Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Medicine in ArtSolidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Mallory-Weiss Syndrome: A condition characterized by mucosal tears at the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION, sometimes with HEMATEMESIS. Typically it is caused by forceful bouts of retching or VOMITING.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Chlorzoxazone: A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Receptors, Melatonin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.Aminopyrine N-DemethylaseHexobarbital: A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.Ethylmorphine-N-Demethylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme of the hepatic microsomal oxidase system which catalyzes the oxidation of the N-methyl group of ethylmorphine with the formation of formaldehyde.Ethylmorphine: A narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is metabolized in the liver by ETHYLMORPHINE-N-DEMETHYLASE and used as an indicator of liver function.Aminopyrine: A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingOctanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Endosulfan: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Benzphetamine: A sympathomimetic agent with properties similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It is used in the treatment of obesity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1222)Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.JapanBenzophenonesNuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Petasites: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain SESQUITERPENES. The common name of sweet coltsfoot is similar to the common name for TUSSILAGO.Survival: Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Mentha piperita: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of peppermint oil.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.

Role of C-5 chiral center in R-(+)-pulegone-mediated hepatotoxicity: metabolic disposition and toxicity of 5, 5-dimethyl-2-(1-Methylethylidene)-cyclohexanone in rats. (1/55)

Metabolic disposition of 5, 5-dimethyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexanone (I) was examined in rats. Compound (I) was administered orally (250 mg/kg of body weight/day) to rats for 5 days. The following urinary metabolites were isolated and identified: 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6, 6-trimethylbenzofuran (III), 3,3-dimethylcyclohexanone (VI), 5, 5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexanone (X), 5, 5-dimethyl-2-(1-hydroxymethylethyl)-cyclohexanone (IX), 3-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-5-methyl-2-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclo hexano ne (XI), 5,6-dihydro-3,6,6-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone (VIII), and 5,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2-(1-carboxy ethylidene)-cyclohexanone (XIII). Incubation of compound (I) with phenobarbital (PB)-induced rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH resulted in the formation of a metabolite, tentatively identified as a furanoterpene (III) based on proton magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses. The formation of III was inhibited to a significant extent by carbon monoxide, metyrapone, SKF 525-A, and cytochrome c, suggesting the participation of PB-induced microsomal cytochrome P-450 system in the conversion of I to III. Compound I gave type I spectral change in the PB-induced liver microsomes and the dissociation constant (Ks) for I was 38.5 microM. Intraperitoneal administration of a single dose (250 mg/kg) of I to rats resulted in 26, 23, and 41% decreases in the levels of cytochrome P-450, glucose-6-phosphatase, and aminopyrine N-demethylase, respectively, at the end of 24 h. During this period, a 11-fold increase in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level was also observed. However, a decrease in the level of cytochrome P-450 and glucose-6-phosphatase, and an increase in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase values were comparatively more pronounced when R-(+)-pulegone (250 mg/kg) or CCl(4) (0.6 ml/kg) was administered to rats. Pretreatment of rats with PB potentiated the hepatotoxicity caused by I, whereas pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene protected from it. This suggests that PB-induced cytochrome P-450-catalyzed reactive metabolites may be responsible for the toxic effects caused by I.  (+info)

Studies on the formation of lipid peroxides and on some enzymic activities in the liver of vitamin E-deficient rats. (2/55)

Rats were fed a 5 or 20% casein diet that causes liver necrosis unless supplemented with vitamin E or selenite. The following activities were studied in liver subcellar fractions: enzymic formation of lipid peroxides, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, oxidative demethylation of aminopyrine, and incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein (with microsomes); xanthine oxidase (with soluble supernatant); and RNA polymerases I and II (with nuclei). Formation of lipid peroxides was higher in rats fed diets without vitamin E and was not reduced significantly by dietary selenite. The activity of xanthine oxidase was higher in animals fed the 20% casein than in those fed the 5% casein diet; however, a higher activity was observed in the rats fed the latter diet without vitamin E or selenite than in those receiving these supplements. The activity of RNA polymerase I was higher in rats fed the low casein diet. Other activities examined were not affected significantly by the level of dietary casein or by vitamin E or selenits.  (+info)

Effect of repeated exposure to aniline, nitrobenzene, and benzene on liver microsomal metabolism in the rat. (3/55)

Exposure of rats to aniline at daily doses of 50 mg/kg of body weight over a month stimulated the microsomal metabolism as manifested by (1) acceleration of p-hydroxylation of anilin and N-demethylation of aminopyrine in 9-000 times g postmitochondrial supernatant of the liver, (2) shortening the sleeping time after hexobarbital, and (3) reduction of the antipyretic effect of phenacetin. In the rats exposed to nitrobenzene in a similar manner to aniline, nitroreduction of nitrobenzene and p-hydroxylation of aniline remained unaffected; the antipyretic effect of phenacetin was decreased, whereas hexobarbital sleeping time remained unchanged. Exposure of rats to benzene (50 mg/kg of body weight daily for a month) had no effect on the rate of hydroxylation of benzene and N-demethylation of aminopyrine. In benzene-exposed rats hexobarbital sleeping time was prolonged whereas the antipyretic effect of phenacetin was unaffected. Microsomal metabolism of aniline, nitrobenzene, and benzene was stimulated and inhibited when the rats were pretreated with phenobarbital and SKF 525-A, respectively.  (+info)

Induction of drug metabolism-related enzymes by methylcholanthrene and phenobarbital in transgenic mice carrying human prototype c-Ha-ras gene and their wild type littermates. (4/55)

Transgenic mice hemizygously carrying human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene, Tg-rasH2 show very sensitive and facilitated carcinogenicity to various carcinogens. In this study, activities of certain enzymes related to drug metabolism and energy metabolism were measured in microsome and cytosol fractions of livers of Tg-rasH2 mice and their wild type littermates with both sexes treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and phenobarbital (PB). Aminopyrine N-demethylase activities increased significantly in livers of all mice treated with PB. MC and PB treatments induced significant increases in activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and S-adenosyl homocysteinase compared to those in the non-treated groups in microsome fractions from all mice. In cytosol fractions of livers of all mice, glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly induced in the PB treated groups. There were no significant differences in activities of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and glucose 6-phosphatase related to energy metabolism in livers and kidneys among all mice. Tg-rasH2 mice showed stable activities of enzymes related to drug detoxication and energy metabolism similar to those of non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that the human c-Ha-ras transgene may not affect drug metabolism-related enzymes, and the facilitated carcinogenic response in the Tg-rasH2 mouse is not due to these enzymatic disorders.  (+info)

Further experiments on lipid peroxidation in transplanted and experimental hepatomas. (5/55)

The results of experiments on the subject of lipid peroxidation in hepatomas are described. It is now clear that lipid peroxidation is strongly decreased in most highly dedifferentiated hepatomas. It seems evident that the extent of the decline is strictly related to the degree of dedifferentiation. The model of diethylnitrosamine carcinogenesis, according to the method by Solt, Medline and Farber, has been now adopted to study the stages of carcinogenesis. It was shown that a net decline in lipid peroxidation occurs as early as at the stage of reversible nodules and progresses until the development of clear hepatomas. This change is practically simultaneous with a decline in the efficiency of the enzymes of the drug metabolizing system and in the content of cytochrome P450-Glutathione content and metabolism show also important changes. In fact, a dramatic increase in gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase takes place very early during carcinogenesis, and is responsible for large decline in total glutathione during incubation of the homogenates. Glutathione peroxidase activity, on the contrary, is decreased, whereas glutathione reductase does not show significant changes. The supernatant of highly anaplastic tumors inhibits lipid peroxidation in normal liver homogenates, suggesting the presence of substances provided with antioxidant properties. These cannot be, however, related to a higher glutathione content. Supernatants from early nodules seem to be unable to block lipid peroxidation in normal liver homogenates. Preliminary experiments done to study the aldehyde pattern produced during lipid peroxidation, both in hepatomas and in nodules, confirm the presence of very poor lipid peroxidation and possibly of different peroxidation kinetics.  (+info)

Studies on the evaluation of the toxicity of various salts of lead, manganese, platinum, and palladium. (6/55)

Preliminary studies have been conducted on various parameters in order to assess the possible and relative toxicities of a number of metallic salts. Upon oral administration in lethal-dose experiments, two soluble Pt4+ salts were more toxic than the other salts tested. Following intraperiotneal injection in lethal-dose experiments, PbCl2 was less toxic than several of the soluble or partially soluble salts of Pt4+, Pd2+, and Mn2+. An intake of a total of approximately 250 mg of Pt4+ per rat in the drinking fluid over a 30-day interval did not affect the activities of aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase in rat liver microsomes. In rats receiving soluble Pt4+ salts in the drinking fluid, the highest concentration of Pt was found in the kidney and an appreciiable concentration was found in the liver.  (+info)

Inhibition of human hepatic cytochrome P450s and steroidogenic CYP17 by nonylphenol. (7/55)

Effect of nonylphenol on aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, a typical drug-metabolizing enzyme activity, by ten kinds of human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP) and on progesterone 17alpha-hydroxylase activity by steroidogenic CYP17 was investigated. When determined at 2 mM substrate concentration, nonylphenol (1 mM) most efficiently inhibited aminopyrine N-demethylation by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, by 61% and 59%, respectively, followed by CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP2C18 and CYP2C8 (46-51%), whereas inhibition of the activities by other CYPs was less than 27%. Additionally, nonylphenol competitively inhibited diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation by CYP2C9 and S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation by CYP2C19 with Ki values of 5.3 and 37 microM, respectively. Furthermore, nonylphenol exhibited a competitive inhibition of progesterone 17alpha-hydroxylase activity by CYP17 with Ki value of 62 microM. These results suggest that nonylphenol inhibits human hepatic CYPs, especially CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, and steroidogenic CYP17 activities.  (+info)

Hepatic microsomal enzyme induction in rats fed varietal cauliflower leaves. (8/55)

Leaves from a standard, insect-susceptible cauliflower variety and an insect-resistant strain were formulated at either 10 or 25% into semipurified diets for male and female weanling rats. After 3 weeks, relative liver weights, microsomal protein, cytochrome P-450, and activities of hepatic microsomal aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase, and N-methylaniline N-demethylase were determined. Growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of male rats were not affected by the inclusion of the dried cauliflower leaf in the diet. However, female rats exhibited a depressed feed intake and increased feed efficiency with cauliflower leaf supplemental diets. Relative liver weights increased with increasing percentage of cauliflower leaves in the diet. Hepatic microsomal enzyme response to cauliflower leaf supplementation of the diet was greater in males than in females. Only aniline hydroxylase activity remained unchanged by the test diets. Male rats showed significant increases in N- and O-demethylation with both the 10 and 25% cauliflower diets, and increased values for microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 at the 25% supplemental level. Female rats did not show significant hepatic microsomal induction from cauliflower leaf consumption at the 10% level. However, cytochrome P-450 and the metabolism of aminopyrine and p-nitroanisole were enhanced by consumption of cauliflower leaves at 25% of their diet. None of the parameters tested in this study evidenced a difference between the two cauliflower cultivars fed to either sex.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... aminopyrine n-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.338 --- cytochrome p-450 cyp2e1 MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.353 --- cytochrome ... nitroanisole o-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416 --- dioxygenases MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.277 --- catechol 1,2-dioxygenase ... ethylmorphine-n-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.550 --- sarcosine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.700 --- sarcosine ...

*Unspecific monooxygenase

Imaoka S, Inoue K, Funae Y (1988). "Aminopyrine metabolism by multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 from rat liver microsomes: ... Suhara K, Ohashi K, Takahashi K, Katagiri M (1988). "Aromatase and nonaromatizing 10-demethylase activity of adrenal cortex ... simultaneous quantitation of four aminopyrine metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. ...
The development of several hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in rats was studied in relation to its androgen dependence during the neonatal period. Rats with their androgen deprived during the neonatal period (female rats and male rats castrated at birth) respond less to androgen treatment at adulthood for the metabolism of aminopyrine, ethylmorphine and hexobarbital as compared to rats exposed to neonatal androgen (male rats, male rats castrated at birth but neonatally treated with androgen and male rats castrated at the age of 20 days). This difference in the degree of hepatic responsiveness, however, varied with the substrates: ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity was affected the most whereas aminopyrine N-demethylase and hexobarbital oxidase activities were only marginally affected. Furthermore, these differences in responsiveness seem to be a delayed event, since hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity in rats castrated at birth did respond to androgen stimulation ...
Gold, M.S. and Ziegler, D.M. Dimethylanilin N-oxidase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities of human liver tissue. Xenobiotica, 3(3): 179-189, 1972 ...
We have previously described the development of genetic models to study the in vivo functions of the hepatic cytochrome P450 system, through the hepatic deletion of either cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR; HRN line) or cytochrome b5 (Cyb5; HBN line). However, HRN mice still exhibit low levels of mono-oxygenase activity, in spite of the absence of detectable reductase protein. To investigate whether this is because cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase can act as sole electron donors to the P450 system, we have crossed HRN with HBN mice to generate a line lacking hepatic expression of both electron donors (HBRN). HBRN mice exhibited exacerbation of the phenotypic characteristics of the HRN line - liver enlargement, hepatosteatosis and increased expression of certain cytochrome P450s. Also, drug metabolising activities in vitro were further reduced relative to the HRN model, in some cases to undetectable levels. Pharmacokinetic studies in vivo demonstrated that midazolam half-life, Cmax and ...
Biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes occurring at different time points after intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of pulegone (300 mg/kg) were studied. Significant decreases in the level of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (67%), heme (37%), aminopyrine N-demethylase (60%) and glucose-6-phosphatase (58%), were noticed 24 hr after pulegone treatment. Alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels increased in a time dependent manner, following exposure of rats to pulegone. Light microscopic studies of liver tissues showed dilation of central veins and distention of sinusoidal spaces 6 hr after pulegone treatment. Initial centrilobular necrosis was noticed at 12 hr. Centrilobular necrosis became severe at 18 hr and nuclear changes included karyorrhexis and karyolysis. Midzonal and periportal degenerative changes in addition to centrilobular necrosis was observed 24 hr after pulegone administration. Electron microscopic changes showed severe degeneration of endoplasmic ...
After oral administration of bromazepam, 50 mg/kg/day for 14-28 days to rats, the rate of elimination of the unchanged drug from the blood increased by 20-40%, as determined from the half-lives of the blood decay curves during the first 4 hr after administration of an oral or intravenous test dose of bromazepam. During the chronic administration, the liver weight increased 30-40%, with concomitant enlargement of the liver. The hepatomegaly was associated with elevation of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities, including that responsible for the oxidation of bromazepam itself. Spectral characteristics of the isolated microsomes indicated that the manner by which bromazepam caused the elevation (induction) of the enzyme activities was of the "phenobarbital type" rather than the "methylcholanthrene type." Since certain steps of bromazepam metabolism take place in the liver, it appears reasonable to assume that the increase in the elimination rate found after chronic administration may ...
Bridges, J. W. (1980) The Role of the Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes, in Ciba Foundation Symposium 76 - Environmental Chemicals, Enzyme Function and Human Disease (eds D. Evered and G. Lawrenson), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470720592.ch2 ...
2 major biochemical reactions that occur in the peroxisome is the mixed function oxidase and the other is a catalase but what 2 enzymes are involved in these reactions?...beta oxidation one of them ...
Clotrimazole, an N-substituted imidazole widely used as an antifungal agent, has been shown to both inhibit and induce hepatic cytochrome P-450 and related monooxygenase activities. In this study the profile of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozyme(s) induced by clotrimazole treatment of male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Clotrimazole administration (100 mg/kg, daily for 4 days, ig) resulted in 86% induction of spectrally detectable cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes. In these microsomes 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (126%), aminopyrine N-demethylase (176%), benzphetamine N-demethylase (117%), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (89%), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (62%) activities were significantly induced, whereas aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity remained unchanged. Characterization of cytochrome P-450 isozyme(s) in hepatic microsomes prepared from clotrimazole-treated animals was based on the immunoreactivity of these microsomes with highly specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised ...
MARUMO, Sativa (1997) Regio- and stereoselective propranolol metabolism by 3 forms of purified cytochrome P450 from rat liver and the effect of cytochrome b5 on these metabolisms. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 45(2): 135-136. MAEDA, Yutaka (1997) Strain differences in age-associated change in Testosterone 6β-hydroxylation in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 45(2): 135-135. NIKAIDOU, Satoshi (1997) Effect of green tea on hepatic enzyme activities and mutagenic transformation of benzo[a]pyrene. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 45(2): 134-134. OHKURA, Kaori (1997) Three-dimensional visualization of abdominal and thoracic organs of rodents by superimposing MRI multislices with a computer-graphic technique. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 45(2): 133-133. UI, Masahiro (1997) Transcriptional analysis of Mareks disease virus (MDV) genes in MDV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells without activated cells. Japanese Journal of Veterinary ...
Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (P450IIE) is reported to be induced by ketosis. In the present study, the effects of a high fat diet on P450IIE induction and the relationship between ketone body concentration and P450IIE induction were studied by the following: 1) measurement of the activity of aniline hydroxylase, 2) immunoblot analysis for P450IIE protein, and 3) Northern blot analysis for P450IIE mRNA. The enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase) in hepatic and renal microsomes were elevated about 2-3-fold by feeding with a high fat diet for 3 days. The increases in enzyme activities were also accompanied by 3-fold increases in immunoreactive P450IIE protein and its mRNA. In contrast, no differences were observed for the catalytic activities of N-alkoxyresorufin dealkylases or the amounts of immunoreactive P450IA and P450IIC, indicating a specific induction of P450IIE by high fat feeding. Furthermore, the increases in the levels of P450IIE mRNA correlated positively (r = 0.73) with plasma ...
Modern medical science has made such tremendous strides in the field of therapeutics that many older drugs, especially if potentially productive of untoward and dangerous side-effects, have been discredited and have fallen into disuse. Admittedly, many such drugs have marked therapeutic value and are deserving of further investigation and clinical trial before they are completely discarded.. Aminopyrine, by force of historical circumstances, has been such a discredited drug for many years.1, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5, 6, 7, 8 The danger of agranulocytosis resulting from its use is real and well established, but undoubtedly has been overemphasized.1, 2a, 4b, 5, 6, ...
Synonyms for amidopyrine in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for amidopyrine. 1 synonym for amidopyrine: aminopyrine. What are synonyms for amidopyrine?
Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumours. We previously showed that they inhibited mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) bioactivated by Aroclor 1254-induced rat S9. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of OD and SB on the mutagenicity of AFB1 in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 using dexamethasone (DXM)-induced rat hepatic S9, on cytochrome P450-linked aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) activity in DXM-induced hepatic microsomes and on the metabolism of AFB1 by DXM-induced S9 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental results showed that OD and SB consistently inhibited the mutagenicity of AFB1 bioactivated by either non-induced or DXM-induced S9. These effects correlated with the inhibition of cytochrome P450-linked APND activity in DXM-induced microsomes and with an inhibition of DXM-induced S9 mediated
Lee, S.-M. and Clemens, M. G. (1992), Effect of α-tocopherol on hepatic mixed function oxidases in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Hepatology, 15: 276-281. doi: 10.1002/hep.1840150217 ...
The N-demethylation of N,N-dimethylphenobarbital by isolated rat hepatocytes was increased severalfold by pretreatment of animals with sodium phenobarbital (75 mg/kg/day ip for 3 days). The apparent extent of induction depended on the length of the cell incubation, being 3-fold when calculated after a 5-min incubation and 5-fold when calculated after a 60-min incubation. This difference was due to the fact that metabolism by "induced" hepatocytes more closely approached linearity over a 60-min period. Microsomal cytochrome P-450 levels were increased 3-fold upon phenobarbital treatment; during incubations of less than 30 min duration, increased N-demethylase activity could be entirely accounted for by this increase in cytochrome P-450. When protein levels were measured directly in microsomes isolated from hepatocyte homogenates, the levels in "induced" hepatocytes were approximately 45% higher than control. However, phenobarbital treatment had no significant effects on total cellular protein or ...
BR-4935: cardiotonic; a non-adenosine analog adenosine1-receptor agonist with a substituted 2-thio-3,5-dicyano-4-phenyl-6-aminopyrine
Abstract Several parameters related to mono-oxygenase activity were followed in a population of chemical workers and controls. Workers exposed to toluene and xylene had a significant increase of urinary glucaric acid, that was correlated with hippuric acid excretion. On the other hand, workers exposed to pigments showed a marked increase of antipyrine half-life. A dose-related decrease of liver N-demethylase was induced in rats by the administration of a mixture of three of the pigments in use in the plant. Serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase was decreased in the workers exposed to pigments, but this variation was not statistically significant. The exposure to different chemicals in the workplace seemed to induce a complicated variation of mono-oxygenase levels, some enzyme being inhibited and others induced in the same group of workers. The sensitivity of these workers to toxic effects of chemicals, carcinogenic compounds and drugs seems to differ markedly from the control population. © 1982 ...
Learn about Tridione (Trimethadione Tablets) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment abundant in the root of the Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Whether shikonin changes drug metabolism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether shikonin modulates the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the possible mechanisms of this action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0-2 μM shikonin and the protein and mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined ...
MF:C13H17N3O MW:231.29 CAS:58-15-1 EINECS:200-365-8 Apperance:White fronds crystal or crystalline powder. No smell, taste slightly bitter. Product use: Antipyretic and analgesic, used for fever and headache, joint pain, neuralgia, dysmenorrhea and...
Bardag-Gorce, F., Yuan, Q.X., Li, J., French, B.A., Fang, C., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., French, S.W., 2000. The effect of ethanol-induced cytochrome p4502E1 on the inhibition of proteasome activity by alcohol. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 279, 23-29.. Bondoc, F.Y., Bao, Z., Hu, W.Y., Gonzalez, F.J., Wang, Y., Yang, C.S., Hong, J.Y., 1999. Acetone catabolism by cytochrome P450 2E1: studies with CYP2E1-null mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 58, 461-463.. Cederbaum, A.I., 2014. Methodology to assay CYP2E1 mixed function oxidase catalytic activity and its induction. Redox Biol. 2C, 1048-1054.. Cheng, J., Chen, C., Kristopher, K.W., Manna, S.K., Scerba, M., Friedman, F.K., Luecke, H., Idle, J.R., Gonzalez, F.J., 2013. Identification of 2-piperidone as a biomarker of CYP2E1 activity through metabolomic phenotyping. Toxicol. Sci. 135, 37-47.. Cheung, C., Gonzalez, F.J., 2008. Humanized mouse lines and their application for prediction of human drug metabolism and toxicological risk assessment. J. Pharmacol. Exp. ...
Product Name: 2,8-diiododibenzofuranFormula: C12H6OI2Weight: 419.98344SMILES: IC1=CC2C3=C(C=CC(I)=C3)OC=2C=C1CAS NO: 127-48-0 Product: Trimethadione &
Autori: Lefter LP, Sunamura M, Furukawa T, Yastsuoka T, Abe H, Inoue H, Abe T, Egawa S, Miura K, Morita R, Horii A, Matsuno S.. Editorial: Asian J Surg. 2004 Apr;27(2):85-92., 2004.. Rezumat:. BACKGROUND: In a previous work, we demonstrated that loss of heterozygosity of 18q is a frequent event significantly associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that restoration of heterozygosity of chromosome 18 in pancreatic cancer cells would reduce their tumorigenicity. This study was intended to provide functional evidence for the existence of new tumour suppressor gene(s) located on chromosome 18. METHOD: Restoration of heterozygosity was achieved by introducing a normal copy of chromosome 18 into pancreatic ductal carcinoma using a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. The tumorigenicity and metastatic ability of both the parental cells and resulting hybrids were assessed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro growth of hybrid clones was significantly delayed ...
Earlier we demonstrated that meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a specific inhibitor of arginine mono-ADP-ribosylation blocks proliferation and differentiation of chick skeletal myogenic cells in...
Although the aminopyrine breath test has received much attention, the question has not yet been settled whether pharmacological or tracer doses of the drug should be used. Nine volunteers were given14...
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In toxicological research, immortalized human hepatocytes provide a useful alternative to primary hepatocytes because interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters can largely be eliminated. However, it is essential that the cell line retain the original phenotype. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel spontaneously immortalized human hepatocyte cell line, HC-04, with respect to the transcript and functional protein expression profile for the major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transmembrane transporters. HC-04 cells retained hepatocyte-specific function including albumin production and ornithine transcarbamoylase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Most of the major CYP forms were expressed at basal levels and responsive to inducing agents. In particular, CYP3A4 was expressed abundantly, and HC-04 cells were able to metabolize the CYP3A4 probe, midazolam, at a rate similar to primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, the major ...
DNA Demethylase Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit is use for measuring DNA demethylase activity/inhibition. (KA0677) - Products - Abnova
The effect of ethanol on N-demethylation of aminopyrine in rat liver slices and in the microsomal fraction and on microsomal hydroxylation of pentobarbital and aniline was studied. With liver slices N-demethylation of aminopyrine was stimulated by 35-40% at low ethanol concentrations (2mm), whereas no stimulation occurred at high concentrations (100mm). With the liver microsomal fraction, an inhibitory effect was observed only at high ethanol concentrations (100mm). This was also observed with the other drugs studied. In agreement with these results, only at a high concentration did ethanol interfere with the binding of drug substrates to cytochrome P-450. Further, as previously reported, ethanol produced a reverse type I spectral change when added to the liver microsomal fraction. Evidence that this spectral change is due to removal of substrate, endogenously bound to cytochrome P-450, is reported. A dual effect of ethanol is assumed to explain the present findings; in liver slices, at a low ...
dentification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.-Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended ...
Unscramble aniline, Unscramble letters aniline, Point value for aniline, Word Decoder for aniline, Word generator using the letters aniline, Word Solver aniline, Possible Scrabble words with aniline, Anagram of aniline
Chemicals - Coatings China, Formic Acid Rubber Pulp Disinfest, Uses: 1. Pharmaceutical industry: Caffeine, Enzimes, Aminopyrine, Vitamin B1 2. Pesticide industry: Triazolone, Disinfes...
Trimethadione anticonvulsant drug molecule. Used in treatment of seizures. Atoms are represented as spheres with conventional colour coding: hydrogen (white), carbon (black), oxygen (red), nitrogen (blue). - Stock Image F011/3640
Rph1 and Gis1 are two related yeast zinc finger proteins that function as downstream effectors in the Ras/PKA, TOR and Sch9 nutrient signaling pathways. Both proteins also contain JmjC histone demethylase domains, but only Rph1 is known to be an active enzyme, demethylating lysine 36 of histone H3. We have studied to what extent the demethylase activity of Rph1 contributes to its role in nutrient signaling by performing gene expression microarray experiments on a yeast strain containing a catalytically inactive allele of RPH1. We find that the enzymatic activity of Rph1 is not essential for its role in growth phase dependent gene regulation. However, the ability of Rph1 to both activate and repress transcription is partially impaired in the active site mutant, indicating that the demethylase activity may enhance its function in vivo. Consistent with this, we find that the Rph1 mutation and a deletion of the histone H3 methylase Set2 affect the same target genes in opposite directions. Genes that ...
With that encouragement Axelrod quickly showed that amphetamine was rapidly metabolized in rabbit liver slices. He went on to define the co-factor requirements for the reaction finding that NADPH was required; similar to observations of Bert LaDu in his studies on aminopyrine demethylation9.Axelrod then determined the sub-cellular location of the activity by using methods developed by Hogeboom and Schneider10. This newly defined microsomal oxidizing system was soon shown to be responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of drugs and other chemicals.. Ref: 1V.R.Potter and C.A.Elvehjem, J.Biol. Chem. ,114:495-504 (1936) 2A.Claude, Cold String Harbor Symposium Quant.Biol.,9:263-270 (1941)3 W.C.Schneider,J.Biol.Chem. 165:585-593 (1949) 4E.C.Miller and J.A.Miller, Cancer Res. 7:468-480 (1947)5 E.S.Stevenson, K. Dobriner, and C.P.Rhoads, Cancer Research 2:160-167 (1942)6 G.C.Mueller and J.A.Miller, J.Biol.. Chem. 176:535-544 (1948) 7G.C.Mueller and J.A. Miller, J.Biol. Chem. ,180:1125-1236 ...
Algorithm for the management of hepatic enzyme elevations in the INPULSIS® trials. *Defined as increase in hepatic transaminases (AST or ALT) to ≥3 x ULN, an
Visit ChemicalBook To find more Aniline(62-53-3) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of Aniline(62-53-3). At last,Aniline(62-53-3) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
La plasmaniletanolammina desaturasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle ossidoreduttasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: O-1-alchil-2-acil-sn-glicero-3-fosfoetanolammina + AH2 + O2 ⇄ O-1-alch-1-enil-2-acil-sn-glicero-3-fosfoetanolammina + A + 2 H2O Richiede NADPH o NADH. Potrebbe coinvolgere il citocromo b5. Richiede Mg2+ e ATP. Paltauf, F. and Holasek, A., Enzymatic synthesis of plasmalogens. Characterization of the 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine desaturase from mucosa of hamster small intestine, in J. Biol. Chem., vol. 248, 1973, pp. 1609-1615, Entrez PubMed 4144394. Wykle, R.L., Blank, M.L., Malone, B. and Snyder, F., Evidence for a mixed function oxidase in the biosynthesis of ethanolamine plasmalogens from 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine, in J. Biol. Chem., vol. 247, 1972, pp. 5442-5447, Entrez PubMed 4403444 ...
Oral The metabolism of nonyl phenol ethoxylates takes place by shortening the ethylene oxide chain, carboxylation of the alkyl chain by omega oxidation and subsequent glucoronide and sulphate conjugation (CIR, 1983). Knaak et al. (1966) fed 67 mg/kg of NP-14C TP-9 (a commercial product containing on average 9 moles of EO per mole of NP, i.e. NPE-9) or 14C-NP to rats and followed urinary, faecal over a period of 7 days and CO2 excretion over a period of 4 days. Within the observed time period, 20% of the NP-14C TP-9 was excreted in urine, 78% in faeces and none as14CO2 14C-NP per se was found to be excreted in a similar manner. In the same study, Knaak et al. also exposed rats to 7, 10, 12 and 15 mole adducts of NP isolated from ethylene oxide-labelled TP-9. The 12 and 15 mole adducts were excreted to a greater extent in the feces than the 7 and 10 mole adducts, while the reverse situation occurred in urine. Modelling the metabolism of NPE-2 and NPE-4 in liver using the using prediction tools ...
Near rhymes (words that almost rhyme) with polystyrene: styrene, aminopyrine, trireme, tetracycline... Find more near rhymes/false rhymes at B-Rhymes.com
China Cyclohexanone-Qingdao Hisea Chem Co., Ltd, Find details about China Cyclohexanone, Cyc from Cyclohexanone-Qingdao Hisea Chem Co., Ltd - Qingdao Hisea Chem Co., Ltd.
Nitrogen assimilation during growth of Candida boidinii on methylated amines as sole nitrogen source involves NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. Changes in enzyme activities during the adaptation of the yeast from growth on ammonium to growth on trimethylamine were examined. No ammonia, dimethylamine or monomethylamine could be detected in the medium during growth on trimethylamine. When two methylated amines were supplied together, they were used simultaneously, although monomethylamine was metabolized more quickly than the others. When cells were grown on a low concentration of ammonium plus higher concentrations of di- or trimethylamine, the ammonium was used first. NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was the first enzyme to be derepressed, followed by methylamine oxidase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Di- and trimethylamine mono-oxygenase activities only appeared when the ammonium concentration fell below 0.5 mM. At this point amine utilization could be detected and no diauxic lag was
4-Benzoylamino cyclohexanone 73204-06-5 MSDS report, 4-Benzoylamino cyclohexanone MSDS safety technical specifications search, 4-Benzoylamino cyclohexanone safety information specifications ect.
3196 Ifosfamide is an antitumor prodrug with broad spectrum clinical activity. It is oxidatively biotransformed in vivo, mainly by hepatic P450-dependent mixed function oxidases, to 4-hydroxyifosfamide, an unstable intermediate that exists in equilibrium with the open-chain isomer, aldoifosfamide. These intermediates are believed to transport the ultimate alkylating metabolite, IPM, into cells. The clinical utility of ifosfamide is compromised by the formation of toxic byproducts, particularly chloroacetaldehyde and acrolein, which give rise to organ-specific toxicities including nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and urotoxicity. A further clinical limitation of ifosfamide, arising from the need for oxidative activation, is that it is not effective for extrahepatic regional chemotherapy. To avoid some of these shortcomings, we have devised a number of prodrug strategies to deliver IPM into cells that do not depend upon oxidative metabolism. Bis(acyloxy)alkyl IPM prodrugs constitute one of these ...

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

The effects on aminopyrine-demethylase and acetanilide-hydroxylase activity were evaluated. The extracts were examined by thin ... Isooctane did not inhibit aminopyrine-demethylase or acetanilide-hydroxylase activity. TLC spots corresponding to ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=%27organic+solvent%2A%27&f1=%2A&Startyear=&B1=Search&terms=3&Adv=1&Limit=500&Sort=DP+DESC&D1=10&EndYear=&PageNo=113&RecNo=1128&View=f&

Validated HPLC determination of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine in different suppository basesValidated HPLC determination of 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine in different suppository bases

Nickel carbonyl inhibition of induction of aminopyrine demethylase activity in liver and lung. Cancer Res 1970;30:1645-50. ... Noda A, Tsubone N, Mihara M, Goromaru T, Iguchi S. Formation of 4-formylaminoantipyrine as a new metabolite of aminopyrine. II ... Mirvish SS, Gold B, Eagen M, Arnold S. Kinetics of the nitrosation of aminopyrine to give dimethylnitrosamine. Clin Oncol 1974; ... Bast A, Noordhoek J. Inhibition of aminopyrine demethylation and binding to cytochrome P-450 by its main metabolites in rat ...
more infohttps://www.ijpsonline.com/articles/validated-hplc-determination-of-4dimethylaminoantipyrine-in-different-suppository-bases.html

738. Clofentezine (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)738. Clofentezine (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)

The activity of aminopyrine demethylase rose by a factor of 2.2 and the mean liver weights increased by 35%. There was a ... aminopyrine demethylase activities, for levels of cytochromes P-450 and b5, and for microsomal protein concentration. At 27,000 ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/jmpr/jmpmono/v86pr04.htm

738. Clofentezine (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)738. Clofentezine (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)

The activity of aminopyrine demethylase rose by a factor of 2.2 and the mean liver weights increased by 35%. There was a ... aminopyrine demethylase activities, for levels of cytochromes P-450 and b5, and for microsomal protein concentration. At 27,000 ...
more infohttp://inchem.org/documents/jmpr/jmpmono/v86pr04.htm

Steroid modulation of liver regeneration and hepatic microsomal enzymes in rats of either sex.Steroid modulation of liver regeneration and hepatic microsomal enzymes in rats of either sex.

Competitive inhibition was followed by Lineweaver-Burke analyses of aminopyrine demethylase in operated females treated with ... aminopyrine demethylase and aromatic hydrocarbon or benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase). Groups were also induced with phenobarbital ... P-450 and the other steroids screened had little effect on the microsomal parameters except for a rise in demethylase with ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Steroid-modulation-liver-regeneration-hepatic/3575874.html

Studies on the mechanism of acute toxicity of nitriles in mice | SpringerLinkStudies on the mechanism of acute toxicity of nitriles in mice | SpringerLink

Critical role of lipid peroxidation in carbon tetrachloride-induced loss of aminopyrine demethylase, cytochrome P-450 and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00316585

Induction of cytochrome(s) P450-dependent drug metabolism in cultured MH1C1 hepatoma cells.Induction of cytochrome(s) P450-dependent drug metabolism in cultured MH1C1 hepatoma cells.

The cell treatment with metyrapone led to a simultaneous stimulation of aminopyrine demethylase and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase ... The PB and MC treatments elicited enzyme activities towards the substrates aminopyrine and benzo(a)pyrene, respectively. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Induction-cytochromes-P450-dependent-drug/6518625.html

Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)

3) The activity of aminopyrine demethylase, the contents of cytochrome P-450 and b5, and the spectral difference of aniline ...
more infohttps://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/shokueishi/14/1/_contents/-char/en

Energy Metabolism Assay kit Solarbio Life Science - Solarbio.comEnergy Metabolism Assay kit Solarbio Life Science - Solarbio.com

Aminopyrine-N-demethylase Assay Kit. *Catalog : BC2730. *Detection method : Colormetric. *Detection instrument : ...
more infohttp://www.solarbio.net/category-155-b0.html

611. Tocopherol, alpha- (WHO Food Additives Series 21)611. Tocopherol, alpha- (WHO Food Additives Series 21)

450 mg/kg to rats caused a significant increase in aminopyrine demethylase activity in the liver (Cawthorne et al., 1970). ...
more infohttp://inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v21je05.htm

Benzphetamine | definition of benzphetamine by Medical dictionaryBenzphetamine | definition of benzphetamine by Medical dictionary

... benzphetamine demethylase (BD), aminopyrine demethylase (APD), N.. Effect of Inorganic Mercury on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes of ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/benzphetamine

Induction of valproic acid metabolism in rat liver microsomes by carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide - UBC Library...Induction of valproic acid metabolism in rat liver microsomes by carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide - UBC Library...

... aminopyrine demethylase activity was observed to decrease. Thisdepressant effect of PG on aminopyrine demethylase activity was ... 4-nitroanisole 0-demethylase (Wagner and Schmid, 1987),aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase (Wagner and Schmid, ... Epoxide hydrolase activity appeared to increase withincreasing dose as did aminopyrine N-demethylase activity. Cytochrome P- ... aminopyrineN-demethylase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (Wagner and Schmid, 1987).Regnaud et al. (1988) attempted to determine ...
more infohttps://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0088214

John Weisz | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystJohn Weisz | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Characterization of cytochrome P-450-dependent aminopyrine N-demethylase in rat brain: comparison with hepatic aminopyrine N- ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/profiles/display/Person/77736

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

The effects on aniline-p-hydroxylase, acetanilide-hydroxylase, and aminopyrine-N- demethylase activity were investigated. IPI ... hydroxylase and acetanilide-hydroxylase and noncompetitively inhibited aminopyrine-N-demethylase, IPI being the more potent. ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=styrene&f1=%2A&Adv=0&terms=1&PageNo=41&RecNo=408&View=f&

List of MeSH codes (D08) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D08) - Wikipedia

... aminopyrine n-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.338 --- cytochrome p-450 cyp2e1 MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.353 --- cytochrome ... nitroanisole o-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416 --- dioxygenases MeSH D08.811.682.690.416.277 --- catechol 1,2-dioxygenase ... ethylmorphine-n-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.550 --- sarcosine dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.662.582.700 --- sarcosine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D08)

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There was no statistical difference between C/C, C/T, and T/T dogs in activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline ... Caffeine 7-Demethylase, 3-Demethylase, 1-Demethylase, and 8-Hydroxylase Assay. Caffeine (1 mM) was incubated for 30 min at 37°C ... Activities of caffeine 7-demethylase (13X), caffeine 3-demethylase (17X), caffeine 1-demethylase (37X), and caffeine 8- ... caffeine 7-demethylase; 17X, caffeine 3-demethylase; 37X, caffeine 1-demethylase; 137U, caffeine 8-hydroxylase; MLT, melatonin ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/36/9/1903

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

The effects of individual pyrrolizidine alkaloids on the mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzyme aminopyrine N-demethylase were ... Effects of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids senecionine, retrorsine and seneciphylline on aminopyrine N-demethylase activity of the ...
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3-methylcholanthrene: Topics by WorldWideScience.org3-methylcholanthrene: Topics by WorldWideScience.org

Results: The activities of benzphetamine and aminopyrine Ar-demethylase were increased in the cultural fetal adrenal cells ... The activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin 0-dealkylase, benzphetamine, aminopyrine and erythromycin N-demethylases were measured by ... Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and dimethylnitrosamine demethylase (DMND) activities in pulmonary and hepatic tissues of ... also increased the activity of erythromycin W-demethylase. The activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin 0-dealkylase was undetected in the ...
more infohttps://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/0-9/3-methylcholanthrene.html

Plus itPlus it

... ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity was affected the most whereas aminopyrine N-demethylase and hexobarbital oxidase ... Furthermore, these differences in responsiveness seem to be a delayed event, since hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity ... The effect of neonatal androgen on the apparent Michaelis constant (Km) of ethylmorphine N-demethylase was also studied in the ... respond less to androgen treatment at adulthood for the metabolism of aminopyrine, ethylmorphine and hexobarbital as compared ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/193/2/621

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

... aminopyrine-N-demethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and NADPH-cytochrome C reductase) and down- ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize?author=Shu+Li

Spectrum Laboratories : Chemical Fact Sheet - Cas #
959988  CASRN 959-98-8Spectrum Laboratories : Chemical Fact Sheet - Cas # 959988 CASRN 959-98-8

R38] Dose dependent increased activities of aminopyrine-N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase in endosulfan treated rats ...
more infohttp://www.speclab.com/compound/c959988.htm

Effects of Zineb on Hepatic Microsomal Systems in Rats and Mice | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEffects of Zineb on Hepatic Microsomal Systems in Rats and Mice | Springer for Research & Development

Administration of Zineb at doses from 200 to 600 mg/kg caused a significant impairment of aminopyrine-N-demethylase in the two ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-71248-7_64

Plus itPlus it

In these microsomes 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (126%), aminopyrine N-demethylase (176%), benzphetamine N-demethylase (117 ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/17/4/360