Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.GlutaminaseHepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.AcetyleneGlutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Methionine SulfoximineArchaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).MethylaminesUrea Cycle Disorders, Inborn: Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)AminohydrolasesBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

The chemical ecology of Biomphalaria glabrata: the effects of ammonia on the growth rate of juvenile snails. (1/3091)

When juvenile specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were subjected to concentrations of ammonia ranging from 1-100 mug/ml in various media the following effects were observed: the addition of ammonia to borate buffered media caused mortality. Both borate and tris-buffered media caused a decrease in the growth rate of snails when compared with controls in SSW. The growth rates of the snails could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of ammonia to critical thresholds, but further increases beyond these thresholds resulted in growth inhibition. The toxicity of ammonia in ambient water was augmented by an an increase in pH. The possible causation and ecological significance of these effects are discussed. There are indications that the snails are physiologically well-adapted to utilize ammonia when required and also to control its excretion and uptake from the medium.  (+info)

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (2/3091)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

RFLP of rRNA genes and sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a phylogenetic approach. (3/3091)

It has been established that 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny gives a low resolution between members of the chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) belonging to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. In this study, 12 isolates of AOB were ribotyped, and the sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were determined and used in a phylogenetic study. 16S and 23S rDNA ribotyping revealed that the AOB studied contain only one rrn operon per genome, in contrast to most bacteria, which have 5-10 copies of the rRNA genes per genome. It is likely that the presence of only one set of rRNA genes is related to the slow growth of the AOB. The 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the AOB were shown to be arranged in the classical way: a 16S rRNA gene, an ISR and a 23S rRNA gene. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship among the AOB, the relative location of the rRNA genes in the genome appears to vary considerably. The size of the ISR was approximately 400 bp in the Nitrosomonas isolates and 645-694 bp in the Nitrosospira isolates, suggesting a species-specific size difference in the ISR. The ISR contained two potential tRNA genes in the 5' end in all isolates studied. The similarity values between the ISR sequences of the AOB are low (42.9-96.2%) compared with the 16S rDNA sequence similarity values, and therefore the ISR sequences are valuable as a complementary phylogenetic tool in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the AOB based on ISR sequences confirms the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny but has the benefit of giving a higher resolution.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (4/3091)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection potentiates the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by omeprazole. (5/3091)

BACKGROUND: Omeprazole has a greater intragastric pH elevating effect in Helicobacter pylori positive than negative subjects. Ammonia production by H pylori has been suggested as a probable mechanism. AIMS: To assess the effect of H pylori status on gastric acid secretion during omeprazole treatment, and to examine the possible role of ammonia neutralisation of intragastric acid in increased omeprazole efficacy in infected subjects. METHODS: Twenty H pylori positive and 12 H pylori negative healthy volunteers were examined before and six to eight weeks after commencing omeprazole 40 mg/day. On both occasions plasma gastrin and acid output were measured basally and in response to increasing doses of gastrin 17 (G-17). Gastric juice ammonium concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Prior to omeprazole, measurements were similar in the H pylori positive and negative subjects. During omeprazole, median basal intragastric pH was higher in the H pylori positive (7.95) versus negative (3.75) subjects (p<0.002). During omeprazole basal, submaximal (180 pmol/kg/h G-17), and maximal acid outputs (800 pmol/kg/h G-17) were lower in H pylori positive subjects (0.0, 3.6, 6.0 mmol/h respectively) versus negative subjects (0.3, 14.2, 18.6 mmol/h) (p<0.03 for each). This effect was not explained by neutralisation by ammonia. CONCLUSION: The presence of H pylori infection leads to a more profound suppression of acid secretion during omeprazole treatment. The effect cannot be explained by neutralisation of intragastric acid by bacterial ammonia production and its precise mechanism has to be explained.  (+info)

Reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation indicates residual viability after myocardial infarction. (6/3091)

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical significance of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability within the infarcted area. BACKGROUND: Although the relation between residual viability and exercise-induced ST-segment elevation has been described, there are no reports focusing on the relation between myocardial viability and reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. METHODS: We evaluated regional blood flow and glucose utilization using N-13 ammonia (NH3) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 30 patients with a previous Q-wave myocardial infarction (anterior in 15, inferior in 15). All subjects had single-vessel disease and had exercise-induced ST-segment elevations (> or =1 mm) in electrocardiographic leads. RESULTS: Reciprocal ST-segment depression (> or =1 mm) was present in 16 patients (Group A; anterior in 6, inferior in 10) but not in the remaining 14 patients (Group B). The degree of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation (1.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.0+/-0.2 mm) and the time from the onset of infarction to the study (75+/-49 vs. 74+/-52 days) did not differ between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the residual luminal narrowing in the infarct-related artery (45+/-21 vs. 48+/-25%). The presence and site of infarction were confirmed by NH3-PET in all patients. FDG-PET demonstrated residual tissue viability within infarct-related area in all patients in Group A and in 3 (21%) of 14 patients in Group B (p < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability were 84%, 100% and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST segment elevation in patients with a previous Q-wave infarction who had single-vessel disease indicates residual tissue viability within the infarct-related area.  (+info)

13N-ammonia myocardial blood flow and uptake: relation to functional outcome of asynergic regions after revascularization. (7/3091)

OBJECTIVES: In this study we determined whether 13N-ammonia uptake measured late after injection provides additional insight into myocardial viability beyond its value as a myocardial blood flow tracer. BACKGROUND: Myocardial accumulation of 13N-ammonia is dependent on both regional blood flow and metabolic trapping. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction underwent prerevascularization 13N-ammonia and 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and thallium single-photon emission computed tomography. Pre- and postrevascularization wall-motion abnormalities were assessed using gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or gated radionuclide angiography. RESULTS: Wall motion improved in 61 of 107 (57%) initially asynergic regions and remained abnormal in 46 after revascularization. Mean absolute myocardial blood flow was significantly higher in regions that improved compared to regions that did not improve after revascularization (0.63+/-0.27 vs. 0.52+/-0.25 ml/min/g, p < 0.04). Similarly, the magnitude of late 13N-ammonia uptake and FDG uptake was significantly higher in regions that improved (90+/-20% and 94+/-25%, respectively) compared to regions that did not improve after revascularization (67+/-24% and 71+/-25%, p < 0.001 for both, respectively). However, late 13N-ammonia uptake was a significantly better predictor of functional improvement after revascularization (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.79) when compared to absolute blood flow (area under the ROC curve = 0.63, p < 0.05). In addition, there was a linear relationship between late 13N-ammonia uptake and FDG uptake (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) as well as thallium uptake (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) in all asynergic regions. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that beyond its value as a perfusion tracer, late 13N-ammonia uptake provides useful information regarding functional recovery after revascularization. The parallel relationship among 13N-ammonia, FDG, and thallium uptake supports the concept that uptake of 13N-ammonia as measured from the late images may provide important insight regarding cell membrane integrity and myocardial viability.  (+info)

The rostral ventrolateral medulla mediates the sympathoactivation produced by chemical stimulation of the rat nasal mucosa. (8/3091)

1. We sought to outline the brainstem circuit responsible for the increase in sympathetic tone caused by chemical stimulation of the nasal passages with ammonia vapour. Experiments were performed in alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. 2. Stimulation of the nasal mucosa increased splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND), elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP), raised heart rate slightly and inhibited phrenic nerve discharge. 3. Bilateral injections of the broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenate (Kyn) into the rostral part of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; rostral C1 area) greatly reduced the effects of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND (-80 %). These injections had no effect on resting ABP, resting SND or the sympathetic baroreflex. 4. Bilateral injections of Kyn into the ventrolateral medulla at the level of the obex (caudal C1 area) or into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) greatly attenuated the baroreflex and significantly increased the baseline levels of both SND and ABP. However they did not reduce the effect of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND. 5. Single-unit recordings were made from 39 putative sympathoexcitatory neurons within the rostral C1 area. Most neurons (24 of 39) were activated by nasal mucosa stimulation (+65.8 % rise in discharge rate). Responding neurons had a wide range of conduction velocities and included slow-conducting neurons identified previously as C1 cells. The remaining putative sympathoexcitatory neurons were either unaffected (n = 8 neurons) or inhibited (n = 7) during nasal stimulation. We also recorded from ten respiratory-related neurons, all of which were silenced by nasal stimulation. 6. In conclusion, the sympathoexcitatory response to nasal stimulation is largely due to activation of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons within the RVLM. We suggest that these neurons receive convergent and directionally opposite polysynaptic inputs from arterial baroreceptors and trigeminal afferents. These inputs are integrated within the rostral C1 area as opposed to the NTS or the caudal C1 area.  (+info)

This work introduces a wireless, solid-state, portable, and automated device capable of semi-continuously measuring the total ammonia (ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 + )) levels of fluids, including biological samples. This device reliably measures the total ammonia of biological samples (e.g., urine) faster than current ammonia quantification techniques. Medical professionals typically estimate NH4+ levels using error-prone indirect measurement techniques (i.e., urine anion gap), which are time-consuming and are seldom suitable for periodic measurements. Several instantaneous measurements of total ammonia levels in a patient urine could be utilized as an early warning for both acid-base and/or potassium disturbances. Given the devices operation mechanism, it is able to quantify the total ammonia concentration within a biological sample in only five seconds and can simultaneously transmit data to other devices via Bluetooth. The analytical operation demonstrated high sensitivity, high ...
To test the significance of the purine nucleotide cycle in renal ammoniagenesis, studies were conducted with rat kidney cortical slices using glutamate or glutamine labelled in the alpha-amino group with 15N. Glucose production by normal kidney slices with 2 mM-glutamine was equal to that with 3 mM-glutamate. With L-[15N]glutamate as sole substrate, one-third of the total ammonia produced by kidney slices was labelled, indicating significant deamination of glutamate or other amino acids from the cellular pool. Ammonia produced from the amino group of L-[alpha-15N]glutamine was 4-fold higher than from glutamate at similar glucose production rates. Glucose and ammonia formation from glutamine by kidney slices obtained from rats with chronic metabolic acidosis was found to be 70% higher than by normal kidney slices. The contribution of the amino group of glutamine to total ammonia production was similar in both types of kidneys. No 15N was found in the amino group of adenine nucleotides after ...
Background and aim: In acute liver failure (ALF), the brain is exposed to high levels of ammonia. Human studies defining the clinical significance of ammonia in ALF are lacking. This prospective study evaluated the relationship of arterial ammonia levels at admission to complications and survival among patients with ALF. Methods: Eighty consecutive ALF patients admitted from March 2001 to December 2003 were followed up until death or complete recovery. All had arterial ammonia estimation at admission (enzymatic method). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of mortality. Results: Forty two (52.5%) patients died. Non-survivors had significantly higher median ammonia levels than survivors (174.7 v 105.0 μ mol/l; p,0.001). An arterial ammonia level of = 124 μ mol/l was found to predict mortality with 78.6% sensitivity and 76.3% specificity, and had 77.5% diagnostic accuracy. Patients with higher ammonia levels also developed more complications, including ...
The effects of biotin on ammonia concentration in blood and brain were evaluated in hyperammonemic rats and mice. Rats were injected with 5 mmol/kg BW of ammonium acetate, and mice were injected with 10 mmol/kg BW. Increases in blood ammonia levels in rats 15-30 min after ammonia loading were preven …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ammonia transport. AU - Wingreen, Ned S.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - This review reviews the ammonium/methylammonium transport (Amt) proteins of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Amt proteins and their homologs, the methylammonium/ammonium permease proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, constitute a distinct class of membrane-associated ammonia transporters. Members of the Amt family are found in archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants, and invertebrate animals. In E. coli and serovar Typhimurium, the Amt proteins are essential to maintain maximal growth at low concentrations of ammonia, the preferred nitrogen source. Soupene and coworkers showed that a mutant of E. coli with only the low-affinity glutamate dehydrogenase pathway for assimilation of ammonia, which therefore grows slowly at low ammonia concentrations, is not relieved of its growth defect by overexpression of AmtB. A recent study on an Amt protein from tomato concluded that it was a ...
An ammonia converter was constructed using a commercially available platinum catalyst, with the aim of applying it for the measurement of ammonia concentrations. The dependence of the ammonia converter efficiency on the reaction temperature and the ammonia concentration was investigated by measuring the concentration of the converted nitric oxide. The results showed that the catalyst almost completely oxidized ammonia into nitric oxide at temperatures above 600℃ in the tested range of ammonia concentrations. In addition, by combining the ammonia converter with a chemiluminescent NO_x analyzer we were able to measure the ammonia concentration in an ammonia-nitric oxide mixture to an accuracy of within 3% by making a correction due to the oxygen concentration.
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Purpose: To determine the precision and cost-effectiveness of the pHydrion(TM) ammonia test relative to the Draeger(TM) volumetric pump/ammonia detector tube method in measuring ammonia concentrations in swine barns.. Methods: Ammonia concentrations in farrowing, nursery, finisher, and gestating barns were monitored for 8 weeks using both the pHydrion(TM) test strips and the Draeger(TM) unit. The ammonia measurements were compared using bivariate correlation analysis. Average ammonia concentrations in each barn type were compared using an ANOVA. The precision and cost-effectiveness of each assay were demonstrated by plotting the width of the confidence interval by the number of dollars available for ammonia detection, as well as by the number of tests performed.. Results: The mean ammonia concentrations differed by room type (P ,.05) and increased in the following order: nursery, farrowing, gestating, and finishing rooms. ...
Abstract Introduction Uremia results in a characteristic breath odor (uremic fetor) which is largely due to its high ammonia content. Earlier studies have shown a strong correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea levels and a 10‐fold reduction in breath ammonia after hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Potential sources of breath ammonia include: (i) local ammonia produc...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells. AU - Lan, Rong. AU - Tao, Shanwen PY - 2014/8/28. Y1 - 2014/8/28. N2 - Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.. AB - Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ...
A process for the separation of ammonia dissolved in a gaseous solvent is used to recover ammonia during the production of ammonia from a synthesis gas. The process may be used to extract and recover ammonia in either the supercritical region or the subcritical region. The process can be used to remove ammonia from synthesis gas, or other gaseous solvents, by removing ammonia whose chemical potential decreases as the density of the solvent increases. The process utilizes a sorbent to remove the ammonia followed by an in situ regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the ammonia. Typically, a gaseous solvent containing the ammonia is passed through a bed of sorbent to sorb the ammonia onto the bed of sorbent, thereby producing a purified gaseous solvent. At least a portion of the gaseous solvent is then acted upon to increase its solvent capacity for the ammonia. The increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent is passed through the bed of sorbent in the opposite direction to desorb the ammonia from the
The major excretory product of fish and many other aquatic organisms. Ammonia is formed during the utilization of proteins which the organism receives through its diet. In fish, the majority of ammonia is excreted through the gills.. Ammonia exists in two forms in water, the gaseous or un-ionized form (NH3) and the ionic form (NH4+) which is called ammonium. While the sum of the two forms (called total ammonia) always equals 100%, the percentage present in the water of either form depends mostly on the pH of the water and, to a lesser extent, the water temperature and salinity. For example, assuming a total ammonia concentration of 1 mg/L at a pH of 7.5 and a temperature of 75°F (24°C), the gaseous fraction (NH3) will be 0.0165 mg/L, while the ammonium concentration is 0.9835 mg/L, with the sum of total ammonia equaling 1.0 mg/L. If everything is kept the same except the pH is increased to 8.5, the NH3 value becomes 0.144 mg/L while NH4+ will equal 0.856 mg/L (the sum still equaling 1.0 ...
List of causes of Elevated blood ammonia level and Stomach symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Citation: Hafner, S.D., Meisinger, J.J., Mulbry III, W.W., Ingram, S.K. 2012. A pH-based method for measuring gaseous ammonia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 92(2):195-205. Interpretive Summary: Ammonia emissions from agricultural systems contribute to poor air quality and pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Various approaches are used to measure and better understand ammonia emission from agricultural systems. A common method for measuring emission or gaseous concentration is to trap ammonia in an acid solution, and later measure the total ammonia content of the solution. In this paper, we present a modification of this method, where the ammonia content of the acid solution is determined indirectly by measuring the solution pH. Ammonia content is calculated from pH by application of a chemical speciation model. The method is rapid and non-destructive, and so can be applied repeatedly to the same acidic solution at a high frequency. Testing of the method through laboratory ...
Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4+ with glutamate to form glutamine. Glutamine synthetase is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule, suggesting ammonia recycling via glutamine synthetase could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. This studys purpose was to determine the role of proximal tubule glutamine synthetase in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. Following induction of metabolic acidosis the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple ...
Table 1: Distribution of ammonia aggregates by enterprises of the Russian Federation. Table 2: Design Indicators of Energy Consumption of Russian Ammonia Aggregates. Table 3: Ammonia producers in the CIS countries and their capacity at the end of 2017. Table 4: Distribution of Russian ammonia producers in agrochemical holdings and their raw materials supply in 2016. Table 5: Technical requirements for the quality of anhydrous ammonia (according to GOST 6221-90). Table 6: Ammonia production in the CIS countries in 1998-2017, kt. Table 7: Production of ammonia in Russia by enterprises in 1997-2017, kt. Table 8: Belonging to holdings of the main enterprises producing mineral fertilizers in the Russian Federation in 2017. Table 9: Milestones in the development of ammonia production by PJSC TogliattiAzot. Table 10: Geographic structure of ammonia exports of PJSC TogliattiAzot in 2004-2017, kt. Table 11: The largest consumers of ammonia produced by PJSC TogliattiAzot in 2004-2017, t. Table 12: ...
... , Levels Of Total Ammonia Of Only .25 Mg Per Liter Can Be Harmful To Your Fish & Other Aquarium Or Pond Inhabitants, The Tetratest Total Ammonia Kit Was Professionally Developed To Accurately Determine The Ammonia Level In Your Aquarium Or Pond Water, To Ensure Optimum Water Quality, Frequent Testing Is Strongly Recommended - Even More Frequently When Your Aquarium Or Pond Is First Established, The Kit Contains Reagent For 25 Tests, A Test Vial, Color Scale, Instructions & Recommendations ...
At standard pressure, ammonia melts at 195 K and boils at 240 K. If a sample of ammonia at standard pressure is cooled from 200 K down to absolute zero, what physical constants are needed to calculate the change in enhtalpy ...
HAZARD Cherie Berry, Commissioner of Labor 1- 800- 625- 2267 www. nclabor. com On June 20, 2009, an ammonia line ruptured during mainte-nance at a poultry processing plant in Robeson County, N. C., killing one employee and injuring several others. This accident should remind employers of the hazards associated with the use of anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant at food processing plants. What Is Anhydrous Ammonia? Anhydrous ammonia ( ammonia gas) occurs naturally and is an important source of nitrogen that is needed by plants and animals. It is commercially produced by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ammonia ( Chemical Abstracts Service No. 7664- 41- 7) boils at - 28.1 degrees F and is highly soluble in water. Anhydrous ammonia is typically shipped as a liquid under pressure and readily converts to a gas when released to air, forming a white " smoke" by freezing moisture in the air. Why Is Ammonia Hazardous? Ammonia is considered a high ...
Portable Ammonia nitrogen colorimeter LH-N11 is mainly use for rapid test to get the ammonia nitrogen ion concentration in the water, using international standard method.Portable Ammonia nitrogen colorimeteris eco-friendly, the test is fast and the result
AmGuard™ safely, rapidly and efficiently removes toxic free ammonia. It is safe to use during tank cycling and is ideal for treating unexpected emergency situations. AmGuard™ reacts with free ammonia within minutes and does not alter pH. Ammonia can exist in two forms: free and ionized. It is only the free form that is toxic. Traditional ammonia test kits convert all ammonia to free ammonia by raising pH to 12-14; at this pH no ammonia removing product can function, and thus a false positive reading will result. Use Ammonia Alert™ or MultiTest™: Free & Total Ammonia to directly monitor levels of free ammonia. AmGuard™ also removes chlorine and chloramines ...
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Most patients with neurological Lyme Disease and coinfections (i.e., MS, ALS, Parkinsons Disease, Autism), have elevated levels of ammonia in the brain which is neurotoxic. This is due to the fact that the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces urease enzymes, and ammonia accumulation results. Sometimes ammonia levels will be elevated in the blood, but many times they are also normal. This is because the ammonia concentration is localized in specific tissues (brain), where the concentration is not high enough to be detected in the blood. But that doesnt mean that ammonia is not causing destruction. It is VERY neurotoxic, and needs to be removed with herbal supplements and diet changes ...
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3.This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.Tests at the loadpoint of 1500 rpm/2.63 bar break mean effective pressure (BMEP) showed that most ammonia was formed over a TWC at a lambda of 0.93 with a 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) at 3 crank angle ...
Ammonia is known to be a potent neurotoxin that causes severe negative effects on the central nervous system. Excessive ammonia levels have been detected in the brain of patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Therefore, ammonia could be a factor contributing to the progression of AD. In this review, we provide an introduction to the toxicity of ammonia and putative ammonia transport proteins. We also hypothesize how ammonia may be linked to AD. Additionally, we discuss the evidence that support the hypothesis that ammonia is a key factor contributing to AD progression. Lastly, we summarize the old and new experimental evidence that focuses on energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, inflammatory responses, excitatory glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and memory in support of our ammonia-related hypotheses of AD.
The effects of angiotensin II on total ammonia (tNH3) production and net secretion were investigated using in vitro microperfused mouse S2 proximal tubule segments incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 mM L-glutamine. Basolateral exposure of mouse S2 segments to 10(-11), 10(-10 …
The raw energy density of liquid ammonia is 11.5 MJ/L,[60] which is about a third that of diesel. Although it can be used as a fuel, for a number of reasons this has never been common or widespread. In addition to direct utilization of ammonia as a fuel in combustion engines there is also the opportunity to convert ammonia back to hydrogen where it can be used to power hydrogen fuel cells or it can be directly used within high temperature fuel cells[61].. Ammonia engines or ammonia motors, using ammonia as a working fluid, have been proposed and occasionally used.[62] The principle is similar to that used in a fireless locomotive, but with ammonia as the working fluid, instead of steam or compressed air. Ammonia engines were used experimentally in the 19th century by Goldsworthy Gurney in the UK and the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar line in New Orleans in the 1870s and 1880s,[63] and during World War II ammonia was used to power buses in Belgium.[64]. Ammonia is sometimes proposed as a practical ...
Erisman, Jan Willem; Bleeker, Albert; Neftel, Albrecht; Aneja, Viney; Hutchings, Nick; Kinsella, Liam; Tang, Y. Sim; Webb, J.; Sponar, Michel; Raes, Caroline; Mitosinkova, Marta; Vidic, Sonja; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Klimont, Zbigniew; Pinder, Rob; Baker, Samantha; Reidy, Beat; Flechard, Chris; Horvath, Laszlo; Lewandowska, Anita; Gillespie, Colin; Wallasch, Marcus; Gehrig, Robert; Ellermann, Thomas. 2009 Detecting change in atmospheric ammonia following emission changes. In: Sutton, Mark A.; Reis, Stefan; Baker, Samantha M.H., (eds.) Atmospheric ammonia: Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts. Results of an Expert Workshop under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Springer, 383-390. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Dragosits, Ulrike; Theobald, Mark; Place, Christopher J.; ApSimon, Helen M.; Sutton, Mark A.. 2009 Spatial planning as a complementary tool to abate the effects of atmospheric ammonia deposition at the landscape scale. In: Sutton, Mark A.; Baker, Samantha; Reis, Stefan, (eds.) Atmospheric Ammonia: Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts. Springer, 291-298. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
The optical properties and density of ammonia have not been exhaustively studied despite the relevance of these characteristics in astrophysical scenarios. This work presents new data pertaining to the real part of the refractive index of ammonia at 632.8. nm and the density at different temperatures of deposition ranging from 13. K to ammonias desorption temperature of approximately 110. K. The results indicate a significant variability for both parameters versus temperature: an increase of 50% for the density and of 10% for the refractive index as the temperature increases in the range of 13-60. K; at temperatures greater than 60. K, a constant value is reached for both parameters. This initial variation and the following plateau reflect structural differences in the form of ammonia at low and high temperatures of deposition that can play an important role in the interaction of ammonia with other molecules of astrophysical interest. © 2013 Elsevier Inc ...
Anabaena cylindrica was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and was placed in a batch reactor in the presence of a glutamine synthetase inhibitor (methionine sulfoximide). Ammonia was released in the medium during two days with a rate of 0.35 μ moles h−1mgChl−1. Addition of nitrite to the medium increased the ammonia production as cells used the nitrite reductase pathway to form ammonia. When reactors were placed in anaerobiosis by N2 bubbling, ammonia production was sustained several days and the total ammonia formed was about two fold higher than in aerobiosis. Long term effects of MSX, nitrite and anaerobiosis are discussed.
Elos Ammonia Test Kit - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Elos Ammonia Test Kit. - Buy Elos Ammonia Test Kit - Now Only $20.99 - ELOS AQUA TEST KIT- Ammonia Ammonia is the most lethal form of inorganic nitrogen produced in aquarium water. The major source of ammonia in a well run aquarium, is from solid waste of fish and invertebrates, uneaten food, decaiyng leaves of plants. Nature comes to our rescue as there are specialized bacteria (Nitrosomonas species) that eat ammonia , and strip away the hydrogen atoms. By the way, this bacterial population may be affected by many negative biochemical events. In an established aquarium Ammonia should be zero, for these reason, the periodical analytical valuation of ammonia in the aquarium water should be considered by the serious aquarium enthusiast. ELOS AquaTest NH4, as well as all the other colorimetric test kit of this line, grants an high precision thanks to several procedures like the use of RealColor technology, an
Ammonia is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle, with strong implications for both regional air quality and ecosystems [1]. Due to limited information about fertilizer usage, two of the most important ammonia emission sources-i) livestock production and farm practices, and ii) ammonia emission estimates for agricultural fertilization and livestock farming across China-are usually based on time-averaged emission factors and temporal profiles, leading to uncertainties in the evaluation of controls on ammonia in emission levels and control technologies. In this study, we update activity data and emission factors in the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model [2] to improve spatial and temporal distribution of baseline ammonia inventory in China. We also develop applications for ammonia control measures in order to estimate maximum mitigation potential. The results should allow for ...
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AMMONIA SCAVENGER by PHP 90 capsules. An elevated blood ammonia level can affect your entire body. A by-product of poor protein digestion and impaired Urea cycle function, it can have many damaging effects on the body, including reduction of BH4, the molecule needed for neurotransmitter production and nitric oxide production. This may also impact mental health and increase damaging oxidative stress. Other symptoms of elevated blood ammonia include muscle weakness, fatigue, neurodegenerative diseases,liver and kidney damage and/ or possible failure. Ammonia Scavenger has a specific blend of nutrients to support the Urea Cycle and to safely reduce ammonia in the body.. ...
How to Lower Ammonia Levels in the Body. Ammonia is a normal byproduct of digestion that is usually removed from the body by the liver. If you have elevated ammonia levels, it is typically due to a problem with your liver function....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Growth, activity and temperature responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in soil microcosms. AU - Tourna, Maria. AU - Freitag, Thomas E. AU - Nicol, Graeme W. AU - Prosser, James I. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Ammonia oxidation, as the first step in the nitrification process, plays a central role in the global cycling of nitrogen. Although bacteria are traditionally considered to be responsible for ammonia oxidation, a role for archaea has been suggested by data from metagenomic studies and by the isolation of a marine, autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing, non-thermophilic crenarchaeon. Evidence for ammonia oxidation by non-thermophilic crenarchaea in marine and terrestrial environments is largely based on abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amo) genes, rather than activity. In this study, we have determined the influence of temperature on the response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in nitrifying soil microcosms using two approaches, ...
In this study, total AOA amoA, AOB amoA, N. oligotropha amoA, and N. europaea 16S rRNA genes were analyzed by qPCR technique. The AOA amoA primers confirmed that we selected only the sludge samples with AOB dominance, confirmed by undetectable of AOA amoA genes (the limit of detection (LOD) = 5 × 103 copies/mgMLSS). For comparison the gene copies among total AOB, the N. oligotropha and the N. europaea clusters, the gene numbers were converted to cell numbers on the basis of the numbers of the genes found in one cell (Fig. 1). The resulting qPCR demonstrated that AOB affiliated with the N. europaea cluster comprised the majority of the AOB consortium in WWTPs having high residual ammonia and nitrifying reactors (sludge A, D, and E). The influent ammonia concentrations of plant A and reactors D and E were in the range of 173-500 mgN/L and the effluent ammonia concentrations were in elevated levels of 13-171 mgN/L. In contrast, members of N. oligotropha were the dominant AOB in sludge from WWTPs ...
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163. Wang, Y., Heigenhauser, G.J.F., and Wood, C.M. (1996) Ammonia transport and distribution after exercise across white muscle cell membranes in rainbow trout: a perfusion study. Am. J. Physiol. 271 pp: R738-R750. (PDF). ...
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Urbanization in the world increased the pollution levels in the environment making it for worsen life. General awareness about pollution is increasing today. To control pollution levels, biological methods are eco-safe and economical. In this study a wild strain of Bacillus species was isolated and optimized for bioremediation studies of ammonia in flask cultures. Strategy was tried to develop for ammonia bioremediation in a single stage aerobic nitrification and denitrification. The results reveal that the optimum pH for the isolated Bacillus species was 7 and optimum temperature was 30°C. At optimum pH and temperature this organism was able to remove 99.2% of ammonia in flask cultures supplemented with 5g/L of ammonium sulphate. The biomass obtained after bioremediation studies was 0.3g/L which is very low. The study on ammonia toxicity revealed that toxicity was due to pH and osmolarity.
Of all the water quality parameters that affect fish, ammonia is the most important after oxygen, especially in intensive systems. Ammonia causes stress and damages gills and other tissues, even in small amounts. Fish exposed to low levels of ammonia over time are more susceptible to bacterial infections, have poor growth, and will not tolerate routine handling as well as they otherwise would. Ammonia is a killer when present in higher concentrations, and many unexplained production losses have likely been caused by ammonia.. Ammonia accumulates easily in aquatic systems because it is a natural byproduct of fish metabolism. All animals excrete some waste in the process of metabolizing food into the energy, nutrients, and proteins they use for survival and growth. In fish, the principal metabolic waste product is ammonia. Because it is continuously excreted and potentially lethal, successful aquaculture operations must, therefore, incorporate methods to detect and eliminate ammonia before it can ...
Ammonia is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent smell similar to human urine, as the urine contains an amount of ammonia in it. It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding between molecules; the liquid boils at -33.3 °C, and solidifies at -77.7 °C to a mass of white crystals. Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionizing powers (ε = 22), and solutions of salts in liquid ammonia have been much studied. Liquid ammonia has a very high standard enthalpy change of vaporization (23.35 kJ/mol, cf. water 40.65 kJ/mol, methane 8.19 kJ/mol, phosphine 14.6 kJ/mol) and can therefore be used in laboratories in non-insulated vessels at room temperature, even though it is well above its boiling point. It is miscible with water. All the ammonia contained in an aqueous solution of the gas may be expelled by boiling. The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) ...
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The leak occurred when a circuit breaker failed, causing a pressure relief valve to open releasing the anhydrous ammonia. EPA alleges that Oregon Potato failed to immediately notify local and state agencies about the release. While no injuries were reported at the time of the incident, ammonia is a pungent, toxic gas that attacks skin, eyes, throat, and lungs and can cause serious injury or death ...
... is a chemical leavener that was used before the advent of baking soda and baking powder.Cooking Ammonia releases gas fast and gives a quick rise to something baking in the oven. It doesnt need an acid or anything else to react to, the way baking soda does; in fact, it doesnt react to liquid either, as baking powder does. As Cooking Ammonia only reacts when exposed to high heat, this means that while mixing and preparing something, you dont have to race it into the oven once the leavener is added.. On the plus side, Cooking Ammonia makes cookies light and crisp, and gives a more open crumb. The downside is that a faint ammonia smell can hang around the baked good.. It is used in some traditional German recipes.. ...
]40 gal salt water tank...have had very high ammonia levels for a week..dont know why... desperate... have added ammo-lock 3-4 times...stresszyme 3-4 ... mutiple water changes...not a new tank 6mos+
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ammonia toxicity and cerebral oxidative metabolism.. AU - MCKHANN, G. M.. AU - TOWER, D. B.. PY - 1961/3. Y1 - 1961/3. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0000187648&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0000187648&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 13774048. AN - SCOPUS:0000187648. VL - 200. SP - 420. EP - 424. JO - American Journal of Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology. SN - 0363-6135. ER - ...
To make ammonia, all we need is a source of energy such as solar or wind power, nitrogen from the air, and water. Storage and handling technologies for ammonia is well understood and it is safely used by farmers throughout the nation every day. Solutions of ammonia (5-10% by weight) are used as household cleaners, particularly for glass. These solutions are irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes (respiratory and digestive tracts), and to a lesser extent the skin. The toxicity of ammonia solutions does not usually cause problems for humans and other mammals, as a specific mechanism exists to prevent its build-up in the bloodstream [1].. The gas is flammable (autoignition temperature: 651 °C) and can form explosive mixtures with air (16-25%). Anhydrous ammonia corrodes copper- and zinc-containing alloys, and so brass fittings should not be used for handling the gas. Liquid ammonia can also attack rubber and certain plastics. Although ammonia is regulated in the United States as a ...
PDF Version What is ammonia? Pure ammonia (NH3), also known as anhydrous ammonia, is a colorless gas, with a strong and pungent odor. Ammonias odor is its greatest safety asset. Most people can smell ammonia before it reaches a hazardous level. Ammonias odor threshold is sufficiently low to provide adequate warning of its presence. However, ammonia causes olfactory fatigue
Ammonia[edit]. Ammonia (NH3) has been used as a fuel before at times when gasoline is unavailable (e.g. for buses in Belgium ...
... unlike on industrial ammonia-processing equipment.[citation needed] A major ammonia pipeline is the Ukrainian Transammiak line ... Highly toxic ammonia is theoretically the most dangerous substance to be transported through long-distance pipelines.[citation ... needed] However, incidents on ammonia-transporting lines are uncommon - ...
Ammonia-based[edit]. Ammonia-based processes do not allow recovery of the pulping chemicals since ammonia or ammonium salts are ...
Ammonia[edit]. The attack takes the form of a reaction between ammonia and copper to form the cuprammonium ion, formula [Cu(NH3 ... The tendency of copper to react with ammonia was exploited in making rayon, and the deep blue colour of the aqueous solution of ... However, if the concentration of ammonia is very high, then attack is much more severe, and attack over all exposed surfaces ... It was not until 1921 that the phenomenon was explained by Moor, Beckinsale and Mallinson: ammonia from horse urine, combined ...
Ammonia synthesis[edit]. Ammonia synthesis was discovered by Fritz Haber, by using iron catalysts. The ammonia synthesis ... A lot of research has been done on the catalyst used in the ammonia process, but the main catalyst that is used today is not ... Both methanol and ammonia synthesis take advantage of the water-gas shift reaction and heterogeneous catalysis, while other ... Ammonia production was one of the first commercial processes that required the production of hydrogen, and the cheapest and ...
ammonia thoughts[edit]. Treatment plants with NPDES permits under the US Clean Water Act are restricted in their (toxic) ... Why does the article list Ammonia and Ammonium separately? Though they are separate compounds, wouldn't their role in the cycle ... such as the bacterium which degrades chitin to produce ammonia (Spiegel et al., 1991), are likely to kill most nematodes in ... ammonia discharge, but not their (nontoxic) nitrate discharge. Furthermore nitrate plays a relatively insignificant in ...
Anaerobic ammonia oxidation. Main article: Ammonia. In this biological process, nitrite and ammonia are converted directly into ... Ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to fish and the level of ammonia discharged from wastewater treatment facilities must be closely ... 3). It is important for the ammonia (NH. 3) to be converted to nitrates or nitrites because ammonia gas is toxic to plants. ... The sinking results in ammonia being introduced at lower depths below the euphotic zone. Bacteria are able to convert ammonia ...
Ammonia, NH3. covalent nonmetal hydride. Water, H2O. covalent nonmetal hydride. Hydrogen fluoride, HF. covalent nonmetal ...
Ammonia, NH3, molecule the three N−H bonds have only a slight polarity (toward the more electronegative nitrogen atom). The ... The ammonia molecule, NH3, is polar as a result of its molecular geometry. The red represents partially negatively charged ... which results in a powerful dipole across the whole ammonia molecule. ...
The RNA world hypothesis is supported by RNA's ability to store, transmit, and duplicate genetic information, as DNA does. RNA can act as a ribozyme, a special type of enzyme. Because it can perform the tasks of both DNA and enzymes, RNA is believed to have once been capable of supporting independent life forms.[15] Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material, rather than DNA.[45] Further, while nucleotides were not found in experiments based on Miller-Urey experiment, their formation in prebiotically plausible conditions was reported in 2009;[22] the purine base known as adenine is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide. Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage Qβ RNA, have shown that simple self-replicating RNA structures can withstand even strong selective pressures (e.g., opposite-chirality chain terminators).[46] Since there were no known chemical pathways for the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides from pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine and uracil under prebiotic conditions, it ...
HCN (not HNC) was first detected in June 1970 by L. E. Snyder and D. Buhl using the 36-foot radio telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.[16] The main molecular isotope, H12C14N, was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 88.6 GHz in six different sources: W3 (OH), Orion A, Sgr A(NH3A), W49, W51, DR 21(OH). A secondary molecular isotope, H13C14N, was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 86.3 GHz in only two of these sources: Orion A and Sgr A(NH3A). HCN was then later detected extragalactically in 1988 using the IRAM 30-m telescope at the Pico de Veleta in Spain.[17] It was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 90.7 GHz toward IC 342. A number of detections have been made towards the end of confirming the temperature dependence of the abundance ratio of [HNC]/[HCN]. A strong fit between temperature and the abundance ratio would allow observers to spectroscopically detect the ratio and then extrapolate the temperature of the environment, thus gaining great insight into the ...
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas.. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the simple ...
Ammonia (NH3). *Carbonyl sulfide (COS). *Nitrous oxide (N2O). *Sulfur dioxide (SO2) ...
Diatomic elements played an important role in the elucidation of the concepts of element, atom, and molecule in the 19th century, because some of the most common elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, occur as diatomic molecules. John Dalton's original atomic hypothesis assumed that all elements were monatomic and that the atoms in compounds would normally have the simplest atomic ratios with respect to one another. For example, Dalton assumed water's formula to be HO, giving the atomic weight of oxygen as eight times that of hydrogen[6], instead of the modern value of about 16. As a consequence, confusion existed regarding atomic weights and molecular formulas for about half a century. As early as 1805, Gay-Lussac and von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen, and by 1811 Amedeo Avogadro had arrived at the correct interpretation of water's composition, based on what is now called Avogadro's law and the assumption of diatomic ...
For example, C60 reacts with lithium in liquid ammonia, followed by tert-butanol to give a mixture of polyhydrofullerenes such ...
Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the ... Ammonia. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dioctyl phthalate). n-Butene. Cyclohexane. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). Dodecylbenzene. ... Steam crackers are not to be confused with steam reforming plants used to produce hydrogen and ammonia. ...
negligible in ammonia insoluble in ether slowly soluble in propylene glycol Solubility in methanol 238 g/L ...
... is a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, hence blocking oxidative phosphorylation. This prevents the body from oxidizing food to produce useful energy. Lactic acidosis then occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism. Initially, acute cyanide poisoning causes a red or ruddy complexion in the victim because the tissues are not able to use the oxygen in the blood. The effects of potassium and sodium cyanide are identical, and symptoms of poisoning typically occur within a few minutes of ingesting the substance: the person loses consciousness, and brain death eventually follows. During this period the victim may suffer convulsions. Death is caused by cerebral hypoxia. The median lethal dose (human) for potassium cyanide is estimated at 200-300 mg.[13] A number of prominent persons were killed or committed suicide using potassium cyanide, including members of the Young Bosnia and famous personalities in the Third Reich, such ...
Minor uses of ethylene glycol include the manufacture of capacitors, as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of 1,4-dioxane, as an additive to prevent corrosion in liquid cooling systems for personal computers, and inside the lens devices of cathode-ray tube type of rear projection televisions. Ethylene glycol is also used in the manufacture of some vaccines, but it is not itself present in these injections. It is used as a minor (1-2%) ingredient in shoe polish and also in some inks and dyes. Ethylene glycol has seen some use as a rot and fungal treatment for wood, both as a preventative and a treatment after the fact. It has been used in a few cases to treat partially rotted wooden objects to be displayed in museums. It is one of only a few treatments that are successful in dealing with rot in wooden boats, and is relatively cheap. Ethylene glycol may also be one of the minor ingredients in screen cleaning solutions, along with the main ingredient isopropyl alcohol. Ethylene glycol is ...
Serpone N, Salinaro A, Emeline AV, Horikoshi S, Hidaka H, Zhao JC. 2002. "An in vitro systematic spectroscopic examination of the photostabilities of a random set of commercial sunscreen lotions and their chemical UVB/UVA active agents". Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 1(12): 970-981. ...
Ammonia (AWS type 5, also called forming gas): Dissociated ammonia (75% hydrogen, 25% nitrogen) can be used for many types of ... Copper-rich alloys prone to stress cracking by ammonia.. *Ag-Zn. Silver-zinc. Similar to Cu-Zn, used in jewelry due to its high ... Copper-rich alloys sensitive to stress cracking in presence of ammonia. Zinc. structural, melting, wetting volatile. low. cheap ... ammonia Good mechanical properties. Often used with silver. Dissolves and wets nickel. Somewhat dissolves and wets iron. ...
The large grains in interstellar space are probably complex, with refractory cores that condensed within stellar outflows topped by layers acquired subsequently during incursions into cold dense interstellar clouds. That cyclic process of growth and destruction outside of the clouds has been modeled[31][32] to demonstrate that the cores live much longer than the average lifetime of dust mass. Those cores mostly start with silicate particles condensing in the atmospheres of cool oxygen rich red-giant stars and carbon grains condensing in the atmospheres of cool carbon stars. The red-giant stars have evolved off the main sequence and have entered the giant phase of their evolution and are the major source of refractory dust grain cores in galaxies. Those refractory cores are also called Stardust (section above), which is a scientific term for the small fraction of cosmic dust that condensed thermally within stellar gases as they were ejected from the stars. Several percent of refractory grain ...
... is also cogenerated as an impurity in the synthesis of EDTA, arising from reactions of the ammonia coproduct.[22] ... The two main processes are amination of chloroacetic acid with ammonia, giving glycine and ammonium chloride,[18] and the ...
In the SOHIO process, propylene, ammonia, and air (oxidizer) are passed through a fluidized bed reactor containing the catalyst ... The aqueous solution consists of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, hydrocyanic acid, and ammonium sulfate (from excess ammonia). A ...
soluble in ammonia, methanol, ethanol very slightly soluble in dimethylformamide, SO2 insoluble in dimethyl sulfoxide ...
This device reliably measures the total ammonia of biological samples (e.g., urine) faster than current ammonia quantification ... and automated device capable of semi-continuously measuring the total ammonia (ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 + )) levels of ... Several instantaneous measurements of total ammonia levels in a patient urine could be utilized as an early warning for both ... Given the devices operation mechanism, it is able to quantify the total ammonia concentration within a biological sample in ...
UCD may be suspected with elevated ammonia, normal anion gap, and a normal glucose. Plasma amino acids can be used to aid in ... Acute treatment for UCD consists of dialysis and administration of nitrogen scavenger drugs to reduce ammonia concentration. ... but present with in the neonatal period as ammonia levels rise with lethargy, seizures, hyper- or hypoventilation, and ... and defects in any of the steps of the pathway can result in an accumulation of ammonia, which can be toxic to the nervous ...
Very high levels of ammonia can damage the lungs or cause death ... High levels of ammonia can irritate and burn the skin, mouth, ... Useful search terms for ammonia include "anhydrous ammonia," "aqua ammonia,"and "aqueous ammonia." ... NLM Medline Plus: Ammonia Poisoningexternal icon. *Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) Guideline for Ammonia pdf icon[ ... Ammonia is used in many industries. Some examples of workers at risk of being exposed to ammonia include the following:. * ...
At very high levels, ammonia can even cause death. Ammonia has been found in at least 137 of the 1,647 current or former ... Exposure to high levels of ammonia can cause irritation and serious burns on the skin and in the mouth, throat, lungs, and eyes ... Ammonia is found throughout the environment in the air, soil, and water, and in plants and animals including humans. ... Ammonia gas can be dissolved in water. This kind of ammonia is called liquid ammonia or aqueous ammonia. Once exposed to open ...
In addition, the fuel, i.e., ammonia, is presently abundant and the fuel handling technology already exists and is user- ... One alternative fuel solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine technology. There are ... The Ammonia Economy One alternative fuel solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine ... On the other hand, ammonia-based fuels offer a great potential for universal use. The present disadvantage is that pure ammonia ...
... unite and form ammo nia. A notable quantity of ammonia is there fore found in the liquid. It is the case with other gases ... Ammonia is a colorleSil gas of a very pungent odor, causing tears to flow freely. It is a powerful alkali, and neu tralizes ... Ammonia is a compound of two gases, viz. , nitrogen and hydrogen.- They do not combine directly in their gase ous state, but if ... Ammonia is obtained in a gase ous form by mixing powdered salammoniac with about an equal quantity of dry slacked lime, and ...
Instructions: The objective is to determine the extents of reaction for an equilibrium ammonia reactor This spreadsheet uses ...
amoníaco (es); ammóníak (is); Ammonia (ms); ammonia (en-gb); аммиак (ru); Амоняк (bg); ಅಮೊನಿಯ (kn); Ammonia (simple); Ammonia ( ... response to ammonia (reactant),. cellular response to ammonia (reactant),. ammonia homeostasis (Process variable),. cellular ... ammonia (en); أمونيا (ar); Ammonia (gom); ammoniak (sv); အမ်မိုးနီးယား (my); 氨 (yue); ammónia (hu); નવસાર (gu); Â-mô-nì-â (hak ... Ammonia (en-ca); 亞摩尼亞 (zh-yue); אמוניה (he); ammonia (la); Amonyak (tr); अमोनिया (hi); 氨 (wuu); ਅਮੋਨੀਆ (pa); Amoniak (frr); ...
Ammonia is normally supplied in compressed liquified form in cylinders.. See ICSC 0215.. Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up ...
Toxicological profile for Ammonia. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Techno-economic analyses of specific ammonia production processes, presenting capital investment breakdown, raw materials ... ECONOMICS OF AMMONIA FROM NATURAL GAS (AMMONIA E21A) It presents the economics of Ammonia production from natural gas in the ... Understand Ammonia production costs Industrial Process Economics About Ammonia Reports Coverage of Ammonia Process Economics ... AMMONIA E11A) This report presents the economics of Ammonia production from syngas (synthesis gas) using a typical process. ...
If ammonia s dissolved in water, ammonia becomes known as aqueous ammonia. When exposed to air, ammonia will become a gas. When ... Keep ammonia prodcuts stored safely. (Image: storage image by MAXFX from Fotolia.com). Accidental Exposure. If you get ammonia ... Turn a fan on when using ammonia products. (Image: fan image by Lucy Clark from Fotolia.com). Handling. Always keep ammonia ... Ammonia can be used for household chores. (Image: bucket close up image by Aleksandr Ugorenkov from Fotolia.com). Ammonia is ...
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The aim of this chapter is to relate the detailed analysis of the ammonia synthesis reaction, as examined in other sections of ... The present annual production of ammonia is in excess of 120 million tons per year and virtually all of this ammonia is ... Hooper C.W. (1991) Ammonia Synthesis: Commercial Practice. In: Jennings J.R. (eds) Catalytic Ammonia Synthesis. Fundamental and ... T. W. Nurse, Ammonia From Coal; Choosing a Design. Proc.-Int. Symp. Large Chem. Plants: Energy, Feedstocks, Processes, 5th, p. ...
If the gas is dissolved in water, it is called liquid ammonia. Poisoning may occur if you breathe in ammonia. Poisoning may ... Ammonia is a strong, colorless gas. If the gas is dissolved in water, it is called liquid ammonia. Poisoning may occur if you ... WARNING: Never mix ammonia with bleach. This causes the release of toxic chlorine gas, which can be deadly. ... Damage is related to the amount and strength (concentration) of the ammonia. Most household cleaners are relatively weak and ...
... shutting off the flow of ammonia in and out of it and rerouting the ammonia flow through a spare radiator so the PVTCS can ... If rerouting the ammonia through the spare radiator stops the leak, mission managers will evaluate whether to leave the fix as- ... to support ground-based troubleshooting of an ammonia leak. The spacewalking duo isolated the photovoltaic radiator on the P6 ...
anhydrous ammonia. Title (Click to Sort) Fact Sheet Number. Tags Safe Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia AEX-591.4.9 agricultural ... Safe Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia AEX-594 agricultural safety, farm, safety, anhydrous ammonia ... tailgate safety training for operators and supervisors, anhydrous ammonia, safety, ppe, flushing eyes ...
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1-3, p. 27) reports that ammonia concentrations in the range of 20 to 25 ppm elicited complaints of discomfort from workers ... Ammonia is a primary eye and upper respiratory tract irritant. An unpublished study conducted by the Detroit Department of ... Ammonia is principally used as a feedstock in the manufacture of fertilizers and other chemical substances and is also used as ... OSHAs former exposure limit for ammonia was 50 ppm as an 8-hour TWA. OSHA proposed to revise this limit to 25 ppm TWA and to ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Ammonia toxicity. [William T Willingham; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Region VIII. Water Division.] ... Ammonia toxicity. Author:. William T Willingham; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Region VIII. Water Division.. ... Ammonia toxicity/William T Willingham; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Region VIII. Water Division.; Denver, ... http://id.worldcat.org/fast/807750> # Ammonia--Toxicology. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Ammonia--Toxicology"@en ;. .. ...
Ammonia is a base compound that can be hazardous and toxic in high quantities. Ammonia is produced with the breakdown of animal ... Neutralizing Pet Ammonia * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/d\/d0\/Neutralize-Ammonia-Step-9.jpg\/v4- ... Cleaning Ammonia Spills * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/9b\/Neutralize-Ammonia-Step-1.jpg\/v4-460px ... Ammonia-Step-1.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/9b\/Neutralize-Ammonia-Step-1.jpg\/aid4754958-v4-728px-Neutralize-Ammonia- ...
A valve stuck in the on position may have been to blame for pumping the building full of ammonia. Members of the Hazardous ... An ammonia leak at a Davie ice-making factory forced the evacuation Friday night of several workers, a fire official said. ... Materials team went in to locate the valve and stop the ammonia, LeDuc said. ... An ammonia leak at a Davie ice-making factory forced the evacuation Friday night of several workers, a fire official said. ...
Microvis Wastewater Technology Reduces Ammonia, Nitrate. March 17, 2015. March 16, 2015. by Jessica Lyons Hardcastle. ... Categories Environmental Management, LargeTags ammonia, BASF, Calcium sulfite, Centrifugal pumps, cooling water, Diaphragm ... Categories Compliance, Environmental Management, Executive BriefingsTags ammonia, BP, coal ash, Environmental Enforcement, ... Categories Chemicals, Environmental Management, WasteTags AkzoNobel, ammonia, Enerkem, Groningen Seaports, InnovationQuarter, ...
  • This work introduces a wireless, solid-state, portable, and automated device capable of semi-continuously measuring the total ammonia (ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 + )) levels of fluids, including biological samples. (embs.org)
  • This device reliably measures the total ammonia of biological samples (e.g., urine) faster than current ammonia quantification techniques. (embs.org)
  • Several instantaneous measurements of total ammonia levels in a patient urine could be utilized as an early warning for both acid-base and/or potassium disturbances. (embs.org)
  • Given the device's operation mechanism, it is able to quantify the total ammonia concentration within a biological sample in only five seconds and can simultaneously transmit data to other devices via Bluetooth. (embs.org)
  • The role of the urea cycle is to metabolize and clear waste nitrogen, and defects in any of the steps of the pathway can result in an accumulation of ammonia, which can be toxic to the nervous system. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Infants with a complete urea cycle enzyme deficiency typically appear normal at birth, but present with in the neonatal period as ammonia levels rise with lethargy, seizures, hyper- or hypoventilation, and ultimately coma or death. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • The main application of Ammonia is in nitrogen fertilizers, followed by the synthesis of nitric acid, but it also used in smaller amounts in several other applications. (slideshare.net)
  • Ammonia helps to contribute to the development of nitrogen, which is necessary for plant growth. (ehow.com)
  • It is an important source of nitrogen which is ammonia in air, food, water, and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • The present annual production of ammonia is in excess of 120 million tons per year and virtually all of this ammonia is produced from a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen over a promoted iron catalyst operating at elevated temperature and pressure. (springer.com)
  • Ammonia is one of several forms of nitrogen that exist in aquatic environments. (epa.gov)
  • Unlike other forms of nitrogen, which can cause nutrient over-enrichment of a water body at elevated concentrations and indirect effects on aquatic life, ammonia causes direct toxic effects on aquatic life. (epa.gov)
  • Natural sources of ammonia include the decomposition or breakdown of organic waste matter, gas exchange with the atmosphere, forest fires, animal and human waste, and nitrogen fixation processes. (epa.gov)
  • Ammonia can enter the aquatic environment via direct means such as municipal effluent discharges and the excretion of nitrogenous wastes from animals, and indirect means such as nitrogen fixation, air deposition, and runoff from agricultural lands. (epa.gov)
  • 3. The process according to claim 2 wherein the recovered more concentrated ammonia is used to make nitrogen containing fertilizer. (google.com)
  • JM Science's AT-2000 Ammonia Analyzer is based on coulometric titration technology and can measure ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 -N) swiftly, accurately and easily without any specific skill by the end-user. (eponline.com)
  • The ammonia acts as a nitrogen source for the plants, which promotes growth and greening. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Ammonia is a chemical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen , with the formula NH 3 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In living systems, ammonia plays several important roles, serving as a source of nitrogen for plants and helping maintain acid/base balance in animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In 1909, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed a method of producing ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nearly a century ago, German chemist Fritz Haber won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for a process to generate ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen gases. (eurekalert.org)
  • To make ammonia, which consists of one nitrogen atom and three hydrogen atoms, chemists must break the strong bond that holds two nitrogen atoms together, and then reduce the nitrogen, or add electrons and protons to it in the form of hydrogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the Haber-Bosch process, hydrogen and nitrogen gas are pumped over beds of metal catalysts, which aid the reaction, at pressures up to 250 times atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 500 degrees Celsius (932 F). The process currently produces nearly 500 million tons of ammonia every year. (eurekalert.org)
  • In biology, conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia is called nitrogen "fixation" and is accomplished through several pathways, including through enzymes called nitrogenases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Used by some bacteria, nitrogenases are the only known enzymes to reduce nitrogen to ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the other, electrons come off the cathode and are combined with nitrogen, via nitrogenase, to create ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Novel microbial players and even new metabolisms with importance for the nitrogen cycle have been discovered, such as planctomycetes catalyzing anaerobic ammonia oxidation ( 3 , 4 ) and archaea of the recently proposed phylum Thaumarchaeota ( 5 , 6 ) capable of oxidizing ammonia to nitrite ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ammonia, a gaseous compound of one nitrogen atom bound to three hydrogen atoms, is not a strong base. (reference.com)
  • Gaseous ammonia is a natural part of Earth's nitrogen cycle, but excess ammonia is harmful to plants and reduces air and water quality. (spaceref.com)
  • Ammonia in the thick mixture released in this way, called "cryovolcanism," could be the source of molecular nitrogen, the major gas in Titan's atmosphere. (universetoday.com)
  • That suggests that the building blocks, or "planetesimals," that formed Titan contained nitrogen mostly in the form of ammonia. (universetoday.com)
  • Nitrogen, Ammonia, mid range For freshwater or seawater Color disc/Salicylate. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Protein breaks down into nitrogen compounds including ammonia in the intestine. (livestrong.com)
  • Nitrogen may be detected by the evolution of ammonia when the substance is heated with soda-lime. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The researchers noted that vehicle emissions of ammonia were co-emitted with nitrogen oxides. (princeton.edu)
  • With other vehicle emissions - mainly nitrogen and sulfur compounds - in such close proximity to the ammonia, the conditions are ripe for the production of fine particulate matter. (princeton.edu)
  • To learn more about the amount of ammonia in your soil, extract the nitrogen compounds from the soil in a lab test. (wikihow.com)
  • The synthesis of nitric acid is referred to as the Ostwald process, and involves combining ammonia with excess oxygen under conditions that yield nitrogen dioxide. (wikihow.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ligases (amide synthases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dozens of chemical plants produce ammonia around the world. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The process, still in use today, ushered in a revolution in agriculture, but now consumes around one percent of the world's energy to achieve the high pressures and temperatures that drive the chemical reactions to produce ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fertilizer manufacturers commonly employ the Haber-Bosch (HB) technique to produce ammonia (NH 3 ) to be used as a fertiziler for agriculture - a process that consumes 1-2% of global energy. (energy.gov)
  • Ammonia is applied directly into soil on farm fields, and is used to make fertilizers for farm crops, lawns, and plants. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to higher levels if you apply ammonia fertilizers or live near farms where these fertilizers have been applied. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid farm fields after they have been treated with ammonia or ammonia-containing fertilizers. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ammonia has been used to compose fertilizers for lawns, plants and farm land. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonia is principally used as a feedstock in the manufacture of fertilizers and other chemical substances and is also used as a refrigerant. (cdc.gov)
  • Ammonia is a toxic chemical most commonly found in refrigerants, cleaning products, and fertilizers. (worksafebc.com)
  • Ammonia is produced for commercial fertilizers and other industrial applications. (epa.gov)
  • Ammonia is one of the most extensively manufactured inorganic chemicals, used mainly for the production of fertilizers , explosives , and polymers . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Study ties fertilizers, animal waste, changes to atmospheric chemistry and climate change to increased ammonia over the United States, Europe, China and India. (spaceref.com)
  • Although specifics vary between areas, the increases are broadly tied to crop fertilizers, livestock animal wastes, changes to atmospheric chemistry, and warming soils that retain less ammonia. (spaceref.com)
  • The researchers suggest this is due in part to successful limits on ammonia-rich fertilizers and improved practices for treating animal waste. (spaceref.com)
  • Ammonia is also used as a refrigerant and gas and water purifier, and ammonia is used in the manufacturie of textiles, plastics, dyes, explosives and pesticides. (reference.com)
  • On the heels of these resources is a 2014 guideline update from the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration (IIAR) which promotes education, information and industry standards for the safe and proper use of ammonia as a refrigerant. (prweb.com)
  • It can also increase absorption of ammonia through the portal vein and it has been shown that up to 40 grams of ammonia can be absorbed through the portal vein per day. (healingwell.com)
  • one volume of water dissolves about 1,200 volumes of the gas at 0°C (90 grams of ammonia in 100 cc of water), but only about 700 volumes at room temperature and still less at higher temperatures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • With current applied, the compound yielded more than 10 grams of ammonia per hour using 1 kilogram of catalyst. (eurekalert.org)
  • The real thing is not the quantity of ammonia produced, but that it's possible to make electricity at the same time," Milton says. (eurekalert.org)
  • The quantity of ammonia in systems varies from less than 5,000 pounds to more than 250,000 pounds. (teamster.org)
  • Any of various enzymes that remove ammonia or an amino compound by breaking the C-N bond, leaving a C=C. (dictionary.com)
  • Much like the United States, a major potential cause for increased ammonia traces back to reductions in atmospheric acids that would normally remove ammonia from the atmosphere. (spaceref.com)
  • There are tests to measure ammonia in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), There are tests to measure ammonia in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Ammonia is produced with the breakdown of animal and vegetable matter, including the breakdown of protein in urine. (wikihow.com)
  • But I do know that ammonia is a part of the Urea that comes out with the Urine. (medhelp.org)
  • Urea can be 'reconverted' to ammonia by bacrerial action, which explains the ammonia smell of stale urine. (yahoo.com)
  • Then tell me there is no ammonia in urine. (yahoo.com)
  • As to your question, the ammonia evaporating from urine is part of what causes the foul smell. (yahoo.com)
  • Why does my urine smell like ammonia? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ammonia-smelling urine is common and mostly harmless. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are times, however, where ammonia-smelling urine indicates a health problem. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pregnant women have a higher risk than others for UTIs, which increases their chances of having ammonia-smelling urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hence, pregnant women should let their doctors know if they experience unpleasant-smelling urine, especially if the smell resembles ammonia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pregnancy vitamins can also create a smell of ammonia in the urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Both these changes may cause ammonia-smelling urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Diet is the most common cause of ammonia-smelling urine in all people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Similarly, foods high in protein can increase urine's acidic properties and cause it to have an ammonia smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Anyone who develops kidney or bladder stones may experience ammonia-smelling urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When stones pass through the urinary tract, the risk for UTIs increases and they can cause urine to have an ammonia smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Kidney disease causes chemicals in urine to become concentrated and to cause a smell resembling ammonia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A common practice, especially among business owners, is to add Ammonia (as a substitute for urine) to sidewalk scrubbing water, generally with Cinnamon powder and Sugar, and to mop or sweep inward, toward the front door, while reciting the 23rd Psalm, to draw sweet customers with money to spend. (luckymojo.com)
  • Trace amounts of ammonia are even found in dog urine, which leaves brown patches and dead grass behind. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Ammonia is turned into urea and released from the body in the urine. (livestrong.com)
  • Urine has just enough ammonia in it apparently to create a mini "mustard gas" reaction. (answers.com)
  • HOUSTON - (Nov. 25, 2019) - Rice University researchers have developed an inorganic method to synthesize ammonia that is both environmentally friendly and can produce the valuable chemical on demand under ambient conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because ammonia was formerly obtained by destructive distillation of horns and hooves of animals, its water solution was called spirits of hartshorn. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 2018, EPA corrected a minor typesetting error in the EPA Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (2013) document, EPA corrected the error and has republished the document below. (epa.gov)
  • New technology, combining membrane transport and electro-oxidation of ammonia, was developed to solve this problem without the use of expendables. (sae.org)
  • An Ammonia Removal Module (ARM) was designed for the efficient transfer of ammonia to a secondary electro-oxidation stream where the ammonia was destroyed. (sae.org)
  • However, only one pure isolate of this group from a marine environment has so far been obtained, demonstrating archaeal ammonia oxidation coupled with autotrophic growth similar to the bacterial counterparts. (pnas.org)
  • Ammonia oxidation represents the first step in nitrification and was long recognized to be solely performed by certain bacterial organisms of the proteobacterial phylum ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ammonia also takes part in oxidation and reduction reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • less than 1% of indigenous AOB (estimated as potential ammonia oxidation rate) were extractable by the dispersion-density-gradient centrifugation technique. (nih.gov)
  • Protons (oxidized hydrogen atoms) travel through a membrane between the anodic and cathodic chambers, supplying the hydrogen atoms needed to synthesize ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • In these reactions, at least one of the hydrogen atoms in ammonia is replaced by another type of atom. (wikihow.com)
  • Computational simulations by Mingjie Liu, a research associate at Brookhaven National Laboratory, showed replacing some exposed molybdenum atoms with cobalt would enhance the compound's ability to facilitate dinitrogen's reduction to ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • This includes very limited protein consumption (a sick liver has problems breaking down and clearing the by-products of protein and this results in possible higher ammonia levels), higher fiber diet and lots of fruits and vegetables. (medhelp.org)
  • Patients on Rifaximin at baseline had higher ammonia levels than those not on Rifaximin. (cnbc.com)
  • If your problem is liver related, you will need to go to a gastroenterologist for exam and bloodwork to measure what is in your blood - including ammonia levels and your liver enzymes. (medhelp.org)
  • 2004. Toxicological profile for Ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Rice University nanoscientists have demonstrated a new catalyst that can convert ammonia into hydrogen fuel at ambient pressure using only light energy, mainly due to a plasmonic effect that makes the catalyst more efficient. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Their approach combines a high-activity precious metal catalyst and an electroactive catalyst support to form ammonia molecules, while operating at moderate pressures and using localized high-temperature reaction zones. (energy.gov)
  • Rice University graduate student Xiaoyin Tian, left, and postdoctoral researcher Jing Zhang led the effort to develop an inorganic catalyst for ammonia based on doped, two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide. (eurekalert.org)
  • At high temperature and in the presence of a suitable catalyst, ammonia is decomposed into its constituent elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • This green technology can be used in many applications, but this presentation demonstrates its use in ammonia as presented to the International Fertilizer Association, IFA. (slideshare.net)
  • As a new associate member of the International Fertilizer Association and on behalf of Orono Spectral Solutions, I want to thank the association for the opportunity to present this paper on a new method to measure oil in ammonia. (slideshare.net)
  • Roughly 80 percent of manufactured ammonia is utilized in fertilizer for the agriculture industry. (reference.com)
  • Although chemistry and materials science and engineering professor Shelley Minteer and postdoctoral scholar Ross Milton have only been able to produce small quantities of ammonia so far, their method could lead to a less energy-intensive source of the ammonia, used worldwide as a vital fertilizer. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team's innovations could enable small-sale ammonia reactors that operate using intermittent renewable energy sources, thus making a zero-carbon fuel and fertilizer thereby reducing our carbon footprint. (energy.gov)
  • But the study authors found that successful legislation to reduce acid rain in the early 1990s most likely had the unintended effect of increasing gaseous ammonia. (spaceref.com)
  • But it has also increased gaseous ammonia loading, which we can see from space. (spaceref.com)
  • The high solubility of ammonia can be shown experimentally by turning a tube of gaseous ammonia upside-down in water. (wikihow.com)
  • The integrated system has demonstrated the continuous transfer and destruction of 20 mg/hr of ammonia from a solution containing 450 mg/L of sodium nitrite, 150 mg/L of ammonium sulfate, 193 mg/L of ammonium nitrate, 1330 mg/L of ammonium chloride, 20 mg/L of acetic acid, and 20 mg/L of ethanol. (sae.org)
  • The spacewalking duo isolated the photovoltaic radiator on the P6 truss from the PVTCS, shutting off the flow of ammonia in and out of it and rerouting the ammonia flow through a spare radiator so the PVTCS can continue operation. (nasa.gov)
  • The flow of ammonia has been turned off and Ascend, the owner of the supply line, said it was working to repair the line and that several nearby structures were evacuated as a precaution. (reuters.com)
  • You may be exposed to higher levels during use of cleaning products containing ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • cleaning products containing ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • when cold add the lavender water and ammonia, and make up to a pint with water. (chestofbooks.com)
  • check out sharks at the fish market, they smell like ammonia as well). (medhelp.org)
  • An estimated 200 gallons of ammonia escaped, officials said. (deseretnews.com)
  • and copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia . (yourdictionary.com)
  • Lung damage and death may result if you're exposed to very large quantities of ammonia. (ehow.com)
  • https://www.ehow.co.uk/info_8544313_ammonia-kill-grass.html. (ehow.co.uk)
  • If you work in an industry that uses ammonia, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. - CPSC, The Excelex Corporation of Dallas, Tex., is recalling 3,608 mislabeled bottles of a product labeled as "Better Valu Clear Ammonia. (cpsc.gov)
  • The product is packaged in 64-fluid oz. containers made of white, opaque plastic, labeled in part, "Better Valu***Clear Ammonia***64 FL. (cpsc.gov)
  • Economical & environmentally friendly, rooto clear ammonia cleans, softens & sweetens, making all cleaning jobs easier. (truevalue.com)