A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
An antitubercular agent often administered in association with ISONIAZID. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid.
Antibacterial, potentially toxic, used to treat certain skin diseases.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An unbranched glucan in starch.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

The systemic load and efficient delivery of active 5-aminosalicylic acid in patients with ulcerative colitis on treatment with olsalazine or mesalazine. (1/215)

BACKGROUND: There have been reports of nephrotoxic reactions in patients with ulcerative colitis treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) preparations. AIM: To compare the efficacy in delivery of active 5-ASA to the colon and the systemic load as the basis for potential long-term toxicity during treatment with olsalazine or mesalazine in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with ulcerative colitis were treated with olsalazine or mesalazine, each for 7 days in an open, randomized, crossover design study. 5-ASA and acetyl-5-ASA (Ac-5-ASA) in plasma and urine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of 5-ASA was 1.2 +/- 0.1 micromol/L (mean +/- S.E.M.) for olsalazine and 8.0 +/- 1.9 micromol/L for mesalazine, while the plasma concentration of Ac-5-ASA was 2.8 +/- 0.2 micromol/L for olsalazine and 10.8 +/- 1.6 micromol/L for mesalazine. The amount of 5-ASA excreted in the urine was 68 +/- 30 micromol/24 h for olsalazine and 593 +/- 164 micromol/24 h for mesalazine. The amount of Ac-5-ASA in the urine was 1260 +/- 102 micromol/24 h for olsalazine and 3223 +/- 229 micromol/24 h for mesalazine. The urinary recovery of total 5-ASA plus Ac-5-ASA (as a percentage of the given dose) was 23 +/- 2.1% for olsalazine and 39 +/- 3.6% for mesalazine. The ratio between the plasma concentrations of mesalazine and olsalazine differed significantly both for 5-ASA (5.1) and Ac-5-ASA (3.6); for 5-ASA (9. 9) and Ac-5-ASA (2.6) in urine, and for the urinary recovery of total 5-ASA plus Ac-5-ASA (1.7). Moreover, in the mesalazine group there was a large variation in the individual plasma concentrations of 5-ASA and Ac-5-ASA, with maximal values 5-6-fold higher than that in the olsalazine group. CONCLUSION: The systemic load of active 5-ASA is significantly higher for mesalazine than for olsalazine, when based on the dosages given and when calculated on an equimolar basis. Some of the patients in the mesalazine group showed unexpected high levels of plasma and urinary 5-ASA concentrations, a finding which may have long-term safety implications.  (+info)

Antioxidant effects of aminosalicylates and potential new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease: assessment in cell-free systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies. (2/215)

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid in inflammatory bowel disease may be related to its antioxidant properties. AIM: To compare in vitro the antioxidant effects of conventional drugs (5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, metronidazole), with new aminosalicylates (4-aminosalicylic acid, balsalazide) and other potential therapies (ascorbate, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, verapamil). METHODS: Compounds were assessed for efficacy in reducing the in vitro production of reactive oxygen species by cell-free systems (using xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with or without myeloperoxidase) and by colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. RESULTS: 5-aminosalicylic acid and balsalazide were more potent antioxidants than 4-aminosalicylic acid or N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in cell-free systems. 5-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM) and balsalazide (20 mM) inhibited rectal biopsy chemiluminescence by 93% and 100%, respectively, compared with only 59% inhibition by 4-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM). Hydrocortisone, metronidazole and verapamil had no significant effect on chemiluminescence in any system. Ascorbate (20 mM) inhibited chemiluminescence by 100% in cell-free systems and by 60% in rectal biopsies. N-acetyl cysteine (10 mM), and both oxidized and reduced glutathione (10 mM), completely inhibited chemiluminescence in cell-free systems, but not with rectal biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant effects of compounds varies between cell-free systems and inflamed colorectal biopsies. The effect of drugs on the chemiluminescence produced by these two assay systems is useful for screening potentially new antioxidant treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Ascorbate seems worth further study as a novel therapy.  (+info)

Review article: the efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease--healing of fistulae. (3/215)

In the management of fistulae, the current therapeutic approach is the use of a combination of antibiotics and/or a combination of immunomodulatory agents. However, clinicians treating patients with fistulae, particularly those with fistulizing Crohn's disease, have little data from controlled clinical trials of these pharmacologic agents or regimens to substantiate their use in treating this complication. Therapy with the anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody, infliximab, has shown promise in treating patients with Crohn's disease and those with the disease complicated by fistulae. A recent clinical trial was designed specifically to evaluate infliximab in the treatment of fistulizing Crohn's disease. Study results demonstrated infliximab to be the first therapeutic agent to show statistical efficacy in fistulae closure in a placebo-controlled trial. Therapy with the chimeric monoclonal antibody was characterized by a rapid onset of closure and a lasting benefit of action. Two patient cases from the clinical trial are presented to exemplify the dramatic effectiveness of this novel therapeutic approach in modulating the immune response of patients with this debilitating complication of Crohn's disease.  (+info)

Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of UR-12746, a novel 5-ASA conjugate, on acute and chronic experimental colitis in the rat. (4/215)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of UR-12746 on the acute and chronic stages of a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the rat. UR-12746 is a novel, locally-acting compound which combines, through an azo bond, 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) and UR-12715, a potent platelet activating factor (PAF)-antagonist. UR-12746 oral pretreatment of colitic rats (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) reduced acute colonic damage when evaluated 2 days after colonic insult. Postreatment for 4 weeks with UR-12746 (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) resulted in a faster recovery of the damaged colonic mucosa, which was macroscopically significant from the third week. The intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of UR-12746 was associated with a decrease in leukocyte infiltration in the colonic mucosa, which was evidenced both biochemically, by a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity, and histologically, by a lower leukocyte count after morphometric analysis. This effect was higher than that seen with sulphasalazine, when assayed at the same doses and in the same experimental conditions. Several mechanisms can be involved in the beneficial effects showed by UR-12746: inhibition of leukotriene B(4) synthesis in the inflamed colon, improvement of the altered colonic oxidative status, and reduction of colonic interleukin-1beta production. The results suggest that the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of UR-12746 can be attributed to the additive effects exerted by 5-ASA and UR-12715, the PAF antagonist compound, that are released in the colonic lumen after reduction of the azo bond by the intestinal bacteria.  (+info)

Minimal renal dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease is related to disease activity but not to 5-ASA use. (5/215)

BACKGROUND: Conflicting data exist about proteinuria in inflammatory bowel diseases. It is still unclear whether the occurrence of proteinuria in inflammatory bowel disease patients is an extra-intestinal manifestation of disease or the result of adverse effects to medication, especially to aminosalicylates (ASA). METHODS: A total of 95 patients (51 with Crohn's disease and 44 with ulcerative colitis) were enrolled in the study. Disease activity was assessed by Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) or the Truelove index, respectively. Urine was collected over 24 h and protein excretion of specific marker proteins for tubular (alpha 1-microglobulin-alpha 1-MG) and glomerular (albumin-Alb, Immunoglobulin G-IgG) dysfunction was measured using a highly sensitive immunoluminometric assay. RESULTS: Out of 51 Crohn's disease patients, 20 showed elevated urinary alpha 1-MG. The amount of alpha 1-MGuria was strongly correlated to the CDAI (r=0.6, P < 0.001). Only four Crohn's disease patients showed slightly elevated values for glomerular proteins in urine. Similar results were obtained for ulcerative colitis: whereas only two ulcerative colitis patients showed albuminuria, tubular proteinuria was detected in 28 out of 44 ulcerative colitis patients. Proteinuria was strongly dependent on disease activity (P < 0.01) but was not related to ASA treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Proteinuria of tubular marker proteins occurs in the majority of inflammatory bowel disease patients and is related to disease activity rather than to ASA treatment. Tubular proteinuria seems to reflect a renal extra-intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease and may serve as a new relevant marker of disease activity.  (+info)

NO-mesalamine protects colonic epithelial cells against apoptotic damage induced by proinflammatory cytokines. (6/215)

The activation of a self-amplifying cascade of caspases, of which caspase-8 is the apical protease, mediates Fas-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-, and TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in colon cell lines. Nitric oxide (NO) protects from apoptosis induced by Fas and TNF-alpha. We examined whether NCX-456, an NO-releasing derivative of mesalamine, protects colon epithelial cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines express death factor receptors and are driven to apoptosis in response to incubation with Fas-agonistic antibody, TNF-alpha/interferon-gamma, and TRAIL. The two novel observations reported here are that 1) cotreatment of cells with NCX-456, but not mesalamine, resulted in concentration-dependent protection against death factor-induced apoptosis and inhibition of caspase activity, and 2) exposure to dithiothreitol, an agent that effectively removes NO from thiol groups, resulted in a 70% recovery of caspase activity, which is consistent with S-nitrosation as a major mechanism for caspase inactivation. These data suggest that caspase S-nitrosation represents a mechanism for protection of colonic mucosal epithelial cells from death factor-induced death.  (+info)

Olsalazine is not superior to placebo in maintaining remission of inactive Crohn's colitis and ileocolitis: a double blind, parallel, randomised, multicentre study. (7/215)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The benefit of 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease is controversial. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic properties of olsalazine in comparison with placebo for maintenance of remission in quiescent Crohn's colitis and/or ileocolitis. METHODS: In this randomised, double blind, parallel group study of olsalazine versus placebo, 328 patients with quiescent Crohn's colitis and/or ileocolitis were recruited. Treatment consisted of olsalazine 2.0 g daily or placebo for 52 weeks. The primary end point of efficacy was relapse, as defined by the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and by clinical relapse. Laboratory and clinical disease activity indicators were also measured. Safety analysis consisted of documentation of adverse events and laboratory values. RESULTS: No differences in the frequency of termination due to relapse or time to termination due to relapse were noted between the two treatment groups (olsalazine 48.5% v placebo 45%) for either colitis or ileocolitis. The failure rate, defined as not completing the study, was significantly higher in olsalazine treated patients compared with placebo treated patients for the overall population (colitis and/or ileocolitis: olsalazine 65.4% v 53.9%; p=0.038). Similar failure rates were seen for patients with colitis. A significantly higher percentage of olsalazine treated patients experienced adverse gastrointestinal events. Drug attributed adverse events were reported more frequently in the olsalazine treated group with gastrointestinal symptoms being causally related to olsalazine treatment (olsalazine 40.7% v placebo 26.9%; p=0.010). Back pain was reported significantly more often by the placebo treated group. However, serious medical events did not differ between the two groups. Adverse events led to more early withdrawals in the olsalazine treated group than in the placebo treated group; thus average time in the study for patients in the olsalazine treatment group was significantly shorter than that of patients in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with olsalazine were more likely to terminate their participation in the trial than those taking placebo. This difference was not related to relapse of disease, as measured by CDAI and clinical measures, but rather was due to the development of intolerable adverse medical events of a non-serious nature related to the gastrointestinal tract. The gastrointestinal related events in the olsalazine treated group may be due to the difference in gastrointestinal status at baseline which favoured the placebo treatment group.  (+info)

Review article: balsalazide therapy in ulcerative colitis. (8/215)

Balsalazide is a 5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine) pro-drug which has an inert carrier molecule instead of the sulfapyridine moiety of sulfasalazine. It is designed to deliver 5-aminosalicylic acid to the colonic mucosa without the sulfapyridine-associated side-effects encountered with sulfasalazine. Several studies have confirmed the efficacy and patient tolerance of balsalazide. When compared to mesalazine at equivalent doses, it induced symptomatic and complete remission of acute ulcerative colitis in a greater proportion of patients. In particular, patients with resistant left-sided disease were shown to have a higher probability of achieving remission. Balsalazide was beneficial in patients with troublesome nocturnal symptoms. It has a similar efficacy in maintaining remission when compared to sulfasalazine and mesalazine. The advantage of balsalazide over other 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds is its superior patient tolerability with minimal side-effects.  (+info)

Aminosalicylic acids are a group of medications that contain a chemical structure related to salicylic acid, which is the active ingredient in aspirin. These medications are primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The most common aminosalicylates used for IBD include mesalamine, sulfasalazine, and olsalazine.

These drugs work by reducing the production of chemicals in the body that cause inflammation in the lining of the intestines. By decreasing inflammation, they can help alleviate symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding associated with IBD. Additionally, aminosalicylates may also have a protective effect on the lining of the intestines, helping to prevent further damage.

Aminosalicylates are available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas, depending on the specific medication and the location of the inflammation within the digestive tract. While these medications are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in some individuals. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking aminosalicylates to ensure their safe and effective use.

Mesalamine is an anti-inflammatory drug that is primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing inflammation in the intestines, which can help alleviate symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

Mesalamine is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas. The specific formulation and dosage may vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation in the gut.

The drug's anti-inflammatory effects are thought to be mediated by its ability to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in the inflammatory response, such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. By reducing inflammation, mesalamine can help promote healing and prevent recurrences of IBD symptoms.

It's important to note that mesalamine may cause side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects like kidney damage or allergic reactions. Patients should talk to their healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of taking mesalamine.

Aminosalicylic acid is an anti-inflammatory medication that is primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing the production of chemicals in the body that cause inflammation in the intestines.

Aminosalicylic acid is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and enema formulations. The medication is typically taken at regular intervals, often several times a day, to maintain its effectiveness in reducing inflammation.

Common side effects of aminosalicylic acid include headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In some cases, the medication may cause more serious side effects such as kidney or liver problems, allergic reactions, or blood disorders. It is important to discuss any potential risks or side effects with a healthcare provider before starting treatment with aminosalicylic acid.

Sulfapyridine is an antibiotic drug that belongs to the class of medications known as sulfonamides or "sulfa drugs." It is used to treat various bacterial infections by interfering with the bacteria's ability to synthesize essential proteins. Sulfapyridine may be used to treat a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, bronchitis, and traveler's diarrhea.

The medical definition of Sulfapyridine is:

A sulfonamide antibacterial drug with a prolonged action, primarily used for its antimicrobial properties in treating various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid, an essential component for bacterial growth and survival. Sulfapyridine is often combined with other medications, such as pyrimethamine, to enhance its antibacterial effect in specific therapeutic applications.

It's important to note that sulfonamides can cause side effects, including rashes, allergic reactions, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, more severe adverse reactions may occur, particularly in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to sulfa drugs or those with specific genetic factors. Always consult with a healthcare professional for appropriate use, dosage, and potential side effects of Sulfapyridine or any other medication.

Sulfasalazine is defined as a medication that is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which helps to reduce inflammation in the gut or joints.

The medication contains two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The sulfapyridine component is an antibiotic that may help to reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the gut, while the 5-ASA component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulfasalazine works by being broken down into its two components after it is ingested. The 5-ASA component then acts directly on the lining of the gut to reduce inflammation, while the sulfapyridine component is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Common side effects of sulfasalazine include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, headache, and loss of appetite. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver or kidney problems, and blood disorders. It is important to take sulfasalazine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

An enema is a medical procedure in which liquid is introduced into the lower part of the large intestine, specifically the sigmoid colon or rectum, through the anus using a special device called an enema kit. The liquid used can be plain water, saline solution, or a medicated solution, and it is typically retained for a short period of time before being expelled.

The purpose of an enema may vary, but it is often used to relieve constipation, prepare the bowel for medical procedures such as colonoscopy, or administer medications or nutrients that cannot be taken by mouth. Enemas can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to stimulate the immune system or promote relaxation.

It is important to follow proper instructions when administering an enema to avoid injury or discomfort. Possible side effects of enemas may include cramping, bloating, nausea, or electrolyte imbalances. If you have any health concerns or conditions that may be affected by an enema, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using one.

Phenylhydrazines are organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydrogen atom substituted by a hydroxy group) and a hydrazine group (-NH-NH2). They are aromatic amines that have been used in various chemical reactions, including the formation of azos and hydrazones. In medicine, phenylhydrazines were once used as vasodilators to treat angina pectoris, but their use has largely been discontinued due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Proctitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon. The symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, discomfort, or a feeling of fullness; rectal bleeding, often in the form of mucus or blood; diarrhea; and urgency to have a bowel movement.

Proctitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections (such as sexually transmitted infections, foodborne illnesses, or inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), radiation therapy, trauma, or autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of proctitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to visualize the rectum and take tissue samples for further testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

A suppository is a solid medicinal formulation, often medicated, that is intended to be introduced into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository) for absorption or for localized effect. Suppositories are designed to melt or dissolve at body temperature and release the active ingredients. They come in various shapes, such as cones, cylinders, or torpedo-shaped, and are typically made from a base of cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol, or other biocompatible materials that allow for controlled drug release. Common uses for suppositories include the treatment of constipation, hemorrhoids, local infections, menstrual cramps, and as an alternative method of administering medication for individuals who have difficulty swallowing pills or prefer not to use oral medications.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Gastrointestinal agents are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs involved in digestion such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. These agents can have various effects on the GI tract, including:

1. Increasing gastric motility (promoting bowel movements) - laxatives, prokinetics
2. Decreasing gastric motility (reducing bowel movements) - antidiarrheal agents
3. Neutralizing gastric acid - antacids
4. Reducing gastric acid secretion - H2-blockers, proton pump inhibitors
5. Protecting the mucosal lining of the GI tract - sucralfate, misoprostol
6. Relieving symptoms associated with GI disorders such as bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea - antispasmodics, antiemetics

Examples of gastrointestinal agents include:

* Laxatives (e.g., psyllium, docusate)
* Prokinetics (e.g., metoclopramide)
* Antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide)
* H2-blockers (e.g., ranitidine, famotidine)
* Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole)
* Sucralfate
* Misoprostol
* Antispasmodics (e.g., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine)
* Antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, promethazine)

It is important to note that gastrointestinal agents can have both therapeutic and adverse effects, and their use should be based on a careful evaluation of the patient's condition and medical history.

6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a medication used primarily in the treatment of cancer, specifically acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It is an antimetabolite that works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA and RNA, thereby inhibiting cell division and growth.

6-MP is a prodrug, meaning it requires metabolic activation in the body to exert its therapeutic effects. Once absorbed, 6-MP is converted into several active metabolites, including thioguanine nucleotides (TGN), which are incorporated into DNA and RNA, leading to cytotoxicity and cell death.

Common side effects of 6-MP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of the medication can also lead to liver toxicity, pancreatitis, and anemia. Regular monitoring of blood counts, liver function tests, and TGN levels is necessary during treatment with 6-MP to minimize potential side effects and ensure safe and effective dosing.

Sulfanilamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial agents that are chemically related to sulfanilic acid. They work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, particularly Gram-positive cocci, and have been used in the treatment of various bacterial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections.

Sulfanilamides are absorbed well from the gastrointestinal tract and are distributed widely throughout the body tissues. They are excreted mainly in the urine, and their action is enhanced by acidic urine. Common side effects of sulfonamides include skin rashes, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Rare but serious side effects include blood disorders, liver damage, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Sulfanilamides have been largely replaced by newer antibiotics due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. However, they are still used in some cases, particularly for the treatment of certain parasitic infections and as topical agents for skin infections.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

"Administration, Rectal" is a medical term that refers to the process of administering medication or other substances through the rectum. This route of administration is also known as "rectal suppository" or "suppository administration."

In this method, a solid dosage form called a suppository is inserted into the rectum using fingers or a special applicator. Once inside, the suppository melts or dissolves due to the body's temperature and releases the active drug or substance, which then gets absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the rectum.

Rectal administration is an alternative route of administration for people who have difficulty swallowing pills or liquids, or when rapid absorption of the medication is necessary. It can also be used to administer medications that are not well absorbed through other routes, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, it may take longer for the medication to reach the bloodstream compared to intravenous (IV) administration.

Common examples of rectally administered medications include laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, analgesics, and some forms of hormonal therapy. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when administering medication rectally, as improper administration can reduce the effectiveness of the medication or cause irritation or discomfort.

Salicylates are a group of chemicals found naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and herbs, as well as in some medications like aspirin. They are named after willow bark's active ingredient, salicin, from which they were derived. Salicylates have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties.

In a medical context, salicylates are often used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. High doses of salicylates can have blood thinning effects and may be used in the prevention of strokes or heart attacks. Commonly prescribed salicylate medications include aspirin, methylsalicylate, and sodium salicylate.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to salicylates, and overuse can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers, ringing in the ears, and even kidney or liver damage.

Enteric-coated tablets are a pharmaceutical formulation in which a tablet is coated with a polymeric material that is resistant to stomach acid. This coating allows the tablet to pass through the stomach intact and dissolve in the small intestine, where the pH is more neutral.

The enteric coating serves two main purposes:

1. It protects the active ingredient(s) from degradation by stomach acid, which can be particularly important for drugs that are unstable in acidic environments or that irritate the stomach lining.
2. It controls the release of the drug into the body, ensuring that it is absorbed in the small intestine rather than the stomach. This can help to improve the bioavailability of the drug and reduce side effects.

Enteric-coated tablets are commonly used for drugs that treat conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). They may also be used for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. By controlling the release of these drugs into the body, enteric coating can help to ensure that they are absorbed at a consistent rate and reduce the risk of adverse effects.

Amylose is a component of starch, which is a complex carbohydrate found in plants. Amylose is a long, straight chain polymer made up of thousands of glucose molecules linked together by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. It is less abundant than the other major component of starch, amylopectin, which has branched chains due to α-1,6 glycosidic bonds.

Amylose is relatively resistant to digestion by human enzymes, making it less easily absorbed and providing a slower release of glucose into the bloodstream compared to amylopectin. This property has led to its use in some low-glycemic index foods and as a dietary supplement for people with diabetes.

In addition to its role in food, amylose has industrial applications, such as in the production of adhesives, textiles, and paper. It is also used in medical research as a material for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Colitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon or large intestine. The condition can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. Colitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation therapy. The specific symptoms and treatment options for colitis may vary depending on the underlying cause.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Anti-ulcer agents are a class of medications that are used to treat and prevent ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. These medications work by reducing the production of stomach acid, neutralizing stomach acid, or protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum from damage caused by stomach acid.

There are several types of anti-ulcer agents, including:

1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These medications block the action of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs include drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole.
2. H-2 receptor antagonists: These medications block the action of histamine on the H-2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid. Examples include ranitidine, famotidine, and cimetidine.
3. Antacids: These medications neutralize stomach acid and provide quick relief from symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion. Common antacids include calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide.
4. Protective agents: These medications form a barrier between the stomach lining and stomach acid, protecting the lining from damage. Examples include sucralfate and misoprostol.

Anti-ulcer agents are used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is important to take these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

3-Aminosalicylic acid 4-Aminosalicylic acid (para-aminosalicylic acid, PAS) 5-Aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine) 6-Aminosalicylic ... Aminosalicylic acid can refer to any amino derivative of salicylic acid, such as: ... acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, ...
... has many names including para-aminosalicylic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, 4-ASA, and simply P.[medical ... 4-Aminosalicylic acid is believed to work by blocking the ability of bacteria to make folic acid. 4-Aminosalicylic acid was ... 4-Aminosalicylic acid, also known as para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and sold under the brand name Paser among others, is an ... With heat, aminosalicylic acid is decarboxylated to produce CO2 and 3-aminophenol. 4-aminosalicylic acid has been shown to be a ...
... is used in the production of other pharmaceuticals, including 4-aminosalicylic acid, sandulpiride, and ... use of salicylic acid containing cosmetics is safe for pregnant women. Salicylic acid is biosynthesized from the amino acid ... Aminosalicylic acid is used to induce remission in ulcerative colitis, and has been used as an antitubercular agent often ... Salicylic acid has long been a key starting material for making acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid ...
Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid). Surgery may be indicated for severe cases of SRUS (either severe symptoms, severe ...
"4-Aminosalicylic acid and its derivatives. Part II. The synthesis of 4-amino-2 : 5- and 4-amino-2 : 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid". J ... S. C. Bhattacharyya, B. Lythgoe (12 February 1949). "Triterpene Acids". Nature. 163 (4137): 259. Bibcode:1949Natur.163..259B. ... 105 (1). S. C. Bhattacharyya, B. Lythgoe (12 February 1949). "Triterpene Acids". Nature. 163 (4137): 259. Bibcode:1949Natur.163 ...
4-Aminosalicylic acid Mesalazine Salsalate "Salicylamide". Dictionary.com. Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Merriam- ...
They include sulfonamides, dapsone, and para-aminosalicylic acid. In bacteria, antibacterial sulfonamides act as competitive ... Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and ...
There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) in the treatment of IBS. Mesalazine is ... Klotz U (February 2012). "The pharmacological profile and clinical use of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid)". Arzneimittel- ... Bile acid malabsorption is also sometimes missed in people with diarrhea-predominant IBS. SeHCAT tests suggest around 30% of ... A similar syndrome is found in rats (Rattus spp.). In rats a short-chain fatty acid receptor is involved. Karaki et al., 2006 ...
"New genetic biomarkers predicting azathioprine blood concentrations in combination therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid". PLOS ... Lysosomal amino acid transporter SLC38A9 signals arginine sufficiency to mTORC1". Science. 347 (6218): 188-94. doi:10.1126/ ... Jung J, Genau HM, Behrends C (July 2015). "Amino Acid-Dependent mTORC1 Regulation by the Lysosomal Membrane Protein SLC38A9". ... "SLC38A9 is a component of the lysosomal amino acid sensing machinery that controls mTORC1". Nature. 519 (7544): 477-81. Bibcode ...
It is a codrug which is a combination of sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid coupled with an azo linkage. In people with ... The medication is broken down by intestinal bacteria into sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Sulfasalazine was approved ... also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid or 5-ASA). Both metabolites are active; most of the sulfapyridine is absorbed and then ... Hernández-Díaz S, Werler MM, Walker AM, Mitchell AA (November 2000). "Folic acid antagonists during pregnancy and the risk of ...
Human NAT1 preferentially acetylates 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), 4 amino salicylic acid, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfanilamide. ... Polymorphisms of NAT2 include the single amino acid substitutions R64Q, I114T, D122N, L137F, Q145P, R197Q, and G286E. These are ... of their amino acid sequence. Both also have an active site cysteine residue (Cys68) in the N-terminal region. Further, all ...
These were found in a treatment combining conteben with PAS acid p-amino-salicylic acid. Thiosemicarbazide John Buckingham (2 ... and p-Amino-Salicylic Acid". Acta Medica Scandinavica. 143 (5): 323-335. doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1952.tb14267.x. PMID 12976024 ... although it is thought to interfere with mycolic acid synthesis. One of the documented adverse effects of thioacetazone is the ...
... sulfapyridine chemically linked to 5-aminosalicylic acid coupled with an azo linkage. It is on the World Health Organization's ... Codrug of butyric acid and ATRA, Codrug of ATRA and histone deacetylase inhibitors, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and cytarabine (Ara-C ... esterified paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid Cod-THC - THC linked to codeine by a carbonate bridge Fenethylline - ... with an amide linkage formed by the condensation of dextroamphetamine with the carboxylate group of the essential amino acid L- ...
Murphy, Seamus Joseph; Mayer, Lloyd; Abreu, Maria T. (January 2011). "Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) therapy well tolerated ...
... releases mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, or 5-ASA, in the large intestine. Its advantage over that ... That product is then treated with nitrous acid to give the diazonium salt. Reaction of this species with salicylic acid ... Starting material is 4-aminohippuric acid, obtained by coupling para-aminobenzoic acid and glycine. ...
4-Aminosalicylic acid (another antituberculosis drug) significantly reduces absorption of rifampicin, and peak concentrations ... Cluster I is amino acids 509 to 533, cluster II is amino acids 563 to 572, and cluster III is amino acid 687.[citation needed] ... Charity JC, Katz E, Moss B (March 2007). "Amino acid substitutions at multiple sites within the vaccinia virus D13 scaffold ... A change in amino acid 531 from serine to leucine arising from a change in the DNA sequence of TCG to TTG is the most common ...
The niacin test strip is typically composed of potassium thiocyanate, chloramine-T, citric acid, and 4-Aminosalicylic acid. In ... Because lab samples that are determined to be acid-fast bacilli are possibly M. tuberculosis, a biosafety level 3 organism, all ... The niacin test detects niacin (nicotinic acid) in aqueous extracts of a culture. M. tuberculosis strains that test negative ... the presence of citric acid, chloramine-T and potassium thiocyanate will react to form cyanogen chloride. This chemical will ...
"The influence of 5-aminosalicylic acid on the progression of colorectal adenomas via the β-catenin signaling pathway". ...
In 1956, Charles Camsell Indian Hospital in Edmonton used its patients to test versions of para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS); they ...
In 1957 when Streptomycin and Para-Aminosalicylic acid were used for prolonged chemotherapy surgery was no longer needed for TB ...
Three new antibiotic drugs were introduced to the cure for tuberculosis in 1947: Streptomycin, Para-amino Salicylic Acid, and ...
Murray A, Nguyen TM, Parker CE, Feagan BG, MacDonald JK (August 2020). "Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for induction of remission ... Murray A, Nguyen TM, Parker CE, Feagan BG, MacDonald JK (August 2020). "Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for maintenance of remission ... Marshall JK, Thabane M, Steinhart AH, Newman JR, Anand A, Irvine EJ (November 2012). "Rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid for ... In 1977, it was shown that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, mesalazine/mesalamine) was the therapeutically active component in ...
The anti-inflammatory action in all these drugs is produced by 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), the active ingredient in ... Although there was no clear evidence of greater remission when probiotic supplements were compared with 5‐aminosalicylic acid ... The aminosalicylates used to treat ulcerative colitis include the following: Mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, ... "MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid". Archived from the original on May 18, ...
... , also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease ... January 2021). Ehrt S (ed.). "5-Aminosalicylic Acid Ameliorates Colitis and Checks Dysbiotic Escherichia coli Expansion by ... Salicylic acids, AbbVie brands, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company brands, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate). ...
The class includes among others: 4-Aminosalicylic acid Balsalazide Olsalazine Sulfasalazine Mesalazine (5-Aminosalicylic acid) ...
Para-aminosalicylic acid, discovered in 1946, was used in combination with Streptomycin to reduce the emergence of drug ...
5-aminosalicylic acid). It can be prepared by nitration of aniline followed by replacement of the amino group via its diazonium ... 2,4-Dinitrophenol (m.p. 83 °C) is a moderately strong acid (pKa = 4.89). 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol is better known as picric acid, ...
Two new drugs became available in the early 1950s, para-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid, which enabled patients to be cured ...
... was a Danish-born Swedish physician and chemist best known for his discovery in the 1940s that para-amino salicylic acid (PAS) ...
... including the author of the Paser Crossword Stela 4-Aminosalicylic acid, an antibiotic sold by Jacobus Pharmaceutical under the ...
3-Aminosalicylic acid 4-Aminosalicylic acid (para-aminosalicylic acid, PAS) 5-Aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine) 6-Aminosalicylic ... Aminosalicylic acid can refer to any amino derivative of salicylic acid, such as: ... acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, ...
5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivatives. Class Summary. The 5-ASA derivative agents are used to treat mild-to-moderate Crohn disease ... Bile Acid Sequestrants. Class Summary. Patients with terminal ileal disease may not absorb bile acids normally, which can lead ... Products such as mesalamine, which releases 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in the distal small bowel secondary to pH changes are ... Colestipol forms a soluble complex after binding to bile acid, increasing fecal loss of bile acid-bound low-density lipoprotein ...
We Provides Reference Standard and Natural Product of CAS:65-49-6, 4-Aminosalicylic acid(N5480)
... p-Aminosalicylic Acid; para-Aminosalicylic Acid; 4-Aminosalicylic Acid. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list ... Aminosalicylic acid (p-Aminosalicylic Acid; para-Aminosalicylic Acid; 4-Aminosalicylic Acid). An antitubercular agent often ... The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than the free acid. ...
Para-aminosalicylic Acid. Para-aminosalicylic acid is a bacteriostatic antituberculosis drug. The usual therapeutic dose is ... Para-aminosalicylic Acid. Ethionamide. Cycloserine. Capreomycin. Kanamycin. Thiacetazone. POTENTIALLY EFFECTIVE DRUGS THAT HAVE ... aminosalicylic acid is rapidly excreted. The delayed release granules should be given with acidic food or drink, such as orange ... hypersensitivity Para-aminosalicylic acid Tablets: 500 mg, 1 g 150 mg/kg, PO 12 g Gastrointestinal Hepatic enzymes Bulk powder ...
Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Pyrazinamide is tested by the MGIT 960 method. ... The Uses of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for the Diagnosis of TBplus icon*General Considerations ...
Para-aminosalicylic acid Surgical resection is recommended for patients with MDR-TB whose prognosis with medical treatment is ... It retains many stains after decoloration with acid-alcohol, which is the basis of the acid-fast stains used for pathologic ... that protect mycobacteria from cell lysosomal attack and also retain red basic fuchsin dye after acid rinsing (acid-fast stain ... Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture using sputum obtained from the patient. Absence of a positive smear result does not ...
... para-aminosalicylic acid (Paser); and pyrimethamine (Daraprim). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or ... Be sure to mention any of the following: antibiotics such as chloramphenicol; colchicine; folic acid; methotrexate (Rheumatrex ...
p-Aminosalicylic acid. *Bactericide (tuberculostatic). *Naphthalene. *Mothballs. *Copper sulfate. *Fungicide for plants ...
5-Aminosalicylic acid extrudates were film coated with ethyl cellulose in a typical lab system coater equipped with one Wurster ... The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging ... Absorbance maps were obtained thus visualizing the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid over time and it was possible to detect a ... UV imaging has proven to be a useful technique to visualize the release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single film coated ...
5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivatives. Class Summary. The 5-ASA derivative agents are used to treat mild-to-moderate Crohn disease ... Bile Acid Sequestrants. Class Summary. Patients with terminal ileal disease may not absorb bile acids normally, which can lead ... Products such as mesalamine, which releases 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in the distal small bowel secondary to pH changes are ... Colestipol forms a soluble complex after binding to bile acid, increasing fecal loss of bile acid-bound low-density lipoprotein ...
Binding is also dependent on the plasma concentration of the alpha-l-acid glycoprotein. ... Patients allergic to paraaminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross ... dapsone, nitrofurantoin, para-aminosalicylic acid, sulfonamides. Antimalarials. chloroquine, primaquine. Anticonvulsants. ...
Prospective follow-up of infants exposed to 5-aminosalicylic acid containing drugs through maternal milk. J Clin Pharmacol 1998 ... Sulfasalazine is a chemical combination of sulfapyridine and mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) which is considered to ... Salazosulfapyridine and metabolites in fetal and maternal body fluids with special reference to 5-aminosalicylic acid. Acta ... Diarrhoea due to 5-aminosalicylic acid in breast milk. Lancet 1989;333:383. [PubMed: 2563532] ...
... folic acid and the cobalamins (vitamin B12).Vitamin B was once thought to be a single ... pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), biotin, ... Aminosalicylic Acid. Tetracycline can interfere with the ... Stomach acid is needed for vitamin B12 in food to be absorbed by the body. H-2 blocker drugs reduce stomach acid and may ... Stomach acid is needed for the vitamin B12 in food to be absorbed. H-2 blocker drugs reduce stomach acid and may therefore ...
N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid and to a lesser degree mesalazine are excreted in breast milk. Only limited experience with ... Mesalazine (5-Aminosalicylic acid / 5-ASA) may also function as a radical scavenger of reactive oxygen compounds. ... pre-systemically by the intestinal mucosa and in the liver to the pharmacologically inactive N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid (N- ...
Para-aminosalicylic acid products. *Prothionamide 250mg. *Pyrazinamide 150mg. *Pyrazinamide 400mg. *Pyrazinamide 500mg ...
5-aminosalicylic acid. View Full Text. Footnotes. * Funding Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland funded this study. External ...
Kunes M, Kvetina J, Kholova D, Bures J, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H, Pavlik M. Absorption kinetics of 5-aminosalicylic acid in rat: ... Absorption kinetics of 5-aminosalicylic acid in rat: influence of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal lesions and Escherichia ...
Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging. ...
Greenstein, R.J.; Su, L.; Shahidi, A.; Brown, S.T. On the Action of 5-Amino-Salicylic Acid and Sulfapyridine on M. avium ... Abubakar, I.; Myhill, D.; Aliyu, S.; Hunter, P. Detection of MAP from patients with CD using nuclei acid-based techniques: A ...
Rachmilewitz D. Coated mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) versus sulphasalazine in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: ...
4-Aminosalicylic Acid. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid HCl. 5-Aminosalicylic Acid. 5-Fluorouracil. ...
Although 5-aminosalicylic acid, infliximab, and steroid hormones are effective for IBD treatment, these drugs have adverse ...
NSAIDs (acetylsalicylic acid, para-aminosalicylic acid, diflunisal, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, rofecoxib, sulindac) ... Smidt-Hansen T, Folkmar TB, Fode K, Agerbaek M, Donskov F. Combination of zoledronic Acid and targeted therapy is active but ...
We identified major shifts in oxidative stress pathways, as well as decreased carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid ... Mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) is a bowel-specific aminosalicylate drug. Although its exact mode of action is unknown, it ... Amino acid metabolism showed major perturbation: genes for the metabolism and biosynthesis of nearly all amino acids ( ... In marked contrast to the other amino acids, genes for metabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine significantly ...
Stage #1: 5-Aminosalicylic Acid With hydrogenchloride; sodium nitrite In water at 0 - 5℃; for 0.5h;. Stage #2: salicylic acid ... 6-hydroxybenzoic acid);3,3-Dicarboxy-4,4-dihydroxyazobenzene;5,5-Azobis(salicylic acid);5,5-Azodisalicylic acid;Azodisal; ... 1: sulfuric acid / 75 - 80 °C. 2: acetic acid / 20 °C. 3: water; sodium hydroxide / 2 h / 90 - 95 °C. View Scheme. ... 300 °C(Solv: acetic acid (64-19-7); water (7732-18-5))"> >300 °C(Solv: acetic acid (64-19-7); water (7732-18-5)) ...
The effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid-containing drugs on sulfide production by sulfate-reducing and amino acid-fermenting ... The contribution of sulphate reducing bacteria and 5-aminosalicylic acid to faecal sulphide in patients with ulcerative colitis ... The oral administration of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) resulted in the exacerbation of ulcerative colitis in two ... Australian abdominal surgeon has shown that exposure to sulphides inhibits the ability of colon cells to use a vital fatty acid ...
  • Products such as mesalamine, which releases 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in the distal small bowel secondary to pH changes are more useful in patients with small intestinal Crohn disease. (medscape.com)
  • The active ingredient in Pentasa is mesalamine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). (nationalstemcellbank.org)
  • The vitamin B-complex refers to all of the known essential water-soluble vitamins except for vitamin C . These include thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine ( vitamin B6 ), biotin , folic acid and the cobalamins ( vitamin B12 ). (uofmhealth.org)
  • Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and biotin participate in different aspects of energy production, vitamin B6 is essential for amino acid metabolism, and vitamin B12 and folic acid facilitate steps required for cell division. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Although 5-aminosalicylic acid, infliximab, and steroid hormones are effective for IBD treatment, these drugs have adverse effects and reduce quality of life. (mdlinx.com)
  • Absorption kinetics of 5-aminosalicylic acid in rat: influence of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal lesions and Escherichia Coli Nissle 1917 medication. (nel.edu)
  • Kunes M, Kvetina J, Kholova D, Bures J, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H, Pavlik M. Absorption kinetics of 5-aminosalicylic acid in rat: influence of indomethacin-induced gastrointestinal lesions and Escherichia Coli Nissle 1917 medication. (nel.edu)
  • Aminosalicylic acid can refer to any amino derivative of salicylic acid, such as: 3-Aminosalicylic acid 4-Aminosalicylic acid (para-aminosalicylic acid, PAS) 5-Aminosalicylic acid (mesalazine) 6-Aminosalicylic acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified major shifts in oxidative stress pathways, as well as decreased carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis in favor of nutrient transport and uptake. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fibrolytic bacteria degrade polysaccharides into smaller carbohydrates, which are then fermented into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients with terminal ileal disease may not absorb bile acids normally, which can lead to secretory diarrhea in the colon. (medscape.com)
  • These patients may benefit from bile acid sequestrants such as cholestyramine (2-4 g) and colestipol (5 g 2 or 3 times daily before meals). (medscape.com)
  • Binding is also dependent on the plasma concentration of the alpha-l-acid glycoprotein. (nih.gov)
  • The active ingredient in DIPENTUM Capsules (olsalazine sodium) is the sodium salt of a salicylate, disodium 3,3'-azobis (6-hydroxybenzoate) a compound that is effectively bioconverted to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which has anti-inflammatory activity in ulcerative colitis. (nih.gov)
  • Olsalazine sodium is a yellow crystalline powder, which melts with decomposition at 240°C. It is the sodium salt of a weak acid, soluble in water and DMSO, and practically insoluble in ethanol, chloroform, and ether. (nih.gov)
  • 6489. Sodium para-aminosalicylic acid tablets. (nih.gov)
  • The pH of the solution is adjusted between 4.5 and 6.8 with sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium P-aminosalicylic Acid Inhibits Manganese-Induced Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglial Cells via NLRP3-CASP1 Inflammasome Pathway. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Sodium p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na) was reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effect in the nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Prodrugs include sulfasalazine itself, balsalazide (in which the 5-ASA molecule is coupled to a benzoic acid derivative) and olsalazine (in which the 5-ASA molecule is coupled to another 5-ASA molecule). (medscape.com)
  • Olsalazine is a 5-aminosalicylic acid derivative which has anti-inflammatory properties. (watsonshealth.com.ph)
  • Streptomycin (SM) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), antimicrobial agents used to treat tuberculosis (TB), are currently unavailable in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • para-Aminosalicylic acid, also discovered in 1945, when combined with streptomycin was found to greatly reduce the occurrence of drug resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Streptomycin and p-amino salicylic acid were among the first antibiotics developed with activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). (researchsquare.com)
  • Citation: Witt KL, Bishop JB, McFee AF, Kumaroo V. Induction of chromosomal damage in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo by sulfapyridine or 5-aminosalicylic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The active ingredient in Azulfidine, sulfasalazine, is broken down in the body to release two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. (phcqa.org)
  • The active ingredient in Azulfidine is sulfasalazine, which breaks down in the body to release sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid, both of which have anti-inflammatory properties. (phcqa.org)
  • As mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is eliminated mainly by acetylation and subsequent urinary excretion, patients with impaired liver function or renal failure should be closely monitored, so it is advisable to perform liver and renal function tests before instituting treatment and regularly during it. (medicines.org.uk)
  • In the early 1960s, ethambutol was shown to be effective and better tolerated than para-aminosalicylic acid, which it replaced. (nih.gov)
  • Hypersensitivity, misdiagnosis, and death in tuberculosis treated with para-aminosalicylic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Tuberculosis drugs target various aspects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis biology, including inhibition of cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, or nucleic acid synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Your health care provider may tell you to stop taking any drugs that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Salicylic Acid. (nih.gov)
  • Adverse reactions to sulphasalazine and 5-amino salicylic acid in the same patient. (nih.gov)
  • Folic acid is also called vitamin B9. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This test is done to check for folic acid deficiency . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Folic acid helps form red blood cells and produce DNA that stores genetic codes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking the right amount of folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should take at least 600 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Limited information indicates that maternal aminosalicylic acid therapy produces low levels in milk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants, especially if the infant is older than 2 months. (nih.gov)
  • Coated oral 5-aminosalicylic acid therapy for mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis. (mu-varna.bg)
  • It is a white, crystalline, odorless powder, soluble in water, but very resistant to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis. (nih.gov)
  • 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug, azathioprine, are purine analogues that interfere with protein synthesis and nucleic acid metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • The remaining 98 to 99% of an oral dose will reach the colon, where each molecule is rapidly converted into two molecules of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) by colonic bacteria and the low prevailing redox potential found in this environment. (nih.gov)
  • The number of patients treated with azathioprine to cause an episode of pancreatitis was 36 (induction of remission) and 31 (maintenance of remission).The risk of pancreatitis in patients receiving azathioprine across all contexts was 3.80%, compared with a control risk of 0.2% (placebo) and 0.5% (5-aminosalicylic acid agents). (bmj.com)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Micronucleus Mice study conclusions related to 5-Aminosalicylic acid (89-57-6). (nih.gov)
  • Side effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid]. (nih.gov)