A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.
A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.

The chemical ecology of Biomphalaria glabrata: the effects of ammonia on the growth rate of juvenile snails. (1/3091)

When juvenile specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were subjected to concentrations of ammonia ranging from 1-100 mug/ml in various media the following effects were observed: the addition of ammonia to borate buffered media caused mortality. Both borate and tris-buffered media caused a decrease in the growth rate of snails when compared with controls in SSW. The growth rates of the snails could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of ammonia to critical thresholds, but further increases beyond these thresholds resulted in growth inhibition. The toxicity of ammonia in ambient water was augmented by an an increase in pH. The possible causation and ecological significance of these effects are discussed. There are indications that the snails are physiologically well-adapted to utilize ammonia when required and also to control its excretion and uptake from the medium.  (+info)

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (2/3091)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

RFLP of rRNA genes and sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a phylogenetic approach. (3/3091)

It has been established that 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny gives a low resolution between members of the chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) belonging to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. In this study, 12 isolates of AOB were ribotyped, and the sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were determined and used in a phylogenetic study. 16S and 23S rDNA ribotyping revealed that the AOB studied contain only one rrn operon per genome, in contrast to most bacteria, which have 5-10 copies of the rRNA genes per genome. It is likely that the presence of only one set of rRNA genes is related to the slow growth of the AOB. The 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the AOB were shown to be arranged in the classical way: a 16S rRNA gene, an ISR and a 23S rRNA gene. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship among the AOB, the relative location of the rRNA genes in the genome appears to vary considerably. The size of the ISR was approximately 400 bp in the Nitrosomonas isolates and 645-694 bp in the Nitrosospira isolates, suggesting a species-specific size difference in the ISR. The ISR contained two potential tRNA genes in the 5' end in all isolates studied. The similarity values between the ISR sequences of the AOB are low (42.9-96.2%) compared with the 16S rDNA sequence similarity values, and therefore the ISR sequences are valuable as a complementary phylogenetic tool in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the AOB based on ISR sequences confirms the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny but has the benefit of giving a higher resolution.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (4/3091)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection potentiates the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by omeprazole. (5/3091)

BACKGROUND: Omeprazole has a greater intragastric pH elevating effect in Helicobacter pylori positive than negative subjects. Ammonia production by H pylori has been suggested as a probable mechanism. AIMS: To assess the effect of H pylori status on gastric acid secretion during omeprazole treatment, and to examine the possible role of ammonia neutralisation of intragastric acid in increased omeprazole efficacy in infected subjects. METHODS: Twenty H pylori positive and 12 H pylori negative healthy volunteers were examined before and six to eight weeks after commencing omeprazole 40 mg/day. On both occasions plasma gastrin and acid output were measured basally and in response to increasing doses of gastrin 17 (G-17). Gastric juice ammonium concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Prior to omeprazole, measurements were similar in the H pylori positive and negative subjects. During omeprazole, median basal intragastric pH was higher in the H pylori positive (7.95) versus negative (3.75) subjects (p<0.002). During omeprazole basal, submaximal (180 pmol/kg/h G-17), and maximal acid outputs (800 pmol/kg/h G-17) were lower in H pylori positive subjects (0.0, 3.6, 6.0 mmol/h respectively) versus negative subjects (0.3, 14.2, 18.6 mmol/h) (p<0.03 for each). This effect was not explained by neutralisation by ammonia. CONCLUSION: The presence of H pylori infection leads to a more profound suppression of acid secretion during omeprazole treatment. The effect cannot be explained by neutralisation of intragastric acid by bacterial ammonia production and its precise mechanism has to be explained.  (+info)

Reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation indicates residual viability after myocardial infarction. (6/3091)

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical significance of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability within the infarcted area. BACKGROUND: Although the relation between residual viability and exercise-induced ST-segment elevation has been described, there are no reports focusing on the relation between myocardial viability and reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. METHODS: We evaluated regional blood flow and glucose utilization using N-13 ammonia (NH3) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 30 patients with a previous Q-wave myocardial infarction (anterior in 15, inferior in 15). All subjects had single-vessel disease and had exercise-induced ST-segment elevations (> or =1 mm) in electrocardiographic leads. RESULTS: Reciprocal ST-segment depression (> or =1 mm) was present in 16 patients (Group A; anterior in 6, inferior in 10) but not in the remaining 14 patients (Group B). The degree of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation (1.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.0+/-0.2 mm) and the time from the onset of infarction to the study (75+/-49 vs. 74+/-52 days) did not differ between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the residual luminal narrowing in the infarct-related artery (45+/-21 vs. 48+/-25%). The presence and site of infarction were confirmed by NH3-PET in all patients. FDG-PET demonstrated residual tissue viability within infarct-related area in all patients in Group A and in 3 (21%) of 14 patients in Group B (p < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability were 84%, 100% and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST segment elevation in patients with a previous Q-wave infarction who had single-vessel disease indicates residual tissue viability within the infarct-related area.  (+info)

13N-ammonia myocardial blood flow and uptake: relation to functional outcome of asynergic regions after revascularization. (7/3091)

OBJECTIVES: In this study we determined whether 13N-ammonia uptake measured late after injection provides additional insight into myocardial viability beyond its value as a myocardial blood flow tracer. BACKGROUND: Myocardial accumulation of 13N-ammonia is dependent on both regional blood flow and metabolic trapping. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction underwent prerevascularization 13N-ammonia and 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and thallium single-photon emission computed tomography. Pre- and postrevascularization wall-motion abnormalities were assessed using gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or gated radionuclide angiography. RESULTS: Wall motion improved in 61 of 107 (57%) initially asynergic regions and remained abnormal in 46 after revascularization. Mean absolute myocardial blood flow was significantly higher in regions that improved compared to regions that did not improve after revascularization (0.63+/-0.27 vs. 0.52+/-0.25 ml/min/g, p < 0.04). Similarly, the magnitude of late 13N-ammonia uptake and FDG uptake was significantly higher in regions that improved (90+/-20% and 94+/-25%, respectively) compared to regions that did not improve after revascularization (67+/-24% and 71+/-25%, p < 0.001 for both, respectively). However, late 13N-ammonia uptake was a significantly better predictor of functional improvement after revascularization (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.79) when compared to absolute blood flow (area under the ROC curve = 0.63, p < 0.05). In addition, there was a linear relationship between late 13N-ammonia uptake and FDG uptake (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) as well as thallium uptake (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) in all asynergic regions. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that beyond its value as a perfusion tracer, late 13N-ammonia uptake provides useful information regarding functional recovery after revascularization. The parallel relationship among 13N-ammonia, FDG, and thallium uptake supports the concept that uptake of 13N-ammonia as measured from the late images may provide important insight regarding cell membrane integrity and myocardial viability.  (+info)

The rostral ventrolateral medulla mediates the sympathoactivation produced by chemical stimulation of the rat nasal mucosa. (8/3091)

1. We sought to outline the brainstem circuit responsible for the increase in sympathetic tone caused by chemical stimulation of the nasal passages with ammonia vapour. Experiments were performed in alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. 2. Stimulation of the nasal mucosa increased splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND), elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP), raised heart rate slightly and inhibited phrenic nerve discharge. 3. Bilateral injections of the broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenate (Kyn) into the rostral part of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; rostral C1 area) greatly reduced the effects of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND (-80 %). These injections had no effect on resting ABP, resting SND or the sympathetic baroreflex. 4. Bilateral injections of Kyn into the ventrolateral medulla at the level of the obex (caudal C1 area) or into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) greatly attenuated the baroreflex and significantly increased the baseline levels of both SND and ABP. However they did not reduce the effect of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND. 5. Single-unit recordings were made from 39 putative sympathoexcitatory neurons within the rostral C1 area. Most neurons (24 of 39) were activated by nasal mucosa stimulation (+65.8 % rise in discharge rate). Responding neurons had a wide range of conduction velocities and included slow-conducting neurons identified previously as C1 cells. The remaining putative sympathoexcitatory neurons were either unaffected (n = 8 neurons) or inhibited (n = 7) during nasal stimulation. We also recorded from ten respiratory-related neurons, all of which were silenced by nasal stimulation. 6. In conclusion, the sympathoexcitatory response to nasal stimulation is largely due to activation of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons within the RVLM. We suggest that these neurons receive convergent and directionally opposite polysynaptic inputs from arterial baroreceptors and trigeminal afferents. These inputs are integrated within the rostral C1 area as opposed to the NTS or the caudal C1 area.  (+info)

This work introduces a wireless, solid-state, portable, and automated device capable of semi-continuously measuring the total ammonia (ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 + )) levels of fluids, including biological samples. This device reliably measures the total ammonia of biological samples (e.g., urine) faster than current ammonia quantification techniques. Medical professionals typically estimate NH4+ levels using error-prone indirect measurement techniques (i.e., urine anion gap), which are time-consuming and are seldom suitable for periodic measurements. Several instantaneous measurements of total ammonia levels in a patient urine could be utilized as an early warning for both acid-base and/or potassium disturbances. Given the devices operation mechanism, it is able to quantify the total ammonia concentration within a biological sample in only five seconds and can simultaneously transmit data to other devices via Bluetooth. The analytical operation demonstrated high sensitivity, high ...
http://www.qymarketresearch.com/report/118371#inquiry-for-buying. D] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer sales and Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market share by type [2011 to 2017].. E] Worldwide Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer revenue and growth rate [2011 to 2021].. F] Global Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer [Volume and Value] by Regions - USA Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , China Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Europe Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer , Japan Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer (Volume, Value and Sales Price).. The report also produce extensively details about the description, definitions which are associated to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry and also highlights the modification and changes made to ease the productivity. These company chain and government permission applicable to the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market are also included in the report.. The characteristics of the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer industry are evaluated in a qualitative and quantitative way to compare the Ammonia Nitrogen Analyzer market ...
To test the significance of the purine nucleotide cycle in renal ammoniagenesis, studies were conducted with rat kidney cortical slices using glutamate or glutamine labelled in the alpha-amino group with 15N. Glucose production by normal kidney slices with 2 mM-glutamine was equal to that with 3 mM-glutamate. With L-[15N]glutamate as sole substrate, one-third of the total ammonia produced by kidney slices was labelled, indicating significant deamination of glutamate or other amino acids from the cellular pool. Ammonia produced from the amino group of L-[alpha-15N]glutamine was 4-fold higher than from glutamate at similar glucose production rates. Glucose and ammonia formation from glutamine by kidney slices obtained from rats with chronic metabolic acidosis was found to be 70% higher than by normal kidney slices. The contribution of the amino group of glutamine to total ammonia production was similar in both types of kidneys. No 15N was found in the amino group of adenine nucleotides after ...
Background and aim: In acute liver failure (ALF), the brain is exposed to high levels of ammonia. Human studies defining the clinical significance of ammonia in ALF are lacking. This prospective study evaluated the relationship of arterial ammonia levels at admission to complications and survival among patients with ALF. Methods: Eighty consecutive ALF patients admitted from March 2001 to December 2003 were followed up until death or complete recovery. All had arterial ammonia estimation at admission (enzymatic method). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of mortality. Results: Forty two (52.5%) patients died. Non-survivors had significantly higher median ammonia levels than survivors (174.7 v 105.0 μ mol/l; p,0.001). An arterial ammonia level of = 124 μ mol/l was found to predict mortality with 78.6% sensitivity and 76.3% specificity, and had 77.5% diagnostic accuracy. Patients with higher ammonia levels also developed more complications, including ...
anhydrous ammonia. Dry soil can hold ammonia. It is free ammonia (NH3) and not ammonium that can be lost from soil at application and is damaging to microorganisms and plant roots/seedlings. On the other hand, anhydrous ammonia is essentially pure (over 99 percent) ammonia. The reaction of ammonia with water (1) causes an initial alkaline pH in the ammonia retention zone (pH can temporarily rise above nine at the point of highest concentration). 2150 Beardshear Hall Subscribe to receive email alerts when new information is posted. Also, if the injection system causes sidewall smearing (occurs when soils are wet), then ammonia may preferentially move back up the injection slot. PubChem Substance ID 24857750. The OSH Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for ammonia in air is 50 parts per million (ppm) as an 8 hour time-weighted average (8 hr TWA). Ammonia is used in food industry as a source of nitrogen for fermentation process and pH adjuster, In chemical manufacturing, ammonia is used as a precursor ...
The effects of biotin on ammonia concentration in blood and brain were evaluated in hyperammonemic rats and mice. Rats were injected with 5 mmol/kg BW of ammonium acetate, and mice were injected with 10 mmol/kg BW. Increases in blood ammonia levels in rats 15-30 min after ammonia loading were preven …
Dr. John Sawyer is a professor of agronomy and extension specialist in soil fertility and nutrient management at Iowa State University. Ammonia; Ammonia; Ammonia gas; Ammonia solution, strong; Ammoniac [French] Ammoniaca [Italian] Ammoniak [German] Amoniaco [Spanish] Amoniak [Polish] Anhydrous ammonia; Aromatic ammonia, vaporole; Caswell No. With the high affinity for water, soil moisture is important for limiting the movement of ammonia, but water does not ultimately determine retention in soil. Only after conversion to nitrate (NO3-), via the nitrification process, can it be lost from soil by leaching or denitrification. Anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas at standard temperature and pressure conditions and has a very characteristic odor. However data on ammonia escapes has shown this to be an extremely small risk in practice, and there is consequently no control on the use of ammonia refrigeration in densely populated areas and buildings in almost all jurisdictions in the world. ...
The larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabit ammonia rich septic tanks in tropical regions of the world that make extensive use of these systems, explaining the prevalence of disease during dry seasons. Since ammonia (NH3/NH4+) is toxic to animals, an understanding of the physiological mechanisms of ammonia excretion permitting the survival of A. aegypti larvae in high ammonia environments is important. We have characterized a novel ammonia transporter, AeAmt2, belonging to the Amt/MEP/Rh family of ammonia transporters. Based on the amino acid sequence, the predicted topology of AeAmt2 consists of 11 transmembrane helices with an extracellular N-terminus and a cytoplasmic C-terminus region. Alignment of the predicted AeAmt2 amino acid sequence with other Amt/MEP proteins from plants, bacteria, and yeast highlights the presence of conserved residues characteristic of ammonia conducting channels in this protein. AeAmt2 is expressed in the ionoregulatory anal papillae of A. aegypti larvae where it is
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ammonia transport. AU - Wingreen, Ned S.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - This review reviews the ammonium/methylammonium transport (Amt) proteins of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Amt proteins and their homologs, the methylammonium/ammonium permease proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, constitute a distinct class of membrane-associated ammonia transporters. Members of the Amt family are found in archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants, and invertebrate animals. In E. coli and serovar Typhimurium, the Amt proteins are essential to maintain maximal growth at low concentrations of ammonia, the preferred nitrogen source. Soupene and coworkers showed that a mutant of E. coli with only the low-affinity glutamate dehydrogenase pathway for assimilation of ammonia, which therefore grows slowly at low ammonia concentrations, is not relieved of its growth defect by overexpression of AmtB. A recent study on an Amt protein from tomato concluded that it was a ...
An ammonia converter was constructed using a commercially available platinum catalyst, with the aim of applying it for the measurement of ammonia concentrations. The dependence of the ammonia converter efficiency on the reaction temperature and the ammonia concentration was investigated by measuring the concentration of the converted nitric oxide. The results showed that the catalyst almost completely oxidized ammonia into nitric oxide at temperatures above 600℃ in the tested range of ammonia concentrations. In addition, by combining the ammonia converter with a chemiluminescent NO_x analyzer we were able to measure the ammonia concentration in an ammonia-nitric oxide mixture to an accuracy of within 3% by making a correction due to the oxygen concentration.
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Purpose: To determine the precision and cost-effectiveness of the pHydrion(TM) ammonia test relative to the Draeger(TM) volumetric pump/ammonia detector tube method in measuring ammonia concentrations in swine barns.. Methods: Ammonia concentrations in farrowing, nursery, finisher, and gestating barns were monitored for 8 weeks using both the pHydrion(TM) test strips and the Draeger(TM) unit. The ammonia measurements were compared using bivariate correlation analysis. Average ammonia concentrations in each barn type were compared using an ANOVA. The precision and cost-effectiveness of each assay were demonstrated by plotting the width of the confidence interval by the number of dollars available for ammonia detection, as well as by the number of tests performed.. Results: The mean ammonia concentrations differed by room type (P ,.05) and increased in the following order: nursery, farrowing, gestating, and finishing rooms. ...
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Abstract Introduction Uremia results in a characteristic breath odor (uremic fetor) which is largely due to its high ammonia content. Earlier studies have shown a strong correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea levels and a 10‐fold reduction in breath ammonia after hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Potential sources of breath ammonia include: (i) local ammonia produc...
The level of exposure depends upon dose, duration, â ¦ If the gas is dissolved in water, it is called liquid ammonia. 60 years experience Internal Medicine. Exposure to ammonia in sufficient quantities can be fatal. Im not having any symptoms. â ¦ Look for symptoms of ammonia poisoning. 3. in ambient outdoor air â ¦ Can cause life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). 4 thanks. effects or symptoms which could impair an individualâ s ability to take protective action is 100 ppm. Are you having any symptoms and at what level did your symptoms start? Ammonia toxicity to respiratory system in pig faming is of particular concern, but the molecular mechanism remains still unclear. Respiratory function and subjective responses of two groups of adults were recorded. Ammonia is also found in many household and industrial cleaners. What Are the Symptoms? Levels of ammonia â ¦ The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and disease in urea fertilizer workers exposed to ...
Water quality advocates say the state of South Dakota acted prematurely in reporting last week that human health was not at risk from high ammonia releases at the Smithfield Foods plant in Sioux Falls.
There by, creating growth opportunities for Green Ammonia Market. The chemical and petrochemical sector is the largest industrial energy consumer. Flipping the switch on ammonia production: Process generates electricity instead of consuming energy by University of Utah A diagram of a hydrogenase-nitrogenase ammonia producing fuel cell. II. Modernisation of plants of 60s and 70s vintag e has helped the plants to The energy consumption of SECAM ammonia synthesis is plotted against the Faradaic efficiency of the electrocatalysts in Figure 3. The recent and drastic cost reductions of solar and wind power open new possibilities for competitive ammonia production in large-scale plants. Modern ammonia production based on natural gas (NG) or coal has been opti-mised over more than 80 years. of global energy resources Fertilizer production consumes approximately 1.2% of the worlds total energy on an annual basis. The remainder is produced from electrolysis. energy consumption and greenhouse gas ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells. AU - Lan, Rong. AU - Tao, Shanwen PY - 2014/8/28. Y1 - 2014/8/28. N2 - Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.. AB - Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ...
A process for the separation of ammonia dissolved in a gaseous solvent is used to recover ammonia during the production of ammonia from a synthesis gas. The process may be used to extract and recover ammonia in either the supercritical region or the subcritical region. The process can be used to remove ammonia from synthesis gas, or other gaseous solvents, by removing ammonia whose chemical potential decreases as the density of the solvent increases. The process utilizes a sorbent to remove the ammonia followed by an in situ regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the ammonia. Typically, a gaseous solvent containing the ammonia is passed through a bed of sorbent to sorb the ammonia onto the bed of sorbent, thereby producing a purified gaseous solvent. At least a portion of the gaseous solvent is then acted upon to increase its solvent capacity for the ammonia. The increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent is passed through the bed of sorbent in the opposite direction to desorb the ammonia from the
The major excretory product of fish and many other aquatic organisms. Ammonia is formed during the utilization of proteins which the organism receives through its diet. In fish, the majority of ammonia is excreted through the gills.. Ammonia exists in two forms in water, the gaseous or un-ionized form (NH3) and the ionic form (NH4+) which is called ammonium. While the sum of the two forms (called total ammonia) always equals 100%, the percentage present in the water of either form depends mostly on the pH of the water and, to a lesser extent, the water temperature and salinity. For example, assuming a total ammonia concentration of 1 mg/L at a pH of 7.5 and a temperature of 75°F (24°C), the gaseous fraction (NH3) will be 0.0165 mg/L, while the ammonium concentration is 0.9835 mg/L, with the sum of total ammonia equaling 1.0 mg/L. If everything is kept the same except the pH is increased to 8.5, the NH3 value becomes 0.144 mg/L while NH4+ will equal 0.856 mg/L (the sum still equaling 1.0 ...
Ammonia is the major waste product of protein or nitrogenous metabolism in fish and other aquatic organisms. The major source of nitrogen compounds in fishpond culture is the protein contained in the feed. Therefore, the rate of ammonia production of fish is proportional to the feeding rate. It is excreted primarily across the gills, and in urine and faeces. Ammonia is also produced during the aerobic decomposition of organic matter by bacteria.. In water, the total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) occurs in two forms, unionised ammonia (NH3) which is toxic to fish, and the ammonium ion (NH4) which is relatively non-toxic, except at extremely high concentrations. Ammonia can change from one form to the other creating a balance between the two forms. Water pH and temperature influence the proportion of total ammonia occurring as the toxic (NH3) form.. Consequently, water samples are taken for TAN levels in the afternoon when pH and temperature are at the daily maxima. Ammonia levels then decrease during ...
List of causes of Elevated blood ammonia level and Stomach symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Citation: Hafner, S.D., Meisinger, J.J., Mulbry III, W.W., Ingram, S.K. 2012. A pH-based method for measuring gaseous ammonia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 92(2):195-205. Interpretive Summary: Ammonia emissions from agricultural systems contribute to poor air quality and pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Various approaches are used to measure and better understand ammonia emission from agricultural systems. A common method for measuring emission or gaseous concentration is to trap ammonia in an acid solution, and later measure the total ammonia content of the solution. In this paper, we present a modification of this method, where the ammonia content of the acid solution is determined indirectly by measuring the solution pH. Ammonia content is calculated from pH by application of a chemical speciation model. The method is rapid and non-destructive, and so can be applied repeatedly to the same acidic solution at a high frequency. Testing of the method through laboratory ...
Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4+ with glutamate to form glutamine. Glutamine synthetase is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule, suggesting ammonia recycling via glutamine synthetase could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. This studys purpose was to determine the role of proximal tubule glutamine synthetase in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. Following induction of metabolic acidosis the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple ...
Through its important role in the formation of particulate matter, atmospheric ammonia affects air quality and has implications for human health and life expectancy1,2. Excess ammonia in the environment also contributes to the acidification and eutrophication of ecosystems3-5 and to climate change6. Anthropogenic emissions dominate natural ones and mostly originate from agricultural, domestic and industrial activities7. However, the total ammonia budget and the attribution of emissions to specific sources remain highly uncertain across different spatial scales7-9. Here we identify, categorize and quantify the worlds ammonia emission hotspots using a high-resolution map of atmospheric ammonia obtained from almost a decade of daily IASI satellite observations. We report 248 hotspots with diameters smaller than 50 kilometres, which we associate with either a single point source or a cluster of agricultural and industrial point sources-with the exception of one hotspot, which can be traced back to a
Table 1: Distribution of ammonia aggregates by enterprises of the Russian Federation. Table 2: Design Indicators of Energy Consumption of Russian Ammonia Aggregates. Table 3: Ammonia producers in the CIS countries and their capacity at the end of 2017. Table 4: Distribution of Russian ammonia producers in agrochemical holdings and their raw materials supply in 2016. Table 5: Technical requirements for the quality of anhydrous ammonia (according to GOST 6221-90). Table 6: Ammonia production in the CIS countries in 1998-2017, kt. Table 7: Production of ammonia in Russia by enterprises in 1997-2017, kt. Table 8: Belonging to holdings of the main enterprises producing mineral fertilizers in the Russian Federation in 2017. Table 9: Milestones in the development of ammonia production by PJSC TogliattiAzot. Table 10: Geographic structure of ammonia exports of PJSC TogliattiAzot in 2004-2017, kt. Table 11: The largest consumers of ammonia produced by PJSC TogliattiAzot in 2004-2017, t. Table 12: ...
Abstract. The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3), emitted largely from agricultural sources, is an important factor when considering how inorganic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and nitrogen cycling are changing over the United States. This study combines new observations of ammonia concentration from the surface, aboard aircraft, and retrieved by satellite to both evaluate the simulation of ammonia in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and identify which processes control the variability of these concentrations over a 5-year period (2008-2012). We find that the model generally underrepresents the ammonia concentration near large source regions (by 26 % at surface sites) and fails to reproduce the extent of interannual variability observed at the surface during the summer (JJA). Variability in the base simulation surface ammonia concentration is dominated by meteorology (64 %) as compared to reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions imposed by regulation (32 %) over this ...
Ammonia Test Kit, Levels Of Total Ammonia Of Only .25 Mg Per Liter Can Be Harmful To Your Fish & Other Aquarium Or Pond Inhabitants, The Tetratest Total Ammonia Kit Was Professionally Developed To Accurately Determine The Ammonia Level In Your Aquarium Or Pond Water, To Ensure Optimum Water Quality, Frequent Testing Is Strongly Recommended - Even More Frequently When Your Aquarium Or Pond Is First Established, The Kit Contains Reagent For 25 Tests, A Test Vial, Color Scale, Instructions & Recommendations ...
At standard pressure, ammonia melts at 195 K and boils at 240 K. If a sample of ammonia at standard pressure is cooled from 200 K down to absolute zero, what physical constants are needed to calculate the change in enhtalpy ...
HAZARD Cherie Berry, Commissioner of Labor 1- 800- 625- 2267 www. nclabor. com On June 20, 2009, an ammonia line ruptured during mainte-nance at a poultry processing plant in Robeson County, N. C., killing one employee and injuring several others. This accident should remind employers of the hazards associated with the use of anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant at food processing plants. What Is Anhydrous Ammonia? Anhydrous ammonia ( ammonia gas) occurs naturally and is an important source of nitrogen that is needed by plants and animals. It is commercially produced by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ammonia ( Chemical Abstracts Service No. 7664- 41- 7) boils at - 28.1 degrees F and is highly soluble in water. Anhydrous ammonia is typically shipped as a liquid under pressure and readily converts to a gas when released to air, forming a white smoke by freezing moisture in the air. Why Is Ammonia Hazardous? Ammonia is considered a high ...
Portable Ammonia nitrogen colorimeter LH-N11 is mainly use for rapid test to get the ammonia nitrogen ion concentration in the water, using international standard method.Portable Ammonia nitrogen colorimeteris eco-friendly, the test is fast and the result
AmGuard™ safely, rapidly and efficiently removes toxic free ammonia. It is safe to use during tank cycling and is ideal for treating unexpected emergency situations. AmGuard™ reacts with free ammonia within minutes and does not alter pH. Ammonia can exist in two forms: free and ionized. It is only the free form that is toxic. Traditional ammonia test kits convert all ammonia to free ammonia by raising pH to 12-14; at this pH no ammonia removing product can function, and thus a false positive reading will result. Use Ammonia Alert™ or MultiTest™: Free & Total Ammonia to directly monitor levels of free ammonia. AmGuard™ also removes chlorine and chloramines ...
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Most patients with neurological Lyme Disease and coinfections (i.e., MS, ALS, Parkinsons Disease, Autism), have elevated levels of ammonia in the brain which is neurotoxic. This is due to the fact that the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces urease enzymes, and ammonia accumulation results. Sometimes ammonia levels will be elevated in the blood, but many times they are also normal. This is because the ammonia concentration is localized in specific tissues (brain), where the concentration is not high enough to be detected in the blood. But that doesnt mean that ammonia is not causing destruction. It is VERY neurotoxic, and needs to be removed with herbal supplements and diet changes ...
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3.This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.Tests at the loadpoint of 1500 rpm/2.63 bar break mean effective pressure (BMEP) showed that most ammonia was formed over a TWC at a lambda of 0.93 with a 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) at 3 crank angle ...
Ammonia is known to be a potent neurotoxin that causes severe negative effects on the central nervous system. Excessive ammonia levels have been detected in the brain of patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Therefore, ammonia could be a factor contributing to the progression of AD. In this review, we provide an introduction to the toxicity of ammonia and putative ammonia transport proteins. We also hypothesize how ammonia may be linked to AD. Additionally, we discuss the evidence that support the hypothesis that ammonia is a key factor contributing to AD progression. Lastly, we summarize the old and new experimental evidence that focuses on energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, inflammatory responses, excitatory glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and memory in support of our ammonia-related hypotheses of AD.
a capacity of 3,850 tpd. The following credible major hazards events are identified in an ammonia production plant: 1. Conventional Ammonia Synthesis Process If you have low storage capacity, our network of production sites and terminals ensure smaller batches get to you at exactly the right time. a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen with or without minor amounts of â ¦ If the nameplate says 2,200 tons per day, he will push the plant to produce more, of course. ammonia production in large-scale plants. Keywords: Ammonia, Reformer, Synthesis, Failure, Fire I. medium-scale ammonia plant to be five years with a production cost of $600/ton, where the patented process plant can break even in less than two years and has a relative production cost of $232/ton. Ammonia was first manufactured using the Haber process on an industrial scale in 1913 in BASFs Oppau plant in Germany, reaching 20 tonnes per day the following year. With the market size for ammonia projected to exceed $75 billion by 2025, now ...
It is generally accepted that the toxicity of ammonia to aquatic life is dominated by free ammonia (NH3), with the ammonium ion (NH4+) being relatively non toxic. Algorithms for calculating un-ionised ammonia are readily available for freshwater systems. However they have not been sufficiently accurate in saline systems where the fraction of the total ammonia present in the unionised form is dependent on pH, temperature and salinity. Recently Plymouth Marine Laboratory have produced a new algorithm for the N.R.A., specifically to improve our understanding of the behaviour of ammonia in estuaries and coastal waters ...
Major operational costs in ammonia production are associated with natural gas or coal, which accounts for 75% of the plants operating costs. Ammonia consumption forecast up to 2020 5.3. global ammonia market has shown stable growth in recent years World market is forecast to grow at an average annual rate of approximately 3.5% basically due to the increase of phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers consumption AMMONIA WORLD MARKET3.1. Ammonia market prices forecast up to 2029, 6. Ammonia is shipped as a liquified gas under its own vapor pressure of 114 psig. ET, a trader sold 310 Tesla call options with a $260 strike price expiring on Sep. 17. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. Global ammonia market is set to witness a substantial CAGR of 5.95% in the forecast period of 2019- 2026. In a green ammonia plant, the cost of electrolyzers increases the cost of operations. Here are the four largest: * At 9:30 a.m. The report contains data of the base year 2018 and historic year 2017. The analyst ...
The effects of angiotensin II on total ammonia (tNH3) production and net secretion were investigated using in vitro microperfused mouse S2 proximal tubule segments incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 mM L-glutamine. Basolateral exposure of mouse S2 segments to 10(-11), 10(-10 …
The raw energy density of liquid ammonia is 11.5 MJ/L,[60] which is about a third that of diesel. Although it can be used as a fuel, for a number of reasons this has never been common or widespread. In addition to direct utilization of ammonia as a fuel in combustion engines there is also the opportunity to convert ammonia back to hydrogen where it can be used to power hydrogen fuel cells or it can be directly used within high temperature fuel cells[61].. Ammonia engines or ammonia motors, using ammonia as a working fluid, have been proposed and occasionally used.[62] The principle is similar to that used in a fireless locomotive, but with ammonia as the working fluid, instead of steam or compressed air. Ammonia engines were used experimentally in the 19th century by Goldsworthy Gurney in the UK and the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar line in New Orleans in the 1870s and 1880s,[63] and during World War II ammonia was used to power buses in Belgium.[64]. Ammonia is sometimes proposed as a practical ...
Erisman, Jan Willem; Bleeker, Albert; Neftel, Albrecht; Aneja, Viney; Hutchings, Nick; Kinsella, Liam; Tang, Y. Sim; Webb, J.; Sponar, Michel; Raes, Caroline; Mitosinkova, Marta; Vidic, Sonja; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Klimont, Zbigniew; Pinder, Rob; Baker, Samantha; Reidy, Beat; Flechard, Chris; Horvath, Laszlo; Lewandowska, Anita; Gillespie, Colin; Wallasch, Marcus; Gehrig, Robert; Ellermann, Thomas. 2009 Detecting change in atmospheric ammonia following emission changes. In: Sutton, Mark A.; Reis, Stefan; Baker, Samantha M.H., (eds.) Atmospheric ammonia: Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts. Results of an Expert Workshop under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Springer, 383-390. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Dragosits, Ulrike; Theobald, Mark; Place, Christopher J.; ApSimon, Helen M.; Sutton, Mark A.. 2009 Spatial planning as a complementary tool to abate the effects of atmospheric ammonia deposition at the landscape scale. In: Sutton, Mark A.; Baker, Samantha; Reis, Stefan, (eds.) Atmospheric Ammonia: Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts. Springer, 291-298. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
The optical properties and density of ammonia have not been exhaustively studied despite the relevance of these characteristics in astrophysical scenarios. This work presents new data pertaining to the real part of the refractive index of ammonia at 632.8. nm and the density at different temperatures of deposition ranging from 13. K to ammonias desorption temperature of approximately 110. K. The results indicate a significant variability for both parameters versus temperature: an increase of 50% for the density and of 10% for the refractive index as the temperature increases in the range of 13-60. K; at temperatures greater than 60. K, a constant value is reached for both parameters. This initial variation and the following plateau reflect structural differences in the form of ammonia at low and high temperatures of deposition that can play an important role in the interaction of ammonia with other molecules of astrophysical interest. © 2013 Elsevier Inc ...
Anabaena cylindrica was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and was placed in a batch reactor in the presence of a glutamine synthetase inhibitor (methionine sulfoximide). Ammonia was released in the medium during two days with a rate of 0.35 μ moles h−1mgChl−1. Addition of nitrite to the medium increased the ammonia production as cells used the nitrite reductase pathway to form ammonia. When reactors were placed in anaerobiosis by N2 bubbling, ammonia production was sustained several days and the total ammonia formed was about two fold higher than in aerobiosis. Long term effects of MSX, nitrite and anaerobiosis are discussed.
Elos Ammonia Test Kit - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Elos Ammonia Test Kit. - Buy Elos Ammonia Test Kit - Now Only $20.99 - ELOS AQUA TEST KIT- Ammonia Ammonia is the most lethal form of inorganic nitrogen produced in aquarium water. The major source of ammonia in a well run aquarium, is from solid waste of fish and invertebrates, uneaten food, decaiyng leaves of plants. Nature comes to our rescue as there are specialized bacteria (Nitrosomonas species) that eat ammonia , and strip away the hydrogen atoms. By the way, this bacterial population may be affected by many negative biochemical events. In an established aquarium Ammonia should be zero, for these reason, the periodical analytical valuation of ammonia in the aquarium water should be considered by the serious aquarium enthusiast. ELOS AquaTest NH4, as well as all the other colorimetric test kit of this line, grants an high precision thanks to several procedures like the use of RealColor technology, an
Ammonia is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle, with strong implications for both regional air quality and ecosystems [1]. Due to limited information about fertilizer usage, two of the most important ammonia emission sources-i) livestock production and farm practices, and ii) ammonia emission estimates for agricultural fertilization and livestock farming across China-are usually based on time-averaged emission factors and temporal profiles, leading to uncertainties in the evaluation of controls on ammonia in emission levels and control technologies. In this study, we update activity data and emission factors in the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model [2] to improve spatial and temporal distribution of baseline ammonia inventory in China. We also develop applications for ammonia control measures in order to estimate maximum mitigation potential. The results should allow for ...
Fritz Ammonia Remover, 16 oz. - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Fritz Ammonia Remover, 16 oz.. - Buy Fritz Ammonia Remover, 16 oz. - Now Only $10.95 - Fritz Ammonia Remover, 16 oz. Fritz Ammonia Remover Instantly neutralizes toxic chlorine, chloramine, ammonia and heavy metals. Most dechlorinators have no effect on the highly toxic chloramine in city water. When this tap water is added to an aquarium, the chloramine kills fish, corals and plants. A chemical reaction then gives off deadly ammonia. Fish have no chance of survival! Fritz Ammonia Remover is the safe, easy way to neutralize these toxins. It leaves water fresh, clear, clean and free of toxins, perfectly safe and balanced for all fish and aquatic life. Great for treating ammonia buildup in goldfish, turtle or newt tanks, small bowls, desk-top aquariums and tropical community aquariums. 16 oz. Treats 600 gal.
AMMONIA SCAVENGER by PHP 90 capsules. An elevated blood ammonia level can affect your entire body. A by-product of poor protein digestion and impaired Urea cycle function, it can have many damaging effects on the body, including reduction of BH4, the molecule needed for neurotransmitter production and nitric oxide production. This may also impact mental health and increase damaging oxidative stress. Other symptoms of elevated blood ammonia include muscle weakness, fatigue, neurodegenerative diseases,liver and kidney damage and/ or possible failure. Ammonia Scavenger has a specific blend of nutrients to support the Urea Cycle and to safely reduce ammonia in the body.. ...
How to Lower Ammonia Levels in the Body. Ammonia is a normal byproduct of digestion that is usually removed from the body by the liver. If you have elevated ammonia levels, it is typically due to a problem with your liver function....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Growth, activity and temperature responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in soil microcosms. AU - Tourna, Maria. AU - Freitag, Thomas E. AU - Nicol, Graeme W. AU - Prosser, James I. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Ammonia oxidation, as the first step in the nitrification process, plays a central role in the global cycling of nitrogen. Although bacteria are traditionally considered to be responsible for ammonia oxidation, a role for archaea has been suggested by data from metagenomic studies and by the isolation of a marine, autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing, non-thermophilic crenarchaeon. Evidence for ammonia oxidation by non-thermophilic crenarchaea in marine and terrestrial environments is largely based on abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amo) genes, rather than activity. In this study, we have determined the influence of temperature on the response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in nitrifying soil microcosms using two approaches, ...
Ammonia[edit]. Ammonia (NH3) has been used as a fuel before at times when gasoline is unavailable (e.g. for buses in Belgium ...
... unlike on industrial ammonia-processing equipment.[citation needed] A major ammonia pipeline is the Ukrainian Transammiak line ... Highly toxic ammonia is theoretically the most dangerous substance to be transported through long-distance pipelines.[citation ... needed] However, incidents on ammonia-transporting lines are uncommon - ...
Ammonium Hydroxide (Ammonia)[edit]. Ammonia is a disinfecting chemical that is used in household cleaning products. The most ... Ammonia is a significant air pollutant that has accumulated throughout the US. Ammonia is a primary source of nitrogen oxide, ... "Ecological Effects of Ammonia , Minnesota Department of Agriculture". www.mda.state.mn.us. Retrieved 2020-03-11.. ... "Agricultural ammonia emissions carry steep costs". www.rand.org. Retrieved 2020-03-11.. ...
Ammonia-based[edit]. Ammonia-based processes do not allow recovery of the pulping chemicals since ammonia or ammonium salts are ...
Ammonia[edit]. The attack takes the form of a reaction between ammonia and copper to form the cuprammonium ion, formula [Cu(NH3 ... The tendency of copper to react with ammonia was exploited in making rayon, and the deep blue colour of the aqueous solution of ... However, if the concentration of ammonia is very high, then attack is much more severe, and attack over all exposed surfaces ... It was not until 1921 that the phenomenon was explained by Moor, Beckinsale and Mallinson: ammonia from horse urine, combined ...
Ammonia synthesis[edit]. Ammonia synthesis was discovered by Fritz Haber, by using iron catalysts. The ammonia synthesis ... A lot of research has been done on the catalyst used in the ammonia process, but the main catalyst that is used today is not ... Both methanol and ammonia synthesis take advantage of the water-gas shift reaction and heterogeneous catalysis, while other ... Ammonia production was one of the first commercial processes that required the production of hydrogen, and the cheapest and ...
ammonia thoughts[edit]. Treatment plants with NPDES permits under the US Clean Water Act are restricted in their (toxic) ... Why does the article list Ammonia and Ammonium separately? Though they are separate compounds, wouldn't their role in the cycle ... such as the bacterium which degrades chitin to produce ammonia (Spiegel et al., 1991), are likely to kill most nematodes in ... ammonia discharge, but not their (nontoxic) nitrate discharge. Furthermore nitrate plays a relatively insignificant in ...
Anaerobic ammonia oxidation. Main article: Ammonia. In this biological process, nitrite and ammonia are converted directly into ... Ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to fish and the level of ammonia discharged from wastewater treatment facilities must be closely ... 3). It is important for the ammonia (NH. 3) to be converted to nitrates or nitrites because ammonia gas is toxic to plants. ... The sinking results in ammonia being introduced at lower depths below the euphotic zone. Bacteria are able to convert ammonia ...
Ammonia, NH3. covalent nonmetal hydride. Water, H2O. covalent nonmetal hydride. Hydrogen fluoride, HF. covalent nonmetal ...
Ammonia, NH3, molecule the three N−H bonds have only a slight polarity (toward the more electronegative nitrogen atom). The ... The ammonia molecule, NH3, is polar as a result of its molecular geometry. The red represents partially negatively charged ... which results in a powerful dipole across the whole ammonia molecule. ...
The RNA world hypothesis is supported by RNA's ability to store, transmit, and duplicate genetic information, as DNA does. RNA can act as a ribozyme, a special type of enzyme. Because it can perform the tasks of both DNA and enzymes, RNA is believed to have once been capable of supporting independent life forms.[15] Some viruses use RNA as their genetic material, rather than DNA.[45] Further, while nucleotides were not found in experiments based on Miller-Urey experiment, their formation in prebiotically plausible conditions was reported in 2009;[22] the purine base known as adenine is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide. Experiments with basic ribozymes, like Bacteriophage Qβ RNA, have shown that simple self-replicating RNA structures can withstand even strong selective pressures (e.g., opposite-chirality chain terminators).[46] Since there were no known chemical pathways for the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides from pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine and uracil under prebiotic conditions, it ...
HCN (not HNC) was first detected in June 1970 by L. E. Snyder and D. Buhl using the 36-foot radio telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.[16] The main molecular isotope, H12C14N, was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 88.6 GHz in six different sources: W3 (OH), Orion A, Sgr A(NH3A), W49, W51, DR 21(OH). A secondary molecular isotope, H13C14N, was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 86.3 GHz in only two of these sources: Orion A and Sgr A(NH3A). HCN was then later detected extragalactically in 1988 using the IRAM 30-m telescope at the Pico de Veleta in Spain.[17] It was observed via its J = 1→0 transition at 90.7 GHz toward IC 342. A number of detections have been made towards the end of confirming the temperature dependence of the abundance ratio of [HNC]/[HCN]. A strong fit between temperature and the abundance ratio would allow observers to spectroscopically detect the ratio and then extrapolate the temperature of the environment, thus gaining great insight into the ...
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas.. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the simple ...
Ammonia (NH3). *Carbonyl sulfide (COS). *Nitrous oxide (N2O). *Sulfur dioxide (SO2) ...
Diatomic elements played an important role in the elucidation of the concepts of element, atom, and molecule in the 19th century, because some of the most common elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, occur as diatomic molecules. John Dalton's original atomic hypothesis assumed that all elements were monatomic and that the atoms in compounds would normally have the simplest atomic ratios with respect to one another. For example, Dalton assumed water's formula to be HO, giving the atomic weight of oxygen as eight times that of hydrogen[6], instead of the modern value of about 16. As a consequence, confusion existed regarding atomic weights and molecular formulas for about half a century. As early as 1805, Gay-Lussac and von Humboldt showed that water is formed of two volumes of hydrogen and one volume of oxygen, and by 1811 Amedeo Avogadro had arrived at the correct interpretation of water's composition, based on what is now called Avogadro's law and the assumption of diatomic ...
For example, C60 reacts with lithium in liquid ammonia, followed by tert-butanol to give a mixture of polyhydrofullerenes such ...
Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the ... Ammonia. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dioctyl phthalate). n-Butene. Cyclohexane. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). Dodecylbenzene. ... Steam crackers are not to be confused with steam reforming plants used to produce hydrogen and ammonia. ...
negligible in ammonia insoluble in ether slowly soluble in propylene glycol Solubility in methanol 238 g/L ...
... is a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, hence blocking oxidative phosphorylation. This prevents the body from oxidizing food to produce useful energy. Lactic acidosis then occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism. Initially, acute cyanide poisoning causes a red or ruddy complexion in the victim because the tissues are not able to use the oxygen in the blood. The effects of potassium and sodium cyanide are identical, and symptoms of poisoning typically occur within a few minutes of ingesting the substance: the person loses consciousness, and brain death eventually follows. During this period the victim may suffer convulsions. Death is caused by cerebral hypoxia. The median lethal dose (human) for potassium cyanide is estimated at 200-300 mg.[13] A number of prominent persons were killed or committed suicide using potassium cyanide, including members of the Young Bosnia and famous personalities in the Third Reich, such ...
Minor uses of ethylene glycol include the manufacture of capacitors, as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of 1,4-dioxane, as an additive to prevent corrosion in liquid cooling systems for personal computers, and inside the lens devices of cathode-ray tube type of rear projection televisions. Ethylene glycol is also used in the manufacture of some vaccines, but it is not itself present in these injections. It is used as a minor (1-2%) ingredient in shoe polish and also in some inks and dyes. Ethylene glycol has seen some use as a rot and fungal treatment for wood, both as a preventative and a treatment after the fact. It has been used in a few cases to treat partially rotted wooden objects to be displayed in museums. It is one of only a few treatments that are successful in dealing with rot in wooden boats, and is relatively cheap. Ethylene glycol may also be one of the minor ingredients in screen cleaning solutions, along with the main ingredient isopropyl alcohol. Ethylene glycol is ...
Serpone N, Salinaro A, Emeline AV, Horikoshi S, Hidaka H, Zhao JC. 2002. "An in vitro systematic spectroscopic examination of the photostabilities of a random set of commercial sunscreen lotions and their chemical UVB/UVA active agents". Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 1(12): 970-981. ...
Ammonia (AWS type 5, also called forming gas): Dissociated ammonia (75% hydrogen, 25% nitrogen) can be used for many types of ... Copper-rich alloys prone to stress cracking by ammonia.. *Ag-Zn. Silver-zinc. Similar to Cu-Zn, used in jewelry due to its high ... Copper-rich alloys sensitive to stress cracking in presence of ammonia. Zinc. structural, melting, wetting volatile. low. cheap ... ammonia Good mechanical properties. Often used with silver. Dissolves and wets nickel. Somewhat dissolves and wets iron. ...
The large grains in interstellar space are probably complex, with refractory cores that condensed within stellar outflows topped by layers acquired subsequently during incursions into cold dense interstellar clouds. That cyclic process of growth and destruction outside of the clouds has been modeled[31][32] to demonstrate that the cores live much longer than the average lifetime of dust mass. Those cores mostly start with silicate particles condensing in the atmospheres of cool oxygen rich red-giant stars and carbon grains condensing in the atmospheres of cool carbon stars. The red-giant stars have evolved off the main sequence and have entered the giant phase of their evolution and are the major source of refractory dust grain cores in galaxies. Those refractory cores are also called Stardust (section above), which is a scientific term for the small fraction of cosmic dust that condensed thermally within stellar gases as they were ejected from the stars. Several percent of refractory grain ...
... is also cogenerated as an impurity in the synthesis of EDTA, arising from reactions of the ammonia coproduct.[22] ... The two main processes are amination of chloroacetic acid with ammonia, giving glycine and ammonium chloride,[18] and the ...
In the SOHIO process, propylene, ammonia, and air (oxidizer) are passed through a fluidized bed reactor containing the catalyst ... The aqueous solution consists of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, hydrocyanic acid, and ammonium sulfate (from excess ammonia). A ...
soluble in ammonia, methanol, ethanol very slightly soluble in dimethylformamide, SO2 insoluble in dimethyl sulfoxide ...
... s are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure R1R2C=C=NR3. A ketenimine is a cumulated alkene and imine and is related to an allene and a ketene. The parent compound is ketenimine or CH2CNH. The most recent work by Bane et al. investigates the rovibrational structure of the ν8 and ν12 bands in the high-resolution FTIR spectrum, complementing the earlier analysis of the pure rotational spectrum. This pair of Coriolis coupled bands provide a rare example where intensity sharing between bands yields sufficient intensity for an otherwise invisible band (ν12).[1][2] ...
Common examples are ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6) (or any other hydrocarbon), and Nickel hydride (NiH), used in ... ammonia: coolant, fuel, fertilizer, many other industrial uses. *hydrogen sulfide: component of natural gas, important source ... nitrogen: ammonia ('azane' when substituted), hydrazine. *phosphorus: phosphine (note 'phosphane' is the IUPAC recommended name ... Therefore, we have NH3, 'nitrogen hydride' (ammonia), versus H2O, 'hydrogen oxide' (water). This convention is sometimes broken ...
Ammonia. ISAS. Experimental, thruster for spin-up ETS-4 (Kiku 3). 11 Feb 1981. 24 Dec 1984. Pulsed plasma thruster. PTFE. NASDA ... Ammonia. AMSAT. University of Stuttgart, IRS. Arcjet Thruster on OSCAR Satellite, operated in cold gas mode ... Ammonia. USAF. Rocket Research Co.. Experimental military satellite, Electric Propulsion Space Experiment ...
Liquid ammonia. 0.4 Liquid sulfur dioxide. 0.41 Methanol. 5.3 Formic acid. 192 ...
Very high levels of ammonia can damage the lungs or cause death ... High levels of ammonia can irritate and burn the skin, mouth, ... Useful search terms for ammonia include "anhydrous ammonia," "aqua ammonia,"and "aqueous ammonia." ... NLM Medline Plus: Ammonia Poisoningexternal icon. *Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) Guideline for Ammonia pdf icon[ ... Ammonia is used in many industries. Some examples of workers at risk of being exposed to ammonia include the following:. * ...
At very high levels, ammonia can even cause death. Ammonia has been found in at least 137 of the 1,647 current or former ... Exposure to high levels of ammonia can cause irritation and serious burns on the skin and in the mouth, throat, lungs, and eyes ... Ammonia is found throughout the environment in the air, soil, and water, and in plants and animals including humans. ... Ammonia gas can be dissolved in water. This kind of ammonia is called liquid ammonia or aqueous ammonia. Once exposed to open ...
In addition, the fuel, i.e., ammonia, is presently abundant and the fuel handling technology already exists and is user- ... One alternative fuel solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine technology. There are ... The Ammonia Economy One alternative fuel solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine ... On the other hand, ammonia-based fuels offer a great potential for universal use. The present disadvantage is that pure ammonia ...
Instructions: The objective is to determine the extents of reaction for an equilibrium ammonia reactor This spreadsheet uses ...
amoníaco (es); ammóníak (is); Ammonia (ms); ammonia (en-gb); аммиак (ru); Амоняк (bg); ಅಮೊನಿಯ (kn); Ammonia (simple); Ammonia ( ... response to ammonia (reactant),. cellular response to ammonia (reactant),. ammonia homeostasis (Process variable),. cellular ... ammonia (en); أمونيا (ar); Ammonia (gom); ammoniak (sv); အမ်မိုးနီးယား (my); 氨 (yue); ammónia (hu); નવસાર (gu); Â-mô-nì-â (hak ... Ammonia (en-ca); 亞摩尼亞 (zh-yue); אמוניה (he); ammonia (la); Amonyak (tr); अमोनिया (hi); 氨 (wuu); ਅਮੋਨੀਆ (pa); Amoniak (frr); ...
Ammonia is normally supplied in compressed liquified form in cylinders.. See ICSC 0215.. Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up ...
Toxicological profile for Ammonia. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
... maser used a beam of ammonia molecules that passed along the axis of a cylindrical cage of metal rods, with alternate rods ... Other articles where Ammonia maser is discussed: maser: … ... maser used a beam of ammonia molecules that passed along the ... conceivable system, such as the ammonia maser built by Townes, has only two energy levels. More useful laser systems involve ...
Techno-economic analyses of specific ammonia production processes, presenting capital investment breakdown, raw materials ... ECONOMICS OF AMMONIA FROM NATURAL GAS (AMMONIA E21A) It presents the economics of Ammonia production from natural gas in the ... Understand Ammonia production costs Industrial Process Economics About Ammonia Reports Coverage of Ammonia Process Economics ... AMMONIA E11A) This report presents the economics of Ammonia production from syngas (synthesis gas) using a typical process. ...
If ammonia s dissolved in water, ammonia becomes known as aqueous ammonia. When exposed to air, ammonia will become a gas. When ... Keep ammonia prodcuts stored safely. (Image: storage image by MAXFX from Fotolia.com). Accidental Exposure. If you get ammonia ... Turn a fan on when using ammonia products. (Image: fan image by Lucy Clark from Fotolia.com). Handling. Always keep ammonia ... Ammonia can be used for household chores. (Image: bucket close up image by Aleksandr Ugorenkov from Fotolia.com). Ammonia is ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
The aim of this chapter is to relate the detailed analysis of the ammonia synthesis reaction, as examined in other sections of ... The present annual production of ammonia is in excess of 120 million tons per year and virtually all of this ammonia is ... Hooper C.W. (1991) Ammonia Synthesis: Commercial Practice. In: Jennings J.R. (eds) Catalytic Ammonia Synthesis. Fundamental and ... T. W. Nurse, Ammonia From Coal; Choosing a Design. Proc.-Int. Symp. Large Chem. Plants: Energy, Feedstocks, Processes, 5th, p. ...
If the gas is dissolved in water, it is called liquid ammonia. Poisoning may occur if you breathe in ammonia. Poisoning may ... Ammonia is a strong, colorless gas. If the gas is dissolved in water, it is called liquid ammonia. Poisoning may occur if you ... WARNING: Never mix ammonia with bleach. This causes the release of toxic chlorine gas, which can be deadly. ... Damage is related to the amount and strength (concentration) of the ammonia. Most household cleaners are relatively weak and ...
... shutting off the flow of ammonia in and out of it and rerouting the ammonia flow through a spare radiator so the PVTCS can ... If rerouting the ammonia through the spare radiator stops the leak, mission managers will evaluate whether to leave the fix as- ... to support ground-based troubleshooting of an ammonia leak. The spacewalking duo isolated the photovoltaic radiator on the P6 ...
anhydrous ammonia. Title (Click to Sort) Fact Sheet Number. Tags Safe Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia AEX-591.4.9 agricultural ... Safe Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia AEX-594 agricultural safety, farm, safety, anhydrous ammonia ... tailgate safety training for operators and supervisors, anhydrous ammonia, safety, ppe, flushing eyes ...
Show the 3-D molecular shapes of water, ammonia, and methane. *Show the 3-D molecular geometries of water, ammonia, and methane ... The students should also know how to draw the three dimensional structures of the water, methane, and ammonia molecules. ... Label the important and major characteristics of water, ammonia, and methane. Dont forget to talk about their polarities as ... Show the 2-dimensional (using just bonds and electron dots) structures of water, ammonia, and methane. * ...
Other names: Ammonia gas; Nitro-Sil; Spirit of Hartshorn; NH3; Ammonia, anhydrous; Anhydrous ammonia; Aromatic Ammonia, ... Evans, D.H.; Keesee, R.G.; Castleman Jr., The Association of Ammonia with Halide Ions in the Gas Phase, J. Chem. Phys., 1987, ... Kamke, W.; Herrmann, R.; Wang, Z.; Hertel, I.V., On the Photoionization and Fragmentation of Ammonia Clusters using TPEPICO, Z ... Castleman, A.W., The Properties of Clusters in the Gas Phase: Ammonia about Bi+, Rb+, and K+, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1978, 53, 3, ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Ammonia toxicity. [William T Willingham; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Region VIII. Water Division.] ... Ammonia toxicity. Author:. William T Willingham; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Region VIII. Water Division.. ... Ammonia toxicity/William T Willingham; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Region VIII. Water Division.; Denver, ... http://id.worldcat.org/fast/807750> # Ammonia--Toxicology. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Ammonia--Toxicology"@en ;. .. ...
Ammonia is a base compound that can be hazardous and toxic in high quantities. Ammonia is produced with the breakdown of animal ... Neutralizing Pet Ammonia * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/d\/d0\/Neutralize-Ammonia-Step-9.jpg\/v4- ... Cleaning Ammonia Spills * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/9\/9b\/Neutralize-Ammonia-Step-1.jpg\/v4-460px ... Ammonia-Step-1.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/9\/9b\/Neutralize-Ammonia-Step-1.jpg\/aid4754958-v4-728px-Neutralize-Ammonia- ...
A valve stuck in the on position may have been to blame for pumping the building full of ammonia. Members of the Hazardous ... An ammonia leak at a Davie ice-making factory forced the evacuation Friday night of several workers, a fire official said. ... Materials team went in to locate the valve and stop the ammonia, LeDuc said. ... An ammonia leak at a Davie ice-making factory forced the evacuation Friday night of several workers, a fire official said. ...
Microvis Wastewater Technology Reduces Ammonia, Nitrate. March 17, 2015. March 16, 2015. by Jessica Lyons Hardcastle. ... Categories Environmental Management, LargeTags ammonia, BASF, Calcium sulfite, Centrifugal pumps, cooling water, Diaphragm ... Categories Compliance, Environmental Management, Executive BriefingsTags ammonia, BP, coal ash, Environmental Enforcement, ... Categories Chemicals, Environmental Management, WasteTags AkzoNobel, ammonia, Enerkem, Groningen Seaports, InnovationQuarter, ...
The suns heat bakes off ammonia over time, and the crew was outside long enough for most ammonia to dissipate, NASA said.) ... The spacewalks were to remove and replace a faulty ammonia pump. Credit: NASA TV. Decontamination procedures. The ammonia makes ... Ammonia is a gas at room temperature that is extremely dangerous to inhale or when it comes in contact with skin, eyes and ... Should the ammonia pump work as planned, this clears the way for the Russians to do a spacewalk Dec. 27 to install the ...
Environmental: Detection of ammonia in environmental samples. Case classification * Suspected: A case in which a potentially ... Toxicological profile for ammonia. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology; 2002 ... Biologic: No biologic marker is readily available for ammonia exposure or poisoning. ... exists for ammonia exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. ...
... atmospheric ammonia affects air quality and has implications for human health and life expectancy1,2. Excess ammonia in the ... categorize and quantify the worlds ammonia emission hotspots using a high-resolution map of atmospheric ammonia obtained from ... However, the total ammonia budget and the attribution of emissions to specific sources remain highly uncertain across different ... Our results suggest that it is necessary to completely revisit the emission inventories of anthropogenic ammonia sources and to ...
The Infinity Ammonia single liquid stable reagent is intended for the in vitro quantitative determination of Ammonia in plasma ... Infinity Ammonia reagent patented formulation not only provides excellent stability and convenience but ensures excellent ... Ammonia Reagent. 6. Ammonia Reagent Set. 7. Ammonia. 8. Ammonia Standard. 9. Ammonia Standard Set. 10. Liquichek Ethanol/ ... The Infinity Ammonia single liquid stable reagent is intended for the in vitro quantitative determination of Ammonia in plasma ...
Ammonia (NH3) is a colorless acrid chemical. Its normal melting point is -78 degrees Celsius and its normal boiling point is - ...
Ammonia. Ammonia is a toxic chemical most commonly found in refrigerants, cleaning products, and fertilizers. It can be a ... Ammonia in Refrigeration Systems. This manual describes the hazards of ammonia and how to prevent and control exposure. It lets ... Ammonia exposure during storage or use. This risk advisory includes the following information: a brief description of the risk ... Ammonia has a distinct, pungent smell, which usually makes it easy to identify. But repeated exposure reduces your ability to ...
氨(英语:Ammonia,或称氨氣、阿摩尼亞或無水氨,分子式为NH3)是无色气体,有强烈的刺激气味,极易溶于水。常温常压下,1單位体积水可溶解700倍体积的氨。氨對地球上的生物相當重要,是所有食物和肥料的重要成分。氨也是很多藥物和商業清潔用品直接或间接的 ... Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. The simplest pnictogen hydride
  • Useful search terms for ammonia include "anhydrous ammonia," "aqua ammonia,"and "aqueous ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Two different approaches were used to adapt a compression ignition engine to operate with anhydrous ammonia fuel. (sae.org)
  • Beyond the blast that rocked the small town, some of the victims were dealing with exposure to a highly volatile gas called anhydrous ammonia. (businessinsider.com)
  • The West Fertilizer Co. had as much as 54,000 pounds of anhydrous ammonia on hand, Randy Lee Loftis of the Dallas News reports. (businessinsider.com)
  • It was a small fire and then water got sprayed the ammonia nitrate [the liquid form of anhydrous ammonia], and it exploded just like the Oklahoma City bomb ," Jason Shelton, a clerk at a hotel in West, told The Dallas Morning News. (businessinsider.com)
  • Anhydrous ammonia can rapidly cause dehydration and severe burns if it combines with water in the body. (businessinsider.com)
  • Measuring oil contamination in anhydrous ammonia can now be done quickly and accurately without the use of hazardous chemicals like hexane. (slideshare.net)
  • This standard describes the use of anhydrous ammonia in the treatment of potable water, wastewater, and reclaimed water. (awwa.org)
  • The purpose of this standard is to provide the minimum requirements for anhydrous ammonia, including. (awwa.org)
  • This standard can be referenced in specifications for purchasing and receiving anhydrous ammonia and can be used as a guide for testing the physical and chemical properties of anhydrous ammonia. (awwa.org)
  • In the A13.1 standard, orange is for toxic materials (like anhydrous ammonia) while yellow is for flammable materials (like natural gas). (prweb.com)
  • Anhydrous ammonia is commonly used as a refrigerant in food production, cold storage, wineries and breweries. (prweb.com)
  • Anhydrous ammonia refrigeration systems require pipe labeling as a matter of EPA and OSHA compliance. (prweb.com)
  • Anhydrous ammonia is considered a very high health risk that poses significant threat to those who work around it. (prweb.com)
  • An anhydrous ammonia task force would be created within the Iowa Department of Agriculture under a bill approved Tuesday by the Iowa Senate. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Anhydrous ammonia is widely used by Iowa farmers as a source of nitrogen fertilizer. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Senate File 2251 , which was sent to the House, would charge the task force with finding solutions to the use and regulation of anhydrous ammonia and innovations related to nutrient management. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • The bill was amended to include a requirement that all new anhydrous ammonia tanks would need heat treat welds, which would add an estimated $100 to $300 to the cost of a tank. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • It can explode if released in an enclosed space with a source of ignition present, or if a vessel containing anhydrous ammonia is exposed to fire. (osha.gov)
  • Pure ammonia (NH3), also known as anhydrous ammonia, is a colorless gas, with a strong and pungent odor. (teamster.org)
  • Industrial refrigerated warehouses and food processing facilities typically use anhydrous ammonia. (teamster.org)
  • The main application of Ammonia is in nitrogen fertilizers, followed by the synthesis of nitric acid, but it also used in smaller amounts in several other applications. (slideshare.net)
  • Ammonia helps to contribute to the development of nitrogen, which is necessary for plant growth. (ehow.com)
  • It is an important source of nitrogen which is ammonia in air, food, water, and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • The present annual production of ammonia is in excess of 120 million tons per year and virtually all of this ammonia is produced from a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen over a promoted iron catalyst operating at elevated temperature and pressure. (springer.com)
  • This will lead to better health and environmental impact assessments of atmospheric ammonia and the implementation of suitable nitrogen management strategies. (nature.com)
  • Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. (dbpedia.org)
  • Ammonia is one of several forms of nitrogen that exist in aquatic environments. (epa.gov)
  • Unlike other forms of nitrogen, which can cause nutrient over-enrichment of a water body at elevated concentrations and indirect effects on aquatic life, ammonia causes direct toxic effects on aquatic life. (epa.gov)
  • Natural sources of ammonia include the decomposition or breakdown of organic waste matter, gas exchange with the atmosphere, forest fires, animal and human waste, and nitrogen fixation processes. (epa.gov)
  • Ammonia can enter the aquatic environment via direct means such as municipal effluent discharges and the excretion of nitrogenous wastes from animals, and indirect means such as nitrogen fixation, air deposition, and runoff from agricultural lands. (epa.gov)
  • 3. The process according to claim 2 wherein the recovered more concentrated ammonia is used to make nitrogen containing fertilizer. (google.com)
  • JM Science's AT-2000 Ammonia Analyzer is based on coulometric titration technology and can measure ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 -N) swiftly, accurately and easily without any specific skill by the end-user. (eponline.com)
  • The ammonia acts as a nitrogen source for the plants, which promotes growth and greening. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In living systems, ammonia plays several important roles, serving as a source of nitrogen for plants and helping maintain acid/base balance in animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In 1909, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed a method of producing ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Nearly a century ago, German chemist Fritz Haber won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for a process to generate ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen gases. (eurekalert.org)
  • To make ammonia, which consists of one nitrogen atom and three hydrogen atoms, chemists must break the strong bond that holds two nitrogen atoms together, and then reduce the nitrogen, or add electrons and protons to it in the form of hydrogen. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the Haber-Bosch process, hydrogen and nitrogen gas are pumped over beds of metal catalysts, which aid the reaction, at pressures up to 250 times atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 500 degrees Celsius (932 F). The process currently produces nearly 500 million tons of ammonia every year. (eurekalert.org)
  • In biology, conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia is called nitrogen "fixation" and is accomplished through several pathways, including through enzymes called nitrogenases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Used by some bacteria, nitrogenases are the only known enzymes to reduce nitrogen to ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the other, electrons come off the cathode and are combined with nitrogen, via nitrogenase, to create ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • A form of nitrogen, ammonia is a colourless gas released when organic matter is broken down, and it can have significant effects on both human health and the natural environment. (rand.org)
  • Ammonia can have a direct toxic effect on vegetation or changes in species composition because of nitrogen deposits. (rand.org)
  • Ammonia is one of the main sources of nitrogen pollution, alongside nitrogen oxides. (rand.org)
  • A major effect of ammonia pollution on biodiversity is the impact of nitrogen accumulation on plant species diversity and composition within affected habitats. (rand.org)
  • Novel microbial players and even new metabolisms with importance for the nitrogen cycle have been discovered, such as planctomycetes catalyzing anaerobic ammonia oxidation ( 3 , 4 ) and archaea of the recently proposed phylum Thaumarchaeota ( 5 , 6 ) capable of oxidizing ammonia to nitrite ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ammonia, a gaseous compound of one nitrogen atom bound to three hydrogen atoms, is not a strong base. (reference.com)
  • Gaseous ammonia is a natural part of Earth's nitrogen cycle, but excess ammonia is harmful to plants and reduces air and water quality. (spaceref.com)
  • Ammonia in the thick mixture released in this way, called "cryovolcanism," could be the source of molecular nitrogen, the major gas in Titan's atmosphere. (universetoday.com)
  • That suggests that the building blocks, or "planetesimals," that formed Titan contained nitrogen mostly in the form of ammonia. (universetoday.com)
  • Nitrogen, Ammonia, mid range For freshwater or seawater Color disc/Salicylate. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Protein breaks down into nitrogen compounds including ammonia in the intestine. (livestrong.com)
  • Nitrogen may be detected by the evolution of ammonia when the substance is heated with soda-lime. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Black & Veatch provided engineering and procurement services to Koch Nitrogen Company, LLC for two ammonia plant expansions as well as utility and infrastructure improvements as part of a $1.3 billion expansion of its Enid, Oklahoma facility. (bv.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ligases (amide synthases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Very high levels of ammonia can damage the lungs or cause death. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of ammonia can cause irritation and serious burns on the skin and in the mouth, throat, lungs, and eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to high levels of ammonia in air may be irritating to your skin, eyes, throat, and lungs and cause coughing and burns. (cdc.gov)
  • Children are less likely than adults to be exposed to concentrated levels of ammonia because most exposures occur at work. (cdc.gov)
  • concentrated levels of ammonia because most exposures occur at work. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to ammonia that the levels of ammonia and ammonium salts typically causes birth defects, or if it can pass to the fetus across the found in foods do not pose a risk to human health. (cdc.gov)
  • Infections and diseases of the liver can produce high levels of ammonia in the urine and the accompanying pungent odor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Liver dysfunction may lead to toxic levels of ammonia in the blood. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A market leader in biomass engineering has launched a 24-hour biological safeguard system to protect organisations operating treatment plants against discharging illegal levels of ammonia. (environmental-expert.com)
  • There are environmental impacts in its production, largely energy costs for production of the hydrogen needed to make ammonia. (asme.org)
  • The engine design uses carbon neutral heat to turn ammonia and hydrogen into jet fuel. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The prototype examined in the report uses a blend of hydrogen and ammonia that burns just like conventional jet fuel, the researchers say. (popularmechanics.com)
  • It would have the potential to efficiently crack the ammonia fuel using heat harvested from the jet engine through Reaction Engines' ground-breaking heat exchangers to provide a zero-carbon fuel blend of ammonia and hydrogen that burns stably just like jet fuel," Reaction Engines explains in a press release. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Rice University nanoscientists have demonstrated a new catalyst that can convert ammonia into hydrogen fuel at ambient pressure using only light energy, mainly due to a plasmonic effect that makes the catalyst more efficient. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Grannus, LLC's Grannus Process has been designated as Best Available Control Technology (BACT) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for production of hydrogen or ammonia. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Protons (oxidized hydrogen atoms) travel through a membrane between the anodic and cathodic chambers, supplying the hydrogen atoms needed to synthesize ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Another kind of reaction, commonly called ammonolysis, occurs when one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule is replaced by some other atom or radical. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By Jonathan Saul LONDON, March 11 (Reuters) - Shipping and trade groups are calling on the European Union to advance the development of ammonia and green hydrogen as the best marine fuel. (gcaptain.com)
  • By Brian Parkin and Vanessa Dezem (Bloomberg) - Germany is looking at using ammonia and methanol as ways to deliver hydrogen as a clean-burning fuel for industry, part of its. (gcaptain.com)
  • Ammonia is a colorless gas with a very distinct odor. (cdc.gov)
  • This odor is familiar to many people because ammonia is used in smelling salts, many household and industrial cleaners, and window-cleaning products. (cdc.gov)
  • This ammonia fertilizers or live near farms where these fertilizers odor is familiar to many people because ammonia is used in have been applied. (cdc.gov)
  • For at least 2 to 3 months I've been experiencing ammonia type body odor to a weird meaty body type odor. (medhelp.org)
  • I can shower for an hour and a 1/2 and immediately after coming out of the shower I still have this weird off body odor like ammonia or fried meat? (medhelp.org)
  • One explanation for an ammonia odor is high amounts of waste in the urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are several causes of an ammonia odor from urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ammonia odor happens when chemicals in urine are concentrated due to a lack of water. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In addition to an ammonia-like odor, another telltale sign of dehydration is bubbles in a person's urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But reccurring ammonia odor in pregnancy should still be brought to a doctor's attention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Menopause can also increase a woman's risk for UTIs and ammonia-smelling odor, resulting from drops in the female hormone estrogen and loss of vaginal flora, which are the normal and healthy bacteria living in the vagina. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A further possibility is diet changes during menopause, which can cause an ammonia odor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When diet is the cause of ammonia-smelling urine, the odor disappears once a person eliminates food triggers from their diet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fortunately, ammonia has a low odor threshold (20 ppm), so most people will seek relief at much lower concentrations. (osha.gov)
  • If the odor of ammonia is present, notify a person in authority immediately. (teamster.org)
  • Because of its strong and pungent odor, ammonia can be usually detected at concentrations in the range of about 5 to 50 parts per million (ppm). (teamster.org)
  • The technology which I am about to describe addresses all three legs by the reduction in the amount of ammonia needed for testing and the elimination of the use and the need for disposal of Hexane. (slideshare.net)
  • Truth is the amount of ammonia in pee is very low normally. (yahoo.com)
  • An Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientist may have found a way to cut the amount of ammonia produced by cattle. (redorbit.com)
  • Image Caption: ARS microbiologist Michael Flythe has found that feeding hops to cattle can reduce the amount of ammonia they produce by inhibiting hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria (HABs). (redorbit.com)
  • The Hydrion Ammonia Test Paper is designed and calibrated to measure the amount of ammonia in the air. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A process for the separation of ammonia dissolved in a gaseous solvent is used to recover ammonia during the production of ammonia from a synthesis gas. (google.com)
  • The global industrial production of ammonia in 2014 was 176 million tonnes, [13] a 16% increase over the 2006 global industrial production of 152 million tonnes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until then, he says, the most notable and impactful aspect of this work is the production of ammonia without the massive energy drain characteristic of the industry standard process. (eurekalert.org)
  • Low-cost production of ammonia could benefit stationary and transportation energy sectors as a lower cost alternative to batteries for long-term energy storage. (energy.gov)
  • The global industrial production of ammonia in 2018 was 175 million tonnes, with no significant change relative to the 2013 global industrial production of 175 million tonnes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia is applied directly into soil on farm fields, and is used to make fertilizers for farm crops, lawns, and plants. (cdc.gov)
  • You may be exposed to higher levels if you apply ammonia fertilizers or live near farms where these fertilizers have been applied. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid farm fields after they have been treated with ammonia or ammonia-containing fertilizers. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ammonia has been used to compose fertilizers for lawns, plants and farm land. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonia is a toxic chemical most commonly found in refrigerants, cleaning products, and fertilizers. (worksafebc.com)
  • Ammonia is produced for commercial fertilizers and other industrial applications. (epa.gov)
  • Ammonia is one of the most extensively manufactured inorganic chemicals, used mainly for the production of fertilizers , explosives , and polymers . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Study ties fertilizers, animal waste, changes to atmospheric chemistry and climate change to increased ammonia over the United States, Europe, China and India. (spaceref.com)
  • Although specifics vary between areas, the increases are broadly tied to crop fertilizers, livestock animal wastes, changes to atmospheric chemistry, and warming soils that retain less ammonia. (spaceref.com)
  • The researchers suggest this is due in part to successful limits on ammonia-rich fertilizers and improved practices for treating animal waste. (spaceref.com)
  • This kind of ammonia is called liquid ammonia or aqueous ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • If ammonia s dissolved in water, ammonia becomes known as aqueous ammonia. (ehow.com)
  • The substance is known as aqueous ammonia because it is a 30% ammonia solution in water. (latimes.com)
  • The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria found in the intestines can produce ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteria found in the ` You may be exposed to higher levels during use of intestines can produce ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Dozens of chemical plants produce ammonia around the world. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The process, still in use today, ushered in a revolution in agriculture, but now consumes around one percent of the world's energy to achieve the high pressures and temperatures that drive the chemical reactions to produce ammonia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fertilizer manufacturers commonly employ the Haber-Bosch (HB) technique to produce ammonia (NH 3 ) to be used as a fertiziler for agriculture - a process that consumes 1-2% of global energy. (energy.gov)
  • The ammonia, stored in a 14,000-gallon tank at the Mandalay facility, has been used for years to reduce smog-forming emissions, said Dick Baldwin, executive officer of the county's Air Pollution Control District. (latimes.com)
  • Researchers at Tohoku University in Japan have identified a way to reduce harmful NO emissions produced by ammonia fuel during combustion. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Its emissions negatively affect biodiversity, with certain species and habitats particularly susceptible to ammonia pollution. (rand.org)
  • Quantifying the economic impact of ammonia emissions on biodiversity is challenging and the methods used are subject to debate, but a conservative estimate suggests that if no action is taken to reduce ammonia emissions, the negative impacts on the UK in 2020 could be equivalent to costs of more than £700m per year. (rand.org)
  • As levels of other air pollutants have declined, ammonia emissions in the UK have been rising since 2013, with significant implications for ecosystems and human health. (rand.org)
  • The agricultural sector produced 82 per cent of all UK ammonia emissions in 2016. (rand.org)
  • RAND Europe, in collaboration with and funded by the Royal Society, examined the evidence on the effects of agricultural ammonia emissions on biodiversity. (rand.org)
  • This study aims to be of use to policymakers and others interested in understanding the current status of the evidence around ammonia emissions and the impact on biodiversity. (rand.org)
  • This analysis was based on a rapid evidence assessment of the existing literature on the impacts of ammonia emissions from agriculture on biodiversity and the possible interventions to reduce emission levels. (rand.org)
  • Ammonia emissions negatively affect biodiversity. (rand.org)
  • Cutting ammonia emissions from agriculture is a crucial issue in Europe. (euractiv.com)
  • Applying the right form of mineral fertilisers could generate a reduction of more than 10% of total ammonia emissions in Europe. (euractiv.com)
  • We hope that our results will help guide better management of ammonia emissions. (spaceref.com)
  • Singapore-based Eastern Pacific Shipping has kicked off plans for a partnership to develop methanol and ammonia as alternative marine fuels to help reduce carbon emissions from its fleet and the. (gcaptain.com)
  • Finnish technology group Wärtsilä has started testing ammonia as a potential fuel to help the shipping industry reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. (gcaptain.com)
  • Once exposed to open air, liquid ammonia quickly turns into a gas. (cdc.gov)
  • If the gas is dissolved in water, it is called liquid ammonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Infinity Ammonia single liquid stable reagent is intended for the in vitro quantitative determination of Ammonia in plasma. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ice rinks and ice manufacturing plants use liquid ammonia. (worksafebc.com)
  • Liquid ammonia is often diluted and combined with other chemicals. (worksafebc.com)
  • Direct injection of liquid ammonia into a high compression ratio (30:1) engine was attempted and was unsuccessful. (sae.org)
  • Bunsen prepared the liquified ammonia by causing the perfectly dry gas to pass through a column of hydrate of potash, and thence into a tube cooled to - 40° C. The liquid ammonia is colorless, very mobile, having a specific gravity of 0.63. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Liquid ammonia is a powerful solvent for a number of metals, as has been recently (1871) shown by Professor Charles A. Seely of New York . (chestofbooks.com)
  • Two important applications of liquid ammonia have been made in modern times. (chestofbooks.com)
  • at 20° C. it absorbs 681 times its volume and yields the liquid ammonia of the shops. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The density of liquid ammonia allows for conventional aircraft configurations to be used and it may be possible to retrofit into an existing engine, resulting in a zero-carbon jet that could start serving the short haul market well before the 2050 target currently set by the industry. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Ammonia , a solution of annhydrous ammonia (NH3) in water -- also called Hartshorn Water , Spirits of Hartshorn , or Aqua ammoniae -- is a common household cleaning liquid that is used in hoodoo rootwork as a magical cleanser, purifier, and protectant, perhaps as a replacement for raw Urine, which has long been used in spells of protection . (luckymojo.com)
  • Liquid ammonia is a strong ionizing solvent that can dissolve alkali metals to form colored, electrically conducting solutions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Liquichek™ Ethanol/Ammonia Control is a liquid product used to monitor ethanol and ammonia test procedures in the clinical laboratory. (bio-medicine.org)
  • [14] Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anhydrous (water-free) ammonia gas is easily liquefied under pressure (at 20°C liquid ammonia has a vapor pressure of about 120 lb per sq in. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Liquid ammonia is used in the chemical laboratory as a solvent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Compared to water, liquid ammonia is less likely to release protons (H + ions), is more likely to take up protons (to form NH 4 + ions), and is a stronger reducing agent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He predicts that Cassini instruments will find that Titan has a liquid ammonia-and-water layer beneath its hard, water-ice surface. (universetoday.com)
  • Cassini will see - Cassini radar has likely already seen - places where liquid ammonia-and-water slurry erupted from extremely cold volcanoes and flowed across Titan's landscape. (universetoday.com)
  • And the only way you maintain that liquid layer to the present is have ammonia in the mixture. (universetoday.com)
  • SHANGHAI (Reuters) - A liquid ammonia leak from a refrigeration unit at a cold storage facility in Shanghai on Saturday has killed 15 people and injured 26 others, local authorities said. (reuters.com)
  • When liquid ammonia is released it may mix with air and behave as a dense gas. (teamster.org)
  • Exposure to liquid ammonia is not common at ammonia refrigeration facilities. (teamster.org)
  • the liquid boils at −33.3 °C (−27.94 °F), and freezes to white crystals at −77.7 °C (−107.86 °F). Ammonia may be conveniently deodorized[clarification needed] by reacting it with either sodium bicarbonate or acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionising powers reflecting its high ε of 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid ammonia has a very high standard enthalpy change of vaporization (23.35 kJ/mol, cf. water 40.65 kJ/mol, methane 8.19 kJ/mol, phosphine 14.6 kJ/mol) and can therefore be used in laboratories in uninsulated vessels without additional refrigeration. (wikipedia.org)
  • See liquid ammonia as a solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia does not build up in the food chain, but serves as a nutrient for plants and bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • However, once ammonia is exposed to the environment, the gas becomes ingested by plants, animals and bacteria. (ehow.com)
  • There are also other bacteria that are big ammonia producers and they include Clostridia, Enterococcus, and the non-spore forming gram positive anaerobes. (healingwell.com)
  • So if you have too much ammonia, more than likely, you have too many of the ammonia producing bacteria. (healingwell.com)
  • More ammonia is produced at a pH of 7 than a pH of 5, so increasing bacteria like H pylori that lower pH can be beneficial by reducing intestinal pH. (healingwell.com)
  • Intestinal bacteria might contribute, but bartonella henselae is capable of producing ammonia all by itself. (healingwell.com)
  • Kidney dysfunction can also cause high bacteria and protein levels in the urine, which will contribute to a foul, ammonia smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The problem, according to ARS microbiologist Michael Flythe, comes from one group of bacteria, known as hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria, or HABs. (redorbit.com)
  • While other bacteria are helping their bovine hosts convert plant fibers to cud, HABs are breaking down amino acids, a chemical process that produces ammonia and robs the animals of the amino acids they need to build muscle tissue, according to Flythe, who works at the ARS Forage Animal Production Research Unit (FAPRU) in Lexington, Ky. (redorbit.com)
  • Upon amendment of fertilizer, growth of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was reported to correlate with nitrification activity, whereas archaea did not seem to respond ( 20 , 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • Over 90% of ammonia produced is used as a fertilizer, principally in the form of urea or ammonium nitrate. (springer.com)
  • But I do know that ammonia is a part of the Urea that comes out with the Urine. (medhelp.org)
  • Perhaps a kidney problem, your kidneys or liver are not getting rid of the ammonia/urea. (medhelp.org)
  • Urea is the bodies means of removing ammonia. (yahoo.com)
  • Urea can be 'reconverted' to ammonia by bacrerial action, which explains the ammonia smell of stale urine. (yahoo.com)
  • typically, the ammonia is not a free product but is bound to something like Urea. (yahoo.com)
  • It grows on ammonia or urea as an energy source and is capable of using higher ammonia concentrations than the marine isolate, Nitrosopumilus maritimus . (pnas.org)
  • Ammonia is turned into urea and released from the body in the urine. (livestrong.com)
  • Chemical reactions in the body release ammonia as a waste product and the liver turns it into a less toxic chemical called urea. (livestrong.com)
  • Ammonia Nitrate/Urea Ammonia Nitrate/Calcium Ammonia Nitrate. (bv.com)
  • The project increased urea and ammonia production at the facility by more than one million tons a year. (bv.com)
  • This includes evaluating process conditions in ammonia plants, reviewing electrical loads and infrastructure for ammonia, urea and UAN plants, as well as detailed design for Urea Reactor Replacements. (bv.com)
  • The first version was achieved by simply supplying ammonia vapor in the induction air system and using the fuel injection system to furnish a pilot charge of diesel fuel for ignition purposes. (sae.org)
  • Above certain levels, ammonia vapor is a severe respiratory irritant. (teamster.org)
  • The process can be used to remove ammonia from synthesis gas, or other gaseous solvents, by removing ammonia whose chemical potential decreases as the density of the solvent increases. (google.com)
  • Typically, a gaseous solvent containing the ammonia is passed through a bed of sorbent to sorb the ammonia onto the bed of sorbent, thereby producing a purified gaseous solvent. (google.com)
  • At least a portion of the gaseous solvent is then acted upon to increase its solvent capacity for the ammonia. (google.com)
  • The increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent is passed through the bed of sorbent in the opposite direction to desorb the ammonia from the bed of sorbent to provide an increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent. (google.com)
  • The ammonia may then be recovered from the increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent. (google.com)
  • recovering the gaseous solution of the ammonia dissolved in the portion of purified gaseous solvent to form a recovered portion of the gaseous solution. (google.com)
  • But the study authors found that successful legislation to reduce acid rain in the early 1990s most likely had the unintended effect of increasing gaseous ammonia. (spaceref.com)
  • But it has also increased gaseous ammonia loading, which we can see from space. (spaceref.com)
  • Ammonia toxicity to the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Environmental factors, such as pH and temperature, can affect ammonia toxicity to aquatic animals. (epa.gov)
  • The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. (hindawi.com)
  • Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7 vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. (hindawi.com)
  • Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3 vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate. (hindawi.com)
  • Through this case study, we describe the problems of TIE testing used to characterize, identify, and confirm ammonia as the cause of acute toxicity to the Daphnia magna . (hindawi.com)
  • Ammonia toxicity considering pH in the landfill leachate was analyzed. (hindawi.com)
  • The objectives of this study are to perform contribution rate approach for identification of toxicity causative chemicals considering the effect of ammonia toxicity changing by pH, and to detect toxicity causative chemicals other than ammonia with the contribution rate approach. (hindawi.com)
  • Ammonia toxicity is one complication from liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • If the liver is damaged and the cells can't remove ammonia from the blood, the ammonia stays in the blood and enters general circulation resulting in toxicity. (livestrong.com)
  • Early symptoms of ammonia toxicity related to decreasing liver function include inability to concentrate, sleepiness and being prone to irritability. (livestrong.com)
  • Physicians diagnose ammonia toxicity and use two medicines to lower ammonia levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Limiting the amount of protein from meats, nuts and other protein sources in the diet lowers the potential for ammonia toxicity. (livestrong.com)
  • Ammonia refrigeration systems are complex and potentially dangerous. (prweb.com)
  • Assists employers and employees in identifying and controlling the hazards associated with the operation and maintenance of ammonia refrigeration systems. (osha.gov)
  • Ammonia refrigeration systems are a series of interconnected vessels and piping that compress and pump ammonia to one or more rooms to cool, chill, or freeze them to specific temperatures. (teamster.org)
  • For a 10-page description of our methodology, visit www.intratec.us/reports/industrial-processes-economics Reports Focused on Ammonia Production Economics ECONOMICS OF AMMONIA PRODUCTION FROM SYNGAS (AMMONIA E11A) This report presents the economics of Ammonia production from syngas (synthesis gas) using a typical process. (slideshare.net)
  • The aim of this chapter is to relate the detailed analysis of the ammonia synthesis reaction, as examined in other sections of this book, to the commercial operation of one of the major processes of the worldwide chemical industry. (springer.com)
  • V. Vek and P. Kyril, Second Generation of Radial Flow Converters in Ammonia Synthesis, Fertiliser Industry Annual Review , XI, p. 89 (1988). (springer.com)
  • E. Perry, UK Patent 2017071A "Ammonia Synthesis Process," Monsanto Company (1978). (springer.com)
  • B. J. Grotz, US Patent No 3442613 "Hydrocarbon Reforming for Production of a Synthesis Gas from which Ammonia can be Prepared," C. F. Braun & Company (1965). (springer.com)
  • Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. (dbpedia.org)
  • Glutamine has also been shown to regulate protein synthesis and is a substrate for renal ammonia production. (healingwell.com)
  • The team led by Starfire Energy will develop a modular, small-scale, HB-type process for ammonia synthesis. (energy.gov)
  • This green technology can be used in many applications, but this presentation demonstrates its use in ammonia as presented to the International Fertilizer Association, IFA. (slideshare.net)
  • As a new associate member of the International Fertilizer Association and on behalf of Orono Spectral Solutions, I want to thank the association for the opportunity to present this paper on a new method to measure oil in ammonia. (slideshare.net)
  • Roughly 80 percent of manufactured ammonia is utilized in fertilizer for the agriculture industry. (reference.com)
  • Ammonia is one of the most plentiful chemicals that humans produce, because it's massively used as a fertilizer. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Although chemistry and materials science and engineering professor Shelley Minteer and postdoctoral scholar Ross Milton have only been able to produce small quantities of ammonia so far, their method could lead to a less energy-intensive source of the ammonia, used worldwide as a vital fertilizer. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team's innovations could enable small-sale ammonia reactors that operate using intermittent renewable energy sources, thus making a zero-carbon fuel and fertilizer thereby reducing our carbon footprint. (energy.gov)
  • With increasing demand for ammonia, fertilizer plants worldwide seek the lowest cost solution to increase their capacity, operability, and energy efficiency. (bv.com)
  • Our completion of more than 50 projects involving ammonia fertilizer plants demonstrates our leadership in the industry. (bv.com)
  • Black & Veatch has worked with multiple large ammonia and fertilizer companies to provide front-end loading (FEL 1-3) studies, also referred to as pre-project planning, front-end engineering design (FEED), feasibility analysis, conceptual and detailed design, and early project planning. (bv.com)
  • Ammonia is a base compound that can be hazardous and toxic in high quantities. (wikihow.com)
  • Now, as proponents of an upscale housing development in Oxnard prepare to take their plan--nearly a decade in the making--to the California Coastal Commission, environmentalists say there's just one more problem: Ammonia stored at the nearby Mandalay power plant could explode into a toxic plume in the event of a disaster. (latimes.com)
  • The power plant in July 1999 filed a report with the Oxnard Fire Department outlining the "worst-case scenario" of an ammonia tank rupture, which shows that a toxic cloud could travel about four-tenths of a mile, said Thomas Snowdon, plant manager. (latimes.com)
  • EPA has published final national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life from the toxic effects of ammonia in freshwater. (epa.gov)
  • When ammonia is present in water at high enough levels, it is difficult for aquatic organisms to sufficiently excrete the toxicant, leading to toxic buildup in internal tissues and blood, and potentially death. (epa.gov)
  • If the bleach is accidentally mixed with ammonia or acid, irritating or toxic gases could be produced. (cpsc.gov)
  • Introducing 1+ ammonia into my tank, even if cycled, would be toxic at least for a little bit (perhaps using prime as my conditioner would solve this)? (yahoo.com)
  • Ammonium is less toxic than ammonia, but still toxic. (yahoo.com)
  • Ammonia pollution also effects species composition through soil acidification, direct toxic damage to leaves and by altering the susceptibility of plants to frost, drought and pathogens. (rand.org)
  • Any of various enzymes that remove ammonia or an amino compound by breaking the C-N bond, leaving a C=C. (dictionary.com)
  • Much like the United States, a major potential cause for increased ammonia traces back to reductions in atmospheric acids that would normally remove ammonia from the atmosphere. (spaceref.com)
  • Poisoning may also occur if you swallow or touch products that contain very large amounts of ammonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Victims exposed to even small amounts of ammonia require immediate treatment with large quantities of water to minimize the damage," according to John M. Shutske of the University of Minnesota. (businessinsider.com)
  • Asparagus is commonly linked with an ammonia smell, as are large amounts of vitamin B-6. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Under heat and pressure, GRA 95229 released almost nothing but ammonia, in amounts that constitute roughly 1 percent by mass of the type of meteoritic material examined. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Trace amounts of ammonia are even found in dog urine, which leaves brown patches and dead grass behind. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Small amounts of ammonia are potentially beneficial to your lawn, including plants and grass. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Genes of archaea encoding homologues of ammonia monooxygenases have been found on a widespread basis and in large amounts in almost all terrestrial and marine environments, indicating that ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) might play a major role in nitrification on Earth. (pnas.org)
  • I think what's clear from the data is that Titan has accreted or acquired significant amounts of ammonia, as well as water," Lunine said. (universetoday.com)
  • These strips can be used to detect trace amounts of ammonia in poultry houses or animal rooms, where levels as low as 25 ppm can be detrimental. (environmental-expert.com)
  • High amounts of ammonia affect the brain resulting in confusion, brain damage, coma and can cause death. (livestrong.com)
  • Damage is related to the amount and strength (concentration) of the ammonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exposure to a high concentration of ammonia can be fatal. (worksafebc.com)
  • The level of danger depends on the concentration of ammonia and how long you've been exposed to it. (worksafebc.com)
  • Ammonia solutions that are formulated for industrial use tend to have a concentration of 25 percent or higher and are highly corrosive. (reference.com)
  • The equation to calculate the ammonia criterion maximum concentration (CMC) where Oncorhynchus species are absent was missing parentheses which are needed to correctly calculate the criterion (p 42). (epa.gov)
  • A high concentration of ammonia applied to the grass will kill it. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale ( density ), with 26 degrees baumé (about 30% (by weight) ammonia at 15.5 °C or 59.9 °F) being the typical high-concentration commercial product. (wikipedia.org)
  • 148 °F) if the ammonia concentration is high enough and thus allow such bodies to retain internal oceans and active geology at a far lower temperature than would be possible with water alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January, a 70-year-old man who lived across the street from the plant died after being overcome by ammonia fumes that leaked from the plant. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Man Killed by Ammonia Fumes. (nytimes.com)
  • You are not trying to soak the burner… you just want to seal it up with the ammonia fumes. (lifehacker.com)
  • Ammonia splashes can burn skin and the fumes can cause burns to eyes and lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was caused by the ammonia fumes from the horse urine reacting with the wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to ammonia? (cdc.gov)
  • The most effective way to manage the risk of exposure to ammonia is to eliminate the source of exposure. (worksafebc.com)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Guidelines for Chemical Hazards DHHS Publication No. 74-136 (1974) - Contains a standard for mitigation of exposure to ammonia to prevent adverse effects over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • Lung damage and death may occur after exposure to very high concentrations of ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to ammonia causes birth defects, or if it can pass to the fetus across the placenta or to infants via breast milk. (cdc.gov)
  • Minimize exposure to ammonia in the workplace by wearing proper safety clothes and equipment, and by following safety rules. (cdc.gov)
  • High doses of ammonia exposure can be damaging to your health. (ehow.com)
  • No biologic marker is readily available for ammonia exposure or poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for ammonia exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Can signs explaining ammonia exposure symptoms be posted? (worksafebc.com)
  • This manual describes the hazards of ammonia and how to prevent and control exposure. (worksafebc.com)
  • However, ammonia causes olfactory fatigue (loss of sense of smell) or adaptation, making it difficult to detect its presence when exposure is prolonged. (teamster.org)
  • What are the general hazards associated with exposure to ammonia? (teamster.org)
  • Specifically, what injuries can result from exposure to ammonia? (teamster.org)
  • Available studies have not shown significant health effects in people with long-term occupational exposure to ammonia. (teamster.org)
  • Nearly 80 percent of ammonia that is produced within the United States is used specifically for agricultural purposes. (ehow.com)
  • About 80 percent or more of the ammonia produced is used for fertilizing agricultural crops. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The first global, long-term satellite study of airborne ammonia gas has revealed "hotspots" of the pollutant over four of the world's most productive agricultural regions. (spaceref.com)
  • The results of the study, conducted using data from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite, could inform the development of strategies to control pollution from ammonia and ammonia byproducts in Earth's agricultural areas. (spaceref.com)
  • A University of Maryland-led team discovered steadily increasing ammonia concentrations from 2002 to 2016 over agricultural centers in the United States, Europe, China and India. (spaceref.com)
  • Each major agricultural region highlighted in the study experienced a slightly different combination of factors that correlate with increased ammonia in the air from 2002 to 2016. (spaceref.com)
  • Europe experienced the least dramatic increase in atmospheric ammonia of the major agricultural areas studied. (spaceref.com)
  • Moreover, ammonia production requires huge capital investments for reactors operating at high pressure and temperature, base-load power to keep the process running continuously, and distribution infrastructure to ship the resulting chemicals around the world to agricultural fields. (energy.gov)
  • If successful, the proposed technology could enable distributed ammonia production for alternative fuels and agricultural use, decrease energy input by more than 20%, and substantially simplify the process. (energy.gov)
  • Ammonia is a strong, colorless gas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ammonia, chemical compound, NH 3 , colorless gas that is about one half as dense as air at ordinary temperatures and pressures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because ammonia was formerly obtained by destructive distillation of horns and hooves of animals, its water solution was called spirits of hartshorn. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 2018, EPA corrected a minor typesetting error in the EPA Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (2013) document, EPA corrected the error and has republished the document below. (epa.gov)
  • https://www.ehow.co.uk/info_8544313_ammonia-kill-grass.html. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ammonia%20liquor. (merriam-webster.com)
  • There are tests to measure ammonia in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), There are tests to measure ammonia in blood and urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Ammonia is produced with the breakdown of animal and vegetable matter, including the breakdown of protein in urine. (wikihow.com)
  • Then tell me there is no ammonia in urine. (yahoo.com)
  • As to your question, the ammonia evaporating from urine is part of what causes the foul smell. (yahoo.com)
  • Why does my urine smell like ammonia? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ammonia-smelling urine is common and mostly harmless. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are times, however, where ammonia-smelling urine indicates a health problem. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pregnant women have a higher risk than others for UTIs, which increases their chances of having ammonia-smelling urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hence, pregnant women should let their doctors know if they experience unpleasant-smelling urine, especially if the smell resembles ammonia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pregnancy vitamins can also create a smell of ammonia in the urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Both these changes may cause ammonia-smelling urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Diet is the most common cause of ammonia-smelling urine in all people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Similarly, foods high in protein can increase urine's acidic properties and cause it to have an ammonia smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Anyone who develops kidney or bladder stones may experience ammonia-smelling urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When stones pass through the urinary tract, the risk for UTIs increases and they can cause urine to have an ammonia smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Kidney disease causes chemicals in urine to become concentrated and to cause a smell resembling ammonia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A common practice, especially among business owners, is to add Ammonia (as a substitute for urine) to sidewalk scrubbing water, generally with Cinnamon powder and Sugar, and to mop or sweep inward, toward the front door, while reciting the 23rd Psalm, to draw sweet customers with money to spend. (luckymojo.com)
  • In 2016 the oil in ammonia technology was the basis for CF Industries' Stephen R. Wilson corporate safety award winner. (slideshare.net)
  • Ammonia is also used as a refrigerant and gas and water purifier, and ammonia is used in the manufacturie of textiles, plastics, dyes, explosives and pesticides. (reference.com)
  • On the heels of these resources is a 2014 guideline update from the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration (IIAR) which promotes education, information and industry standards for the safe and proper use of ammonia as a refrigerant. (prweb.com)
  • Students will compare the shapes of the ammonia, methane, and water molecules. (uen.org)
  • The students should also know how to draw the three dimensional structures of the water, methane, and ammonia molecules. (uen.org)
  • Show the 2-dimensional (using just bonds and electron dots) structures of water, ammonia, and methane. (uen.org)
  • Show the 3-D molecular shapes of water, ammonia, and methane. (uen.org)
  • Show the 3-D molecular geometries of water, ammonia, and methane. (uen.org)
  • Label the important and major characteristics of water, ammonia, and methane. (uen.org)
  • The dead fish smell tends to be some sort of methyl amine (methane+ammonia reacted together into one compound). (yahoo.com)
  • 5. The process according to claim 2, wherein the recovered more concentrated ammonia also contains argon and methane. (google.com)
  • 6. The process according to claim 5, further comprising the step of separating the argon and methane from the recovered more concentrated ammonia. (google.com)
  • The smell of is not generally actually ammonia, but is amine compounds (ammonia combined with something else). (yahoo.com)
  • a concentrated solution of ammonia, ammonium compounds, and sulfur compounds, obtained as a by-product in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. (dictionary.com)
  • The ionizable compounds are commonly found in landfill leachate including ammonia and some organic compounds as well as heavy metals. (hindawi.com)
  • In any case, that salt ultimately gave ammonia and ammonium compounds their name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia has a distinct, pungent smell, which usually makes it easy to identify. (worksafebc.com)
  • The simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. (dbpedia.org)
  • However, occasionally, it will have a pungent smell of ammonia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristically pungent smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Know the capital investment required Examine the operating costs & raw materials consumption Ammonia is one of the most produced synthetic chemicals worldwide. (slideshare.net)
  • Ammonia is one of the most widely produced industrial chemicals in the United States. (reference.com)
  • The preparation of ammonia for the arts is founded upon the action of quicklime upon a convenient ammoniacal salt. (chestofbooks.com)
  • 2004. Toxicological profile for Ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • recovering the more concentrated ammonia phase and passing the more dilute solvent phase at the first density through the bed of sorbent. (google.com)
  • Solvent properties Ammonia readily dissolves in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the troposphere -- the lowest, most dense part of the atmosphere where all weather takes place and where people live -- ammonia gas reacts with nitric and sulfuric acids to form nitrate-containing particles. (spaceref.com)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results for ammonia - NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 100 years after the introduction of the Haber-Bosch process, scientists continue to search for alternative ammonia production routes that are less energy-demanding. (greencarcongress.com)
  • At a later period, when sal ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid (HCl), the name "spirit of hartshorn" was applied to ammonia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Never mix ammonia with bleach, chlorine, oxidizers or bromine. (ehow.com)
  • WARNING: Never mix ammonia with bleach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For more details, pics, and precautions (e.g., don't do this on aluminum surfaces because of pitting, and don't ever combine ammonia with bleach), hit up the full post below. (lifehacker.com)
  • On the other hand, ammonia-based fuels offer a great potential for universal use. (asme.org)
  • Our dependence on fossil fuels will be lessened, engines and burners will operate with cleaner burn at higher efficiencies, and environmentally friendly liquids such as ammonia, water, alcohols, or waste liquids can be used as emulsificants in a broad range of proportions. (asme.org)
  • The finding helps advance research into ammonia as an alternative to carbon-based fuels for. (greencarcongress.com)
  • One alternative fuel solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine technology. (asme.org)
  • An alternate solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine technology. (asme.org)
  • This study examined the combustion characteristics of premixed ammonia-air mixtures at atmospheric and elevated conditions which are encountered in SI engine operation. (sae.org)
  • Ammonia can also be used as a fuel in fuel cells or internal combustion engines for both stationary and transportation applications. (energy.gov)
  • Finnish technology group Wärtsilä will be conducting what it says it the world's first long-term, full-scale testing of ammonia fuel in a marine four-stroke combustion engine. (gcaptain.com)
  • Combustion Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15-25% air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spacewalking duo isolated the photovoltaic radiator on the P6 truss from the PVTCS, shutting off the flow of ammonia in and out of it and rerouting the ammonia flow through a spare radiator so the PVTCS can continue operation. (nasa.gov)
  • The flow of ammonia has been turned off and Ascend, the owner of the supply line, said it was working to repair the line and that several nearby structures were evacuated as a precaution. (reuters.com)
  • You may be exposed to higher levels during use of cleaning products containing ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • If you use household products containing ammonia, proper ventilation (such as opening windows or turning on fans) should be done to keep your home free from the buildup of ammonia vapors. (ehow.com)
  • cleaning products containing ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • It can also increase absorption of ammonia through the portal vein and it has been shown that up to 40 grams of ammonia can be absorbed through the portal vein per day. (healingwell.com)
  • one volume of water dissolves about 1,200 volumes of the gas at 0°C (90 grams of ammonia in 100 cc of water), but only about 700 volumes at room temperature and still less at higher temperatures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • when cold add the lavender water and ammonia, and make up to a pint with water. (chestofbooks.com)
  • check out sharks at the fish market, they smell like ammonia as well). (medhelp.org)
  • The real thing is not the quantity of ammonia produced, but that it's possible to make electricity at the same time," Milton says. (eurekalert.org)
  • The quantity of ammonia in systems varies from less than 5,000 pounds to more than 250,000 pounds. (teamster.org)
  • Ammonium hydroxide (NH 4 +), a solution of ammonia gas in water. (everything2.com)
  • The ammonia sold for household use is a dilute water solution of ammonia in which ammonium hydroxide is the active cleansing agent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • and copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia . (yourdictionary.com)
  • Lung damage and death may result if you're exposed to very large quantities of ammonia. (ehow.com)
  • No health effects have been found in humans exposed to typical environmental concentrations of ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • typical environmental concentrations of ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • high concentrations of ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an industry that uses ammonia, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. - CPSC, The Excelex Corporation of Dallas, Tex., is recalling 3,608 mislabeled bottles of a product labeled as "Better Valu Clear Ammonia. (cpsc.gov)
  • The product is packaged in 64-fluid oz. containers made of white, opaque plastic, labeled in part, "Better Valu***Clear Ammonia***64 FL. (cpsc.gov)
  • Economical & environmentally friendly, rooto clear ammonia cleans, softens & sweetens, making all cleaning jobs easier. (truevalue.com)
  • Ammonia is also found in many household and industrial cleaners. (cdc.gov)
  • Many household and industrial cleaners contain ammonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Make sure there is adequate ventilation when you use cleaners that contain ammonia, and wear proper clothing and eye protection. (cdc.gov)
  • The ammonia molecule has attached itself to a carbon chain. (yahoo.com)
  • That's all it takes to make the basic ammonia molecule. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Here we identify, categorize and quantify the world's ammonia emission hotspots using a high-resolution map of atmospheric ammonia obtained from almost a decade of daily IASI satellite observations. (nature.com)
  • Increased concentrations of atmospheric ammonia are linked to poor air and water quality. (spaceref.com)
  • Measuring ammonia from the ground is difficult, but the satellite-based method we have developed allows us to track ammonia efficiently and accurately, said Juying Warner, University of Maryland associate research scientist in atmospheric and oceanic science. (spaceref.com)
  • The unexpected large ammonia increase is one example of rapid atmospheric changes from human activities that AIRS is observing. (spaceref.com)
  • In China, a complex interaction of factors is tied to increased atmospheric ammonia. (spaceref.com)
  • Ammonia can be used for household chores. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonia is used to clean windows, floors, kitchen counter tops, as well as many other household appliances. (ehow.com)
  • Household ammonia is simply diluted ammonia water to which borax and soap have been added. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH 3 in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrial-strength ammonia is 300 X stronger than household ammonia. (truevalue.com)
  • The solution of ammonium hydroxide used is much stronger (26% to 30%) than in household ammonia and is corrosive. (wikipedia.org)