structure. HoloEnzyme: The holoenzyme SDH contains 319 residues, 1 PLP cofactor molecule, and 131 ...
... a finding that could also apply to ethanolamine ammonia-lyase and choline TMA-lyase (35). Further biochemical characterization ... 1988) Effect of phosphate on the corrosion of carbon steel and on the composition of corrosion products in two-stage continuous ... The cultures were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic chamber (Coy Laboratory Products) under an atmosphere of 98% nitrogen and ... A) Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showing the relationship between the amino acid sequences of choline TMA-lyases and ...
... ammonia (nitrogen, hydrogen), or carbon dioxide (carbon, oxygen) at double bonds. For example, decarboxylases remove carbon ... lyase. Lyase. , in physiology, any member of a class of enzymes that catalyze the addition or removal of the elements of water ... lyases, the isomerases, and the ligases. Oxidoreductases and transferases account for about 50 percent of the approximately ...
... with sufficient carbon and nitrogen harvested during log-phase growth; (ii) CLB (carbon-limited B3 medium) harvested during ... and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (Table 1) in both CLB and NLB. These enzymes might be involved in multiple pathways, including ... Among these were six members of the glycoside hydrolase family 61, as well as several polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate ... Under nitrogen or carbon limitation, lignin and manganese peroxidase expression increased relative to nutrient replete medium. ...
B. Ammonia Lyases 1. Aspartase 2. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase C. Arginine Deiminase D. Pyridoxal 5-Phosphate Enzymes 1. ... D. Carbon Dioxide E. Nitrogen F. Growth Factors PHYSIOLOGY A. Oxygen Demand and Total Concentration B. Lack of Ethanol C. ... D. Nitrogen Compounds E. Inorganic Constituents F. Organic Acids G. Carbon Dioxide H. Other Compounds MATERIALS USED IN BREWING ... Nitrogen. Conventionally, nitrogen is supplied in the form of ammonium sulfate or nitrate. Physiologically ammonium compounds ...
... as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, catalyzes the first step of the DMF degradation.The DMFase gene dmfA1A2 was cloned in ... nitrogen, and energy.Resting cells of KU-7 were found to accumulate ammonia in the medium indecating that degradation of 2-NBA ... The 181-amino acid sequence of NbaB is 35% identical to the 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyases (PnbBs) of various 4-nitrobenzoate ... sequence identity to the 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyase (PnbB) of 4-nitrobenzoate assimilating Pseudomonas putida TW3. Pairwise ...
C12N9/80-Hydrolases (3) acting on carbon to nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds (3.5) acting on amide bonds in linear ... The insolubles are separated by centrifuge and 60 ml of an aqueous saturated ammonia sulfate solution is added thereto. After ... A method according to claim 44, wherein the enzyme is an oxidoreductase, hydrolase, transferase, lyase, isomerase or ligase and ... They include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, etc. Examples of oxidoreductases are ...
... ammonia explanation free. What is ammonia? Meaning of ammonia medical term. What does ammonia mean? ... Looking for online definition of ammonia in the Medical Dictionary? ... such as nitrite nitrogen.. Shortcut Nitrification Treatment of High Strength Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater by Aerobic Granular ... ammonia-lyase. *ammonia-lyases. *ammoniate. *ammoniated. *ammoniated forage poisoning. *ammoniated mercury. *ammoniated ...
Impact of nitrogen supply on carbon/nitrogen allocation: a case study on amino acids and catechins in green tea [Camellia ... Six phenylalanine ammonia-lyases from Camellia sinensis: Evolution, expression, and kinetics. Yingling Wu, Wenzhao Wang, Yanzhi ... Relationship between the levels of ammonia and co-ordination of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ... Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and catechins (flavan-3-ols) accumulation in tea ...
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of [1-13C]dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and [1-13C]acrylate metabolism by a DMSP lyase-producing marine isolate of the alpha-subclass of Proteobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolism of acrylate to beta-hydroxypropionate and its role in dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase induction by a salt marsh sediment bacterium, Alcaligenes faecalis M3A. (nih.gov)
  • Under nitrogen or carbon limitation, lignin and manganese peroxidase expression increased relative to nutrient replete medium. (asm.org)
  • The most abundant source of carbon is plant biomass, composed primarily of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. (asm.org)
  • Many microorganisms are capable of utilizing cellulose and hemicellulose as carbon and energy sources, but a much smaller group of filamentous fungi has evolved with the ability to depolymerize lignin, the most recalcitrant component of plant cell walls. (asm.org)
  • Collectively known as white rot fungi, they possess the unique ability to efficiently depolymerize lignin in order to gain access to cell wall carbohydrates for carbon and energy sources. (asm.org)
  • Choline and trimethylamine (TMA) are important nitrogen-containing metabolites that perform fundamental roles in biological pathways throughout nature. (pnas.org)
  • Discovery of a Choline Utilization Gene Cluster in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Identification of a Candidate Choline TMA-Lyase. (pnas.org)
  • The systems and methods utilize carbon nanotubes to enhance sensitivity and selectivity towards the reacting species by decreasing interference and detecting a wide range of concentrations. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Evidence for Intracellular and Extracellular Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) Lyases and DMSP Uptake Sites in Two Species of Marine Bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Among these were six members of the glycoside hydrolase family 61, as well as several polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. (asm.org)
  • The volatile odorant TMA is used as a carbon source by bacteria, is a precursor to the marine osmolyte trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO), and is converted to the powerful greenhouse gas methane by methanogenic archaea ( 2 ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Global conversion of organic carbon to CO 2 with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen involves the combined metabolic activity of numerous organisms. (asm.org)
  • As such, white rot fungi play an important, if not pivotal, role in the carbon cycle (for a review, see reference 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Each of the polar substituents of PLP is coordinated by functional groups: the pyridinium nitrogen of PLP is hydrogen-bonded to the side chain of Cys 303, the C3-hydroxyl group of PLP is hydrogen-bonded to the side chain of Asn 67, and the phosphate group of PLP is coordinated by main chain amides from the tetraglycine loop. (wikidoc.org)
  • Purification and characterization of dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase from an alcaligenes-like dimethyl sulfide-producing marine isolate. (nih.gov)