A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Tetrazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a 1,3,5-triazole ring with an additional nitrogen atom, often used in pharmaceuticals as bioisosteres for carboxylic acid groups due to their isoelectronic nature and similar hydrogen bonding capabilities.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Effects of amlodipine on sympathetic nerve traffic and baroreflex control of circulation in heart failure. (1/462)

Short-acting calcium antagonists exert a sympathoexcitation that in heart failure further enhances an already elevated sympathetic activity. Whether this is also the case for long-acting formulations is not yet established, despite the prognostic importance of sympathetic activation in heart failure. It is also undetermined whether in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists favorably affect a mechanism potentially responsible for the sympathetic activation, ie, the baroreflex impairment. In 28 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class II) under conventional treatment we measured plasma norepinephrine and efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) at rest and during arterial baroreceptor stimulation and deactivation induced by stepwise intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside, respectively. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily oral amlodipine administration (10 mg/d, 14 patients) or before and after an 8-week period without calcium antagonist administration (14 patients). Amlodipine caused a small and insignificant blood pressure reduction. Heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, and plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations were not affected. This was the case also for plasma norepinephrine (from 2.43+/-0.41 to 2.50+/-0.34 nmol/L, mean+/-SEM), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (from 54.4+/-5.9 to 51.0+/-4.3 bursts/min), and arterial baroreflex responses. No change in the above-mentioned variables was seen in the control group. Thus, in mild heart failure amlodipine treatment does not adversely affect sympathetic activity and baroreflex control of the heart and sympathetic tone. This implies that in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists can be administered without untoward neurohumoral effects anytime conventional treatment needs to be complemented by drugs causing additional vasodilatation.  (+info)

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (2/462)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Low-dose combination therapy as first-line hypertension treatment for blacks and nonblacks. (3/462)

To assess the efficacy and safety of bisoprolol/6.25-mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), amlodipine, and enalapril in black and nonblack patients, data from two comparative studies were pooled and subgroup analyses performed. Both studies had similar designs and included all three active treatments. The second study also included a placebo group. Subjects (n = 541) with a sitting diastolic blood pressure of 95-114 mmHg were titrated to achieve a diastolic blood pressure < or = 90 mmHg. The studies included 114 blacks and 427 nonblacks. Results of an intention-to-treat analysis of mean change from baseline after 12 weeks of treatment showed the following: 1) blood pressure was significantly lowered by all three active drugs compared with baseline or placebo; 2) in blacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reductions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure than enalapril or placebo, but was not significantly different from amlodipine; 3) in nonblacks, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ resulted in significantly greater reduction of diastolic blood pressure than amlodipine, enalapril, or placebo. The placebo-corrected change in blood pressure was greater for blacks than whites on the bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ combination, but this was not statistically significant. Bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ controlled diastolic blood pressure to < or = 90 mmHg in significantly more patients than enalapril or placebo in blacks and nonblacks. The difference in control rates was not significant versus amlodipine. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was similar between treatments; however, bisoprolol/6.25-mg HCTZ had a lower discontinuation rate due to lack of blood pressure control or adverse experiences in both blacks and nonblacks.  (+info)

Renal effects of amlodipine in normotensive renal transplant recipients. (4/462)

Renal effects of amlodipine in normotensive renal transplant recipients. The use of cyclosporin A (CsA) has improved the success of renal transplantation, but is associated with hypertension and significant renal toxicity. Previous reports suggest that calcium channel blockers may be useful in opposing the adverse effects of CsA. We have evaluated the effects of amlodipine (5 mg, once daily for 8 weeks) on renal function in 27 normotensive renal transplant recipients with stable renal function, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, cross over study. Amlodipine significantly reduced serum creatinine concentration relative to placebo (mean+/-SD: 168+/-65 vs 177+/-66 micromol/l; P=0.002) and there was a strong trend towards an increase in effective renal plasma flow on amlodipine relative to placebo (238+/-92 vs 217+/-87 ml/min; P=0.055). Glomerular filtration rate and lithium clearance were unaffected. Trough CsA blood concentration was unaffected. Amlodipine was well tolerated, with a low incidence of adverse events, and did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. In conclusion, amlodipine reduced serum creatinine in normotensive renal transplant recipients after only 8 weeks treatment, and was well tolerated in concomitant administration with CsA.  (+info)

Beneficial effect of myocardial angiogenesis on cardiac remodeling process by amlodipine and MCI-154. (5/462)

The present study examined the effect of long-term treatment with amlodipine and MCI-154 (a Ca2+ sensitizer) on progressive cardiac dysfunction and microvasculature in the dilated cardiomyopathic (DCM) hamster heart. After treatment of DCM hamsters (Bio 53.58) with amlodipine or MCI-154 for 15 wk from the age of 5 wk, amlodipine and MCI-154 were found to cause an increase in left ventricular percent fractional shortening and decreases in left ventricular diastolic dimension and isovolumic relaxation time in echocardiograms (P < 0.01). A hemodynamic study showed that the diastolic time constant decreased in the amlodipine-treatment group (P < 0.05). In a morphometric study employing a double-staining method that discriminated arteriolar and venular capillaries, amlodipine and MCI-154 caused increases in total capillary density (P < 0.05) and the proportion of venular capillaries (P < 0.05). Moreover, Northern blot analysis showed that the expression of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly increased by amlodipine and MCI-154. They preserve coronary microvasculature in the DCM hamster and might induce angiogenesis of small vessels, thereby contributing to preservation of cardiac systolic and diastolic function.  (+info)

Increased NADH-oxidase-mediated superoxide production in the early stages of atherosclerosis: evidence for involvement of the renin-angiotensin system. (6/462)

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II activates NAD(P)H-dependent oxidases via AT1-receptor stimulation, the most important vascular source of superoxide (O2*-). The AT1 receptor is upregulated in vitro by low-density lipoprotein. The present study was designed to test whether hypercholesterolemia is associated with increased NAD(P)H-dependent vascular O2*- production and whether AT1-receptor blockade may inhibit this oxidase and in parallel improve endothelial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular responses were determined by isometric tension studies, and relative rates of vascular O2*- production were determined by use of chemiluminescence with lucigenin, a cypridina luciferin analogue, and electron spin resonance studies. AT1-receptor mRNA was quantified by Northern analysis, and AT1-receptor density was measured by radioligand binding assays. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and increased O2*- production in intact vessels. In vessel homogenates, we found a significant activation of NADH-driven O2*- production in both models of hyperlipidemia. Treatment of cholesterol-fed animals with the AT1-receptor antagonist Bay 10-6734 improved endothelial dysfunction, normalized vascular O2*- and NADH-oxidase activity, decreased macrophage infiltration, and reduced early plaque formation. In the setting of hypercholesterolemia, the aortic AT1 receptor mRNA was upregulated to 166+/-11%, accompanied by a comparable increase in AT1-receptor density. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercholesterolemia is associated with AT1-receptor upregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and increased NADH-dependent vascular O2*- production. The improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of the oxidase, and reduction of early plaque formation by an AT1-receptor antagonist suggests a crucial role of angiotensin II-mediated O2*- production in the early stage of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Reduction of sympathetic hyperactivity by enalapril in patients with chronic renal failure. (7/462)

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) reduces the risk of cardiovascular problems in patients with chronic renal failure. This effect may be due in part to a decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, but no direct evidence of such an action is available. METHODS: We studied muscle sympathetic-nerve activity in 14 patients with hypertension, chronic renal failure, and increased plasma renin activity before, during, and after administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril. Ten other patients with similar clinical characteristics were studied before and during treatment with the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine. Normal subjects matched for age and weight were included in both studies. RESULTS: At base line, mean (+/-SD) muscle sympathetic-nerve activity was higher in the group of patients who received enalapril than in the control subjects (35+/-17 vs. 19+/-9 bursts per minute, P=0.004). The baroreflex curve, which reflects changes in muscle sympathetic-nerve activity caused by manipulations of blood pressure with sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, was shifted to the right in the patients, but baroreflex sensitivity was similar to that in the control subjects (-2.1+/-1.9 and -2.7+/-1.3 bursts per minute per mm Hg, respectively; P=0.36). A single dose of the sympatholytic drug clonidine caused a greater fall in blood pressure in the patients than in the control subjects. Treatment with enalapril normalized blood pressure and muscle sympathetic-nerve activity (at 23+/-10 bursts per minute) in the patients and shifted the baroreflex curve to the left, reflecting normal blood-pressure levels, without significantly changing sensitivity (-2.3+/-1.8 bursts per minute per mm Hg, P=0.96). In the patients who received amlodipine, treatment also lowered blood pressure but increased muscle sympathetic-nerve activity, from 41+/-19 to 56+/-14 bursts per minute (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Increased sympathetic activity contributes to hypertension in patients with chronic renal disease. ACE inhibition controls hypertension and decreases sympathetic hyperactivity.  (+info)

Combination of calcium channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers for patients with exercise-induced angina pectoris: a double-blind parallel-group comparison of different classes of calcium channel blockers. Netherlands Working Group on Cardiovascular Research (WCN). (8/462)

AIMS: The combination of calcium channel blockers and beta-adrenoceptor blockers is more effective for the treatment of exercise-induced angina pectoris than beta-adrenoceptor blocker monotherapy. As ischaemia in exercise-induced angina is preceded by increase in heart rate, calcium channel blockers with negative chronotropic properties may perform better for this purpose than nonchronotropic compounds. METHODS: A 335 patient double-blind parallel-group study comparing 14 day treatment with amlodipine 5 and 10 mg, with diltiazem 200 and 300 mg, and mibefradil 50 and 100 mg added to baseline beta-adrenoceptor blocker treatment was performed. Exercise testing (ETT) was performed by bicycle ergometry. RESULTS: Although none of the calcium channel blockers improved duration of exercise or amount of workload, all significantly delayed onset of 1 mm ST-segment depression on ETT (P<0.001 for any treatment vs baseline). In addition, mibefradil, both low and high dose treatment, produced the longest delays (low dose: different from diltiazem and amlodipine by 24.1 and 29.8 s, respectively, P<0. 003 and <0.001; high dose: different from diltiazem and amlodipine by 33.7 and 37.0 s, respectively, P<0.001 and <0.001). These effects were linearly correlated with the reduction in rate pressure product (RPP). Serious symptoms of dizziness occurred significantly more frequently on mibefradil (P<0.05), and 19 patients on mibefradil withdrew from trial. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium channel blockers with negative chronotropic properties provide greater delay of ischaemia in patients with exercise-induced angina, but the concomitant risk of intolerable dizziness attenuates this benefit.  (+info)

Amlodipine is a type of medication known as a calcium channel blocker, which is primarily used to treat high blood pressure and angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart). It works by relaxing the muscles around the blood vessels, which causes them to widen and improves blood flow. This helps to lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart, making it easier for the heart to pump blood effectively.

Amlodipine is available in various strengths as a tablet or an extended-release tablet, and it is typically taken once daily. The medication may take several weeks to reach its full effect, so it is important to continue taking it even if you do not notice any immediate improvement in your symptoms.

As with any medication, amlodipine can cause side effects, including headache, dizziness, fatigue, and swelling of the ankles or feet. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, irregular heartbeat, or liver damage. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking amlodipine, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking amlodipine, and to inform them of any other medications or supplements that you are taking, as well as any medical conditions that you have. This will help ensure that the medication is safe and effective for you to use.

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications that work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and smooth muscle cells. This action leads to relaxation of the muscles, particularly in the blood vessels, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and reduced blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers also have anti-arrhythmic effects and are used in the management of various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, angina, and certain types of arrhythmias.

Calcium channel blockers can be further classified into two main categories based on their chemical structure: dihydropyridines (e.g., nifedipine, amlodipine) and non-dihydropyridines (e.g., verapamil, diltiazem). Dihydropyridines are more selective for vascular smooth muscle and have a greater effect on blood pressure than heart rate or conduction. Non-dihydropyridines have a more significant impact on cardiac conduction and contractility, in addition to their vasodilatory effects.

It is important to note that calcium channel blockers may interact with other medications and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Potential side effects include dizziness, headache, constipation, and peripheral edema.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

Dihydropyridines are a class of compounds that contain a core structure of two fused rings, each containing six carbon atoms, with a hydrogen atom attached to each of the two central carbon atoms. They are commonly used in pharmaceuticals, particularly as calcium channel blockers in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Calcium channel blockers, including dihydropyridines, work by blocking the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells. This leads to relaxation of the muscles, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and reduced blood pressure. Dihydropyridines are known for their potent vasodilatory effects and include medications such as nifedipine, amlodipine, and felodipine.

It is important to note that while dihydropyridines can be effective in treating hypertension and angina, they may also have side effects such as headache, dizziness, and peripheral edema. Additionally, they may interact with other medications, so it is essential to consult a healthcare provider before starting or changing any medication regimen.

Tetrazoles are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom. They have the chemical formula of C2H2N4. Tetrazoles are stable under normal conditions, but can decompose explosively when heated or subjected to strong shock.

In the context of medicinal chemistry, tetrazoles are sometimes used as bioisosteres for carboxylic acids, as they can mimic some of their chemical and biological properties. This has led to the development of several drugs that contain tetrazole rings, such as the antiviral drug tenofovir and the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib.

However, it's important to note that 'tetrazoles' is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical term that can be used in the context of medicinal chemistry or pharmacology.

Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic drug, which means it helps the body get rid of extra salt and water by increasing the amount of urine that is produced. The medical definition of Hydrochlorothiazide is:

A thiazide diuretic drug used to treat hypertension and edema associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disorders. It works by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron, which increases water excretion and decreases blood volume and pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. It is also used to treat conditions such as diabetes insipidus, renal tubular acidosis, and hypercalcemia.

The usual starting dose of hydrochlorothiazide for adults is 25 mg to 50 mg once a day, which may be increased gradually depending on the patient's response. The maximum recommended daily dose is 100 mg. Common side effects of hydrochlorothiazide include increased urination, headache, dizziness, and muscle cramps.

Azetidinecarboxylic acid is a chemical compound with the formula (CH2)3NCOOH. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Azetidinecarboxylic acid is a cyclic amino acid, containing a four-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms.

It is not known to have any physiological role in humans or other organisms, and it is not a naturally occurring compound. It is used primarily as a building block in the synthesis of other chemical compounds, including pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

In medical terms, azetidinecarboxylic acid itself does not have any specific diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventive applications. However, it may be used in laboratory research to study the properties and reactions of cyclic amino acids and their derivatives.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Valine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, with a branched side chain, and is necessary for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body. Valine is also important for muscle metabolism, and is often used by athletes as a supplement to enhance physical performance. Like other essential amino acids, valine must be obtained through foods such as meat, fish, dairy products, and legumes.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Chlorthalidone is a diuretic medication, which is a type of drug that helps the body get rid of excess salt and water by increasing urine production. It is a type of sulfonamide, and it works by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidneys, which leads to increased excretion of these ions and water in the urine.

Chlorthalidone is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (fluid retention) associated with various medical conditions, such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and kidney disease. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications to achieve better blood pressure control.

Like all medications, chlorthalidone can cause side effects, including electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dizziness, headache, muscle cramps, and gastrointestinal disturbances. It is important to take this medication as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or persistent symptoms promptly.

Nifedipine is an antihypertensive and calcium channel blocker medication. It works by relaxing the muscles of the blood vessels, which helps to lower blood pressure and improve the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart. Nifedipine is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), angina (chest pain), and certain types of heart rhythm disorders.

In medical terms, nifedipine can be defined as: "A dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and Raynaud's phenomenon. It works by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, which results in relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle and decreased workload on the heart."

Lisinopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which is a type of medication used to treat various cardiovascular conditions. It works by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in relaxation and widening of blood vessels, decreased blood pressure, and increased blood flow.

Lisinopril is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes or high blood pressure. Additionally, it has been shown to reduce proteinuria (excess protein in urine) in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Common side effects of Lisinopril include dizziness, headache, fatigue, and cough. More serious side effects may include angioedema (rapid swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat), hyperkalemia (elevated potassium levels), and impaired kidney function.

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking Lisinopril and to report any unusual symptoms promptly. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels may be necessary during treatment with this medication.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are a class of medications used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and protect against kidney damage in patients with diabetes. They work by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict and blood pressure to increase, at its type 1 receptor. By blocking this effect, ARBs cause blood vessels to dilate, reducing blood pressure and decreasing the workload on the heart. Examples of ARBs include losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan.

Mibefradil is a medication that was previously used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina (chest pain due to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle). It belongs to a class of drugs known as calcium channel blockers, which work by relaxing the muscles of the blood vessels and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload.

Mibefradil was first approved for medical use in 1997 but was later withdrawn from the market in 1998 due to its interactions with several other medications, which could lead to dangerous side effects. Currently, it is not available for medical use.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Atenolol is a beta-blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of heart rhythm disorders. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones in the body, such as adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce the heart's workload, lower its rate and force of contractions, and improve blood flow.

Beta-blockers like atenolol are also sometimes used to prevent migraines or to treat symptoms of anxiety, such as rapid heartbeat or tremors. Atenolol is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally once or twice a day. As with any medication, atenolol can have side effects, including dizziness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and it may interact with other medications or medical conditions. It is important to use atenolol only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Benzimidazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a benzene fused to a imidazole ring. They have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various diseases. Some of the benzimidazoles are used as antiparasitics, such as albendazole and mebendazole, which are effective against a variety of worm infestations. Other benzimidazoles have antifungal properties, such as thiabendazole and fuberidazole, and are used to treat fungal infections. Additionally, some benzimidazoles have been found to have anti-cancer properties and are being investigated for their potential use in cancer therapy.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a class of medications that are commonly used to treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage in people with diabetes).

ACE inhibitors work by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the hormone angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure. By inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors cause blood vessels to relax and widen, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the workload on the heart.

Some examples of ACE inhibitors include captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and fosinopril. These medications are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause side effects such as cough, dizziness, headache, and elevated potassium levels in the blood. It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking ACE inhibitors and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

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Jang DH, Nelson LS, Hoffman RS (December 2011). "Methylene blue in the treatment of refractory shock from an amlodipine ... Chudow M, Ferguson K (April 2018). "A Case of Severe, Refractory Hypotension After Amlodipine Overdose". Cardiovascular ...
Amlodipine, hydralazine and dihydropyridine are examples of calcium channel blockers.[citation needed] Other medications such ...
Srivastava, AmitKumar; Kundu, Debabrata; Bandyopadhyay, Prasanta; Pal, AsitKumar (2010). "Management of amlodipine-induced ...
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Passmore, Peter (2014-04-15). "A clinical trial to test amlodipine as a new treatment for vascular dementia". doi:10.1186/ ...
Versions are available as the combination telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, telmisartan/cilnidipine and telmisartan/amlodipine. ...
... also known as levoamlodipine or S-amlodipine is a pharmacologically active enantiomer of amlodipine. Amlodipine belongs to the ... Pathak L, Kerkar PG, Manade VG (March 2004). "Multicentric, clinical trial of S-Amlodipine 2.5 mg versus Amlodipine 5 mg in the ... "Clinical Trial of S-Amlodipine 2.5 mg versus Amlodipine 5 mg in the Treatment of Hypertension". Indian Journal of Clinical ... Comparative Clinical Trial of S-Amlodipine 2.5 mg vs Amlodipine 5 mg in the Treatment of mild to moderate Hypertension". JAMA- ...
This combination, with ARB, valsartan, and CCB, amlodipine, is a common treatment in high-risk hypertensive patients, ... Kostis, John B. (2010). "Antihypertensive therapy with CCB/ARB combination in older individuals: focus on amlodipine/valsartan ...
Pfizer also packages the medication in combination with other medications, such as atorvastatin/amlodipine. Pfizer's U.S. ...
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Specific therapy for treating high blood pressure (e.g., amlodipine), should be added if necessary. Most affected cats are over ...
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These incremental microcirculatory benefits of efonidipine over the conventional L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Amlodipine) are ... One common adverse effect of the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers like Amlodipine is vasodilatory Pedal edema. Combined L-/T-type ... Ca2+ channel blockers, such as Efonidipine, display antihypertensive efficacy similar to their predecessors (Amlodipine) with ...
Ganz M, Mokabberi R, Sica D (2005). "Comparison of blood pressure control with amlodipine and controlled-release isradipine: an ...
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  • Do not take amlodipine and benazepril if you are pregnant. (safemedication.com)
  • If you become pregnant while taking amlodipine and benazepril, call your doctor immediately. (safemedication.com)
  • Amlodipine and benazepril may harm the fetus. (safemedication.com)
  • The combination of amlodipine and benazepril is used to treat high blood pressure. (safemedication.com)
  • The combination of amlodipine and benazepril comes as a capsule to take by mouth. (safemedication.com)
  • To help you remember to take amlodipine and benazepril, take it around the same time every day. (safemedication.com)
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  • Amlodipine and benazepril controls high blood pressure but does not cure it. (safemedication.com)
  • Continue to take amlodipine and benazepril even if you feel well. (safemedication.com)
  • Do not stop taking amlodipine and benazepril without talking to your doctor. (safemedication.com)
  • Your doctor will probably tell you not to take amlodipine and benazepril, if you are also taking valsartan and sacubitril. (safemedication.com)
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  • Amlodipine Besylate/Benazepril Hydrochloride is used to treat high blood pressure. (universaldrugstore.com)
  • This medication is a combination of two drugs: a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine) and an ACE inhibitor (benazepril). (healthwarehouse.com)
  • Amlodipine is used in the management of hypertension (high blood pressure) and coronary artery disease in people with either stable angina (where chest pain occurs mostly after physical or emotional stress) or vasospastic angina (where it occurs in cycles) and without heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amlodipine can be given as a combination therapy with a variety of medications: Amlodipine/atorvastatin, where amlodipine is given for hypertension or CAD and atorvastatin prevents cardiovascular events, or if the person also has high cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pritor/Amlodipine is used to lower high blood pressure (hypertension). (mydr.com.au)
  • For blood pressure medicine amlodipine reviews the USA and People with hypertension can have high it and a lot of deaths, including tissue, movement. (atime.org)
  • June 18, 2007 - Milan, Italy - The 14-week multicenter, open label, titration-to-goal GEMINI-AALA study in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia showed that a single pill with amlodipine/atorvastatin with eight different doses showed that 52% of patients reached both blood pressure and LDL-C goals, 61.3% reached blood pressure goals, and 87.1% reached LDL-C goals. (eshonline.org)
  • Amlodipine besylate is commonly prescribed as an antihypertensive medication to manage hypertension effectively. (researchcorridor.com)
  • The high prevalence of hypertension drives the demand for amlodipine besylate in the market. (researchcorridor.com)
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  • Whether you are newly diagnosed with hypertension or you have tried other medications that just do not lower your blood pressure enough, your doctor may recommend a prescription for Exforge that contains two medications, Amlodipine/Valsartan. (discountdrugsfromcanada.com)
  • Amlodipine Tablets are indicated for hypertension. (advacarepharma.com)
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  • Amlodipine Besilate is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. (zuchepharma.com)
  • Amlodipine is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) or chest pain (angina) and other conditions caused by coronary artery disease. (zuchepharma.com)
  • Amlodipine liquid is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for chronic hypertension in children and teens aged 6 years and older. (katerzia.com)
  • During depolarization, amlodipine inhibits calcium ions from entering the slow channels and voltage-sensitive areas of vascular smooth muscle and myocardium, which benefits nonpregnant patients with systolic dysfunction, hypertension, or arrhythmias. (medscape.com)
  • Amlodipine besylate is a widely used antihypertensive medication known for its efficacy and safety profile. (researchcorridor.com)
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  • These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including Amlodipine Besilate. (zuchepharma.com)
  • Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a calcium channel blocker medication used to treat high blood pressure, coronary artery disease (CAD) and variant angina (also called Prinzmetal angina or coronary artery vasospasm, among other names). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fass environmental information for Exforge (amlodipine, valsartan) (downloaded 2021-06-11). (janusinfo.se)
  • Assessment report for Exforge HCT (amlodipine besylate/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide) EMEA/CHMP/410729/2009. (janusinfo.se)
  • Comparison of valsartan and amlodipine on ambulatory blood pressure variability in hypertensive patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that calcium channel blockers (CCBs amlodipine group, n = 38)) are superior to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs valsartan group, n = 38) against ambulatory blood pressure variability (BPV) in untreated Japanese hypertensive patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, a once-daily morning dose of CCB amlodipine was more effective at controlling ambulatory BPV than ARB valsartan , especially in reducing maximum BP levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pritor/Amlodipine contains telmisartan and amlodipine (as the besilate salt) in one single tablet. (mydr.com.au)
  • Pritor/Amlodipine 40/5 mg and 40/10 mg contains 168.64 mg sorbitol in each tablet. (mydr.com.au)
  • Amlodipine besylate is available in oral tablet form, which offers convenience and ease of administration for patients. (researchcorridor.com)
  • Amlodipine tablet has 100 tablets in each pack. (zuchepharma.com)
  • On March 28, 2024 Amlodipine/Atorvastatin 5/10 (Terry White Chemists) was not listed on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG). (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Can I take Amlodipine/Atorvastatin 5/10 (Terry White Chemists) in sport? (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Amlodipine is in a class of medications called calcium channel blockers. (safemedication.com)
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  • As the elderly population grows, there is an increased demand for medications like amlodipine besylate to manage and control these conditions. (researchcorridor.com)
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