A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.
Proposed catecholamine depletor.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.

Role of antioxidant defenses against ethanol-induced damage in cultured rat gastric epithelial cells. (1/160)

Reactive oxygen species appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in vivo. Because ingested ethanol diffuses into the gastric mucosa, targeting both epithelium and endothelium, in the present study we examined the possible protective effect of antioxidants on ethanol damage in gastric epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Cytotoxicity by ethanol was quantified by measuring 51Cr release. The effects of impairment of the glutathione redox cycle and of inhibition of cellular catalase were examined. The generation of superoxide was assessed by the reduction in cytochrome c. Ethanol caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in 51Cr release from epithelial cells. Incubation of cells with DL-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, while reducing glutathione production, dose dependently enhanced ethanol-induced injury. 1,3-Bis(chloroethyl)-nitrosourea, while inhibiting glutathione reductase activity, also sensitized cells to ethanol. In contrast, the inhibition of catalase with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole did not alter the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ethanol. Ethanol induced damage to endothelial cells in a similar fashion. In endothelial cells, however, neither impairment of the glutathione cycle nor inhibition of catalase influenced ethanol-induced damage. Epithelial cells, when exposed to ethanol, increased superoxide production as a function of ethanol concentration, whereas endothelial cells did not. The glutathione redox cycle, but not cellular catalase, plays a critical role in protecting epithelial cells against ethanol damage, whereas neither antioxidant seems to play a role in protection of endothelial cells. The distinct difference in antioxidant protection against ethanol appears to depend on the capability of each cell to produce cytotoxic oxygen species in response to ethanol exposure.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species participate in mdr1b mRNA and P-glycoprotein overexpression in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. (2/160)

P-glycoproteins encoded by multidrug resistance type 1 (mdr1) genes mediate ATP-dependent efflux of numerous lipophilic xenobiotics, including several anticancer drugs, from cells. Overexpression of mdr1-type transporters in tumour cells contributes to a multidrug resistance phenotype. Several factors shown to induce mdr1 overexpression (UV irradiation, epidermal growth factor, tumour necrosis factor alpha, doxorubicin) have been associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, primary rat hepatocyte cultures that exhibit time-dependent overexpression of the mdr1b gene were used as a model system to investigate whether ROS might participate in the regulation of intrinsic mdr1b overexpression. Addition of H2O2 to the culture medium resulted in a significant increase in mdrlb mRNA and P-glycoprotein after 3 days of culture, with maximal (approximately 2-fold) induction being observed with 0.5-1 mM H2O2. Furthermore, H2O2 led to activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a nuclear enzyme activated by DNA strand breaks, indicating that ROS reached the nuclear compartment. Thus, extracellularly applied H2O2 elicited intracellular effects. Treatment of rat hepatocytes with the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (2-4 mM for 72 h or 10 mM for 1 h following the hepatocyte attachment period) also led to an up-regulation of mdrlb mRNA and P-glycoprotein expression. Conversely, antioxidants (1 mM ascorbate, 10 mM mannitol, 2% dimethyl sulphoxide, 10 mM N-acetylcysteine) markedly suppressed intrinsic mdr1b mRNA and P-glycoprotein overexpression. Intracellular steady-state levels of the mdrl substrate rhodamine 123, determined as parameter of mdr1-type transport activity, indicated that mdr1-dependent efflux was increased in hepatocytes pretreated with H2O2 or aminotriazole and decreased in antioxidant-treated cells. The induction of mdr1b mRNA and of functionally active mdr1-type P-glycoproteins by elevation in intracellular ROS levels and the repression of intrinsic mdrlb mRNA and P-glycoprotein overexpression by antioxidant compounds support the conclusion that the expression of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein is regulated in a redox-sensitive manner.  (+info)

Susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity of root nodule bacteria. (3/160)

The root nodule bacteria (free-living cells) tested had higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the other genera of aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria tested. The catalase activities tended to have a positive correlation with H2O2 resistance among all bacteria tested. Addition of a catalase inhibitor such as 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole increased the susceptibility to H2O2. These results suggest that the lower catalase activity brings about the higher susceptibility of root nodule bacteria to H2O2. Root nodule bacteria seemed to have two or three catalase isozymes during growth and their catalase activities were higher in log phase than in stationary phase, contrary to other genera of bacteria tested.  (+info)

A TATA-binding protein mutant defective for TFIID complex formation in vivo. (4/160)

Using an intragenic complementation screen, we have identified a temperature-sensitive TATA-binding protein (TBP) mutant (K151L, K156Y) that is defective for interaction with certain yeast TBP-associated factors (TAFs) at the restrictive temperature. The K151L,K156Y mutant appears to be functional for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and Pol III transcription, and it is capable of supporting Gal4-activated and Gcn4-activated transcription by Pol II. However, transcription from certain TATA-containing and TATA-less Pol II promoters is reduced at the restrictive temperature. Immunoprecipitation analysis of extracts prepared after culturing cells at the restrictive temperature for 1 h indicates that the K151L,K156Y derivative is severely compromised in its ability to interact with TAF130, TAF90, TAF68/61, and TAF25 while remaining functional for interaction with TAF60 and TAF30. Thus, a TBP mutant that is compromised in its ability to form TFIID can support the response to Gcn4 but is defective for transcription from specific promoters in vivo.  (+info)

Generation of reactive oxygen species by human mesothelioma cells. (5/160)

Malignant mesothelioma cells contain elevated levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and are highly resistant to oxidants compared to non-malignant mesothelial cells. Since the level of cellular free radicals may be important for cell survival, we hypothesized that the increase of MnSOD in the mitochondria of mesothelioma cells may alter the free radical levels of these organelles. First, MnSOD activity was compared to the activities of two constitutive mitochondrial enzymes; MnSOD activity was 20 times higher in the mesothelioma cells than in the mesothelial cells, whereas the activities of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase did not differ significantly in the two cell lines. This indicates that the activity of MnSOD per mitochondrion was increased in the mesothelioma cells. Superoxide production was assayed in the isolated mitochondria of these cells using lucigenin chemiluminescence. Mitochondrial superoxide levels were significantly lower (72%) in the mesothelioma cells compared to the mesothelial cells. Oxidant production in intact cells, assayed by fluorimetry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein as a fluorescent probe, did not differ significantly between these cells. We conclude that mitochondrial superoxide levels are lower in mesothelioma cells compared to nonmalignant mesothelial cells, and that this difference may be explained by higher MnSOD activity in the mitochondria of these cells. Oxidant production was not different in these cells, which may be due to the previously observed increase in H2O2-scavenging mechanisms of mesothelioma cells.  (+info)

Arsenic trioxide selectively induces acute promyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis via a hydrogen peroxide-dependent pathway. (6/160)

Low concentrations of As(2)O(3) (+info)

Role of megalin (gp330) in transcytosis of thyroglobulin by thyroid cells. A novel function in the control of thyroid hormone release. (7/160)

When thyroglobulin (Tg) is endocytosed by thyrocytes and transported to lysosomes, thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are released. However, some internalized Tg is transcytosed intact into the bloodstream, thereby avoiding proteolytic cleavage. Here we show that megalin (gp330), a Tg receptor on thyroid cells, plays a role in Tg transcytosis. Following incubation with exogenous rat Tg at 37 degrees C, Fisher rat thyroid (FRTL-5) cells, a differentiated thyroid cell line, released T3 into the medium. However, when cells were incubated with Tg plus either of two megalin competitors, T3 release was increased, suggesting that Tg internalized by megalin bypassed the lysosomal pathway, possibly with release of undegraded Tg from cells. To assess this possibility, we performed experiments in which FRTL-5 cells were incubated with either unlabeled or (125)I-labeled Tg at 37 degrees C to allow internalization, treated with heparin to remove cell surface-bound Tg, and further incubated at 37 degrees C to allow Tg release. Intact 330-kDa Tg was released into the medium, and the amount released was markedly reduced by megalin competitors. To investigate whether Tg release resulted from transcytosis, we studied FRTL-5 cells cultured as polarized layers with tight junctions on permeable filters in the upper chamber of dual chambered devices. Following the addition of Tg to the upper chamber and incubation at 37 degrees C, intact 330-kDa Tg was found in fluids collected from the lower chamber. The amount recovered was markedly reduced by megalin competitors, indicating that megalin mediates Tg transcytosis. We also studied Tg transcytosis in vivo, using a rat model of goiter induced by aminotriazole, in which increased release of thyrotropin induces massive colloid endocytosis. This was associated with increased megalin expression on thyrocytes and increased serum Tg levels, with reduced serum T3 levels, supporting the conclusion that megalin mediates Tg transcytosis. Tg transcytosis is a novel function of megalin, which usually transports ligands to lysosomes. Megalin-mediated transcytosis may regulate the extent of thyroid hormone release.  (+info)

Salicylic acid mediated by the oxidative burst is a key molecule in local and systemic responses of cotton challenged by an avirulent race of Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum. (8/160)

We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species, the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), and peroxidase activity during the incompatible interaction between cotyledons of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cv Reba B50/Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum (Xcm) race 18. SA was detected in petioles of cotyledons 6 h after infection and 24 h post inoculation in cotyledons and untreated leaves. The first peak of SA occurred 3 h after generation of superoxide (O(2)(.-)), and was inhibited by infiltration of catalase. Peroxidase activity and accumulation of SA increased in petioles of cotyledons and leaves following H(2)O(2) infiltration of cotyledons from 0.85 to 1 mM. Infiltration of 2 mM SA increased peroxidase activity in treated cotyledons and in the first leaves, but most of the infiltrated SA was rapidly conjugated within the cotyledons. When increasing concentrations of SA were infiltrated 2. 5 h post inoculation at the beginning of the oxidative burst, the activity of the apoplastic cationic O(2)(.-)-generating peroxidase decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We have shown that during the cotton hypersensitive response to Xcm, H(2)O(2) is required for local and systemic accumulation of SA, which may locally control the generation of O(2)(.-). Detaching cotyledons at intervals after inoculation demonstrated that the signal leading to systemic accumulation of SA was emitted around 3 h post inoculation, and was associated with the oxidative burst. SA produced 6 h post infection at HR sites was not the primary mobile signal diffusing systemically from infected cotyledons.  (+info)

Toxicological studies Acute toxicity studies The acute toxicity of amitrole to several animal species is given in Table 1. No signs of toxicity were observed in one beagle-type female dog when given amitrole (96.1%) by gavage at a dosage of 2150 mg/kg bw. Another dog receiving 4640 mg/kg bw vomited within 1 hour, and no signs of toxicity were observed thereafter (Fogleman, 1954). When a commercial product (water soluble powder with 50% active ingredient) was administered to mice, the LD50 was reduced to 4.0 g/kg bw amitrole. By determining the mean lethal dose for amitrole in different preparations, it was established that sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and wetting agents as admixtures in various quantities considerably increase the toxicity of amitrole (Hapke, 1967). WHO has classified amitrole as unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use (WHO, 1992). Table 1. Acute toxicity of amitrole in animals Species Sex Route LD50 LC50 Purity Reference (mg/kg bw) (mg/m3) Mouse M oral 14 700 7 9 ...
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of endogenous vascular hydrogen peroxide on the vasomotor tone of resistance vessels in vivo. Our new finding is that a reduction of steady-state concentrations of vascular hydrogen peroxide induced by a vascular specific overexpression of human catalase resulted in a marked reduction of sBP in mice. This hypotension was completely reversed by treatment with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole but was independent of vascular eNOS protein content, eNOS activity, and the efficiency of the NO/cGMP pathway as evidenced by Western blot analysis, chronic treatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, and organ bath experiments, respectively. These data suggest that endogenous hydrogen peroxide is a vasoconstrictor in resistance vessels in vivo. We assume that the vasoconstrictor effects of hydrogen peroxide in resistance vessels might contribute to the development of essential hypertension.. Our data obtained in transgenic mice overexpressing catalase ...
I dont know if its best, but I use synthetic media, e.g. complete synthetic minus hisitidine etc. I autoclave the media first, then let it cool some before adding the appropriate amound of 3AT. I make up the 3AT in H2O as a 1 M stock and store it at -20. I have found that adding 35 glucose to the media instead of my usual 2% increases plating efficiency on this media, but this is somewhat anecdotal. It is crucial to leave the histidine out of the media; thus, I would not expect rich media such as YEPD to work. Megan Brown mbrown at fred.fhcrc.org ROSENKRANTZ at Gems.VCU.EDU wrote: : Can someone tell me the best plate to use 3 aminotriazole on and : directions or a citation? Thanks ...
0.375, 0.500 and 0.625 kg imazapyr/ha and combinations of 5.0 kg atrazine + 1.9 kg amitrole or 8.0 kg diuron + 1.9 kg amitrole/ha were evaluated for roadside control of Cruciferae, Umbelliferae, Compositae, Papilionaceae [Leguminosae] and grasses (mostly Brachypodium distachyon and Lophochloa phleoides). Treatments were applied post-em. to weeds 40-50 cm tall. Imazapyr acted very slowly with the first symptoms visible only 4 weeks after application and complete control evident 4 months later. The highest application rate achieved complete control of all annual weeds and inhibition of growth of the perennial Andropogon distachyos. Atrazine + amitrole and diuron + amitrole provided good control of annual weeds. In further trials on a roadside verge in the Ayalon Valley 0.375, 0.500 and 0.625 kg imazapyr, 4.0 kg diuron + 2.5 kg atrazine and 3.2 kg diuron + 0.8 kg bromacil/ha were applied post-em. to weeds 15-40 cm tall. 6 months after application 0.625 kg imazapyr provided excellent weed control, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous hydrogen peroxide up-regulates the expression of nitric oxide synthase in the kidney of SHR. AU - Cao, Pengyu. AU - Ito, Osamu. AU - Guo, Qi. AU - Ito, Daisuke. AU - Muroya, Yoshikazu. AU - Rong, Rong. AU - Mori, Takefumi. AU - Ito, Sadayoshi. AU - Kohzuki, Masahiro. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Background and Method: Both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and oxidative stress are elevated in the tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between the endothelial and neuronal NOS (eNOS and nNOS) expression and oxidative stress in the kidney of SHR and WKY. Results: Plasma and urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), the renal NADPH oxidase activity and eNOS and nNOS expressions were all higher in SHR than in WKY. Although the treatment with either the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin or the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol for 8 ...
Claim 1: A composition comprising (A) a compound of formula (1) wherein R¹ is methyl or methoxy, R² is hydrogen, methyl or ethoxy and A is a substituted heteroaryl group and wherein said compound is selected from the group consisting of group of formulas (2), or an N-oxide or salt form thereof, and (B) one or more herbicides selected from the group comprising acetochlor, acifluorfen-sodium, aclonifen, alachlor, alloxydim, ametryn, amicarbazone , amidosulfuron, aminociclopiraclor, aminopyralid, amitrole, asulam, atrazine, beflubutamid, benfluralin, bensulfuron-methyl, bentazone, biciclopirona, bifenox, bispyribac-sodium, bromacil, bromoxynil, butafenacil, cafenstrole, carfentrazone-ethyl, cloransulam, chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorotoluron , chlorsulfuron, cinosulfuron, cinidon-ethyl, clethodim, clodinafop-propargyl, clomazone, clopyralid, cycloxydim, cyhalofop-butyl, 2,4-D, daimurona, desmedipham, dicamba, diclofop-methyl, diclosulam, difenzoquat, diflufenican, diflufenzopyr, dimethachlor, dimethenamid
Yeast two-hybrid testing and RT-PCR analyses. Interactions between A2 and different glycoprotein hormone subunits were assessed in the yeast two-hybrid system using pGBT9 GAL4-binding domain (BD) and pGADGH GAL4-activation domain (AD) vectors (12). Specific binding of different protein pairs was evaluated based on the activation of GAL1-HIS3 and GAL4-lacZ reporter genes (Clontech Laboratories Inc., Palo Alto, California, USA). The mature region of human A2 cDNA was fused to the GAL4-AD in a yeast shuttle vector, pGADGH. Similarly, cDNAs encoding other glycoprotein hormone subunits without the signal peptides were fused to the GAL-4-BD of the pGBT9 vector. Specific interactions of different protein pairs were evaluated based on the activation of the GAL1-HIS3 reporter gene in medium lacking leucine, tryptophan, and histidine but in the presence of 5 mM 3-aminotriazole (13). At least 10 different colonies expressing each pair of fusion proteins were tested.. For RT-PCR analysis of A2 and B5 mRNA ...
BEIJING - The Chinese Ministry of Commerce said Thursday that it had started an anti-dumping investigation into acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) from the Republic of Korea and Japan. The investigation should be concluded by Nov 9 next year, according to an official statement, but may extend to May 9, 2019. NBR is widely used in oil and petrol resistant industrial rubber products. It is essential to production of aircraft fuel tank seals, fuel hoses, bag fuel tanks and aircraft window seals. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Meng Zhang, Da-Nian Qin, Yu-Ping Suo, Qing Su, Hong-Bao Li, Yu-Wang Miao, Jing Guo, Zhi-Peng Feng, Jie Qi, Hong-Li Gao, Jian-Jun Mu, Guo-Qing Zhu, Yu-Ming Kang].
1-phenyl-3-Hydroxy-1,2,4Triazole 4231-68-9 Suppliers,provide 1-phenyl-3-Hydroxy-1,2,4Triazole 4231-68-9 product and the products related with China (Mainland) 1-phenyl-3-Hydroxy-1,2,4Triazole 4231-68-9 Antimex Chemical Limied China (Mainland)
The present work deals with the pharmacological screening of some newly synthesized triazoles. A series of 1,2,4-triazoles have been synthesized using benzoic acid or 4-chloro benzoic acid as the...
Some 3-thioxo/alkylthio-1,2,4-triazoles with a substituted thiourea moiety as possible antimycobacterials.: A series of novel N-alkyl/aryl-N-[4-(4-alkyl/aryl-2
I consider trying XFA after my Triazole/LX run, but there are still some questions i have. Has anybody ever tried to take only 2 caps of this supp per
Endogenous peroxidase activity has been demonstrated in sections of rat liver fixed briefly by glutaraldehyde perfusion and incubated in Graham and Karnovskys medium for cytochemical demonstration of peroxidase activity (29). In 25-40% of sinusoidal cells, an electron-opaque reaction product is localized in segments of the endoplasmic reticulum, including the perinuclear cisternae, a few Golgi vesicles and saccules and in some large membrane-bounded granules. This staining is abolished after prolonged fixation or boiling of tissue sections in glutaraldehyde, and in the absence of H2O2 or DAB from the incubation medium. Furthermore, the reaction is inhibited completely by sodium azide and high concentrations of H2O2, and partially by KCN and aminotriazole. Among the different cells in hepatic sinusoids, the nonphagocytic fat-storing cells (39) are always peroxidase negative, whereas the lining cells in process of erythrophagocytosis are consistently peroxidase positive. The possible biological ...
0019] The synergistic mixture of the present invention can be applied in conjunction with one or more other herbicides to control a wider variety of undesirable vegetation. When used in conjunction with other herbicides, the composition can be formulated with the other herbicide or herbicides, tank mixed with the other herbicide or herbicides or applied sequentially with the other herbicide or herbicides. Some of the herbicides that can be employed in conjunction with the synergistic composition of the present invention include: 2,4-D, acetochlor, acifluorfen, aclonifen, AE0172747, alachlor, amidosulfuron, aminotriazole, ammonium thiocyanate, anilifos, atrazine, AVH 301, azimsulfuron, benfuresate, bensulfuron-methyl, bentazone, benthiocarb, benzobicyclon, bifenox, bispyribac-sodium, bromacil, bromoxynil, butachlor, butafenacil, butralin, cafenstrole, carbetamide, carfentrazone-ethyl, chlorflurenol, chlorimuron, chlorpropham, cinosulfuron, clethodim, clomazone, clopyralid, cloransulam-methyl, ...
1. 4-Hydroxypyrazole inhibits flux through tryptophan 2.3-dioxygenase in cells. The inhibition is apparently non-competitive with Ki = 0.15 mM. 2. Hydroxypyrazole inhibits the oxidation of formate to CO2 in liver cells. 3. Glycollate, which generates H2O2, stimulates formate oxidation. This process is inhibited by 4-hydroxypyrazole. 4. Methionine stimulates formate oxidation in cells and this stimulation is insensitive to 4-hydroxypyrazole. 5. It is concluded that, in freshly isolated liver cells, formate oxidation proceeds by a pathway involving catalase. In vivo, or when methionine is added to cell incubations, the pathway of oxidation involves tetrahydrofolate, and is insensitive to catalase inhibitors. 6. Methionine at physiological concentrations inhibits the activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in isolated liver cells. ...
This ELISA kit uses the Sandwich-ELISA principle. The micro ELISA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antigen specific to Human αHSP(Alpha-Hemoglobin Stabilizing Protein). Standards or samples are added to the micro ELISA plate wells and combined with the specific antigen. Then a biotinylated detection antigen specific for Human αHSP(Alpha-Hemoglobin Stabilizing Protein) and Avidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugate are added successively to each micro plate well and incubated. Free components are washed away. The substrate solution is added to each well. Only those wells that contain Human αHSP(Alpha-Hemoglobin Stabilizing Protein), biotinylated detection antigen and Avidin-HRP conjugate will appear blue in color. The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of stop solution and the color turns yellow. The optical density (OD) is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm ± 2 nm. The OD value is proportional to the concentration of Human ...
We provided evidence in the present report suggesting that treatment of the BEAS-2B cells with continuous low concentration of As3+ induces cell transformation and that the capacity of ROS generation in the transformed cells was severely compromised. Such a reduction in ROS generation seems to be responsible for fast proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to As3+ toxicity of the transformed cells. A sustained alternative activation of NF-κB might contribute to the fast and anchorage-independent growth of these cells due to reduced ROS generation. The fast growth of the transformed cells could be reversed by either resuming the ROS production through SOD2/catalase inhibition or gene silencing of NF-κB p105/50.. ROS have long been viewed as major contributors to oxidative injury and DNA damage of tissues or cells (22). A sustained oxidative injury and unrepaired damage on DNA will be carcinogenic due to accumulation of genetic mutations that either activate oncogenes or ...
Catalase小鼠单克隆抗体[1A1](ab16771)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经IP, ELISA, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。
Our results show that catalase protects against diabetic cardiomyopathy. Nontransgenic diabetic hearts express 40% more mRNA from their endogenous catalase gene than control hearts. By increasing catalase activity 60-fold with a cardiac-specific transgene, we were able to significantly reduce the primary characteristics of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The transgene prevented morphologic damage to mitochondria and myofibrils. Impaired cardiomyocyte contractility was eliminated, and increased ROS production by high glucose was significantly reduced. Catalase was found to be effective in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.. The protection produced by catalase indicates that ROS are an essential intermediate in diabetic cardiomyopathy. This hypothesis was strengthened by the finding that several protein bands in diabetic hearts contained more MDA, a by-product of lipid peroxidation, than nondiabetic hearts. Catalase reversed the increase in MDA staining for the most prominent of these bands, ...
Effects of Temperature and pH on Catalase Activity INTRODUCTION Enzymes are organic catalysts that spur metabolic reactions. The presence of an enzyme within...
Download and Read online Advances In Triazole Chemistry, ebooks in PDF, epub, Tuebl Mobi, Kindle Book. Get FreeAdvances In Triazole Chemistry Textbook and unlim
there is probably an INIT STRING type variable in /etc/ppp or /etc/pppd/ somewhere. Change it to start off with that string instead of the usual ATZ0 (I think that is normal). Try `grep ATZ /etc/* -r` that might tell you a file that has it contained within ...
The Delaney Clause applied to pesticides in processed foods, but only when the concentration of a residue of a cancer-causing pesticide increased during processing; for example when more of a pesticide was present in ketchup than in the raw tomatoes used to make it. (It never applied to pesticides in raw foods.) When the law was passed, neither advocates nor opponents of the policy, including FDA officials, believed it would have broad application, for only a handful of chemicals had then been shown to be animal carcinogens.[2]. The Delaney Clause was invoked in 1959 when Arthur Sherwood Flemming, the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare issued a statement advising the public about the possible contamination of substantial quantities of cranberries in Oregon and Washington with the herbicide aminotriazole, which the FDA had recently determined was a carcinogen (see Cranberry scare of 1959). Taking place the week of Thanksgiving, the announcement was referred to by many ...
BIO-I #6B: In this Preliminary Activity, you will use catalase in yeast to catalytically decompose hydrogen peroxide. You will use an O2 Gas Sensor to determine the rate of catalase activity by measuring oxygen gas produced as H2O2 is decomposed. Before data collection begins, there is no product, and the pressure is the same as atmospheric pressure. Shortly after data collection begins, oxygen accumulates at a rather constant rate. The slope of the curve at this initial time is constant and is called the initial rate. In this investigation, we will refer to this as the rate of catalase activity. As the peroxide is decomposed, less of it is available to react and the O2 is produced at lower rates. When no more peroxide is left, O2 is no longer produced. When data collection is complete, you will perform a linear fit on the resultant graph to determine catalase activity. After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about catalase, enzymes
Continuous-flow processing offers unprecedented opportunities to accelerate, integrate, simplify, scale-up and automatize chemical reactions, in combination with an inherently safer and greener nature over traditional batch-based syntheses. Triazoles are amongst the most important and most intensively stud
1H-1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,5-triphenyl- | C20H15N3 | CID 563249 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
There is a patchy uptake of contrast. The ATZ extends variably above and below the dentate line for about 1в2 centimeters vertically, in fingerlike projections that vary in length both between subjects and within the same individual 3.
16. A compound according to claim 1, which is: 3-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 3-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]tria- zole; 3-(3,5-dimethoxybenzylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 3-(4-fluorobenzylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 5-phenyl-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)benzylthio)thiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 3-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethylthio)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)thiazolo[2,3-c][- 1,2,4]triazole; 3-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethylthio)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)thiazolo[2,3-c][- 1,2,4]triazole; 3-((5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazol-3-ylthio)methyl)phenol; 3-(4-chlorobenzylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 3-(3-chloro-4-methoxybenzylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 3-(2,4-difluorobenzylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 5-phenyl-3-(2-(trifluoromethyl)benzylthio)thiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; 3-(phenethylthio)-5-phenylthiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazole; ...
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Best Catalase Enzyme from Catalase Enzyme suppliers, quality Catalase Enzyme manufacturer from China alpha-amylaseenzyme of page 2.
Add 1.0 ml of 3% H 2 O 2 directly onto an 18- to 24-hour heavily inoculated pure culture grown on a nutrient agar ... Catalase test as an aid to the identification of ...
Introduction. How Temperature Affects Catalase Activity. Aim: In this experiment I aim to investigate how altering the temperature exposed to the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide, will affect the reaction and the gas product produced. Scientific background knowledge lets us know that there are 6 variables that usually affect the rate of a reaction, and they are as follows: * Concentration of enzymes * Concentration of hydrogen peroxide * Temperature condition of reaction * Pressure condition of reaction * Physical state of solid substrate (e.g. surface area of particles) [Some material reproduced from Biology 1 endorsed by OCR] In order to ensure fairness and accuracy, I will see to it that all the necessary and vital measurements are taken precise to the mark, and Ill aim to maintain all other latent variables constant. Hypothesis: Via my observation, I intend to prove that as the temperature of both the yeast catalase and the hydrogen peroxide id equally increased, the rate of which ...
An electrical device in provided having two electrodes separated from one another, wherein one temperature controlled electronic spin-state transition particle is in direct contact with each of the t
ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਛੜੀ ਦੇ ਸਰੂਪ ਦਾ ਬੀਟਾ ਹੀਮੋਲਿਟਿਕ ਗਰਾਮ ਪਾਜਿਟਿਵ ਜੀਵਾਣੁ ਜੀਨਸ ਹੈ, ਫਰਮੀਕਿਊਟਸ ਉਪਜਾਤੀ ਦਾ ਨਾਲ ਹੀ ਇੱਕ ਮੈਂਬਰ ਹੈ। ਦੰਡਾਣੁ ਜਾਂ ਤਾਂ ਬਾਧਯ ਪ੍ਰਜਾਤੀ ਦੇ ਹਨ ਜਾਂ ਐੱਛਿਕ aerobe s, ਅਤੇ ਪ੍ਰੀਖਿਆ ਲਈ ਸਕਾਰਾਤਮਕ ਏੰਜਾਇਮ catalase।. ...
MANILA, Philippines-Former President and now Pampanga Representative Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo went to the Makati Medical Center (MMC) Thursday afternoon to undergo a digital mammogram.. Arroyo left the Veterans Memorial Medical Center (VMMC), where she is under hospital detention for plunder, around noon and arrived at the Makati hospital at 1 p.m. in a wheelchair and wearing a neck brace ...
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98532-72-0 - KFXMFRPCEMAZEC-WIYYLYMNSA-N - 1H-1,2,4-Triazole, 1-((2-(2-benzofuranyl)-4-(phenoxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl)-, cis- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Building on previous work (Shi et al., 2013), we have used MicroED to determine the structure of catalase at 3.2 Å resolution from a single crystal.
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Accela Chembio Inc 3-AMINO-4-PYRIDAZINECARB 0.25G 3-AMINO-4-PYRIDAZINECARB .
dhd:Dhaf_1029 K03781 catalase [EC:1.11.1.6] , (GenBank) Catalase (A) MKDNKPNKKREQLEPFIHESEGKKMTSNEGITISDDENTLTAGERGPTLIEDFLSREKLA HFDRERIPERVVHARGYGAHGEFQPYESLADLTMADFLQDPNKKTPLFVRFSQVVGSKGC NETNRDVRGFSIKFYTDEGNFDLIAINMPVFFIQDAIKFPDLIHAVKPEPDNEYPQGQTD HNTFWDFMANNKETAHMSLWIASNRAFPKSFRTMEGFGVHTFRLVNKDGKSHFVKFHIKP LLGVHSLIWDEAQRLGSDADFHRRDLWENIEIGNYPEYEMAIQVIKEEDEFAYDFDLLDP TKLWPEEEIPLRRIGKIILNRNVENAFAETEQSAFHPGNIVRGIDFSNDPLLQGRLFSYT DAQQARLGPNHQQLPINRPVCPFANNQRDGASRLVIDRGKVAYHRNGLANNSPYTVPGTQ GGFVTYPSTVEGHKVRSTAPSFKDHYSQAKMFWNSMSEVEKRQIIGAYCFELGKCGPFVR QEWVDVLAHISTELAKSVSKELGTTVPADVEESPVTKSSPALSLHNTIFVPDTLRVAVFL AQGFDGPGVSKVLETLAEAKLRVVIVHDTLGKVSGTEGVTYEVHDSFLTGSPLVYDGILI VGSGNITPYFTYTAQKFTTDIYNHFKPIGIIQKGDAVLEPLGLLADEGIVTDSGPDFAGR FIKAMAKQRFWNRPSFLYPAMV ...
As an herbicide, it is known as aminotriazole, amitrole or amitrol. Amitrol was included in a biocide ban proposed by the ... EXTOXNET - Herbicide fact sheet for amitrole NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0027". National Institute for ...
However, the incident did cause cranberry growers to cease using amitrole as an herbicide, as demanded by the farmers' largest ...
... amitrole MeSH D03.383.129.799.450 - fluconazole MeSH D03.383.129.799.500 - guanazole MeSH D03.383.129.799.550 - itraconazole ...
2-Amino-4-nitrophenol 2-Amino-5-nitrophenol 4-Amino-2-nitrophenol 2-Amino-5-nitrothiazole 11-Aminoundecanoic acid Amitrole ...
Amitrole Aminocarb (Matacil) Atrazine Dalapon Dicamba 2,4-D Fosamine ammonium Glyphosate (Vision) Hexazinone Mexacarbate ( ...
2-Amino-4-nitrophenol 2-Amino-5-nitrophenol 4-Amino-2-nitrophenol 2-Amino-5-nitrothiazole 11-Aminoundecanoic acid Amitrole ...
Aminotriazole, 3-Aminotriazole, 2-Amino-1,3,4-triazole, 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole Colorless to white, crystalline powder. [herbicide] [Note: Odorless when pure.]
Sixteen female Russian rabbits were daily treated orally by gavage with Amitrole from day 6 to18 p.c. in doses of 0, 5, 20, and ... External, visceral and skeletal examination of the fetuses revealed no effects of Amitrole on intrauterine development up to ... developmental toxicity and the conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance amitrole ... A teratogenic potential of Amitrole was not evident. ...
3-Amino-s-triazole; 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole; Amerol; Aminotriazole; Amitol; Amitril; Amitrol; Amizol; Azaplant; Azolan; Azole; Cytrol; Cytrole; Diurol; Domatol; Elmasil; Emisol; Herbidal total; Herbizole; Ramizole; Vorox; Weedazin; Weedazol; Weedex granulat; EPA Pesticide Code: 004401. ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Amitrole (EHC 158, 1994) Amitrole (HSG 85, 1994) Amitrole (ICSC) Amitrole (Pesticide ... Amitrole (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 7, 1974) Amitrole (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 41, 1986) Amitrole (IARC ... Amitrole forms neutral aqueous solutions but acts as a weak base. When exposed to UV light, amitrole breaks down to form CO2, ... When amitrole was applied at 2.5-4.2 times the officially recognized dosage (6 kg/ha), no amitrole was detected in the apples ( ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Amitrole (EHC 158, 1994) Amitrole (HSG 85, 1994) Amitrole (ICSC) Amitrole (WHO Pesticide ... Amitrole (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 7, 1974) Amitrole (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 41, 1986) Amitrole (IARC ... Amitrole has a low acute toxicity when tested in several species by various routes of administration. In old studies, amitrole ... The formation of amitrole metabolites as percentage of dose decreased with increasing dose. The rate of elimination of amitrole ...
Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95- ... Amitrole (Aminotriazole). Subscribe to New Research on Amitrole A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. ... 12/10/2010 - "Amitrole induces thyroid and liver tumors in rodents. ". 07/01/1994 - "Amitrole, a widely used herbicide found to ... 06/30/1983 - "The strongest effect of amitrole on thyroid function, as compared to golden hamsters and mice, was seen in rats ...
... the generation of amitrole in planta. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Aldose-Ketose IsomerasesAmaranthusAmitroleChemistry Techniques, SyntheticEnzyme InhibitorsEscherichia coli ProteinsHerbicides ... Synthesis and Evaluation of Hydroxyazolopyrimidines as Herbicides; the Generation of Amitrole in Planta. Pest Manag Sci. 2016; ... Synthesis and evaluation of hydroxyazolopyrimidines as herbicides; the generation of amitrole in planta. Pest Manag Sci. 2016; ...
Purchase online Amitrole DRE-C10240000 - CAS Number 61-82-5. High Quality CRMs, Reference Materials, Proficiency Testing & More ...
The Amitrole-13C2,15N2 n/a (Catalog #MBS6069674) is a Biochemical and is intended for research purposes o... ... The Amitrole-13C2,15N2 n/a (Catalog #MBS6069674) is a Biochemical and is intended for research purposes only. The product is ... Labeled Amitrole. Herbicide; plant regulator.. CAS Number: 1346603-92-6. Molecular Formula: 13C2H4N215N2. Melting Point: 152- ... Blog on Amitrole-13C2,15N2 biochemical product: ... Tags: Biochemical; Amitrole-13C2,15N2; Amitrole-13C2,15N2 ...
WA 240 94AM Amitrole / WA 240 94AM Amitrole : WA 240 94GL Glyphosate / WA 240 94IN Multilevel course on the safe use of ... Amitrole, which appears to act by inhibiting the formation of chlorophyll, is widely used around orchard trees, on fallow land ... Amitrole, which appears to act by inhibiting the formation of chlorophyll, is widely used around orchard trees, on fallow land ... Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to amitrole, a herbicide with a very wide spectrum of ...
HQ SERIAL Amitrole / HQ SERIAL Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants / HQ SERIAL Evaluación y ... Amitrole, which appears to act by inhibiting the formation of chlorophyll, is widely used around orchard trees, on fallow land ... Amitrole, which appears to act by inhibiting the formation of chlorophyll, is widely used around orchard trees, on fallow land ... Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to amitrole, a herbicide with a very wide spectrum of ...
Amitrole. 61-82-5. 0027.pdf pdf icon. No Revision. Ammonia. 7664-41-7. 0028.pdf pdf icon. 0028-rev.pdf pdf icon. ...
Amitrole. 40595901. Soil. 2/18/88. Amitrole. 43646801. Soil. 6/10/93. ...
Amitrole. -. 61-82-5. Physical properties. Flash point °C. 5.0. Molecular weight. 84.08. ...
HAS ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:. Article 1. A fourth list of Union indicative occupational exposure limit values is hereby established for the chemical agents listed in the Annex.. Article 2. Member States shall establish national occupational exposure limit values for the chemical agents listed in the Annex, taking into account the Union limit values.. Article 3. In the Annex to Directive 91/322/EEC, the references to acetic acid, calcium dihydroxide, lithium hydride and nitrogen monoxide are deleted with effect from 21 August 2018, subject to Article 6(2)(a).. Article 4. In the Annex to Directive 2000/39/EC, the reference to 1,4-dichlorobenzene is deleted with effect from 21 August 2018.. Article 5. In the Annex to Directive 2009/161/EU, the reference to bisphenol A is deleted with effect from 21 August 2018.. Article 6. 1. In underground mining and tunnelling, Member States may benefit from a transitional period ending at the latest on 21 August 2023, as regards the limit values for nitrogen ...
Amitrole. *o-Anisidine and its hydrochloride. *Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine, 5-AzaC). *Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride ...
AMITROLE AMMONIA BORATES, TETRA, SODIUM PENTAHYDRATE. AMMONIUM CHLORIDE FUME BORON OXIDE. AMMONIUM SULFAMATE BORON TRIBROMIDE ...
The present invention relates to the use of phosphated 2-propylheptanol, phosphated 2-proyplheptanol alkoxylate and/or mixtures thereof in agricultural formulations. The invention also relates to agri
CIS 95-428 Amitrole International chemical safety card. Synonym: aminotriazole. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the ...
Target site is generally considered unknown with the exception of amitrole, which inhibits lycopene cyclase and clomazone that ...
Tolerance to amitrole in weeds in long-term experiments in fruit plantations. VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, ... However, true herbicide resistance has been rarely demonstrated (triazine: van Oorschot and Straathof, 1988; amitrole: Bulcke ... and amitrole (Bulcke et al., 1988). As a rule, it is much more resistant when mature than at the seedling stage.. Pre-emergence ...
Amitrole. U012. Aniline (I,T). U136. Arsinic acid, dimethyl-. U014. Auramine. U015. Azaserine. ...
We are reviewing the Workplace exposure standards for airborne contaminants to ensure they are based on the highest quality, contemporary evidence and supported by a rigorous, scientific approach.. The draft evaluation reports for each chemical will be available for public comment. Chemicals will be released alphabetically throughout 2019 and 2020. Public comment will be open for each release for a period of four weeks on Engage.. The chemical release groups and the anticipated dates for opening public comment are outlined below. Please note these dates are indicative only. For the latest information please continue to visit Engage.. ...
Study chemistry final flashcards from Angela Jackson
Amitrole. Formula: C2H4N4. *Ammonia. Formula: NH3. *Ammonium acetate. Formula: NH4C2H3O2. *Ammonium Bichromate and Dichromate. ...
Amitrole / pharmacology * Animals * Azides / pharmacology * Benzofurans / pharmacology * Catalase / pharmacology * Cyanides / ...
Amitrole / pharmacology * Binding Sites * DNA, Complementary / metabolism * Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology * Gene Library ...
  • Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to amitrole, a herbicide with a very wide spectrum of activity against annual and perennial broad leaf and grass type weeds. (who.int)
  • The book further concludes that amitrole poses no significant threat to the environment, that levels in food and drinking-water should be extremely low, and that the herbicide poses no threat to the health of workers or the general population when manufactured and used as recommended. (who.int)
  • Amitrole is a nonselective systemic triazole herbicide and taken in by the target plant as a foliar spray. (thoughtco.com)
  • In Canada, amitrole is registered as a herbicide. (canada.ca)
  • In 2014, the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) conducted a re-evaluation of amitrole, and as a result, the agency implemented a phase-out of its use as a herbicide, with the exception of its use on spruce bareroot nursery stock (seedbeds). (canada.ca)
  • As an herbicide, it is known as aminotriazole, amitrole or amitrol. (wikipedia.org)
  • EXTOXNET - Herbicide fact sheet for amitrole NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minimise herbicide contact with the soil and other vegetation as Amitrole is non-selective, residual and corrosive. (nrc.govt.nz)
  • However, the incident did cause cranberry growers to cease using amitrole as an herbicide, as demanded by the farmers' largest consumer, the Ocean Spray company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spot-spraying of hexazinone and amitrole/atrazine in the establishment of first and second rotations of Pinus radiata in south-western Victoria. (weedinfo.com.au)
  • There is no clear picture of the effect of amitrole on microsomal metabolizing enzyme systems in mammals although it does serve to inhibit or reduce several specific biochemical reactions. (inchem.org)
  • The strongest effect of amitrole on thyroid function, as compared to golden hamsters and mice, was seen in rats at 100 ppm. (curehunter.com)
  • Excessively high levels of 2,4-D, glyphosate and amitrole were detected in Goulburn-Murray Water drains in 2006. (foe.org.au)
  • Ali A. and Fletcher R. A. (1977), Phytotoxic action of glyphosate and amitrole on corn seedlings. (degruyter.com)
  • EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS Biotransformation The metabolic fate of amitrole in animals has not yet been fully elucidated. (inchem.org)
  • EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE BIOLOGICAL DATA Biochemical aspects Absorption, distribution and excretion Mice The distribution of 14 C-labelled amitrole was examined in non- pregnant C57BL female mice. (inchem.org)
  • Pesticide Action Network lists amitrole as a carcinogen and suspected endocrine disruptor. (foe.org.au)
  • Amitrole is classified as a Restricted Use Pesticide and may be purchased and used only by certified applicators. (thoughtco.com)
  • 1965). When amitrole (5- 14 C) was fed to rats (Fang et al. (inchem.org)
  • Effects on enzymes and other biochemical parameters Acute administration of amitrole to rats results in depression of catalase and peroxidase enzyme activity as well as the activity of several other enzymes. (inchem.org)
  • 1972). Groups of rats (15 males per group) were administered radioactive iodine alone or in combination with 0.15 or 0.78 mg amitrole administered by intraperitoneal injection. (inchem.org)
  • 1984). Rats 14 C-Amitrole was administered to male and female Wistar rats at a dose of 1 mg/rat and the expired air, urine, faeces, internal organs and tissues were analyzed for radioactivity. (inchem.org)
  • 1964). In a second experiment, 14 C-amitrole was administered to male and female Wistar rats at doses ranging from 1 mg/rat to 200 mg/rat. (inchem.org)
  • The rate of elimination of amitrole from all tissues was slightly slower for rats fed 200 mg as compared with those fed 1 mg amitrole. (inchem.org)
  • 1966). 14 C-Amitrole was administered orally to male Wistar rats as a single dose of 50 mg/kg bw. (inchem.org)
  • 1975). Inhalation exposure to 14 C-amitrole aerosol in rats was examined by MacDonald & Pullinger (1976) and Turner & Gilbert (1976). (inchem.org)
  • Groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 14 C-amitrole aerosol for 1 hour either as `head-only' or as `whole body' exposure at levels of 49.2 g/l or 25.8 g/l, respectively. (inchem.org)
  • Dietary levels of 0, 100, 500, 100 and 25 ppm amitrole were fed to groups of 10 male and 10 or 12 female rats. (epa.gov)
  • 1966) have shown that amitrole is not metabolically acetylated, and that the average half-time for amitrole clearance in various tissues was 4.2 hours. (inchem.org)
  • Amitrole treatment of etiolated barley seedlings leads to deregulation of tetrapyrrole synthesis and to reduced expression of Lhc and RbcS genes. (springer.com)
  • 1964), 70-96% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine during the first 24 hours as amitrole and two unidentified metabolites. (inchem.org)
  • The formation of amitrole metabolites as percentage of dose decreased with increasing dose. (inchem.org)
  • The fate of two unidentified plant metabolites of amitrole, namely, metabolite 1 and metabolite 3 (isolated from bean plants) was also examined. (inchem.org)
  • Although studies of occupationally-exposed workers are largely reassuring, the book recommends annual monitoring of thyroid function in workers regularly handling amitrole at either the formulation or application stage. (who.int)
  • In April 2018, PMRA initiated a special review of amitrole following the non-renewal (no longer approved) of pesticidal uses in the European Union. (canada.ca)
  • The Amitrole-13C2,15N2 n/a (Catalog # MBS6069674 ) is a Biochemical and is intended for research purposes only. (mybiosource.com)
  • This monograph summarizes the data received since the previous evaluation and contains relevant data from the previous monograph on amitrole. (inchem.org)
  • AMITROLE First draft prepared by P.H. Arentzen and E.M. den Tonkelaar National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection Bilthoven, Netherlands EXPLANATION Amitrole was evaluated by the Joint Meeting in 1974 when a conditional ADI of 0-0.00003 mg/kg bw was established (Annex I, reference 22). (inchem.org)
  • As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been confirmed in humans. (scielosp.org)
  • A questão diz respeito a outros efeitos endócrinos descritos em animais experimentais, e apenas a inibição tireóide foi confirmada em seres humanos, após exposição ocupacional a amitrole e mancozeb. (scielosp.org)
  • A review of studies on the environmental fate of amitrole concludes that the compound is relatively rapidly degraded in the environment, with no evidence of either bioaccumulation or entry into the food chain. (who.int)
  • Acrolein, for example, is injected directly into flowing water, whilst amitrole, glyphosate and 2,4-D are spot sprayed when the weeds are not submerged. (foe.org.au)
  • Amitrole was and is used widely across irrigation areas of Victoria as a control to aquatic weeds such as couch grass in drains and channels. (foe.org.au)
  • After absorption, amitrole was distributed throughout most of the tissues. (inchem.org)
  • The absorption and distribution of amitrole in fetal tissue of mice were studied by whole body autoradiography upon administration (i.v. or p.o.) of radiolabelled amitrole. (inchem.org)
  • Studies in both humans and animals show that amitrole is rapidly absorbed and rapidly excreted in urine in an unchanged form. (who.int)
  • The effects of amitrole on thyroglobulin and iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The liver contained a metabolite but no free amitrole. (inchem.org)
  • Replacement of NF by other inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (such as amitrole) revealed that the growth and pigmentation phenotype is not coupled to the LHCB1.2 mRNA accumulation phenotype. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Amitrole, which appears to act by inhibiting the formation of chlorophyll, is widely used around orchard trees, on fallow land prior to sowing, along roadsides and railway lines, and for weed control in ponds. (who.int)
  • Amitrole / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • Approval was first given in September 1962 at the Intergovernmental Committee on Pesticides for the State Rivers and Water Supply Commission (SRWSC) to use amitrole provided that the level in domestic drinking water did not exceed 300 parts per billion. (foe.org.au)
  • Observed similarities between the bleaching symptomology displayed by these herbicides and amitrole suggested that hydroxytriazolopyrimidines could be acting as elaborate propesticides of amitrole, and this was subsequently demonstrated in plant metabolism studies using Amaranthus retroflexus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Other information on identity and properties Amitrole is a white, crystalline solid with a molecular weight of 84 and a melting point of 150-153 C. It is soluble in water to the extent of 28 g/100 g and in ethanol and methanol to an extent of 26 g/100 g. (inchem.org)
  • In Canada, amitrole was not reported to be present in any products with commercial or consumer use above the reporting threshold. (canada.ca)
  • It also means that levels of amitrole under 10 ppb, would not have been regarded as "dangerous" as recently as 2011 before the new Guidelines were published. (foe.org.au)
  • It was shown that selected hydroxytriazolopyrimidines that displayed promising herbicidal activity generated amitrole, with peak concentrations of amitrole generally being observed 1 day after application. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Microautoradiographically, amitrole was found mostly in the cytoplasm, suggesting possible involvement in purine synthesis associated with cell division. (inchem.org)
  • Pregnant NMRI mice received radioactive amitrole at day 18 of pregnancy and were sacrificed 4 or 8 hours after administration. (inchem.org)
  • In June 1963 the Commission adopted a maximum concentration of amitrole in streams of 2 ppb. (foe.org.au)
  • Treat the new growth with 2,4-D or Amitrole, misting the foliage to keep the runoff onto the ground to a minimum. (latimes.com)
  • These findings support the conclusion that amitrole is goitrogenic, causing thyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, depletion of colloid, and increased vascularity. (who.int)