Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.GlutaminaseHepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Glutamate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.AcetyleneGlutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Methionine SulfoximineArchaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).MethylaminesUrea Cycle Disorders, Inborn: Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)AminohydrolasesBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)

The chemical ecology of Biomphalaria glabrata: the effects of ammonia on the growth rate of juvenile snails. (1/3091)

When juvenile specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were subjected to concentrations of ammonia ranging from 1-100 mug/ml in various media the following effects were observed: the addition of ammonia to borate buffered media caused mortality. Both borate and tris-buffered media caused a decrease in the growth rate of snails when compared with controls in SSW. The growth rates of the snails could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of ammonia to critical thresholds, but further increases beyond these thresholds resulted in growth inhibition. The toxicity of ammonia in ambient water was augmented by an an increase in pH. The possible causation and ecological significance of these effects are discussed. There are indications that the snails are physiologically well-adapted to utilize ammonia when required and also to control its excretion and uptake from the medium.  (+info)

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (2/3091)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

RFLP of rRNA genes and sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a phylogenetic approach. (3/3091)

It has been established that 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny gives a low resolution between members of the chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) belonging to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. In this study, 12 isolates of AOB were ribotyped, and the sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were determined and used in a phylogenetic study. 16S and 23S rDNA ribotyping revealed that the AOB studied contain only one rrn operon per genome, in contrast to most bacteria, which have 5-10 copies of the rRNA genes per genome. It is likely that the presence of only one set of rRNA genes is related to the slow growth of the AOB. The 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the AOB were shown to be arranged in the classical way: a 16S rRNA gene, an ISR and a 23S rRNA gene. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship among the AOB, the relative location of the rRNA genes in the genome appears to vary considerably. The size of the ISR was approximately 400 bp in the Nitrosomonas isolates and 645-694 bp in the Nitrosospira isolates, suggesting a species-specific size difference in the ISR. The ISR contained two potential tRNA genes in the 5' end in all isolates studied. The similarity values between the ISR sequences of the AOB are low (42.9-96.2%) compared with the 16S rDNA sequence similarity values, and therefore the ISR sequences are valuable as a complementary phylogenetic tool in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the AOB based on ISR sequences confirms the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny but has the benefit of giving a higher resolution.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (4/3091)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection potentiates the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by omeprazole. (5/3091)

BACKGROUND: Omeprazole has a greater intragastric pH elevating effect in Helicobacter pylori positive than negative subjects. Ammonia production by H pylori has been suggested as a probable mechanism. AIMS: To assess the effect of H pylori status on gastric acid secretion during omeprazole treatment, and to examine the possible role of ammonia neutralisation of intragastric acid in increased omeprazole efficacy in infected subjects. METHODS: Twenty H pylori positive and 12 H pylori negative healthy volunteers were examined before and six to eight weeks after commencing omeprazole 40 mg/day. On both occasions plasma gastrin and acid output were measured basally and in response to increasing doses of gastrin 17 (G-17). Gastric juice ammonium concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Prior to omeprazole, measurements were similar in the H pylori positive and negative subjects. During omeprazole, median basal intragastric pH was higher in the H pylori positive (7.95) versus negative (3.75) subjects (p<0.002). During omeprazole basal, submaximal (180 pmol/kg/h G-17), and maximal acid outputs (800 pmol/kg/h G-17) were lower in H pylori positive subjects (0.0, 3.6, 6.0 mmol/h respectively) versus negative subjects (0.3, 14.2, 18.6 mmol/h) (p<0.03 for each). This effect was not explained by neutralisation by ammonia. CONCLUSION: The presence of H pylori infection leads to a more profound suppression of acid secretion during omeprazole treatment. The effect cannot be explained by neutralisation of intragastric acid by bacterial ammonia production and its precise mechanism has to be explained.  (+info)

Reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation indicates residual viability after myocardial infarction. (6/3091)

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical significance of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability within the infarcted area. BACKGROUND: Although the relation between residual viability and exercise-induced ST-segment elevation has been described, there are no reports focusing on the relation between myocardial viability and reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation. METHODS: We evaluated regional blood flow and glucose utilization using N-13 ammonia (NH3) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 30 patients with a previous Q-wave myocardial infarction (anterior in 15, inferior in 15). All subjects had single-vessel disease and had exercise-induced ST-segment elevations (> or =1 mm) in electrocardiographic leads. RESULTS: Reciprocal ST-segment depression (> or =1 mm) was present in 16 patients (Group A; anterior in 6, inferior in 10) but not in the remaining 14 patients (Group B). The degree of exercise-induced ST-segment elevation (1.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.0+/-0.2 mm) and the time from the onset of infarction to the study (75+/-49 vs. 74+/-52 days) did not differ between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the residual luminal narrowing in the infarct-related artery (45+/-21 vs. 48+/-25%). The presence and site of infarction were confirmed by NH3-PET in all patients. FDG-PET demonstrated residual tissue viability within infarct-related area in all patients in Group A and in 3 (21%) of 14 patients in Group B (p < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST-segment elevation for detecting residual viability were 84%, 100% and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of reciprocal ST-segment depression associated with exercise-induced ST segment elevation in patients with a previous Q-wave infarction who had single-vessel disease indicates residual tissue viability within the infarct-related area.  (+info)

13N-ammonia myocardial blood flow and uptake: relation to functional outcome of asynergic regions after revascularization. (7/3091)

OBJECTIVES: In this study we determined whether 13N-ammonia uptake measured late after injection provides additional insight into myocardial viability beyond its value as a myocardial blood flow tracer. BACKGROUND: Myocardial accumulation of 13N-ammonia is dependent on both regional blood flow and metabolic trapping. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction underwent prerevascularization 13N-ammonia and 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and thallium single-photon emission computed tomography. Pre- and postrevascularization wall-motion abnormalities were assessed using gated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or gated radionuclide angiography. RESULTS: Wall motion improved in 61 of 107 (57%) initially asynergic regions and remained abnormal in 46 after revascularization. Mean absolute myocardial blood flow was significantly higher in regions that improved compared to regions that did not improve after revascularization (0.63+/-0.27 vs. 0.52+/-0.25 ml/min/g, p < 0.04). Similarly, the magnitude of late 13N-ammonia uptake and FDG uptake was significantly higher in regions that improved (90+/-20% and 94+/-25%, respectively) compared to regions that did not improve after revascularization (67+/-24% and 71+/-25%, p < 0.001 for both, respectively). However, late 13N-ammonia uptake was a significantly better predictor of functional improvement after revascularization (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.79) when compared to absolute blood flow (area under the ROC curve = 0.63, p < 0.05). In addition, there was a linear relationship between late 13N-ammonia uptake and FDG uptake (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) as well as thallium uptake (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) in all asynergic regions. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that beyond its value as a perfusion tracer, late 13N-ammonia uptake provides useful information regarding functional recovery after revascularization. The parallel relationship among 13N-ammonia, FDG, and thallium uptake supports the concept that uptake of 13N-ammonia as measured from the late images may provide important insight regarding cell membrane integrity and myocardial viability.  (+info)

The rostral ventrolateral medulla mediates the sympathoactivation produced by chemical stimulation of the rat nasal mucosa. (8/3091)

1. We sought to outline the brainstem circuit responsible for the increase in sympathetic tone caused by chemical stimulation of the nasal passages with ammonia vapour. Experiments were performed in alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. 2. Stimulation of the nasal mucosa increased splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND), elevated arterial blood pressure (ABP), raised heart rate slightly and inhibited phrenic nerve discharge. 3. Bilateral injections of the broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist kynurenate (Kyn) into the rostral part of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; rostral C1 area) greatly reduced the effects of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND (-80 %). These injections had no effect on resting ABP, resting SND or the sympathetic baroreflex. 4. Bilateral injections of Kyn into the ventrolateral medulla at the level of the obex (caudal C1 area) or into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) greatly attenuated the baroreflex and significantly increased the baseline levels of both SND and ABP. However they did not reduce the effect of nasal mucosa stimulation on SND. 5. Single-unit recordings were made from 39 putative sympathoexcitatory neurons within the rostral C1 area. Most neurons (24 of 39) were activated by nasal mucosa stimulation (+65.8 % rise in discharge rate). Responding neurons had a wide range of conduction velocities and included slow-conducting neurons identified previously as C1 cells. The remaining putative sympathoexcitatory neurons were either unaffected (n = 8 neurons) or inhibited (n = 7) during nasal stimulation. We also recorded from ten respiratory-related neurons, all of which were silenced by nasal stimulation. 6. In conclusion, the sympathoexcitatory response to nasal stimulation is largely due to activation of bulbospinal presympathetic neurons within the RVLM. We suggest that these neurons receive convergent and directionally opposite polysynaptic inputs from arterial baroreceptors and trigeminal afferents. These inputs are integrated within the rostral C1 area as opposed to the NTS or the caudal C1 area.  (+info)

*Phenylpropanoids metabolism

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, a.k.a. phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase) is an enzyme responsible for the transformation ... of L-phenylalanine or tyrosine into trans-cinnamic acid or p-coumaric acid respectively and ammonia. Trans-cinnamate 4- ...

*Rumen

Peptides, amino acids, ammonia, and other sources of nitrogen originally present in the feed can also be used directly by ... yielding ammonia. Lipids, lignin, minerals, and vitamins play a less prominent role in digestion than carbohydrates and protein ...

*Hepatic encephalopathy

Serum ammonia levels are elevated in 90% of people, but not all hyperammonaemia (high ammonia levels) is associated with ... They are thought to decrease the generation of ammonia by bacteria, render the ammonia inabsorbable by converting it to ... Despite numerous studies demonstrating the central role of ammonia, ammonia levels do not always correlate with the severity of ... Astrocytes use ammonia when synthesising glutamine from glutamate. The increased levels of glutamine lead to an increase in ...

*Nitrification

The oxidation of ammonia into nitrite is performed by two groups of organisms, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia- ... Conversion of this ammonia to nitrate increases nitrogen leaching because nitrate is more water-soluble than ammonia. ... ammonia to hydroxylamine) is carried out by the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). NH 3 {\displaystyle {\ce {NH3}}} + O 2 {\ ... the presence of free ammonia can act as a substrate for ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. The associated reactions can lead to ...

*Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase

... phenylalanine ammonia-lyases), EC 4.3.1.25 (tyrosine ammonia-lyases), and EC 4.3.1.26 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyases). ... L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, PAL, and L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is ... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting L-phenylalanine to ammonia and ... Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the first and committed step in the phenyl propanoid pathway and is therefore involved in ...

*Glutamate dehydrogenase

In animals, the produced ammonia is usually used as a substrate in the urea cycle. Typically, the α-ketoglutarate to glutamate ... Glutamate dehydrogenase also has a very low affinity for ammonia (high Michaelis constant K m {\displaystyle K_{m}} of about 1 ... α-ketoglutarate and ammonia to glutamate and NAD(P)+). However, in brain, the NAD+/NADH ratio in brain mitochondria encourages ... H+ Ammonia incorporation in animals and microbes occurs through the actions of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase ...

*Anaerobic lagoon

As pH or temperature increases, so does the amount of volatilized ammonia. Once ammonia has been volatilized, it can travel as ... This volatilized ammonia has been implicated in widespread ecological damage in Europe and is of growing concern for the United ... In the United States, 80 percent of ammonia emissions come from livestock production.A lagoon can vaporize up to 80 percent of ... Meisinger, J. J. "Ammonia Volitalization from Dairy and Poultry Manure" (PDF). NREAS. Retrieved 2 November 2011. "Environmental ...

*Ammonia

... engines or ammonia motors, using ammonia as a working fluid, have been proposed and occasionally used. The principle is ... Household ammonia ranges in concentration by weight from 5 to 10% ammonia. Solutions of ammonia ranging from 16% to 25% are ... Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous ... Ammonia Page, cdc.gov NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Ammonia, cdc.gov Ammonia, video. ...

*Hera Ammonia

Ammonia (Greek: Ἀμμωνία) was an epithet of the Greek goddess Hera, under which she was worshiped in Elis. The inhabitants of ... 7 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Leonhard Schmitz, Leonhard (1870). "Ammonia". In ...

*Ammonia fungi

... are fungi that develop fruit bodies exclusively or relatively abundantly on soil that has had ammonia or other ... Fukiharu T, Hongo T (1995). "Ammonia fungi of Iriomote Island in the southern Ryukyus, Japan and a new ammonia fungus, Hebeloma ... The addition of ammonia or urea causes numerous chemical and biological changes, for examples, the pH of soil litter is ... nov., a new ammonia fungus from boreal forests in Canada". Mycotaxon. 115: 227-38. doi:10.5248/115.227. ...

*Ammonia (genus)

Ammonia aoteana (Finlay, 1940) Ammonia batava (Hofker, 1951) Ammonia beccarii (Linnaeus, 1758) Ammonia convexa (Collins, 1958) ... Ammonia irridescens (Arnal, 1958) (maybe a synonym of A. tepida) Ammonia limnetes (Todd & Bronnimann, 1957) Ammonia sobrina ( ... Ammonia is a genus of marine foraminifers. It is one of the most abundant foraminifer genera worldwide and occurs in sheltered ... While several different forms exist, many authors consider the genus to consist of a single species, Ammonia beccarii, with ...

*Ammonia Avenue

"Ammonia Avenue Part 1" (Eric Demo Vocal - Rough Mix) "Ammonia Avenue" (Orchestral Overdub) Ian Bairnson - acoustic guitar, ... Ammonia Avenue > Overview )))". www.allmusic.com. Retrieved 26 September 2009. "Ammonia Avenue : Alan Parsons Project : Review ... Ammonia Avenue is one of the band's biggest-selling albums, carrying an RIAA certification of gold and reaching the Top 10 in a ... Ammonia Avenue is the seventh studio album by the British progressive rock band The Alan Parsons Project, released on 7 ...

*Ammonia monooxygenase

... (EC 1.14.99.39, AMO) is an enzyme, which catalyses the following chemical reaction ammonia + AH2 + O2 ... Zahn, J.A.; Arciero, D.M.; Hooper, A.B.; DiSpirito, A.A. (1996). "Evidence for an iron center in the ammonia monooxygenase from ... Ammonia monooxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Hyman, M.R.; Page, C.L.; Arp, D.J. (1994). "Oxidation of methyl fluoride and dimethyl ether by ammonia monooxygenase in ...

*Ammonia fountain

A different gas of comparable solubility in water, such as hydrogen chloride, can be used instead of ammonia. If the ammonia is ... The experiment consists of introducing water through an inlet to a container filled with ammonia gas. Ammonia dissolves into ... A(nother) Modification of the Ammonia Fountain Demonstration Ben Ruekberg and David L. Freeman Journal of Chemical Education ... Another reported variation involves copper sulfate The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure M. Dale ...

*Ammonia (disambiguation)

Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. Ammonia may also refer to: Ammonia (band), an Australian rock band Ammonia ... a cleaning chemical commonly referred to as ammonia Hera Ammonia, an epithet of Greek goddess Hera SF Ammonia, a railway ferry ...

*Ammonia production

... ammonia from waste water is sent into an ammonia electrolyzer (ammonia electrolysis) operating with renewable energy sources ( ... Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals. There are numerous large-scale ammonia production plants ... Ammonia production depends on plentiful supplies of energy, predominantly natural gas. Due to ammonia's critical role in ... as ammonia is less flammable than gasoline or LPG.[citation needed] Waste water is often high in ammonia. Because discharging ...

*Ammonia borane

Reaction of diborane with ammonia mainly gives the diammoniate salt [H2B(NH3)2]+(BH4)−. Ammonia borane is the main product when ... Ammonia borane has been suggested as a storage medium for hydrogen, e.g. for when the gas is used to fuel motor vehicles. It ... Ammonia borane finds some use in organic synthesis as an air-stable derivative of diborane. Many analogues have been prepared ... Its similarity to ethane is tenuous since borane-ammonia is a solid and ethane is a gas: their melting points differing by 284 ...

*Ammonia kinase

In enzymology, an ammonia kinase (EC 2.7.3.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + NH3 ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:ammonia phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include phosphoramidate- ...

*Ammonia poisoning

The amount of ammonia present is usually accompanied by a rise in pH. As ammonia is a base, it is stabilized by alkaline water ... An ammonia test is the most sure way of diagnosing ammonia poisoning. Symptoms include: Purple, red or bleeding gills Fish may ... Treatments include immediately reducing the ammonia level through many small water changes. Alternatively an ammonia detoxifier ... Once the ammonia is removed, the fish may recover if the damage is not too extensive. Increasing aeration may be desirable, as ...

*Ammonia tepida

... is a benthic foraminifer living in the sediment of brackish waters. It is very similar to Ammonia beccarii, but ... "Ammonia beccarii and Ammonia tepida (Foraminifera): morphofunctional arguments for their distinction". Marine Micropaleontology ... Ammonia tepida is found in the sediment of brackish waters worldwide. It is able to tolerate a wide range of temperatures and ... Ammonia tepida (Cushman, 1926)". The Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 40 (4): 305-312. doi:10.2113/gsjfr.40.4.305. ISSN 0096- ...

*Ammonia cookie

An ammonia cookie is a cookie made with baking ammonia as a leavener. In the United States, they are most closely associated ...

*Ammonia fuming

Ammonia splashes can burn skin and the fumes can cause burns to eyes and lungs. Operators need to wear gas masks, gloves and ... Ammonia fuming is a wood finishing process that darkens wood and brings out the grain pattern. It consists of exposing the wood ... If the chamber is large or the fuming is to be done for a long time then more than one container may be provided or the ammonia ... This was caused by the ammonia fumes from the horse urine reacting with the wood. At the end of the nineteenth and beginning of ...

*Ammonia transporter

... the ammonia channel must be deactivated to prevent excessive ammonia entering the cell (where ammonia would be combined with ... The human RhCG ammonia transporter was found to have a similar ammonia-conducting channel structure. It was proposed[citation ... Ammonia transporters (TC# 1.A.11) are structurally related membrane transport proteins called Amt proteins (ammonia ... Each monomer contains a hydrophobic ammonia conducting channel. While prokaryotic ammonia channel proteins have an N-terminal ...

*Ammonia solution

... , also known as ammonia water, ammonical liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or ( ... Commonly available ammonia with soap added is known as "cloudy ammonia". In industry, aqueous ammonia can be used as a ... Ammonia solutions decrease in density as the concentration of dissolved ammonia increases. At 15.6 °C (60.1 °F), the density of ... Ammonia solution is used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" making it more edible for cattle. Aqueous ammonia is used ...

*Histidine ammonia-lyase

Histidase converts histidine into ammonia and urocanic acid. Histidine ammonia-lyase is a cytosolic enzyme catalyzing the first ... Histidine ammonia-lyase (or histidase, or histidinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HAL gene. ... Histidine Ammonia-Lyase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Schwede, TF; Rétey, J; Schulz, GE (Apr 27, 1999). "Crystal structure of histidine ammonia-lyase revealing a novel polypeptide ...
Relación de las especies de Ammonia[1]​[2]​[3]​ Índice A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ammonia aberdovevensis Ammonia acuta Ammonia advena, aceptado como Strebloides advenus Ammonia agoiensis Ammonia altispira Ammonia americana Ammonia ammoniformis Ammonia annectens Ammonia aomoriensis Ammonia aoteana Ammonia ariakensis Ammonia astera Ammonia avalonensis Ammonia batava Ammonia beccarii Ammonia beccarii caspica Ammonia beccarii globula Ammonia beccarii parkinsoniana Ammonia beccarii tepida Ammonia beccarii var. annectens Ammonia beccarii var. atjehensis Ammonia beccarii var. conoidea Ammonia beccarii var. dentata Ammonia beccarii var. koeboeensis Ammonia beccarii var. parkinsoniana Ammonia beccarii var. ripleyensis Ammonia beccarii var. tepida Ammonia bifurcata Ammonia breccarii Ammonia brevirostris Ammonia capetownensis, de posición genérica incierta Ammonia catesbyanus Ammonia caucasica Ammonia confertitesta Ammonia convexa Ammonia convexidorsa Ammonia crebera ...
A: The technology of this device is very unique to our company and has been an excellent seller for many years to hobbyists, breeders, and public facilities alike. The Ammonia Alert is designed to change color in the presence of free (gaseous) ammonia, not ammonium (ionized ammonia) which is harmless to fish and other aquatic life. The longer it is left in a particular body of water/aquarium, the more sensitive it becomes to that water. Most conventional test kits test total ammonia which is a combination of free ammonia + ammonium = total ammonia. PH is the determining factor on what type is present. If your pH is acidic (below 7.0), it is chemically impossible for ammonia (harmful gas) to exist. Yet a total ammonia test kit will register a reading because it detects both the free ammonia (harmful gas) and ammonium (harmless ionized form of ammonia). The more basic your pH becomes, the greater the chance of ammonia existing. Example: If you have 1.0 ppm of total ammonia and your pH is below ...
To test the significance of the purine nucleotide cycle in renal ammoniagenesis, studies were conducted with rat kidney cortical slices using glutamate or glutamine labelled in the alpha-amino group with 15N. Glucose production by normal kidney slices with 2 mM-glutamine was equal to that with 3 mM-glutamate. With L-[15N]glutamate as sole substrate, one-third of the total ammonia produced by kidney slices was labelled, indicating significant deamination of glutamate or other amino acids from the cellular pool. Ammonia produced from the amino group of L-[alpha-15N]glutamine was 4-fold higher than from glutamate at similar glucose production rates. Glucose and ammonia formation from glutamine by kidney slices obtained from rats with chronic metabolic acidosis was found to be 70% higher than by normal kidney slices. The contribution of the amino group of glutamine to total ammonia production was similar in both types of kidneys. No 15N was found in the amino group of adenine nucleotides after ...
An ammonia converter was constructed using a commercially available platinum catalyst, with the aim of applying it for the measurement of ammonia concentrations. The dependence of the ammonia converter efficiency on the reaction temperature and the ammonia concentration was investigated by measuring the concentration of the converted nitric oxide. The results showed that the catalyst almost completely oxidized ammonia into nitric oxide at temperatures above 600℃ in the tested range of ammonia concentrations. In addition, by combining the ammonia converter with a chemiluminescent NO_x analyzer we were able to measure the ammonia concentration in an ammonia-nitric oxide mixture to an accuracy of within 3% by making a correction due to the oxygen concentration.
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Purpose: To determine the precision and cost-effectiveness of the pHydrion(TM) ammonia test relative to the Draeger(TM) volumetric pump/ammonia detector tube method in measuring ammonia concentrations in swine barns.. Methods: Ammonia concentrations in farrowing, nursery, finisher, and gestating barns were monitored for 8 weeks using both the pHydrion(TM) test strips and the Draeger(TM) unit. The ammonia measurements were compared using bivariate correlation analysis. Average ammonia concentrations in each barn type were compared using an ANOVA. The precision and cost-effectiveness of each assay were demonstrated by plotting the width of the confidence interval by the number of dollars available for ammonia detection, as well as by the number of tests performed.. Results: The mean ammonia concentrations differed by room type (P ,.05) and increased in the following order: nursery, farrowing, gestating, and finishing rooms. ...
A process for the separation of ammonia dissolved in a gaseous solvent is used to recover ammonia during the production of ammonia from a synthesis gas. The process may be used to extract and recover ammonia in either the supercritical region or the subcritical region. The process can be used to remove ammonia from synthesis gas, or other gaseous solvents, by removing ammonia whose chemical potential decreases as the density of the solvent increases. The process utilizes a sorbent to remove the ammonia followed by an in situ regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the ammonia. Typically, a gaseous solvent containing the ammonia is passed through a bed of sorbent to sorb the ammonia onto the bed of sorbent, thereby producing a purified gaseous solvent. At least a portion of the gaseous solvent is then acted upon to increase its solvent capacity for the ammonia. The increased solvent capacity gaseous solvent is passed through the bed of sorbent in the opposite direction to desorb the ammonia from the
List of causes of Elevated blood ammonia level and Stomach symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Citation: Hafner, S.D., Meisinger, J.J., Mulbry III, W.W., Ingram, S.K. 2012. A pH-based method for measuring gaseous ammonia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 92(2):195-205. Interpretive Summary: Ammonia emissions from agricultural systems contribute to poor air quality and pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Various approaches are used to measure and better understand ammonia emission from agricultural systems. A common method for measuring emission or gaseous concentration is to trap ammonia in an acid solution, and later measure the total ammonia content of the solution. In this paper, we present a modification of this method, where the ammonia content of the acid solution is determined indirectly by measuring the solution pH. Ammonia content is calculated from pH by application of a chemical speciation model. The method is rapid and non-destructive, and so can be applied repeatedly to the same acidic solution at a high frequency. Testing of the method through laboratory ...
Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4+ with glutamate to form glutamine. Glutamine synthetase is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule, suggesting ammonia recycling via glutamine synthetase could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. This studys purpose was to determine the role of proximal tubule glutamine synthetase in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. Following induction of metabolic acidosis the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple ...
The current evidence on the primary source of ammonia production in the human fetoplacental unit is potentially misleading. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the concentration of ammonia in human maternal and fetal blood at
Table 1: Distribution of ammonia aggregates by enterprises of the Russian Federation. Table 2: Design Indicators of Energy Consumption of Russian Ammonia Aggregates. Table 3: Ammonia producers in the CIS countries and their capacity at the end of 2017. Table 4: Distribution of Russian ammonia producers in agrochemical holdings and their raw materials supply in 2016. Table 5: Technical requirements for the quality of anhydrous ammonia (according to GOST 6221-90). Table 6: Ammonia production in the CIS countries in 1998-2017, kt. Table 7: Production of ammonia in Russia by enterprises in 1997-2017, kt. Table 8: Belonging to holdings of the main enterprises producing mineral fertilizers in the Russian Federation in 2017. Table 9: Milestones in the development of ammonia production by PJSC TogliattiAzot. Table 10: Geographic structure of ammonia exports of PJSC TogliattiAzot in 2004-2017, kt. Table 11: The largest consumers of ammonia produced by PJSC TogliattiAzot in 2004-2017, t. Table 12: ...
The cyclotron-produced radionuclide, 13N, was used to label ammonia and to study its metabolism in a group of 5 normal subjects and 17 patients with liver disease, including 5 with portacaval shunts and 11 with encephalopathy. Arterial ammonia levels were 52-264 micron. The rate of ammonia clearance from the vascular compartment (metabolism) was a linear function of its arterial concentration: mumol/min = 4.71 [NH3]a + 3.76, r = +0.85, P less than 0.005. Quantitative body scans showed that 7.4 +/- 0.3% of the isotope was metabolized by the brain. The brain ammonia utilization rate, calculated from brain and blood activities, was a function of the arterial ammonia concentration: mumol/min per whole brain = 0.375 [NH3]a - 3.6, r = +0.93, P less than 0.005. Assuming that cerebral blood flow and brain weights were normal, 47 +/- 3% of the ammonia was extracted from arterial blood during a single pass through the normal brains. Ammonia uptake was greatest in gray matter. The ammonia utilization ...
... , Levels Of Total Ammonia Of Only .25 Mg Per Liter Can Be Harmful To Your Fish & Other Aquarium Or Pond Inhabitants, The Tetratest Total Ammonia Kit Was Professionally Developed To Accurately Determine The Ammonia Level In Your Aquarium Or Pond Water, To Ensure Optimum Water Quality, Frequent Testing Is Strongly Recommended - Even More Frequently When Your Aquarium Or Pond Is First Established, The Kit Contains Reagent For 25 Tests, A Test Vial, Color Scale, Instructions & Recommendations ...
At standard pressure, ammonia melts at 195 K and boils at 240 K. If a sample of ammonia at standard pressure is cooled from 200 K down to absolute zero, what physical constants are needed to calculate the change in enhtalpy ...
HAZARD Cherie Berry, Commissioner of Labor 1- 800- 625- 2267 www. nclabor. com On June 20, 2009, an ammonia line ruptured during mainte-nance at a poultry processing plant in Robeson County, N. C., killing one employee and injuring several others. This accident should remind employers of the hazards associated with the use of anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant at food processing plants. What Is Anhydrous Ammonia? Anhydrous ammonia ( ammonia gas) occurs naturally and is an important source of nitrogen that is needed by plants and animals. It is commercially produced by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ammonia ( Chemical Abstracts Service No. 7664- 41- 7) boils at - 28.1 degrees F and is highly soluble in water. Anhydrous ammonia is typically shipped as a liquid under pressure and readily converts to a gas when released to air, forming a white " smoke" by freezing moisture in the air. Why Is Ammonia Hazardous? Ammonia is considered a high ...
HAZARD Cherie Berry, Commissioner of Labor 1- 800- 625- 2267 www. nclabor. com On June 20, 2009, an ammonia line ruptured during mainte-nance at a poultry processing plant in Robeson County, N. C., killing one employee and injuring several others. This accident should remind employers of the hazards associated with the use of anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant at food processing plants. What Is Anhydrous Ammonia? Anhydrous ammonia ( ammonia gas) occurs naturally and is an important source of nitrogen that is needed by plants and animals. It is commercially produced by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ammonia ( Chemical Abstracts Service No. 7664- 41- 7) boils at - 28.1 degrees F and is highly soluble in water. Anhydrous ammonia is typically shipped as a liquid under pressure and readily converts to a gas when released to air, forming a white " smoke" by freezing moisture in the air. Why Is Ammonia Hazardous? Ammonia is considered a high ...
Portable Ammonia nitrogen colorimeter LH-N11 is mainly use for rapid test to get the ammonia nitrogen ion concentration in the water, using international standard method.Portable Ammonia nitrogen colorimeteris eco-friendly, the test is fast and the result
AmGuard™ safely, rapidly and efficiently removes toxic free ammonia. It is safe to use during tank cycling and is ideal for treating unexpected emergency situations. AmGuard™ reacts with free ammonia within minutes and does not alter pH. Ammonia can exist in two forms: free and ionized. It is only the free form that is toxic. Traditional ammonia test kits convert all ammonia to free ammonia by raising pH to 12-14; at this pH no ammonia removing product can function, and thus a false positive reading will result. Use Ammonia Alert™ or MultiTest™: Free & Total Ammonia to directly monitor levels of free ammonia. AmGuard™ also removes chlorine and chloramines ...
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Most patients with neurological Lyme Disease and coinfections (i.e., MS, ALS, Parkinsons Disease, Autism), have elevated levels of ammonia in the brain which is neurotoxic. This is due to the fact that the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces urease enzymes, and ammonia accumulation results. Sometimes ammonia levels will be elevated in the blood, but many times they are also normal. This is because the ammonia concentration is localized in specific tissues (brain), where the concentration is not high enough to be detected in the blood. But that doesnt mean that ammonia is not causing destruction. It is VERY neurotoxic, and needs to be removed with herbal supplements and diet changes ...
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3.This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.Tests at the loadpoint of 1500 rpm/2.63 bar break mean effective pressure (BMEP) showed that most ammonia was formed over a TWC at a lambda of 0.93 with a 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) at 3 crank angle ...
Ammonia is known to be a potent neurotoxin that causes severe negative effects on the central nervous system. Excessive ammonia levels have been detected in the brain of patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Therefore, ammonia could be a factor contributing to the progression of AD. In this review, we provide an introduction to the toxicity of ammonia and putative ammonia transport proteins. We also hypothesize how ammonia may be linked to AD. Additionally, we discuss the evidence that support the hypothesis that ammonia is a key factor contributing to AD progression. Lastly, we summarize the old and new experimental evidence that focuses on energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, inflammatory responses, excitatory glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and memory in support of our ammonia-related hypotheses of AD.
The raw energy density of liquid ammonia is 11.5 MJ/L,[60] which is about a third that of diesel. Although it can be used as a fuel, for a number of reasons this has never been common or widespread. In addition to direct utilization of ammonia as a fuel in combustion engines there is also the opportunity to convert ammonia back to hydrogen where it can be used to power hydrogen fuel cells or it can be directly used within high temperature fuel cells[61].. Ammonia engines or ammonia motors, using ammonia as a working fluid, have been proposed and occasionally used.[62] The principle is similar to that used in a fireless locomotive, but with ammonia as the working fluid, instead of steam or compressed air. Ammonia engines were used experimentally in the 19th century by Goldsworthy Gurney in the UK and the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar line in New Orleans in the 1870s and 1880s,[63] and during World War II ammonia was used to power buses in Belgium.[64]. Ammonia is sometimes proposed as a practical ...
Erisman, Jan Willem; Bleeker, Albert; Neftel, Albrecht; Aneja, Viney; Hutchings, Nick; Kinsella, Liam; Tang, Y. Sim; Webb, J.; Sponar, Michel; Raes, Caroline; Mitosinkova, Marta; Vidic, Sonja; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Klimont, Zbigniew; Pinder, Rob; Baker, Samantha; Reidy, Beat; Flechard, Chris; Horvath, Laszlo; Lewandowska, Anita; Gillespie, Colin; Wallasch, Marcus; Gehrig, Robert; Ellermann, Thomas. 2009 Detecting change in atmospheric ammonia following emission changes. In: Sutton, Mark A.; Reis, Stefan; Baker, Samantha M.H., (eds.) Atmospheric ammonia: Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts. Results of an Expert Workshop under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Springer, 383-390. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Dragosits, Ulrike; Theobald, Mark; Place, Christopher J.; ApSimon, Helen M.; Sutton, Mark A.. 2009 Spatial planning as a complementary tool to abate the effects of atmospheric ammonia deposition at the landscape scale. In: Sutton, Mark A.; Baker, Samantha; Reis, Stefan, (eds.) Atmospheric Ammonia: Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts. Springer, 291-298. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
The optical properties and density of ammonia have not been exhaustively studied despite the relevance of these characteristics in astrophysical scenarios. This work presents new data pertaining to the real part of the refractive index of ammonia at 632.8. nm and the density at different temperatures of deposition ranging from 13. K to ammonias desorption temperature of approximately 110. K. The results indicate a significant variability for both parameters versus temperature: an increase of 50% for the density and of 10% for the refractive index as the temperature increases in the range of 13-60. K; at temperatures greater than 60. K, a constant value is reached for both parameters. This initial variation and the following plateau reflect structural differences in the form of ammonia at low and high temperatures of deposition that can play an important role in the interaction of ammonia with other molecules of astrophysical interest. © 2013 Elsevier Inc ...
Anabaena cylindrica was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and was placed in a batch reactor in the presence of a glutamine synthetase inhibitor (methionine sulfoximide). Ammonia was released in the medium during two days with a rate of 0.35 μ moles h−1mgChl−1. Addition of nitrite to the medium increased the ammonia production as cells used the nitrite reductase pathway to form ammonia. When reactors were placed in anaerobiosis by N2 bubbling, ammonia production was sustained several days and the total ammonia formed was about two fold higher than in aerobiosis. Long term effects of MSX, nitrite and anaerobiosis are discussed.
Elos Ammonia Test Kit - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Elos Ammonia Test Kit. - Buy Elos Ammonia Test Kit - Now Only $20.99 - ELOS AQUA TEST KIT- Ammonia Ammonia is the most lethal form of inorganic nitrogen produced in aquarium water. The major source of ammonia in a well run aquarium, is from solid waste of fish and invertebrates, uneaten food, decaiyng leaves of plants. Nature comes to our rescue as there are specialized bacteria (Nitrosomonas species) that eat ammonia , and strip away the hydrogen atoms. By the way, this bacterial population may be affected by many negative biochemical events. In an established aquarium Ammonia should be zero, for these reason, the periodical analytical valuation of ammonia in the aquarium water should be considered by the serious aquarium enthusiast. ELOS AquaTest NH4, as well as all the other colorimetric test kit of this line, grants an high precision thanks to several procedures like the use of RealColor technology, an
Ammonia is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle, with strong implications for both regional air quality and ecosystems [1]. Due to limited information about fertilizer usage, two of the most important ammonia emission sources-i) livestock production and farm practices, and ii) ammonia emission estimates for agricultural fertilization and livestock farming across China-are usually based on time-averaged emission factors and temporal profiles, leading to uncertainties in the evaluation of controls on ammonia in emission levels and control technologies. In this study, we update activity data and emission factors in the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model [2] to improve spatial and temporal distribution of baseline ammonia inventory in China. We also develop applications for ammonia control measures in order to estimate maximum mitigation potential. The results should allow for ...
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AMMONIA SCAVENGER by PHP 90 capsules. An elevated blood ammonia level can affect your entire body. A by-product of poor protein digestion and impaired Urea cycle function, it can have many damaging effects on the body, including reduction of BH4, the molecule needed for neurotransmitter production and nitric oxide production. This may also impact mental health and increase damaging oxidative stress. Other symptoms of elevated blood ammonia include muscle weakness, fatigue, neurodegenerative diseases,liver and kidney damage and/ or possible failure. Ammonia Scavenger has a specific blend of nutrients to support the Urea Cycle and to safely reduce ammonia in the body.. ...
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Three workers doing emergency maintenance at an ice rink in Fernie, B.C., were killed by a suspected ammonia leak. Here are some facts about ammonia in ice rinks:. - A toxic, corrosive gas with a pungent odour. It is slightly lighter than air. It is not normally flammable, but in extremely high concentrations can create an explosive mixture with air.. - A severe irritant to mucous membranes, the eyes, nose and throat. Exposure can cause headaches, coughing and difficulty breathing, while prolonged exposure can cause pulmonary edema, fluid in the lungs that can be fatal.. - Its commonly used in mechanical refrigeration systems, including those found in ice rinks. It is used as a liquid form in the ice systems, but becomes a gas once its released.. - It should not be confused with liquid ammonia found in the home. Household ammonia is diluted with water.. - Long-term exposure weakens a persons ability to detect ammonia.. - It can cause chemical burns. Ammonia will also corrode many rubbers and ...
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Urbanization in the world increased the pollution levels in the environment making it for worsen life. General awareness about pollution is increasing today. To control pollution levels, biological methods are eco-safe and economical. In this study a wild strain of Bacillus species was isolated and optimized for bioremediation studies of ammonia in flask cultures. Strategy was tried to develop for ammonia bioremediation in a single stage aerobic nitrification and denitrification. The results reveal that the optimum pH for the isolated Bacillus species was 7 and optimum temperature was 30°C. At optimum pH and temperature this organism was able to remove 99.2% of ammonia in flask cultures supplemented with 5g/L of ammonium sulphate. The biomass obtained after bioremediation studies was 0.3g/L which is very low. The study on ammonia toxicity revealed that toxicity was due to pH and osmolarity.
Of all the water quality parameters that affect fish, ammonia is the most important after oxygen, especially in intensive systems. Ammonia causes stress and damages gills and other tissues, even in small amounts. Fish exposed to low levels of ammonia over time are more susceptible to bacterial infections, have poor growth, and will not tolerate routine handling as well as they otherwise would. Ammonia is a killer when present in higher concentrations, and many unexplained production losses have likely been caused by ammonia.. Ammonia accumulates easily in aquatic systems because it is a natural byproduct of fish metabolism. All animals excrete some waste in the process of metabolizing food into the energy, nutrients, and proteins they use for survival and growth. In fish, the principal metabolic waste product is ammonia. Because it is continuously excreted and potentially lethal, successful aquaculture operations must, therefore, incorporate methods to detect and eliminate ammonia before it can ...
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The leak occurred when a circuit breaker failed, causing a pressure relief valve to open releasing the anhydrous ammonia. EPA alleges that Oregon Potato failed to immediately notify local and state agencies about the release. While no injuries were reported at the time of the incident, ammonia is a pungent, toxic gas that attacks skin, eyes, throat, and lungs and can cause serious injury or death ...
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]40 gal salt water tank...have had very high ammonia levels for a week..dont know why... desperate... have added ammo-lock 3-4 times...stresszyme 3-4 ... mutiple water changes...not a new tank 6mos+
To make ammonia, all we need is a source of energy such as solar or wind power, nitrogen from the air, and water. Storage and handling technologies for ammonia is well understood and it is safely used by farmers throughout the nation every day. Solutions of ammonia (5-10% by weight) are used as household cleaners, particularly for glass. These solutions are irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes (respiratory and digestive tracts), and to a lesser extent the skin. The toxicity of ammonia solutions does not usually cause problems for humans and other mammals, as a specific mechanism exists to prevent its build-up in the bloodstream [1].. The gas is flammable (autoignition temperature: 651 °C) and can form explosive mixtures with air (16-25%). Anhydrous ammonia corrodes copper- and zinc-containing alloys, and so brass fittings should not be used for handling the gas. Liquid ammonia can also attack rubber and certain plastics. Although ammonia is regulated in the United States as a ...
Ammonia Levels. Ammonia smell in urine means possible health dangers especially to rabbits - reduce or eliminate ammonia fumes and levels safely and easily
At room temperature, anhydrous ammonia is a colorless, highly irritating gas with a pungent, suffocating odor. It is lighter than air and flammable, with difficulty, at high concentrations and temperatures. It is easily compressed and forms a clear, colorless liquid under pressure. Anhydrous ammonia is hygroscopic. Ammonia dissolves readily in water to form ammonium hydroxide-an alkaline solution. The concentration of aqueous ammonia solutions for household use is typically 5% to 10% (weight:volume), but solutions for commercial use may be 25% (weight:volume) or more and are corrosive. Aqueous ammonia is commonly stored in steel drums. Anhydrous ammonia is stored and shipped in pressurized containers, fitted with pressure-relief safety devices, and bears the label
Ammonia can be irritating to the eyes and skin, and can be severely iritating if inhaled. Toxic to Aquatic life. Ammonia is a substance that is industrially produced and also occurs naturally in small quantitiesi. Ammonia is often used in cleaning products as it helps to dissolve soil particles in water which allows for cleaner surfaces. Not only can Ammonia be irritating to the eyes and skin, it can also be severely irritating to the respiratory tract if inhalediii. Ammonia is also a concern for the environment as high levels can cause the death of aquatic organismsiv.. REFERENCES:. i) THE FACTS ABOUT AMMONIA. iii)http://www.nbclearn.com/portal/site/learn/chemistry-now/chemistry-of-household-cleaners. iv)Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia - Freshwater (2013). ...
So with all that going on we started our new life. We borrowed $50,000 from my in-laws. This allowed us to buy a house and start a new in Port St. Lucie. I was able to get my brothers and a friend to help me with this move. It was about an hour north of where I was living at the moment. They did most of the moving, and once again I had to deal with ammonia.So as soon as we were finished with the move they went home and I went to the hospital.. If you ever know anyone who has had it,you will hear about a thing called Lactulose. This is what you take to keep ammonia under control. Ammonia will build up in your brain and you will go out of your mind. You are physically in this world but you see and react to the movie your brain is playing for you. The fact that amazed me was that the level of ammonia wasnt as important as how my brain was reacting to the build up of ammonia. I was put in the hospital will both high levels of ammonia and with low levels of ammonia. The body is a wonderful thing. It ...
Define Household ammonia. Household ammonia synonyms, Household ammonia pronunciation, Household ammonia translation, English dictionary definition of Household ammonia. n. A colorless, basic, aqueous solution of ammonia, NH4OH, used as a household cleanser and in the manufacture of a wide variety of products, including...
So i made the mistake of buying 2 platys and only having a 1.77 gallon tank i wasnt think and havent had a fish tank since i was in high school. Anyways one of them died the other day but i cant get the ammonia levels down even with 1. I know the tank is small i have vacuumed the gravel cleaned the filter and added the tetra start bacteria. Still ammonia levels on those test stripes is at the second highest which is danger. I dont know what else to do I dont have money to buy a
Define Aldehyde ammonia. Aldehyde ammonia synonyms, Aldehyde ammonia pronunciation, Aldehyde ammonia translation, English dictionary definition of Aldehyde ammonia. a compound formed by the union of aldehyde with ammonia. See also: Aldehyde
Ammonia poisoning - MedHelps Ammonia poisoning Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Ammonia poisoning. Find Ammonia poisoning information, treatments for Ammonia poisoning and Ammonia poisoning symptoms.
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The Seachem MultiTest Ammonia Test Kit measures total (NH3 and NH4+) and free ammonia (NH3 only) down to less than 0.05 mg/L and is virtually interference free in marine and fresh water. Free ammonia is the toxic form of ammonia (vs. ionized Ammonia NH4+
Salifert Ammonia test is very straight forward and measures the sum of toxic ammonia and ammonium in just a few minutes. it can be used for 50 tests.
Looking for a cure for fatty liver?: Fatty Liver Of The Liver High Ammonia. The Fatty Liver Site, Tips and natural treatments for fatty liver.
With some fish, high ammonia levels are a horrible problem. It is astonishing, though, that Flowerhorn fish have good tolerance towards high ammonia levels in a
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Ammonia is produced as a byproduct of bacterial breakdown of unabsorbed dietary protein in the intestine, and protein breakdown elsewhere in the body. The...
Common problems in new tanks and ponds. A very common problem, particularly for those new to fish keeping, is ammonia or nitrite poisoning. Unfortunately in many cases by the time it becomes apparent that a problem exists the fish are often dying or seriously ill.. Ammonia and nitrification. Central to the principle of filtration and fish keeping is the fact that fish are continually polluting the water they live in. These pollutants can very quickly build up to dangerous levels. A major pollutant is ammonia - which fish are continually excreting from their gills. Fortunately there are naturally occurring bacteria that feed on ammonia and convert it to less toxic nitrite. There are other naturally occurring bacteria that feed on the nitrite and convert it to harmless nitrate. So in a mature environment the ammonia rarely builds up to a dangerous level as it is quickly converted to harmless nitrate in this biological two-stage process called nitrification.. So far so good, the problem is that ...
In fish, ammonia represents the end-product of protein metabolism and what is important is whether it is present in the un-ionized form as free ammonia, NH3, which is toxic to fish (both freshwater and marine) at ,0.03 mg/L (ppm), or in the ionized form, NH4+, in which it is innocuous. The relative concentration of each is pH and temperature dependent. The higher the pH, the more of the NH3 will be present. Ammonia can block oxygen transfer in the gills of fish, thereby causing immediate and long term gill damage. Fish suffering from ammonia poisoning will appear sluggish and come to the surface, as if gasping for air. In marine environments, the safe level of NH4+ is between 0.02 and 0.4.. The USEPA recommends a limit of 0.02 ppm as NH3 in freshwater or marine environments. Total ammonia levels, at this limit, can range from 160 ppm at pH 6 and temperature of 5 degrees C to 0.06 ppm at pH 9 and temperature of 25 degrees C. ...
Introduction. Most research previously conducted on the effects of aerial ammonia on birds, caretakers and the air environment has been on air concentration level. Previous techniques used to reduce ammonia have reported results based on changes in concentration levels. The effect of ammonia reducing techniques on the generation rate of ammonia production (i.e., mg/hour or mg/bird/hour) has not been extensively investigated by other researchers; however, last year we reported on an experiment conducted in our laboratory. In that report, we reported that spraying laying hen manure with soybean oil had no consistent effect on ammonia production. Fecal pans that were sprayed with oil and no oil produced 15.3 and 20.3 mLNH3/kg body weight of chickens, respectively. Thus, the results of that study indicated that spraying laying hen manure with soybean oil had no appreciable effect on the generation rate of ammonia production.. There are several methods that have been used in the commercial poultry ...
What is your thesis about?. About 15 years ago ECN developed an ammonia monitor, a device to measure ammonia in the air. This was partly commissioned by RIVM (Rijks Instituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu) who set up a national programme to sniff ammonia in the air, the reason being the intensive cattle breeding and the numbers of live stock in the Netherlands. The Netherlands and Belgium have the highest ammonia emission in Europe, the areas of intensive cattle breeding show clearly on emission maps. Normal ammonia levels in the Netherlands are about 5 ppb (five ammonia particles on a billion air particles), whereas in countries without our number of cattle, concentrations remain below 1 ppb. To get our high ammonia concentrations down, a very precise monitoring device is needed that measures ammonia in the air without interference from other gaseous compounds. The device that was developed is rather big, it works very well but requires a lot of maintenance and uses a lot of gas (1 l per ...
The Salifert Ammonia test is very straightforward and measures the sum of toxic ammonia and ammonium in just a few minutes. The kit can perform approx. 50 measurements and can detect 0.5 ppm of total ammonia easily.
... _Haber process Chat Online The Haber process, also called the HaberBosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure fo
Electron-delivering protein manipulates natural catalyst, changing ideas about fertilizer production. Results: In industry, synthesizing ammonia for fertilizers uses massive amounts of hydrogen, typically generated from fossil fuels, but in nature, the nitrogenase enzyme produces ammonia without added hydrogen. In studying the enzyme, scientists came up against a protein, called the Fe protein. This little protein delivers electrons to the larger nitrogenase MoFe enzyme. The smaller proteins actions limit the enzymes speed. Recently, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and three universities found that the smaller protein and larger enzyme roll across each other, likely pushing at the MoFe surface to deliver electrons.. Why It Matters: Producing ammonia for the worlds crop fertilizers consumes 1 to 2 percent of all the energy produced by humankind. Part of that energy is used to generate hydrogen gas, which is combined with nitrogen gas in the Haber-Bosch process. This ...
Ammonia is corrosive, irritating to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. It is highly hazardous in great concentrations. Accidental releases of stored ammonia have occurred in the past at ammonia refrigeration facilities, causing serious equipment damage, loss of inventory, loss of production, injury, and even death to workers from excessive exposure. Emergency Ammonia Scrubbers can be designed and installed to help mitigate the risk of accidental exposure to ammonia during an accidental release. Ammonia Odor Threshold = 5 ppmv ...
Household Ammonia is diluted with water, but you can (I do) further dilute it with water before you use it. It can clean even the most stubborn grime in your bathroom, kitchen and other places, but it smells awful and for a reason. Ammonia is a gas and you dont want to be inhaling it. So if you do decide to clean with ammonia, make sure the area you clean is well-ventilated. Note that many of the cleaning products you buy have ammonia as a base ingredient, masked with pretty scents. So if you choose to buy a window cleaner, instead of ammonia, for example (there are instructions on my jug of ammonia for how to make your own window cleaner-see below), still you should use it in a well-ventilated area. This stuff is strong! So strong that I love it for the bathroom because I like things to be extremely sterile in there. But I use it sparingly because I dont wantmy kids or pets to accidentally get to it.. The one bit of caution that I hear and read over and over again, although I have never seen ...
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A dynamic flow-through chamber system was designed to measure ammonia emissions from broiler litter and to investigate the responses of ammonia emissions to litter moisture content under laboratory-co
Tanner operates ammonia distribution facilities across the country, including one in East Providence, and is subject to the Clean Air Acts risk management planning requirements because ammonia is an extremely hazardous substance. Although Tanner has a risk management plan, EPAs New England office is proposing to fine Tanner for a deficiency in its plan concerning the failure to anticipate the problems that could arise if an ammonia release occurred at the East Providence facility during periods when the facility is unstaffed. In a separate administrative order issued in June 2009, EPA New England ordered Tanner to correct these deficiencies, and Tanner is cooperating, according to EPA. ...
The Saltstone Facility Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) is under revision to accommodate changes in the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL) from the introduction of Isopar into Tank 50. Saltstone samples were prepared with an MCU type salt solution spiked with ammonia. The ammonia released from the saltstone was captured and analyzed. The ammonia concentration found in the headspace of samples maintained at 95 C and 1 atm was, to 95% confidence, less than or equal to 3.9 mg/L. Tank 50 is fed by several influent streams. The salt solution from Tank 50 is pumped to the salt feed tank (SFT) in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The premix materials cement, slag and fly ash are blended together prior to transfer to the grout mixer. The premix is fed to the grout mixer in the SPF and the salt solution is incorporated into the premix in the grout mixer, yielding saltstone slurry. The saltstone slurry drops into a hopper and then is pumped to the vault. The Saltstone Facility Documented Safety
Why not go to the library or look for the materials on the web? It is simple. : : : to whom it may concern:i am a power engineer licensed in the state of new jersey.i currently hold a second class engineers license on steam/refrigeration(1b/2b).i am interested in obtaining information on ammonia systems.(books to study from,any type of literature,math type problems,essays questions,or anything that would help me prepare for the first class new jersey exam.(2a)YOUR TIME AND KINDNES WOULD BE FOR EVER APRECIATED.!! : : THANK YOU ...
|p|Seachem Ammonia Alert detects and continuously monitors free ammonia in marine or freshwater tanks.|/p| |p|The sensor located in the center of the reference scale, change reversibly from yellow to green to blue relative to the ammonia concentration.|/p| |p|Properly maintained the Seachem Ammonia Alert has a useful life of over a year|/p|
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) has proven to be the frontrunner for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOX) from exhaust gas. EURO VI emission regulations present a challenge from the control point of view, so as to achieve high NOX conversion while keeping the ammonia slip under control. This thesis focuses on a model based feedforward control system to dose the urea. The SCR is modeled as a series of CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) with the main SCR chemical kinetics. The main reactions are ammonia adsorption, desorption, fast SCR, slow SCR, standard SCR and ammonia oxidation. The model is simplied so as to capture the important dynamics and be fast at the same time. A fast and computationally less demanding model is required from a control aspect if it has to be implemented online.. Two control strategies were evaluated. The rst control strategy maintains a constant ammonia slip whereas the second controller maintains a constant NOX to ammonia ratio at the outlet of the SCR. The ...
Norton J.M., J.J Alzerreca, Y. Suwa and M. G. Klotz. 2002. Diversity of ammonia monooxygenase operon in autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 177:139-149.. ...
About 80 percent of airborne ammonia comes from farming practices such as fertilization, so it seems a likely suspect for the ammonia in haze particles to come from plumes of large farms in the Midwest and then get transported to the East Coast. But, in a paper published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, Zondlos research team found that ammonia emissions from cities are much larger than recognized, occur at the very times when unhealthy particulate matter is at its worst, and when agricultural emissions are at daily or seasonal lows.. "Its actually coming from the vehicles" in the cities themselves, said Zondlo, who is also an associate director of external partnerships at Princetons Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment.. The researchers noted that vehicle emissions of ammonia were co-emitted with nitrogen oxides. These chemicals combine to form ammonium nitrate, which can be seen from the brown color in urban haze. Further, ammonia emissions from vehicles are ...
Ammonia is an extremely unpleasant and toxic compound, which is very inconvenient for fish; they produce it as the end product of nitrogen metabolism. How fish handle ammonium excretion has long fascinated physiologists. Most fish were thought to dispose of ammonium simply by leaking it out of their gills but when Shigehisa Hirose from the Tokyo Institute of Technology discovered a new family of proteins (Rhesus proteins) in pufferfish with a similar amino acid sequence to other ammonium transport proteins, it became clear that ammonium disposal was more complex. Soon after, Chris Wood found that freshwater trout dispose of ammonia through Rhesus proteins in the membrane of a specialised gill cell, known as a pavement cell, so Hirose and Wood teamed up to find out how saltwater pufferfish handle ammonia excretion (p. 3150).. Exposing pufferfish to high levels of ammonia and analysing the expression patterns of Rhesus proteins and other transporters involved in ammonium excretion, Hirose, Wood ...
Thermally-driven ammonia stripping was developed by Organics to offer an alternative route to that of pH adjustment for continuous-process ammonia stripping.. With a thermally-driven stripper no chemical additions are required, apart from the minor addition of anti-foam agent. The single important input is waste-heat with which to drive the chemical reactions.. If waste-heat is not available, the fuel-cost can be as prohibitive as that of chemical additions or carbon source requirements. Where waste-heat is available, from an engine-exhaust or unwanted biogas, the long-term operating cost can be confined to plant operation and maintenance, including electricity costs. The preferred option within the Organics process is to use the feed ammonia-laden air directly into the combustion air in the heat-raising process. By this means ammonia gas is destroyed as a part of the process of thermally powering the system.. ...
I was doing testing for my fish aquarium of Ammonia levels and was surprised that just after a big water change the tank had high Ammonia level. So I tested it from the tap and the Ammonia level was the same, high! And Ive been drinking the stuff like crazy trying to cure my chronic UT irritation. I have a deep well, 300ft with 180 ft of casing and odorless tasteless good water, or so I thought. I live near a titanium mine and have a wide streak through my land. Otherwise, I live in an undeveloped area. There is a supposedly clean landfill about a mile or so away. Now Im worried. Usually ammonia is due to biologicals in the water, but with a deep well through the rock, there should be no problem there. Maybe my trailer pipes are gunked up, I dont know. But now I wonder how many other people with chronic UT problems with no infection might be in the same boat as me. It was just because I keep fish and test the water that I even figured it out. I guess God told me to pick up that Ammonia test ...
Ammonia (NH3) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber-Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on ...
Ammonia is a by-product of protein digestion. Factors that increase ammonia production include a high protein diet, especially meat.
Ammonia has the ability to form hydrogen bonds. When the hydrogen bonds between water molecules are broken, they can be replaced by equivalent bonds between water and ammonia molecules. Some of the ammonia also reacts with the water to produce ammonium ions and hydroxide ions. The reversible arrows show that the reaction doesnt go to completion. At any one time only about 1% of the ammonia has actually reacted to form ammonium ions. The solubility of ammonia is mainly due to the hydrogen bonding and not the reaction. Other common substances which are freely soluble in water because they can hydrogen bond with water molecules include ethanol (alcohol) and sucrose (sugar). Solubility in organic solvents Molecular substances are often soluble in organic solvents - which are themselves molecular. Both the solute (the substance which is dissolving) and the solvent are likely to have molecules attracted to each other by van der Waals forces. Although these attractions will be disrupted when. ...
Ocera Therapeutics of San Diego and the Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron Research Institute in Barcelona released preliminary data from an open label phase II study evaluating the overall effectiveness and safety of OCR-002 (ornithine phenylacetate) for the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver and upper GI bleeding.. Interim analysis of the first cohort of patients demonstrated that OCR-002, a novel injectable agent that removes toxic, circulating ammonia from the blood, is well tolerated and provided a rapid and durable ammonia reduction after 36 hours of treatment. By removing circulating ammonia, OCR-002 may treat or prevent hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric complication of acute liver failure associated with increased levels of circulating ammonia.. Furthermore, all 48 patients tolerated OCR-002 well for 5 days. There were no severe toxicities associated with the treatment and no incidence of HE, with patients doing well at the 30 day follow up. A rapid drop in ammonia from ...
Perma Pure Ammonia Scrubbers are designed to remove ammonia from a gas stream to protect the analyzer from clogging due to the formation of ammonium salts. Ammonia is a highly reactive gas. It is sometimes added to stack gases to reduce the nitrogen oxide content of the gases by conversion to nitrogen and water (the DeNOx process). When present in gas samples, ammonia will readily react with other components such as sulfur dioxide in the sample to form ammonium salts. This salt is relatively low-boiling, so it is present as a gas at the higher temperatures in the stack and in the heated line. When the sample cools down while passing through our dryer, it precipitates out as a solid, clogging the dryer or analyzer. For this reason, we recommend installing an ammonia scrubber inside our system to prevent damage to our dryers and to the analyzers downstream ...
To determine whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) affects ammoniagenesis in renal proximal tubule, we measured ammonia production in suspensions of canine renal proximal tubular segments incubated with 10 mM L-glutamine in the absence or presence of 10(-7) M PTH. Productions of ammonia were linear functions of time for 120 min and averaged 231 +/- 55 and 311 +/- 67 mumol ammonia/g protein in the absence and presence of PTH, respectively. When measured over the range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M PTH, half-maximal stimulation of ammonia production occurred between 10(-10) and 10(-9) M PTH. Maximal production of ammonia was observed at 10(-8) M PTH. Incubation of proximal tubular segments with PTH increased levels of adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in vitro. Ammonia production was significantly enhanced by incubation of segments with the cAMP analogue, 8-bromoadenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate. PTH also increased ammonia production in segments incubated with 1 mM L-glutamine. We conclude that PTH ...
New research coming out of Stanford University suggests a fascinating new direction for electrochemical ammonia synthesis technology development. The US-Danish team of scientists at SUNCAT, tasked with finding new catalysts for electrochemical ammonia production, saw that selectivity posed a tremendous challenge - in other words, most of the energy used by renewable ammonia production systems went into making hydrogen instead of making ammonia. The new SUNCAT solution does not overcome this selectivity challenge. It doesnt even try. Instead, these researchers have avoided the problem completely.. Read more. ...
Caption: The Chart Table wq_sanant_cdfg_1991_2001.xls.db shows the mean, maximum, and minimum values, as well as the number of samples taken, for various water quality parameters measured in San Antonio Creek, a tributary of the Petaluma River, from 1991-2001. These parameters include pH, water temperature (C), dissolved oxygen (mg/L), percent saturation, total ammonia (mg/L), toxic un-ionized ammonia (mg/L), conductivity ( mhos/cm), and turbidity. Data were collected by the California Department of Fish and Game. 50 rows of a possible 4247 have been displayed ...
There are a few tricky points in this calculation. First and most important, ammonia is a gaseous species; the "ammonia" you most likely talk about an aqueous solution that should be called ammonia solution for distinction. Commercially available solutions are in the range of 22-28% of ammonia in water. This is also about the solubility limit of ammonia in water, if you increase it, the ammonia will gas out. In addition, you mixed up the molar weights of ammonia and formic acid in your calculations. The easiest way to resolve the problem will be to do the calculations again. The densities should be considered, as they are significantly different from 1, with the exception of the final solution. Ammonia, NH3, 17 g/mol Ammonia solution, 28%, Density = 0.9 Formic acid, HCOOH, 46 g/mol, Density = 1.2, Ammonia solution: 2 ml * 0.9 g/ml = 1.8 g Ammonia: 1.8 g *0.28 = 0.50 g 0.5 g / 17 g/mol = 0.29 mol Formic acid: 2.5 ml * 1.2 g/ml = 3.05 g; 3.05g / 46 g/mol = 0.66 mol Considering that ammonia is the ...
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We combined our best activated carbon Ð Extreme Activated Carbon Pellets, proven in laboratory tests to be 3X more effective than other filter carbons with Ammonia Away Green, laboratory proven to be 2X more effective than competing products at removing ammonia Ð to create the ultimate system for removal of toxic substances, discolorations, odors and deadly ammonia. Regular use of Acurel Extreme Blend in aquariums provides increased efficiency of filtration, prevents cloudiness and keeps water odors and ammonia in check. Each jar of our Extreme Carbon Ammonia Away Blend has a convenient flip-up handle.. ...
Looking for ammonia N 13? Find out information about ammonia N 13. chemical compound, NH3, colorless gas that is about one half as dense as air at ordinary temperatures and pressures. It has a characteristic pungent,... Explanation of ammonia N 13
Ammonia emission is one of the greatest environmental concerns in sustainable agriculture development. Several limitations and fundamental problems associated with the current agricultural ammonia emission modeling and emission inventories have been identified. They were associated with a significant disconnection between field monitoring data and knowledge about the data. Comprehensive field measurement datasets have not been fully exploited for scientific research and emission regulations. This situation can be considerably improved if the currently available data are better interpreted and the new knowledge is applied to update ammonia emission modeling techniques. The worlds largest agricultural air quality monitoring database with more than 2.4 billion data points has recently been created by the United States National Air Emission Monitoring Study. New approaches of data mining and intelligent interpretation of the database are planned to uncover new knowledge and to answer a series of questions
UPDATE 12:45 p.m.: Tim Yaeger, emergency coordinator, just informed dispatch that the leak was closed 7 minutes ago. Original report continues below ... A major ammonia leak has been reported at Torrey Farms, 7170 Norton Road and hazmat has been dispatched. A first-responder said, Two valves on this tank that need to be shut off, but no way can we get near it. He also reported its a 15 ton cylinder just going wild. The wind is 16 m.p.h. out of the east. Norton Road has been closed. UPDATE 11:55 a.m. Theres no new information at this time. Emergency teams are on scene. No report yet on the status of the leak. No indication of the situation getting worse. UPDATE: The media isnt being let into the scene, which isnt surprising. Im not planning on going out there unless and until there is a press conference. UPDATE: Heres what the States health department site says about Ammonia: How is ammonia used? About 80% of the ammonia produced by industry is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Ammonia is
An ammonia leak aboard the International Space Station (ISS) threatens to disrupt an electrical channel that may require a spacewalk to repair. The ammonia leak was spotted on 9 May in the form of frozen ammonia flakes drifting away from the P6 Truss. Ammonia is used as a heat exchanger, dissipating heat generated by the solar arrays and machines running on the ISS.. The leak is caused by a rupture thought to measure between 1-3cm (0.39-1.18in), and originates from the P6 Truss. One of the eight electrical channels, Channel 2B, has been shut down, and power rerouted through other channels, causing the loss of 12.5% of the stations electricity-generating capacity.. A small rupture in the same area has been slowly leaking ammonia. But the loss is in such small quantities that it is considered safe, requiring only an occasional fill-up. That leak expanded in 2012, requiring a spacewalk to install a spare radiator. The new, larger leak appears to originate from the same area. ...
In both of these incidents the facility owner made all of the appropriate notification when the leak was discovered and there is no indication that the emergency response was not prompt. Still, in both cases an innocent third-party, with no connection to the facility, died as a consequence of the leak. In both cases they drove into a vapor cloud that looked no different than innocent bank of fog. Once in the cloud the autos motor stopped (for lack of oxygen) and the people died either from ammonia exposure or lack of oxygen ...
Tetra Pond - Ammonia Test. Tetra Pond - Ammonia TestSimple to use kit for determining ammonia levels. Ammonia (NH3/4+) is excreted...
A growth trial was conducted on two Australian species of commercially cultured abalone to determine the effect of episodic exposure to sub-optimal water quality on growth and mortality. This was primarily designed to simulate systems failure, resulting in partial or complete interruption in the normal water exchange and corresponding changes in dissolved oxygen and ammonia levels. Experimental abalone were nominally exposed, at intervals ranging from once in six weeks to once a week, to 60% dissolved oxygen saturation and 150 microg/L un-ionised ammonia for 8 hours. No significant effect on growth or mortality was found for either species, with observation of abalone behaviour and food consumption indicating the exposures imposed a mild and transient stress ...
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We went out and measured ammonia levels in one units wean to finish accommodation, where they were suspected to be a bit high. The ammonia level in the weaner accommodation (pens of 52 or 26 pigs) was 20-22ppm and in the finisher accommodation it was 35ppm. The ventilation in the finisher pens was less effective at removing ammonia, where we could see dust on the exterior of roof vents ...
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We report experimental results for the water-gas-shift assisted formation of ammonia from nitric oxide over alumina supported palladium, modified with various amounts (0-38 wt.%) of cerium. Static and transient flow reactor experiments were performed in order to identify the effects of temperature and the presence of oxygen on the activity for ammonia formation over the catalysts. The water-gas-shift reaction is enhanced with increasing cerium content, thus providing more hydrogen for ammonia formation. During transient operation at temperatures above 350 °C, a slight delay in ammonia formation is observed over the sample containing the highest cerium loading due to its (relatively) high dynamic oxygen storage capacity. At temperatures below 175 °C, N2O formation is preferred over NH3 formation. This work highlights the importance of balancing the effects that ceria influences when choosing the ceria loading for ammonia formation in passive-SCR applications.
Looking for online definition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Medical Dictionary? ammonia-oxidizing bacteria explanation free. What is ammonia-oxidizing bacteria? Meaning of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria medical term. What does ammonia-oxidizing bacteria mean?
The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100%) and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm) at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite ...
Blood purification, mainly plasma exchange (PE), was carried out for 13 cases of acute, and two cases of chronic postoperative liver failure. Four of thirteen acute cases (31%) survived. Although only one of eight with chronic liver disease survived, three of five without chronic liver disease survived. In most of those who lived, other organ failure occurred less often; total bilirubin and blood ammonia were less than 15 mg/dl and 200 micrograms/dl, respectively, before PE: and total bilirubin, blood ammonia, and branched chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid (BCAA/AAA) ratios recovered after five or fewer sessions of PE. Two chronic cases, treated for 1 and 4 years, respectively, were good candidates for liver or multiple organ transplantation. Although both died, PE was effective in reducing jaundice and in improving consciousness and general condition. Plasma exchange should be introduced early after assessing the changes in total bilirubin, blood ammonia, and coma grade in patients with acute
Herein, we describe a case of a now 28-month-old boy who presented at the age of 17 months with four episodes of recurrent vomiting and somnolence during a period of four months with increasing severity. A comprehensive clinical and metabolic evaluation revealed normal blood pH and blood glucose, normal cerebral computed tomography and electroencephalogram but an elevated plasma ammonia concentration, which raised the suspicion of a urea cycle disorder. The combination of elevated urinary orotic acid and plasma glutamine with normal citrulline suggested the diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, which was confirmed by molecular genetic testing revealing the novel hemizygous mutation c.535C , T (p.Leu179Phe) of the OTC gene. After restitution of anabolism by administration of parenteral glucose, substitution of citrulline and detoxification of ammonia with sodium benzoate, the patient recovered rapidly and is in a stable metabolic and neurological state since then. This case ...
Section Six INDUSTRIAL WASTES A. PHARMACEUTICAL 57 START-UP OF THE BIOLOGICAL NITRIFICATION PROCESS FOR THE FERMENTATION WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT AT ELI LILLY AND COMPANY Lisa M. Pantea, Environmental Engineer Eli Lilly and Company Tippecanoe Laboratories Lafayette, Indiana INTRODUCTION A biological nitrification wastewater treatment plant has been designed and constructed to treat a wastewater from fermentation processes at Tippecanoe Laboratories, located in Lafayette, Indiana. The driving force in the project was the need to remove ammonia in this particular wastestream. There are three wastestreams from the plantsite, all combining at the outfall to total 12 MGD. The major ammonia load is from the fermentation production wastestream; hence, the ammonia reduction was targeted for the fermentation wastewater treatment plant. The current NPDES permit has a 2000 pounds/day daily average limit of ammonia at the outfall. The proposed limit in the permit, expected to be issued late in 1993, is ...
MARTINS, J.J. et al. Long-term measurements of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, nitric acid and ozone in southern Africa using passive samplers. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2007, vol.103, n.7-8, pp.336-342. ISSN 1996-7489.. This paper reports the measurements of monthly mean gaseous sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, nitric acid and ozone at four remote sites-Louis Trichardt (South Africa), Cape Point (South Africa), Amersfoort (South Africa) and Okaukuejo (Namibia)- in southern Africa, over a period of nine to 11 years, using passive samplers. The 10-year mean sulphur dioxide concentrations varied from 0.43 parts per billion (ppb) at Okaukuejo to 2.8 ppb at Amersfoort. Nitrogen dioxide varied from 0.34 ppb at Okaukuejo to 2.5 ppb at Amersfoort, nitric acid from 0.23 ppb at Louis Trichardt to 0.90 ppb at Amersfoort, and ammonia from 1.2 ppb at Amersfoort to 1.5 ppb at Cape Point. Ozone exhibited a fairly constant high mean value of about 27 ppb throughout the region except for ...
Fuel cells are pollution-free power sources that convert chemical energy to electricity with high efficiency and zero emissions. Fuel cell cars, trucks, and buses would allow people to travel long distances with convenient refueling and less of a carbon footprint.. Researchers at the University of Delaware are working on technology to make fuel cells cheaper and more powerful so that fuel cell vehicles can be a viable option for all someday. Traditional fuel cell research involves hydrogen fuel cells, but the UD researchers are engineering fuel cells that utilize ammonia instead.. In a new analysis published in the journal Joule, a team of engineers at the Center for Catalytic Science and Technology found that among fuels produced from renewable energy, ammonia has the lowest cost per equivalent gallon of gasoline.. "As a nitrogen-based liquid fuel, ammonia is cheaper to store and distribute than hydrogen and avoids the carbon dioxide emissions of other liquid fuels, which are expensive to ...
11.6±6.4 days in the sodium benzoate group and 12.8±9.1 days in the lactulose group (P,.1). Ammonia levels eventually normalized in 34 (94%) of 36 patients treated with sodium benzoate and in 31 (94%) of 33 patients treated with lactulose; however, not surprisingly, the grade of encephalopathy did not correlate with arterial ammonia. Significant improvement (P,.001) in the scores of cognition, memory, and PSEI was observed with both sodium benzoate and lactulose therapy (Table 3). Therapy failed in 9 (24%) patients treated with sodium benzoate and 7 (19%) patients treated with lactulose. Eight patients receiving sodium benzoate and 7 patients receiving lactulose died, and 1 patient who failed sodium benzoate therapy responded to lactulose. The results suggest that sodium benzoate may be an alternative to lactulose for the treatment of acute HE in cirrhotic patients. Critics of the study argue that the real efficacy of sodium benzoate in managing hyperammonemia is difficult to establish because ...

Nitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria to Ammonium ConcentrationsNitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria to Ammonium Concentrations

Nitrification responses of soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to ammonia additions ... Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) coexist in most non-acidic agricultural soils, the factors that ... Giguere, A. T., Taylor, A. E., Myrold, D. D., & Bottomley, P. J. (2015). Nitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing ... Nitrification Responses of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria to Ammonium Concentrations Public Deposited ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/v692tb914

Ammonia: The TestAmmonia: The Test

If not processed and cleared from the body appropriately, excess ammonia can accumulate in the blood. The ammonia test is used ... Ammonia is a waste product formed primarily by bacteria in the intestines during the digestion of protein. ... A normal blood ammonia level may mean that a persons signs and symptoms are due to a cause other than excess ammonia. However ... an elevated ammonia level may indicate that severe liver or kidney damage has impacted the bodys ability to clear ammonia and ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/ammonia/tab/test

Ammonia - Scientific AmericanAmmonia - Scientific American

... unite and form ammo nia. A notable quantity of ammonia is there fore found in the liquid. It is the case with other gases ... Ammonia is a colorleSil gas of a very pungent odor, causing tears to flow freely. It is a powerful alkali, and neu tralizes ... Ammonia is a compound of two gases, viz. , nitrogen and hydrogen.- They do not combine directly in their gase ous state, but if ... Ammonia is obtained in a gase ous form by mixing powdered salammoniac with about an equal quantity of dry slacked lime, and ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ammonia-1852-12-18/

The Ammonia EconomyThe Ammonia Economy

In addition, the fuel, i.e., ammonia, is presently abundant and the fuel handling technology already exists and is user- ... One alternative fuel solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine technology. There are ... The Ammonia Economy One alternative fuel solution that is immediately available employs ammonia in internal combustion engine ... On the other hand, ammonia-based fuels offer a great potential for universal use. The present disadvantage is that pure ammonia ...
more infohttps://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/sustainability/the-ammonia-economy

What Is Ammonia? | eHowWhat Is Ammonia? | eHow

If ammonia s dissolved in water, ammonia becomes known as aqueous ammonia. When exposed to air, ammonia will become a gas. When ... Keep ammonia prodcuts stored safely. (Image: storage image by MAXFX from Fotolia.com). Accidental Exposure. If you get ammonia ... Turn a fan on when using ammonia products. (Image: fan image by Lucy Clark from Fotolia.com). Handling. Always keep ammonia ... Ammonia can be used for household chores. (Image: bucket close up image by Aleksandr Ugorenkov from Fotolia.com). Ammonia is ...
more infohttps://www.ehow.com/about_6112306_ammonia_.html

Feasibility Studies: Ammonia ManufacturingFeasibility Studies: Ammonia Manufacturing

Techno-economic analyses of specific ammonia production processes, presenting capital investment breakdown, raw materials ... ECONOMICS OF AMMONIA FROM NATURAL GAS (AMMONIA E21A) It presents the economics of Ammonia production from natural gas in the ... Understand Ammonia production costs Industrial Process Economics About Ammonia Reports Coverage of Ammonia Process Economics ... AMMONIA E11A) This report presents the economics of Ammonia production from syngas (synthesis gas) using a typical process. ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/intratec/feasibility-studies-ammonia-manufacturing

Ammonia - DCDAmmonia - DCD

DatacenterDynamics tracks the growth of the data center industry. We publish news, analysis and opinion about the hottest industry topics, including cloud and colocation, edge computing, software-defined infrastructure and IoT
more infohttps://www.datacenterdynamics.com/tags/ammonia/

AmmoniaAmmonia

... , volatile alkali. The origin of the word is uncertain; some authors suppose it to be from the god Amnion, near whose ... temple in Upper Egypt it was produced; others from Ammonia, a Cyrcnaic terr... ... Ammonia. Ammonia, volatile alkali. The origin of the word is uncertain; some authors suppose it to be from the god Amnion, near ... The ammonia of the boracic acid works of Italy is also saved, and some establishments yield 3,300 lbs. of sulphate of ammonia ...
more infohttp://chestofbooks.com/reference/American-Cyclopaedia-V1/Ammonia.html

AmmoniaAmmonia

Household ammonia is simply diluted ammonia water to which borax and soap have been added. To make it cloudy ... ... Ammonia. Household Ammonia. (See also Household Formulas.)-Household ammonia is simply diluted ammonia water to which borax and ... Dissolve the soap and borax in 5 ounces of boiling water; when cold add the lavender water and ammonia, and make up to a pint ... Cut the soap in shavings, boil with the oil and water, cool, add the ammonia water, and bottle. For use in laundries, baths, ...
more infohttps://chestofbooks.com/reference/Henley-s-20th-Century-Formulas-Recipes-Processes-Vol1/Ammonia.html

Ammonia - WorkSafeBCAmmonia - WorkSafeBC

Ammonia. Ammonia is a toxic chemical most commonly found in refrigerants, cleaning products, and fertilizers. It can be a ... Ammonia in Refrigeration Systems. This manual describes the hazards of ammonia and how to prevent and control exposure. It lets ... Ammonia exposure during storage or use. This risk advisory includes the following information: a brief description of the risk ... Ammonia has a distinct, pungent smell, which usually makes it easy to identify. But repeated exposure reduces your ability to ...
more infohttps://www.worksafebc.com/en/health-safety/hazards-exposures/ammonia

Infinity™ AmmoniaInfinity™ Ammonia

The Infinity Ammonia single liquid stable reagent is intended for the in vitro quantitative determination of Ammonia in plasma ... Infinity Ammonia reagent patented formulation not only provides excellent stability and convenience but ensures excellent ... Ammonia Reagent. 6. Ammonia Reagent Set. 7. Ammonia. 8. Ammonia Standard. 9. Ammonia Standard Set. 10. Liquichek Ethanol/ ... The Infinity Ammonia single liquid stable reagent is intended for the in vitro quantitative determination of Ammonia in plasma ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Infinity-26trade-3B-Ammonia-20149-1/

Equilibrium Ammonia Reactor - Google SheetsEquilibrium Ammonia Reactor - Google Sheets

Instructions: The objective is to determine the extents of reaction for an equilibrium ammonia reactor This spreadsheet uses ...
more infohttps://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1TgRZrD4q5hI6nxXqT3IzzRmz05-vC5A0UTuimDnZgoA/edit

ammoniaammonia

Microvis Wastewater Technology Reduces Ammonia, Nitrate. March 17, 2015. March 16, 2015. by Jessica Lyons Hardcastle. ... Categories Environmental Management, LargeTags ammonia, BASF, Calcium sulfite, Centrifugal pumps, cooling water, Diaphragm ... Categories Compliance, Environmental Management, Executive BriefingsTags ammonia, BP, coal ash, Environmental Enforcement, ... Categories Chemicals, Environmental Management, WasteTags AkzoNobel, ammonia, Enerkem, Groningen Seaports, InnovationQuarter, ...
more infohttps://www.environmentalleader.com/tag/ammonia/

ammonia Archives - Universe Todayammonia Archives - Universe Today

The suns heat bakes off ammonia over time, and the crew was outside long enough for most ammonia to dissipate, NASA said.) ... The spacewalks were to remove and replace a faulty ammonia pump. Credit: NASA TV. Decontamination procedures. The ammonia makes ... Ammonia is a gas at room temperature that is extremely dangerous to inhale or when it comes in contact with skin, eyes and ... Should the ammonia pump work as planned, this clears the way for the Russians to do a spacewalk Dec. 27 to install the ...
more infohttps://www.universetoday.com/tag/ammonia/

What is anhydrous ammonia? - CNNWhat is anhydrous ammonia? - CNN

... at the scene of a massive fertilizer plant explosion in Texas were concerned Wednesday night about anhydrous ammonia. ... Anhydrous ammonia is a pungent gas with suffocating fumes *Symptoms can include breathing difficulty; irritation of the eyes, ... One of the worst disasters in U.S. history involving a form of ammonia occurred in April 1947 when a ship loaded with ammonium ... Anhydrous ammonia can rapidly cause dehydration and severe burns if it combines with water in the body ...
more infohttp://edition.cnn.com/2013/04/17/us/anhydrous-ammonia-dangers/index.html

ATSDR - Toxic Substances - AmmoniaATSDR - Toxic Substances - Ammonia

This kind of ammonia is called liquid ammonia or aqueous ammonia. Once exposed to open air, liquid ammonia quickly turns into a ... Bacteria found in the intestines can produce ammonia.

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a very distinct odor. This ... gas.

Ammonia is applied directly into soil on farm fields, and is used to make fertilizers for farm crops, lawns, ... Ammonia occurs naturally and is produced by human activity. It is an important source of nitrogen which is needed by plants and ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=2

ATSDR - Toxicological Profile: AmmoniaATSDR - Toxicological Profile: Ammonia

Toxicological profile for Ammonia. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
more infohttps://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/TP.asp?id=11&tid=2

Ammonia - Lyme DiseaseAmmonia - Lyme Disease

Too much ammonia is often a problem for many Lyme patients so I thought I would try to explain what is going on. Although the ... Very little ammonia is produced by Lactobacillus and various yeasts like Saccharomyces. So if you have too much ammonia, more ... It can also increase absorption of ammonia through the portal vein and it has been shown that up to 40 grams of ammonia can be ... More ammonia is produced at a pH of 7 than a pH of 5, so increasing bacteria like H pylori that lower pH can be beneficial by ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=30&m=4143819

Ammonia AvenueAmmonia Avenue

... from 1984 offers beautiful tunes, with intelligent lyrical content. Theme of the album is the communication ...
more infohttps://www.platekompaniet.no/vinyl/ammonia-avenue---lp-alan-parsons-faa74d44/

Lemon Ammonia - WegmansLemon Ammonia - Wegmans

For Heavy Duty Cleaning: Use ammonia in higher proportion or at full strength as desired. General Cleaning: Use 1/2 cup ammonia ... Use 2 cups ammonia to 1 gallon warm water. Dampen sponge and work suds lightly into surface. Caution: Try out on small ... General Laundry: Add 1 cup ammonia to tub of hot water. Use 1/2 the usual amount of soap or detergent. Special Laundry: For ... Special Woodwork and Painted Walls: Add 1 cup ammonia, 1/2 cup vinegar, 1/4 cup baking soda to 1 gallon hot water. Ovens and ...
more infohttps://www.wegmans.com/products/household-essentials/laundry-and-cleaning/cleaners/lemon-ammonia.html

Ammonia Synthesis: Commercial Practice | SpringerLinkAmmonia Synthesis: Commercial Practice | SpringerLink

The aim of this chapter is to relate the detailed analysis of the ammonia synthesis reaction, as examined in other sections of ... The present annual production of ammonia is in excess of 120 million tons per year and virtually all of this ammonia is ... Hooper C.W. (1991) Ammonia Synthesis: Commercial Practice. In: Jennings J.R. (eds) Catalytic Ammonia Synthesis. Fundamental and ... T. W. Nurse, Ammonia From Coal; Choosing a Design. Proc.-Int. Symp. Large Chem. Plants: Energy, Feedstocks, Processes, 5th, p. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9592-9_7

The Ammonia Motor - Scientific AmericanThe Ammonia Motor - Scientific American

Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-ammonia-motor/?error=cookies_not_supported&code=18010b92-ac43-458d-a180-ce475ab63f05

Ammonia - WikipediaAmmonia - Wikipedia

Ammonia in solutionEdit. Main article: Ammonia solution. Ammonia and ammonium salts can be readily detected, in very minute ... Ammonia engines or ammonia motors, using ammonia as a working fluid, have been proposed and occasionally used.[70] The ... Ammonia occurs in the atmospheres of the outer gas planets such as Jupiter (0.026% ammonia) and Saturn (0.012% ammonia). ... Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonia

NASA - Spacewalkers Troubleshoot Ammonia LeakNASA - Spacewalkers Troubleshoot Ammonia Leak

... shutting off the flow of ammonia in and out of it and rerouting the ammonia flow through a spare radiator so the PVTCS can ... If rerouting the ammonia through the spare radiator stops the leak, mission managers will evaluate whether to leave the fix as- ... to support ground-based troubleshooting of an ammonia leak. The spacewalking duo isolated the photovoltaic radiator on the P6 ...
more infohttps://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition33/spacewalk.html

AmmoniaAmmonia

Next Generation Science Standards and NGSS are registered trademarks of Achieve. Neither Achieve nor the lead states and partners that developed the Next Generation Science Standards were involved in the production of this product, and do not endorse it.. ...
more infohttps://www.flinnsci.com/ammonia/sds46/
  • Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) coexist in most non-acidic agricultural soils, the factors that influence their relative contributions to soil nitrification activity remain unclear. (oregonstate.edu)
  • At a later period, when sal ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid (HCl), the name "spirit of hartshorn" was applied to ammonia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ammonia can be used for household chores. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonia is used to clean windows, floors, kitchen counter tops, as well as many other household appliances. (ehow.com)
  • If you use household products containing ammonia, proper ventilation (such as opening windows or turning on fans) should be done to keep your home free from the buildup of ammonia vapors. (ehow.com)
  • Household ammonia is simply diluted ammonia water to which borax and soap have been added. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Household ammonia ranges in concentration from 5 to 10 weight percent ammonia. (bionity.com)
  • The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale ( density ), with 26 degrees baumé (about 30% (by weight) ammonia at 15.5 °C or 59.9 °F) being the typical high-concentration commercial product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia is produced in the juices of various nitrogenous animal and vegetable substances in their putrefactive fermentation . (chestofbooks.com)
  • Substances containing ammonia, or those that are similar to it, are called ammoniacal . (bionity.com)
  • Never mix ammonia with bleach, chlorine, oxidizers or bromine. (ehow.com)
  • For a 10-page description of our methodology, visit www.intratec.us/reports/industrial-processes-economics Reports Focused on Ammonia Production Economics ECONOMICS OF AMMONIA PRODUCTION FROM SYNGAS (AMMONIA E11A) This report presents the economics of Ammonia production from syngas (synthesis gas) using a typical process. (slideshare.net)
  • B. J. Grotz, US Patent No 3442613 "Hydrocarbon Reforming for Production of a Synthesis Gas from which Ammonia can be Prepared," C. F. Braun & Company (1965). (springer.com)
  • Ammonia has also been used to create fabrics, pesticides, plastics and even explosives. (ehow.com)
  • Another major application is its conversion to explosives, because nitric acid is made via oxidation of ammonia. (bionity.com)
  • The ammonia was used to produce explosives to sustain their war effort. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • An ammonia test may be performed when a child develops these same symptoms about a week following a viral illness, such as influenza or chickenpox , or when a healthcare practitioner suspects that the child may have Reye syndrome . (labtestsonline.org)
  • Moderate short-lived increases in ammonia are relatively common in newborns, where the level may rise and fall without causing noticeable symptoms. (labtestsonline.org)
  • A normal blood ammonia level may mean that a person's signs and symptoms are due to a cause other than excess ammonia. (labtestsonline.org)
  • This can make correlation of a person's symptoms to ammonia blood levels difficult. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Can signs explaining ammonia exposure symptoms be posted? (worksafebc.com)
  • If not processed by the liver and cleared from the body appropriately, excess ammonia can accumulate in the blood and pass from the blood into the brain, where it is toxic. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The present annual production of ammonia is in excess of 120 million tons per year and virtually all of this ammonia is produced from a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen over a promoted iron catalyst operating at elevated temperature and pressure. (springer.com)
  • The kidneys secrete ammonia to neutralize excess acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants need ammonia to grow. (ehow.com)
  • R. Weicken, Ammonia Plants. (springer.com)
  • Ammonia is produced naturally from the decomposition of plants, animals and animal waste. (reference.com)
  • In living systems, ammonia plays several important roles, serving as a source of nitrogen for plants and helping maintain acid/base balance in animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • There appears, however, to be some prospect of obtaining a cheap supply, as it is stated that " Prof. Gale, of the Patent Office, has recently received some crude sal- ammonia, brought from Chincha (whether the Peruvian valley or not we cannot say,) which has recently been discovered in a vein like that of metallic ore, and in quantities suffici ent to render it an article of commerce. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Lung damage and death may result if you're exposed to very large quantities of ammonia. (ehow.com)
  • Ammonia is found in small quantities in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. (bionity.com)
  • Ammonia occurs in small quantities in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ammonia is found in trace quantities in nature, being produced from the nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • A decreased level of ammonia may be seen with some types of hypertension , such as essential (high blood pressure of unknown cause) and malignant (very high blood pressure that occurs suddenly and quickly). (labtestsonline.org)
  • Ammonia occurs naturally and is produced by human activity. (cdc.gov)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-methylene-L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (AMP-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • The present disadvantage is that pure ammonia is not suitable for use in high-speed engines. (asme.org)
  • Some of the crude crystals of borax contain nearly 4 per cent, of ammonia, and when these are fused with soda, the ammonia is driven out and can be condensed in suitable vessels. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Ammonia is a waste product naturally produced in the body. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Ammonia is naturally produced in nature. (ehow.com)
  • If there's an ammonia leak, notify a supervisor immediately. (worksafebc.com)
  • Williams and Hoshide ventured out to the port side of the International Space Station's truss to configure the 2B solar array power channel's photovoltaic thermal control system (PVTCS) to support ground-based troubleshooting of an ammonia leak. (nasa.gov)
  • If rerouting the ammonia through the spare radiator stops the leak, mission managers will evaluate whether to leave the fix as-is or replace the photovoltaic radiator on a future spacewalk. (nasa.gov)
  • Before the start of World War I , most ammonia was obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal waste products, including camel dung. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 1. Bacterial dysbiosis - Increased ammonia production is mostly associated with gram negative anaerobes. (healingwell.com)
  • Although the root cause of why excessive ammonia is produced may not be known, there are several plausible scenarios that could be the reason for concern. (healingwell.com)
  • Tragic illnesses that are characterized by excessive amounts of ammonia in the blood. (dmoztools.net)
  • High doses of ammonia exposure can be damaging to your health. (ehow.com)
  • The most effective way to manage the risk of exposure to ammonia is to eliminate the source of exposure. (worksafebc.com)
  • All can reduce the risk of exposure to ammonia gas. (worksafebc.com)
  • This manual describes the hazards of ammonia and how to prevent and control exposure. (worksafebc.com)
  • The ammonia test is used to detect an elevated level in the blood that can be caused by severe liver disease , kidney failure , Reye syndrome or a rare genetic disorder of the urea cycle, for example. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In children and adults, an elevated ammonia level may indicate that severe liver or kidney damage has impacted the body's ability to clear ammonia and that the brain may be affected. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In people with stable liver disease, an ammonia level may be ordered, along with other liver function tests , when a person suddenly becomes more acutely ill. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Glutamine has also been shown to regulate protein synthesis and is a substrate for renal ammonia production. (healingwell.com)
  • A dysfunction in the glutamine-glutamate cycle can lead to increase ammonia levels as glutamine is made from glutamate and ammonia. (healingwell.com)
  • In enzymology, a 4-methyleneglutamate-ammonia ligase (EC 6.3.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 4-methylene-L-glutamate + NH3 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + 4-methylene-L-glutamine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, 4-methylene-L-glutamate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and 4-methylene-L-glutamine. (wikipedia.org)