Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Maprotiline: A bridged-ring tetracyclic antidepressant that is both mechanistically and functionally similar to the tricyclic antidepressants, including side effects associated with its use.Dibenzazepines: Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Protriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Clomipramine: A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Trimipramine: Tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE, but with more antihistaminic and sedative properties.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)p-Aminoazobenzene: Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene: A very potent liver carcinogen.Dibenzocycloheptenes: A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).Crown Ethers: Macrocyclic polyethers with the repeating unit of (-CH2-CH2-O)n where n is greater than 2 and some oxygens may be replaced by nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds are useful for coordinating CATIONS. The nomenclature uses a prefix to indicate the size of the ring and a suffix for the number of heteroatoms.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Isocarboxazid: An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Tranylcypromine: A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Cisapride: A substituted benzamide used for its prokinetic properties. It is used in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, and other disorders associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)

The novel analgesic compound OT-7100 (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimid ine) attenuates mechanical nociceptive responses in animal models of acute and peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia. (1/363)

We investigated the effects of OT-7100, a novel analgesic compound (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidi ne), on prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in vitro, acute hyperalgesia induced by yeast and substance P in rats and hyperalgesia in rats with a chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (Bennett model), which is a model for peripheral neuropathic pain. OT-7100 did not inhibit prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis at 10(-8)-10(-4) M. Single oral doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by yeast. Single oral doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by substance P in which indomethacin had no effect. Repeated oral administration of OT-7100 (10 and 30 mg/kg) was effective in normalizing the mechanical nociceptive threshold in the injured paw without affecting the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw in the Bennett model. Indomethacin had no effect in this model. While amitriptyline (10 and 30 mg/kg) and clonazepam (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly normalized the nociceptive threshold in the injured paw, they also increased the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw. These results suggest that OT-7100 is a new type of analgesic with the effect of normalizing the nociceptive threshold in peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia.  (+info)

Amitriptyline and procainamide inhibition of cocaine and cocaethylene degradation in human serum in vitro. (2/363)

Amitriptyline (AMI) and procainamide (PA) have been reported to inhibit the activity of human plasma butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme important in the metabolic degradation of cocaine (COC) and its ethyl analogue cocaethylene (CE). Because both AMI and PA may be used in the treatment of COC intoxication and abuse, the effect of high pharmacological concentrations of these compounds on the degradation of COC and CE in pooled human serum was studied. AMI (1.8 micromol/L) modestly inhibited the degradation of COC by 4.2% and of CE by 4.0%. PA (42.5 micromol/L) profoundly inhibited degradation of COC by 42.7% and of CE by 47.2%. In contrast, lithium carbonate (1 mmol/L, control) showed no inhibition of degradation of either COC or CE. These results suggest that AMI and PA may prolong the half-life of COC and CE in human serum.  (+info)

Determination of amitriptyline and nortriptyline in human liver microsomes with reversed-phase HPLC in vitro. (3/363)

AIM: To develop a method for simultaneous determinations of amitriptyline (Ami) and its metabolite nortriptyline (Nor) in human liver microsomes. METHODS: An incubation buffer containing microsomes, NADPH-generating system, and Ami, after termination of enzyme reaction and desipramine (Des) as internal standard (IS), was extracted with diethy ether and separated on a reversed-phase ODS column. Detection was achieved at 242 nm by ultraviolet detector. RESULTS: No potential interfering peaks were found. Ami and Nor gave rapid elution and baseline resolution. The linear curves of both analyses ranged 0.02-10 nmol and the limit of detection was 0.01 nmol. The recovery (94%-101%) had good precision with relative s of < 8.3%. CONCLUSION: This method is rapid, sensitive, and simple for studying the metabolism of Ami and Nor.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization of OROS and immediate-release amitriptyline. (4/363)

AIMS: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline following OROS and IR treatments, and to correlate them with anticholinergic side-effects. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics and safety of amitriptyline following administration of an osmotic controlled release tablet (OROS and an immediate release (IR) tablet were evaluated in 14 healthy subjects. In this randomized, open label, three-way crossover feasibility study, the subjects received a single 75 mg OROS tablet, three 25 mg IR tablets administered every 8 h, or 3x25 mg IR tablets administered at nighttime. In each treatment arm serial blood samples were collected for a period of 84 h after dosing. The plasma samples were analysed by gas chromatography for amitriptyline and its metabolite nortriptyline. Anticholinergic effects such as saliva output, visual acuity, and subject-rated drowsiness and dry mouth were measured on a continuous scale during each treatment period. RESULTS: Following dosing with OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride), the mean maximal plasma amitriptyline concentration Cmax (15.3 ng ml-1 ) was lower and the mean tmax (25.7 h) was longer than that associated with the equivalent IR dose administered at nighttime (26.8 ng ml-1 and 6.3 h, respectively). The bioavailability of amitriptyline following OROS dosing was 95% relative to IR every 8 h dosing, and 89% relative to IR nighttime dosing. The metabolite-to-drug ratios after the three treatment periods were similar, suggesting no change in metabolism between treatments. The relationships between plasma amitriptyline concentration and anticholinergic effects (e.g. reduced saliva weight, dry mouth, and drowsiness) were similar with all three treatments. Of the anticholinergic effects, only decreased saliva weight and dry mouth correlated well with plasma amitriptyline concentrations; drowsiness did not. There was no apparent correlation between anticholinergic effects and the plasma nortriptyline concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The bioavailability of OROS (amitriptyline hydrochloride) was similar to that of the IR treatments and the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline after OROS dosing may decrease the incidence of anticholinergic effects compared with that seen with nighttime dosing of the IR formulation. Therefore, this controlled-release formulation of amitriptyline may be appropriate for single daily administration.  (+info)

Relaxant effects of antidepressants on human isolated mesenteric arteries. (5/363)

AIMS: The therapeutic action of tricyclic agents may be accompanied by unwanted effects on the cardiovascular system. The evidence for the effects on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle comes from animal studies. Whether these studies can be extrapolated to human vessels remains to be determined. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline on the contractile responses of human isolated mesenteric arteries to electrical field stimulation, noradrenaline and potassium chloride. METHODS: Arterial segments (lumen diameter 0.8-1.2 mm) were obtained from portions of the human omentum during the course of 41 abdominal operations (22 men and 19 women), and rings 3 mm long were mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. In some artery rings the endothelium was removed mechanically. RESULTS: In precontracted artery rings amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline (3x10(-7)-10(-4) m ) produced concentration-dependent relaxation that was independent of the presence or absence of vascular endothelium. Incubation with indomethacin (3x10(-6) m ) reduced the pD2 values thus indicating the participation of dilating prostanoid substances in this response. Amitriptyline and nortriptyline inhibited both the neurogenic-and noradrenaline-induced contractions. In contrast, only the highest concentration of sertraline reduced the adrenergic responses. Amitriptyline, nortriptyline and sertraline inhibited contractions elicited by KCl and produced rightward shifts of the concentration-response curve to CaCl2 following incubation in calcium-free solution. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that amitriptyline and nortriptyline could act as adrenoceptor antagonists and direct inhibitors of smooth muscle contraction of human mesenteric arteries, whereas sertraline might principally exert its action only as direct inhibitor of smooth muscle contraction. This relaxant mechanism involves an interference with the entry of calcium.  (+info)

Inhibition of the high affinity myo-inositol transport system: a common mechanism of action of antibipolar drugs? (6/363)

The mechanism of action of antibipolar drugs like lithium, carbamazepine, and valproate that are used in the treatment of manic-depressive illness, is unknown. Lithium is believed to act through uncompetitive inhibition of inositolmonophosphatase, which results in a depletion of neural cells of inositol and a concomitant modulation of phosphoinositol signaling. Here, we show that lithium ions, carbamazepine, and valproate, but not the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline, inhibit at therapeutically relevant concentrations and with a time course similar to their clinical actions the high affinity myo-inositol transport in astrocyte-like cells and downregulate the level of the respective mRNA. Inhibition of inositol uptake could thus represent an additional pathway for inositol depletion, which might be relevant in the mechanism of action of all three antibipolar drugs.  (+info)

Inhibition of the current of heterologously expressed HERG potassium channels by imipramine and amitriptyline. (7/363)

1 Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are associated with cardiovascular side effects including prolongation of the QT interval of the ECG. In this report we studied the effects of two TCAs (imipramine and amitriptyline) on ionic current mediated by cloned HERG potassium channels. 2 Voltage clamp measurements of HERG currents were made from CHO cells transiently transfected with HERG cDNA. HERG-encoded potassium channels were inhibited in a reversible manner by both imipramine and amitriptyline. HERG tail currents (IHERG) following test pulses to +20 mV were inhibited by imipramine with an IC50 of 3.4+/-0.4 microM (mean+/-s.e.mean) and a Hill coefficient of 1.17+/-0.03 (n = 5). 3 microM amitriptyline inhibited IHERG by 34+/-6% (n = 3). The inhibition showed only weak voltage dependence. 3 Using an 'envelope of tails' comprised of pulses to +20 mV of varying durations, the tau of activation was found to be 155+/-30 ms for control and 132+/-26 ms for 3 microM imipramine (n = 5). Once maximal channel activation was achieved after 320 ms (as demonstrated by maximal tail currents), further prolongation of depolarization did not increase imipramine-mediated HERG channel inhibition. 4 Taking current measurements every second during a 10 s depolarizing pulse from -80 mV to 0 mV, block was observed during the first pulse in the presence of imipramine and the level of IHERG block was similar throughout the pulse (n=5). 5 A three pulse protocol (two depolarizing pulses to +20 mV separated by 20 ms at -80 mV) revealed that imipramine did not significantly alter the kinetics of IHERG inactivation. The tau of inactivation was 8+/-2 ms and 5.6+/-0.4 ms (n = 5) in the absence and presence of 3 microM imipramine, respectively, and currents inactivated to a similar extent. 6 Our data are consistent with TCAs causing components of block of the HERG channel in both the closed and open states. Any component of open channel block occurs rapidly upon depolarization. Inhibition of IHERG by the prototype TCAs imipramine and amitriptyline may suggest a mechanism for QT prolongation associated with risks of arrhythmia and sudden death that accompany high concentrations of TCAs following overdose.  (+info)

Fluoxetine and amitriptyline inhibit nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and hyaluronic acid production in human synovial cells and synovial tissue cultures. (8/363)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of fluoxetine and amitriptyline on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and hyaluronic acid (HA) production in human synovial cells and synovial tissue cultures. METHODS: Human synovial cells, synovial tissue, and cartilage were cultured in the presence or absence of cytokines, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), fluoxetine, or amitriptyline. Production of NO, PGE2, and HA was determined in culture media. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) synthesis was evaluated in cartilage by 35S incorporation. RESULTS: Fluoxetine (0.3 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, and 3 microg/ml) inhibited NO release by 56%, 62%, and 71%, respectively, in the media of synovial cells stimulated by interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha; 1 ng/ml) plus tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha; 30 ng/ml). Amitriptyline (0.3 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, and 3 microg/ml) caused a 16%, 27.3%, and 51.4% inhibition of NO release. Fluoxetine and amitriptyline (0.3 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, and 3 microg/ml) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited PGE2 release in the media of human synovial cells in the presence of IL-1alpha plus TNFalpha, in a dose-dependent manner (up to 88% inhibition). Fluoxetine (0.3 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, and 3 microg/ml) and amitriptyline (1 microg/ml and 3 microg/ml) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited PGE2 release in the media of human synovial tissue in the presence of LPS. Fluoxetine and amitriptyline (0.3 microg/ml, 1 microg/ml, and 3 microg/ml) also significantly (P<0.05) inhibited HA production by human synovial cells in the presence of IL-1beta plus TNFalpha. Fluoxetine and amitriptyline (1 microg/ml) partially reversed IL-1beta-induced inhibition of 35S-GAG synthesis by human cartilage cultures (P<0.05). Neither fluoxetine nor amitriptyline had a toxic effect on cells in the concentrations used. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of NO and PGE2 production by connective tissue cells is a mechanism by which some antidepressant medications may affect pain, articular inflammation, and joint damage.  (+info)

  • The electrophysiology service was consulted, and during their interview, the patient was more awake and did admit to taking 6 to 12 tablets of amitriptyline (a total estimated dose of 300 - 600 mg) prior to the event. (gavinpublishers.com)
  • Patients initially received placebo followed by a 4-week period with amitriptyline 40 mg, propranolol 25 mg or placebo. (janusinfo.se)
  • Participants will receive standardized or alternate point acupuncture treatment twice weekly for the first 6 weeks, then once weekly for the next 8 weeks, plus either oral amitriptyline or placebo daily for the entire 14 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are randomized to receive either standardized point acupuncture or alternate point acupuncture treatment twice weekly for the first 6 weeks, then once weekly for the next 8 weeks, plus either oral amitriptyline or placebo daily for the entire 14 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We examined the effects of two-drug combinations of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, and amitriptyline on nociception in diabetic mice and aimed to determine the type of interaction between components. (ac.rs)
  • i.p.), when the antinociceptive effects of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, amitriptyline and their two-drug combinations were examined. (ac.rs)
  • Analysis of the log dose-response curves for oxcarbazepine or gabapentin in a presence of amitriptyline and oxcarbazepine or gabapentin applied alone, revealed a synergism in oxcarbazepine-amitriptyline and additivity in gabapentin-amitriptyline combination. (ac.rs)
  • Amitriptyline can be a helpful medication to help a dog calm his nerves or learn to focus and behave better. (vetinfo.com)
  • A pet owner also needs to make sure she keeps the scheduled follow-up appointments with the veterinarian to report how her dog is responding to the amitriptyline and to make sure the dog is tolerating the medication well. (vetinfo.com)
  • Several studies have shown similar plasma levels of amitriptyline in depressed men and women receiving standard routine doses [2- (janusinfo.se)
  • Here, we examined the effect of amitriptyline on protein clearance and its relevant mechanisms in neuronal cells. (nature.com)
  • Antidepressive activity of amitriptyline is associated with the increase in synaptic neurotransmission of serotonin and norepinephrine by blocking their neuronal reuptake from the synapse in the central nervous system 1 . (nature.com)
  • Precautions should be made for dogs that are taking other medications that have also been prescribed amitriptyline. (vetinfo.com)
  • Dogs with liver problems, diabetes, that are pregnant, have seizure disorders or heart problems should not take amitriptyline. (vetinfo.com)
  • Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant commonly prescribed for major depressive disorders, as well as depressive symptoms associated with various neurological disorders. (nature.com)
  • Patients who received amitriptyline were reported to ameliorate PD-associated depressive symptoms, and delay the need for dopamine therapy as compared with patients who did not take the drug 6 , 7 . (nature.com)
  • The mean ratio of nortriptyline/amitriptyline was in one study (26 men, 39 women) showed to be similar in depressed men and women receiving 50-200 mg/day for >3 weeks while a small study in chronic pain patients (8 men, 11 women) found a higher mean nortriptyline/amitriptyline ratio in women than men after receiving amitriptyline 75 mg /day for 6 weeks . (janusinfo.se)
  • To evaluate the separate and combined efficacy of a standardized acupuncture regimen and amitriptyline on the relief of pain due to peripheral neuropathy and on the quality of life of HIV-infected patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Men with panic attacks responded better to TCAs such as amitriptyline than to MAOIs, while women with panic attacks responded better to MAOIs than to TCAs . (janusinfo.se)
  • For TCAs, an increase in fracture risk was only seen with amitriptyline, and the risk increased with increased use (DDD/day). (janusinfo.se)
  • Current use of amitriptyline, citalopram or paroxetine was associated with RLS in men (amitriptyline RR 2.40), while only fluoxetine was associated with RLS in women (RR 2.47) . (janusinfo.se)
  • Urine retention, constipation, headaches, slight behavior changes, nausea and weight gain have also been reported in dogs using amitriptyline. (vetinfo.com)
  • CYP2D6 is a protein in your body that is involved in the elimination of amitriptyline and other drugs from your body. (rxwiki.com)