Aminopterin: A folic acid derivative used as a rodenticide that has been shown to be teratogenic.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.Sarcoma 180Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Leukemia L1210Thioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.

Phase I study of escalating doses of edatrexate in combination with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (1/155)

Motivated by the observation of preclinical synergy, a Phase I dose escalation study of edatrexate in combination with a 3-h paclitaxel infusion was performed in patients with advanced breast cancer to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of edatrexate and the toxicities associated with this combination and to report preliminary observations of efficacy with this novel combination. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this Phase I trial. Thirty-five eligible patients were treated every 21 days in cohorts of at least three patients and were assessable for toxicity. One patient was ineligible due to hyperbilirubinemia. Stepwise dose escalations of edatrexate were administered until grade >3 nonhematological dose-limiting toxicities were reported. The initial dose level of edatrexate was 180 mg/m2; subsequent cohorts were treated with escalating doses of edatrexate (210, 240, 270, 300, 350, and 400 mg/m2). Edatrexate was administered by i.v. infusion over 1 h. Paclitaxel was administered 24 h later at a fixed dose of 175 mg/m2 as a 3-h infusion with standard dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, and cimetidine premedication. The MTD of edatrexate was reached at the 350 mg/m2 level in this study. Grade 3 diarrhea was seen in one patient at the 300 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels, requiring dose reductions. Two patients experienced grade 4 stomatitis at the 400 mg/m2 dose level and also required dose reduction, establishing the MTD as 350 mg/m2. Grade 3 nausea and vomiting were noted in two of three patients at the highest dose level. Of 35 patients, 4 patients reported grade 3 myalgias and 1 patient reported grade 3 neurosensory complaints, which were seen mostly at the 350 and 400 mg/m2 dose levels; however, 1 patient reported grade 3 myalgias at 180 mg/m2. No cumulative neurotoxicity was observed, and no patient experienced an allergic reaction to paclitaxel. In 23 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, there were four complete (17%) and seven partial responses, with an overall response rate of 48% (95% confidence interval, 27-69%). All of the responses were seen in patients who had not received prior chemotherapy for stage IV disease. The median duration of response was not assessable because many responding patients went on to receive high-dose chemotherapy treatment with stem cell support. The combination of edatrexate and paclitaxel for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is a feasible and safe regimen. The MTD of edatrexate was 350 mg/m2 when combined with a 3-h infusion of paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) given 24 h later. Activity was noted even among patients who had relapsed shortly after receiving methotrexate- and/or doxorubicin-containing adjuvant regimens. Additional studies evaluating the sequences and dosing schema for this combination are warranted to improve the response proportion and define the duration of the response.  (+info)

Folylpolyglutamyl synthetase gene transfer and glioma antifolate sensitivity in culture and in vivo. (2/155)

BACKGROUND: Although antifolates are popular agents for use in chemotherapy, they display minimal toxicity against slow-growing tumors and are toxic to actively replicating cells in normal tissues. These drugs are converted intracellularly into polyglutamate derivatives by the enzyme folylpolyglutamyl synthetase (FPGS). Because tumors with high expression of FPGS often respond to nontoxic antifolate doses, we investigated whether augmenting tumoral FPGS activity by gene delivery would enhance tumoral antifolate sensitivity. METHODS: 9L rat gliosarcoma cells were stably transfected with a human FPGS complementary DNA (cDNA), producing 9L/FPGS cells. The sensitivity of these cells to the antifolates methotrexate and edatrexate was measured in culture and in subcutaneous tumors, as was their ability to increase the chemosensitivity of nearby nontransfected cells, i.e., a bystander effect. The antifolate sensitivity of nonselected cells transduced with a hybrid amplicon vector that expressed FPGS was also ascertained. RESULTS: In comparison with 9L cells, 9L/FPGS cells displayed enhanced sensitivity to 4-hour pulses of antifolate. Subcutaneous 9L/FPGS tumors responded as well to methotrexate given every third day as 9L tumors did to daily treatment. A modest bystander effect was observed with edatrexate treatment in culture and in vivo. The observed bystander effect appeared to result from the release of antifolates by transfected cells after the removal of extracellular drug. In culture, enhanced antifolate sensitivity was also seen in other stably transfected rodent and human glioma cell lines, including one with high pre-existing FPGS activity, and in canine and human glioblastoma cell lines transduced with a vector bearing FPGS cDNA. CONCLUSIONS: FPGS gene delivery enhances the antifolate sensitivity of several glioma cell lines and merits further evaluation as a therapeutic strategy.  (+info)

Phase I study of the sequential administration of edatrexate and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. (3/155)

BACKGROUND: The antifolate edatrexate and the microtubule-stabilizing agent paclitaxel have both demonstrated single-agent activity in lung and breast cancer. In vitro, the sequential combination of edatrexate followed by paclitaxel produced synergistic antitumor effects. This trial was designed to find the maximum tolerated doses of edatrexate and paclitaxel when given every two weeks utilizing this sequential schedule. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with solid tumors received edatrexate intravenously on days 1 and 15 and paclitaxel intravenously as a three-hour infusion on days 2 and 16 of each 28-day cycle. Edatrexate was escalated from 40 to 120 mg/m2 and the paclitaxel dose fixed at 135 mg/m2. When the maximum-tolerated dose was not reached, edatrexate was fixed at 120 mg/m2 and paclitaxel escalated to 175 and 210 mg/m2. RESULTS: All 34 patients were assessable. The maximum tolerated doses were 120 mg/m2 of edatrexate and 210 mg/m2 of paclitaxel. Grade 3 myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, leukopenia, and an infusion-related reaction occurred. Eight patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and one with bladder cancer achieved major objective responses. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended phase II doses are 120 mg/m2 of edatrexate days 1 and 15 and 175 mg/m2 of paclitaxel as a three-hour infusion days 2 and 16 of a 28 day cycle. These results warrant phase II trials of the combination leading to phase III studies comparing the two drugs to a single agent to confirm the preclinical evidence of synergy.  (+info)

Dihydrofolate reductase from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. (4/155)

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the first human virus known to encode dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme required for nucleotide and methionine biosynthesis. We have studied the purified KSHV-DHFR enzyme in vitro and analyzed its expression in cultured B-cell lines derived from primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), an AIDS-associated malignancy. The amino acid sequence of KSHV-DHFR is most similar to human DHFR (hDHFR), but the viral enzyme contains an additional 23 amino acids at the carboxyl-terminus. The viral DHFR, overexpressed and purified from E. coli, was catalytically active in vitro. The K(m) of KSHV-DHFR for dihydrofolate (FH(2)) was 2.4 microM, which is significantly higher than the K(m) of recombinant hDHFR (rhDHFR) for FH(2) (390 nM). K(m) values for NADPH were similar for the two enzymes, about 1 microM. KSHV-DHFR was inhibited by folate antagonists such as methotrexate (K(i): 200 pM), aminopterin (K(i): 610 pM), pyrimethamine (K(i): 29 nM), trimethoprim (K(i): 2.3 microM), and piritrexim (K(i): 3.9 nM). In all cases, K(i) values for these folate antagonists were higher for KSHV-DHFR than for rhDHFR. The viral enzyme was expressed at levels two- to tenfold higher than hDHFR in PEL cell lines as an early lytic cycle gene. KSHV-DHFR mRNA and protein appeared from 6 to 24 h after chemical induction of the KSHV lytic cycle. Epitope-tagged KSHV-DHFR and rhDHFR both localized to the nucleus of transfected cells, while other KSHV nucleotide metabolism genes localized to the cytoplasm. DHFR activity was not essential for viral replication in cultured PEL cells. Since hDHFR was not detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), KSHV-DHFR may function to provide increased DHFR activity in vivo in infected cells that have little or none of their own enzyme.  (+info)

A spontaneous murine melanoma lung metastasis comprised of host x tumor hybrids. (5/155)

Cells from a lung metastasis, arising from Cloudman S91 melanoma cells implanted s.c. in the tail of a BALB/c nu/nu mouse, were comprised chiefly of host x tumor hybrids. These lung metastasis cells showed: (a) 30-40% increased DNA content; (b) resistance to 10(-4) M hypoxanthine, 4 x 10(-7) M aminopterin, and 1.6 x 10(-5) M thymidine (HAT) + G418; and (c) the presence in genomic DNA of genes for both wt and albino tyrosinase, reflecting the DBA/2J (Cloudman S91) and BALB/c mouse genotypes, respectively. Individual clones of lung metastasis cells expressed enhanced pigmentation, motility, and responsiveness to MSH/IBMX, a behavior similar to that recently reported for artificially generated melanoma x macrophage fusion hybrids. These similarities suggested that the host fusion partner generating the lung metastasis hybrids might have been a macrophage, although formal proof for this was not possible. The results provide the first direct evidence that host x tumor hybridization could serve as an initiating mechanism for melanoma metastasis.  (+info)

Trans-stimulation effects of folic acid derivatives on methotrexate transport by rat renal organic anion transporter, OAT-K1. (6/155)

We examined the pharmacological role of the renal organic anion transporter OAT-K1, which localizes predominantly in the brush-border membranes of proximal straight tubules, in the urinary excretion of methotrexate and the possibility of its contribution to "folinic acid rescue." With Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells stably transfected with OAT-K1 cDNA, OAT-K1-mediated methotrexate accumulation was inhibited in the presence of various folic acid derivatives. These derivatives included aminopterin, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, unlabeled methotrexate, folinic acid (citrovorum factor, leucovorin), and folic acid with apparent inhibition constant values of 0.5, 1.2, 1.8, 8.2, and 14.1 microM, respectively. In contrast, 10 microM taurocholic acid and sulfobromophthalein did not inhibit OAT-K1-mediated methotrexate accumulation. In addition, methotrexate efflux was stimulated in the presence of inwardly directed gradients of aminopterin, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, unlabeled methotrexate, folinic acid, and folic acid, but not of uric acid, taurocholic acid, and glutathione, indicating that OAT-K1-mediated methotrexate efflux is stimulated by a folic acid derivatives exchange. In conclusion, OAT-K1 was suggested to enhance the apical efflux of highly accumulated methotrexate in tubular epithelial cells and contribute at least in part to folinic acid rescue by exchanging intracellular methotrexate for extracellular folinic acid.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of 10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin, a new antifolate. (7/155)

The 10-deazaaminopterins are a new class of rationally designed antifolates demonstrating greater antitumor effects than methotrexate in murine tumor models and human tumor xenografts. Their design was aimed at improving membrane transport and polyglutamylation in tumor cells, resulting in increased intracellular accumulation and enhanced cytotoxicity. Compared with other 4-aminofolate analogues, 10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin (PDX) is the most efficient permeant for the RFC-1-mediated internalization and substrate for folylpolyglutamate synthetase. PDX demonstrates greater in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy than methotrexate or edatrexate. We undertook a Phase I study with PDX to identify the potential toxicities and define an optimal dose and schedule. Thirty-three patients were enrolled, all of whom had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and were treated previously with a median of two prior chemotherapy regimens. Initially, PDX was administered weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle. Mucositis requiring dose reduction and/or delay in the first cycle occurred in four of six patients treated at the initial dose level (30 mg/m2), making this the maximal tolerated dose for PDX given on this schedule. The treatment schedule was then modified to every 2 weeks. Twenty-seven patients were treated twice weekly with a total of 102 four-week cycles (median, 2 cycles/patient). Mucositis was the dose-limiting toxicity, with grade 3 and 4 mucositis occurring in the first two patients treated at the 170 mg/m2 dose level. Other toxicities were mild and reversible. No neutropenia was observed. The recommended Phase II dose is 150 mg/m2 biweekly. At that dose level, the mean area under the curve was 20.6 micromol x h, and the mean terminal half-life was 8 h. Two patients with stage IV NSCLC had major objective responses, and five patients had stable disease for 7 (two patients), 9 (one patient), 10 (one patient), and 13 months (one patient). PDX is a new antifolate with manageable toxicity and evidence of antitumor activity in NSCLC. A Phase II trial in NSCLC and a Phase I trial with paclitaxel are under way. These studies will also quantitate the expression of genes controlling internalization (RFC-1) and polyglutamylation of PDX in tumor cells as correlates of response.  (+info)

Co-administration of probenecid, an inhibitor of a cMOAT/MRP-like plasma membrane ATPase, greatly enhanced the efficacy of a new 10-deazaaminopterin against human solid tumors in vivo. (8/155)

Earlier studies from this laboratory have shown that the uricosuric agent probenecid (PBCD) will inhibit the extrusion of folate analogues from tumor cells mediated by a plasma membrane ATPase resembling the canicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP) family of ATP binding cassette transporters. This inhibition of this outwardly directed membrane ATPase has been shown to have a favorable impact upon the cellular pharmacokinetics, cytotoxicity, and efficacy of methotrexate in vivo. In an extension of these earlier studies, which had focused only on murine ascites tumors, we now report that parental co-administration of PBCD will also enhance net intracellular accumulation in vitro and intracellular persistence in vivo of a new folate analogue, 10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin (PDX) in tumor cells. This resulted in marked enhancement of the efficacy of PDX against murine and human lung neoplasms and human prostate and mammary neoplasms growing as solid tumors in mice. As possible ATPases targeted by PBCD, all of these tumors expressed MRP-1, -4, and -7 genes, with expression of MRP-4 being greatest in each case. Four other MRP genes were expressed to a variable extent in some tumors but not others. The therapeutic enhancement of PDX by PBCD was manifested as tumor regression, where PDX alone was only growth inhibitory (A549 NSCL tumor), or as a substantial increase (3-4-fold) in overall regression and/or number of complete regressions (Lewis and LX-1 lung, PC-3 and TSU-PR1 prostate, and MX-1 mammary tumors) compared to PDX alone. Also, only in the case of PDX with PBCD, a significant number of mice transplanted with LX-1 or MX-1 tumors that experienced complete regression did not have regrowth of their tumor. In view of these results, clinical trials of this therapeutic modality appear to be warranted, especially in the case of new more efficacious folate analogues that are also permeants for this canicular multispecific organic anion transporter/MRP-like plasma membrane ATPase.  (+info)

*Aminopterin

... has a single-dose LDLo of 2.5 mg/kg when orally administered to rats. Aminopterin is widely used in selection media ... Aminopterin is a synthetic derivative of pterin. Aminopterin works as an enzyme inhibitor by competing for the folate binding ... and 0.097 mg/kg aminopterin each day for 7 to 12 days. Folic acid was given in a weight ratio to aminopterin of 200:1 to 800:1 ... the enzyme inhibited by aminopterin. Leucovorin has been used in rats, dogs and humans to rescue aminopterin toxicity. ...

*Thymidine kinase

"Aminopterin". PubChem. [ ] Köhler G, Milstein C (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined ... After fusion, the cells are grown in a medium with methotrexate or aminopterin that inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase ...

*Hybridoma technology

... hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium) for roughly 10 to 14 days. Aminopterin blocks the pathway that allows for nucleotide ...

*HAT medium

Aminopterin in the medium blocks the de novo pathway. Hence, unfused myeloma cells die, as they cannot produce nucleotides by ... HAT Medium (hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium) is a selection medium for mammalian cell culture, which relies on the ... The trick is that aminopterin blocks DNA de novo synthesis, which is absolutely required for cell division to proceed, but ... is specifically blocked by aminopterin. THF, acting in association with specific proteins, can receive single carbon units that ...

*Timeline of the 2007 pet food recalls

The New York State Food Laboratory reported that aminopterin was found in samples sent to them by Cornell. Aminopterin is ... "No Aminopterin in Tissues of Animals Killed by Recalled Pet Food". PRNewsWire. March 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-14. "Press ... "fully consistent with the ingestion of rat poison containing aminopterin." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...

*2007 pet food recalls

Aminopterin is illegal in China, and neither Cornell University nor the FDA could replicate the New York lab's results. On 27 ... "No Aminopterin in Tissues of Animals Killed by Recalled Pet Food". PRNewsWire. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 9 ... On 23 March, the New York State Food Laboratory reported that aminopterin was found in samples sent to them by Cornell. ... Beginning on 19 April, researchers reportedly had ruled out aminopterin contamination and had found a "spoke-like crystal" in ...

*Somatic fusion

This medium is supplemented with hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine, hence the name HAT medium. Antimetabolite aminopterin ... since they cannot produce purines and pyrimidines due to the aminopterin present in the HAT medium). For using HAT medium as a ...

*Monoclonal antibody

Exposing cells to aminopterin (a folic acid analogue, which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, DHFR), makes them unable to use ... The selective culture medium is called HAT medium because it contains hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine. This medium is ...

*Stuart A. Rice

Effect of folic acid, aminopterin and vitamin K on growth of roots in Allium cepa. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 74:310-12 The ...

*Yellapragada Subbarow

... aminopterin)". N. Engl. J. Med. 238 (23): 787-93. doi:10.1056/NEJM194806032382301. PMID 18860765. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ...

*Purine nucleoside phosphorylase

Often the de novo pathway is interrupted as a result of chemotherapy drugs such as methotrexate or aminopterin. All salvage ...

*The New England Journal of Medicine

His team gave 16 infants and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia a folic acid inhibitor, aminopterin-10 showed ... Aminopterin)". New England Journal of Medicine. 238 (23): 787-93. doi:10.1056/NEJM194806032382301. PMID 18860765. Zoll, PM ( ...

*Birth defect

Aminopterin, a cytostatic drug with anti-folate effect, was used during the 1950s and 1960s to induce therapeutic abortions. In ... some cases the abortion didn´t happen, but the newborns suffered a fetal aminopterin syndrome consisting of growth retardation ...

*Min Chiu Li

Farber was able to use a drug of this type, aminopterin, to achieve a temporary remission in childhood leukemia. In the early ...

*Leukemia

By 1947 Boston pathologist Sidney Farber believed from past experiments that aminopterin, a folic acid mimic, could potentially ...

*Folate

This research subsequently led to the synthesis of the antifolate aminopterin, the first-ever anticancer drug, the clinical ...

*Primidone

... and Gaynor reported cases of cleft lip and palate associated with attempted abortion with methotrexate and aminopterin, which ...

*Methotrexate

In 1947, a team of researchers led by Sidney Farber showed aminopterin, a chemical analogue of folic acid developed by ... Animal studies published in 1956 showed the therapeutic index of methotrexate was better than that of aminopterin, and clinical ... use of aminopterin was thus abandoned in favor of methotrexate. In 1951, Jane C. Wright demonstrated the use of methotrexate in ...

*List of extremely hazardous substances

Acrylamide Acrylonitrile Acryloyl chloride Adiponitrile Aldicarb Aldrin Allyl alcohol Allylamine Aluminum phosphide Aminopterin ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... aminopterin MeSH D03.438.733.631.192.500 --- methotrexate MeSH D03.438.733.631.202 --- biopterin MeSH D03.438.733.631.202.500 ...

*Boston Children's Hospital

Yellapragada Subbarow (of Lederle lab and his friend and colleague at Harvard Medical School) to supply Aminopterin and later ... Sidney Farber received the Lasker in 1966 for his 1947 discovery that a combination of aminopterin and methotrexate, both folic ...

*Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

... using aminopterin. This, and another antifolate drug, methotrexate used by Dr. Farber, were discovered and supplied by Dr. ...

*Developmental toxicity

Some of the known developmental toxicants can be grouped under the following categories: Reproductive toxins: Aminopterin ...

*Antileukemic drug

6-Mercaptopurine 6-Thioguanine Aminopterin Arsenic trioxide Asparaginase Cladribine Clofarabine Cyclophosphamide Cytosine ...

*Madras Medical College

... known for the synthesis of the first ever chemotherapeutic drug aminopterin, and subsequently methotrexate. He is also known ...
... is a condition affecting babies whose mothers were exposed to the chemical aminopterin or methotraxate during pregnancy. Only about 50 cases have been reported. Babies exposed to aminopterin or methotraxate during development can be born with developmental delays such as inability to properly grow, abnormal arms or legs, and changes to the face or skull. Symptoms of fetal aminopterin syndrome depend on how early in pregnancy the woman is exposed to aminopterin or methotraxate and the dosage of the medication being used. There is no cure for fetal aminopterin syndrome, though symptoms can be managed. Aminopterin is no longer used, but methotraxate may still be used to treat some conditions such as cancer. Pregnant women should consult a physician before taking medications with either chemical ...
In the Phase II PROPEL study, 29% of patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (a type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma) experienced a complete or partial disappearance of detectable cancer following treatment with Folotyn® (pralatrexate). These results-published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology-formed the basis for the approval of Folotyn for this disease.. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a relatively uncommon type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. The optimal approach to the treatment of PTCL remains uncertain, and the prognosis for many patients is poor.. Folotyn is an investigational antifolate drug. The drug is thought to accumulate in cancer cells, interfere with DNA synthesis, and trigger cell death.. To evaluate Folotyn in the treatment of PTCL, researchers conducted a Phase II clinical trial known as PROPEL (Pralatrexate in patients with Relapsed OR refractory PEripheral T-cell Lymphoma). The study enrolled 115 patients with PTCL that had returned after previous ...
Aminopterin (4-Aminofolic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is a folic acid antagonist. Aminopterin catalyses the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, and competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) with a Ki of 3.7 pM. Aminopterin has anticancer and immunosuppressive activity. Aminopterin is used in treatment of pediatric leukemia. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Ovaj lek je otkrio Dr. Yellapragada Subbarao, a prvi je koristio njegovu antifolatnu aktivnost Sidni Farber 1947. da indukuje remisiju kod dece sa leukemijom.[3][4] Aminopterin je kasnije prodavala kompanija Lederle Laboratories (Pearl River, Njujork) u SAD od 1953 do 1964 za pedijatrijsku leukemiju. Ta kompanije je u toku istog perioda prodavala blisko srodni antifolat metotreksat. Lederle Laboratories je zatim obustavila prodaju aminopterina u korist metotreksata zbog proizvodnih razloga. Aminopterin je u toku svog tržišnog veka korišćen i za tretman psorijaze u SAD. Ovaj lek je doveo do dramatičnog čišćenja lezija.[5]. Upotreba aminopterina u tretmanu raka je zamenjena 1950-tih godina metotreksatom zbog boljeg terapeutskog indeksa metotreksata.[6] Nedavno je došlo do obnavljanja interesa u aminopterin, tako da su u toku klinička ispitivanja sa ciljom suzbijanja leukemije.[7]. Ovo jedinjenje je bilo istraženo kao abortifacijent 1960-tih i ranije, ali je bilo asocirano sa ...
Four folate analogues, methotrexate, aminopterin, 10-deazaaminopterin, and 10-ethyl-10-deazaaminopterin were assessed for their ability to be metabolized to poly-γ-glutamyl derivatives in three tumor lines which vary in their sensitivity to these agents. Cytotoxicity of the four analogues against the murine L1210 leukemia and the human Manca B cell leukemia, as determined by a 3-h clonogenic assay, showed aminopterin and the two 10-deazaaminopterin compounds to be approximately equivalent for each cell type and were 3- to 10- (L1210) and 7- to 14-fold (Manca) more potent than methotrexate. In murine Sarcoma 180 cells, 10-ethyl-10-deazaaminopterin and aminopterin were similarly potent but were 5- to 10-fold more potent than 10-deazaaminopterin and 40- to 80-fold more potent than methotrexate. These results could be explained in part by the differences in transport properties and substrate activities for polyglutamylation for each analogue in these cell types.. Initial rates of polyglutamate ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-A5159, Aminopterin for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
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U.S. patent 8299078: Treatment of T-cell lymphoma using 10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin. Granted to OConnor et. al. on 2012-10-30 (filed None). Currently involved in at least 1 patent litigation:... by priorsmart in Types > Business/Law > Court Filings, patents, and litigated patents
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the overall response rate in patients with advanced esophago-gastric cancer (EGC) to combination pralatrexate and oxaliplatin.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To examine the toxicity and tolerability of this regimen. II. To determine the time-to-progression and overall survival using this regimen.. III. To examine whether functionally relevant polymorphisms of genes of the folate metabolism pathway correlate with efficacy and toxicity of pralatrexate.. IV. To examine whether response to pralatrexate can be predicted by micro-ribonucleic acid (microRNA) expression profiling of the epithelial component of the tumor.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive pralatrexate intravenously (IV) over 3-5 minutes and oxaliplatin IV over 2 hours on day 1. Courses repeat every 2 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Oxaliplatin will be discontinued after 12 courses.. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 30 days and then ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the overall response rate in patients with advanced esophago-gastric cancer (EGC) to combination pralatrexate and oxaliplatin.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To examine the toxicity and tolerability of this regimen. II. To determine the time-to-progression and overall survival using this regimen.. III. To examine whether functionally relevant polymorphisms of genes of the folate metabolism pathway correlate with efficacy and toxicity of pralatrexate.. IV. To examine whether response to pralatrexate can be predicted by micro-ribonucleic acid (microRNA) expression profiling of the epithelial component of the tumor.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive pralatrexate intravenously (IV) over 3-5 minutes and oxaliplatin IV over 2 hours on day 1. Courses repeat every 2 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Oxaliplatin will be discontinued after 12 courses.. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 30 days and then ...
...NCCN has added pralatrexate (Folotyn(TM) Allos Therapeutics Inc.) to...FORT WASHINGTON Pa. Oct. 15 -- Upon the rece...The updated NCCN Guidelines have added pralatrexate as a second-line t...Peripheral T-cell lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma th...,NCCN,Updates,NHL,Guidelines,Following,FDA,Approval,of,Pralatrexate,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
In June 3, 1948, The New England Journal of Medicine published a study by Sidney Farber, MD, showing that a synthetic compound, 4-aminopteroylglutamic acid (aminopterin), could induce remissions in seriously ill children with acute leukemia.1 Although the study was small-just 16 children-10 showed clinical, hematologic, and pathologic evidence of improvement. Even though the childrens remissions were short-lived, Dr. Farbers findings were so groundbreaking-until then, no drug had proved effective against non-solid tumor cancers-they ushered in the era of chemotherapeutics, chemical agents that could stop cancer cells from growing and replicating, in effect killing them.. Aminopterin was later replaced by methotrexate, a similar but more effective folic acid antagonist with fewer side effects, which is still used today in the treatment of leukemia and other blood and solid tumor cancers. Nevertheless, the results of Dr. Farbers study earned him the title, the Father of Modern ...
days in Clicks medium with 0.5% NMS and then placed in IL-2 for 3 days to expand. T cell clones and lines can be successfully fused following an analogous schedule, in this case the clone or line is set up in a standard re-stimulation flask with 5.0 X 105 T cells, 2.0 X 107 irradiated NOD spleen cells in 20 ml DMEM/10% FBS with 50U/ml IL-2. The cultures are incubated for four days at which point they are subjected to Lympholyte M separation and culture for 3 days in 50 U/ml IL-2, the cells are then counted and washed as below.. Hybrid cells are selected by culturing the fused cells in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT). The aminopterin component of HAT inhibits a key enzyme in purine and ...
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March 25th, 2007 at 1:20 pm Itchmo,. Regarding this:. Cause of Death. Acute Renal Failure (ARF) from the ingestion of aminopterin (and possibly other toxins) from contaminated wheat gluten.. The FDA emphasized in their press conference on Friday that they did not know how the aminopterin entered into the affected food. Menu Foods, likewise, has stated that "wheat gluten" is only a guess, based on timing coincidences, and that there has been no hard-fast evidence to support that the wheat gluten is in any way contaminated. This should be stressed to consumers so as not to offer any false sense of security by simply avoiding products with wheat gluten.. ...
Term] id: EDAM:0002078 name: Sequence range format namespace: format def: Format used to specify range(s) of sequence positions. subset: format is_a: EDAM:0002350 ! Format (typed) relationship: is_format_of EDAM:0001017 ! Sequence range [Term] id: EDAM:0002571 name: Raw sequence format namespace: format def: Format of a raw molecular sequence (i.e. the alphabet used). subset: format is_a: EDAM:0002350 ! Format (typed) relationship: is_format_of EDAM:0000848 ! Raw sequence [Term] id: EDAM:0001921 name: Alignment format namespace: format def: Data format for molecular sequence alignment information. subset: format is_a: EDAM:0002350 ! Format (typed) relationship: is_format_of EDAM:0000863 ! Sequence alignment [Term] id: EDAM:0001919 name: Sequence record format namespace: format def: Data format for a molecular sequence record. subset: format is_a: EDAM:0002350 ! Format (typed) relationship: is_format_of EDAM:0000849 ! Sequence record [Term] id: EDAM:0002057 name: Sequence trace format namespace: ...
This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of pralatrexate plus oxaliplatin in the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic oesophageal, stomach,
Pralatrexate is a polar, racemic small molecule (Molecular Weight of 477.5 g.mol-1), soluble in aqueous solutions. Pralatrexate is a mixture of diastereomers (stereoisomers that are not enantiomers, i.e. they are non-superimposable). Diastereomers can have different physical properties biological activities, and different reactivity. Pralatrexate has a volume of distribution (Vd) of 105L and 37L for the S- and R-diastereomers, respectively, a plasma protein binding (ppb) of 67%, a systemic clearance of 417 mL.min-1 (S-diastereomer) and 191 mL.min-1 (R-diastereomer), and an elimination half-life (T1/2)of 12-18 hours. Pralatrexate is not significantly metabolized by the phase I hepatic CYP450 isozymes or phase II hepatic glucuronidases, and has low potential to induce or inhibit the activity of CYP450 isozymes - elimination is primarily of unchanged drug in urine ...
FOLOTYN (Pralatrexate) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
On Friday, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said recalled pet foods contained melamine, a chemical used to make plastics, but that its tests failed to confirm the presence of a rat poison, aminopterin, reported by the New York State Food Laboratory. The FDA said it also found melamine in wheat gluten used as an ingredient in the wet-style products. Still, it was not immediately clear whether the melamine was the culprit in the deaths.. ...
In March 2007, the most lethal pet food in history was the subject of the largest recall ever. Menu Foods recalled more than 100 brands including Iams, Eukanuba, Hills Science Diet, Purina Mighty Dog, and many store brands including Wal-Marts. Thousands of pets were sickened (the FDA received more than 17,000 reports) and an estimated 20% died from acute renal failure caused by the food. Cats were more frequently and more severely affected than dogs. The toxin was initially believed to be a pesticide, the rat poison "aminopterin" in one of the ingredients. In April, scientists discovered high levels of melamine, a chemical used in plastics and fertilizers, in wheat gluten and rice protein concentrate imported from China. The melamine had been purposefully added to the ingredients to falsely boost their protein content. Subsequent tests revealed that the melamine-tainted ingredients had also been used in feed for cows, pigs, and chickens and thousands of animals were quarantined and destroyed. ...
Term] id: EDAM:0000850 name: Sequence set namespace: data def: "A collection of multiple molecular sequences and associated metadata that do not (typically) correspond to molecular sequence database records or entries and which (typically) are derived from some analytical method." [EDAM:EBI "EMBRACE definition"] comment: This term may be used for arbitrary sequence sets and associated data arising from processing. subset: data is_a: EDAM:0002955 ! Sequence report [Term] id: EDAM:0001234 name: Sequence set (nucleic acid) namespace: data def: "Any collection of multiple nucleotide sequences and associated metadata that do not (typically) correspond to common sequence database records or database entries." [EDAM:EBI "EMBRACE definition"] subset: data is_a: EDAM:0000850 ! Sequence set is_a: EDAM:0002977 ! Nucleic acid sequence [Term] id: EDAM:0001240 name: PCR primers namespace: data def: "Oligonucleotide primer(s) for PCR and DNA amplification, for example a minimal primer set." [EDAM:EBI "EMBRACE ...
Term] id: EDAM:0000850 name: Sequence set namespace: data def: A collection of multiple molecular sequences and associated metadata that do not (typically) correspond to molecular sequence database records or entries and which (typically) are derived from some analytical method. comment: This term may be used for arbitrary sequence sets and associated data arising from processing. subset: data is_a: EDAM:0002955 ! Sequence report [Term] id: EDAM:0001234 name: Sequence set (nucleic acid) namespace: data def: Any collection of multiple nucleotide sequences and associated metadata that do not (typically) correspond to common sequence database records or database entries. subset: data is_a: EDAM:0000850 ! Sequence set is_a: EDAM:0002977 ! Nucleic acid sequence [Term] id: EDAM:0001240 name: PCR primers namespace: data def: Oligonucleotide primer(s) for PCR and DNA amplification, for example a minimal primer set. subset: data is_a: EDAM:0001234 ! Sequence set (nucleic acid) [Term] id: EDAM:0001246 ...
Several HDAC inhibitors have been studied in clinical trials for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, only three HDAC inhibitors (romidepsin, vorinostat and belinostat) have received approval. Vorinostat was granted regular approval for third-line cutaneous T-cell lymphoma based on two open-label trials (one was a single-arm trial and the other assessed several dosing regimens) achieving ORRs of 30% (median DoR was not reached but estimated to exceed 6 months) and 24% (median DoR of 106 days).. The accelerated approval of belinostat was based on efficacy and safety data from a single-arm phase II trial. With the approval of belinostat, three drugs are now approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory PTCL under the accelerated approval regulations: pralatrexate in 2009, romidepsin in 2011, and belinostat in 2014. Although cross-study comparisons must be interpreted with caution, the ORRs were similar for the three drugs: belinostat (ORR: 26%, CR: 11%, DoR: 8.4 months), pralatrexate [ORR: 27%, ...
Well, you didnt, did you? Nalgol bit out, thoroughly disgusted. First the strike team, now Oissan. Get back to work. We still have an hour or two before the battle out there winds down to where well be entering it. VOTF p.651. In other words, Han Solo figured that a single Star Destroyer could finish off the warring fleets by itself and then burn off Bothawui, all with no survivors, no witnesses, and Nalgol confirmed this plan. The three ISDs were just insurance; it is quite obvious from Solos interpretation of the plan that its common knowledge in the New Republic that a single Star Destroyer is capable of doing this on its own. Enough of your lies and evasions, Edam. Stand up and debate like a man.. Or it is common misinformation. Everytime we see ISDs and similar ships try to do this they take hours to do it - the whole operation with 10x the capacity for damage is expected to take hours. 100 VSDs attacking Khomm did very little damage in half an hour. When Boosters ISD slagged the ...
Learn about the potential side effects of Folotyn (pralatrexate). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Looking for online definition of pralatrexate in the Medical Dictionary? pralatrexate explanation free. What is pralatrexate? Meaning of pralatrexate medical term. What does pralatrexate mean?
Spectrum announced the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) for Belinostat for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (R/R PTCL).
RATIONALE: Pralatrexate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as f
I read somewhere that myeloma parent cells can revert to HAT resistance, and that it is a good idea to re-select HGPRT negative cells periodically for their resistance to 20 fg/ml of 8-azaguanine and to re-select thymidine kinase negative cells for their resistance to 30 fg/ml of BrdU. However, aminopterin resistance may not be a common problem. Reversion of the X63-Ag8 line is rare, if it occurs at all. Jack Komisar ...
Chemotherapeutic agents: Chemotherapy, Pawpaw, Biosynthesis of doxorubicin, Camptothecin, Epothilone, Aminopterin, ABVD, Cyclophosphamide von Source: Wikipedia bei AbeBooks.de - ISBN 10: 1157367399 - ISBN 13: 9781157367390 - Books LLC, Wiki Series - 2011 - Softcover
During the early phases (phases 1 and 2), researchers assess safety, side effects, optimal dosages and risks/benefits. In the later phase (phase 3), researchers study whether the treatment works better than the current standard therapy. They also compare the safety of the new treatment with that of current treatments. Phase 3 trials include large numbers of people to make sure that the result is valid. There are also less common very early (phase 0) and later (phase 4) phases. Phase 0 trials are small trials that help researchers decide if a new agent should be tested in a phase 1 trial. Phase 4 trials look at long-term safety and effectiveness, after a new treatment has been approved and is on the market. ...
Purpose: Pralatrexate is a folic acid analogue metabolic inhibitor similar to methotrexate, which has shown tolerability and efficacy with an overall response rate of 45% in a phase I dose deescalation study of patients with relapsed/refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).. Experimental Design: The object of this phase I/II open-label, multicenter clinical trial was to determine the MTD and recommended dose of pralatrexate plus oral bexarotene in 34 patients with relapsed/refractory CTCL who had failed prior systemic therapies. Pralatrexate was administered by intravenous push at 15 mg/m2 given weekly 3 weeks out of 4 weeks with daily oral bexarotene (150 or 300 mg/m2), levothyroxine, atorvastatin, folate, and with B12 every 2 months.. Results: At the MTD of 15 mg/m2 bexarotene and 15 mg/m2 pralatrexate, the response rate was 60% [4 complete responses (CR), 14 partial responses (PR)], the maximum observed response duration was 28.9+ months, and duration of response for 4 CRs ranged from 9.0 ...
Pralatrexate (PDX, 10-propargyl 10-deazaaminopterin) is a novel anti-folate agent that is approved for use in relapsed peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). It is distinguished from the parent drug methotrexate (MTX) by having significantly greater affinity for the reduced folate carrier (RFC)-1, the principle transporter that internalize anti-folates, as well as broader efficacy, which strongly suggests that PDX has mechanisms of action beyond inhibition of nucleotide synthesis. Given the activity of PDX in aggressive lymphoid malignancies such as PTCL, we examined the activity of this agent in preclinical models of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy that is currently incurable. We examined the cytotoxic activity of anti-folates in vitro against a panel of human multiple myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and showed that PDX induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in a subset of these. In sensitive cell lines (MM.1s and ARH-77) PDX demonstrated significantly greater potency at 48 hours ...
Sterigmatocystin (STG), a biosynthesis precursor of aflatoxin B1, is well known for its toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. STG derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel STG derivatives, based on which novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared. With the novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates, three sensitive and specific mAbs against STG, named VerA 3, VerA 4, and VerA 6, were prepared by semi-solid hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT) medium using a modified two-step screening procedure. They exhibited high affinity for STG and no cross-reactivity (CR) with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. Based on the most sensitive antibody VerA 3, an ultra-sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for STG in wheat, maize, and peanuts. Assays were performed in the STG-GA-BSA-coated (0.5 g mL(-1)) ELISA format, in which the ...
May 26th, 2007 at 1:10 am IS THERE ANYONE OUT THERE WHO CAN ANALYZE THIS REPORT FOR US ON A STEP BY STEP BASIS-WHAT IT MEANS, WHAT IT DOESNT SAY, SHOULD CERTAIN DATA BE AVAILABLE THAT IS MISSING?. First off, I see that under chemical synonyms, cryomazine breakdown products is listed. That may or may not speak to Dr. Foxs theory.. Is there any reason for the absence of analysis of beef and milk products? As of yesterdays blogs, I now realize that most US cattle eat cyanuric acid as a nonprotein nitrogen source called biuret, but would this melamine, cyanuric acid feed at these levels affect the milk and meat?. Is there any evidence to support the statement that the formation of lattice crystals ,particularly between melamine and cyanuric acid takes place {only} at very high dose levels?. I notice Guelph Lab Service referenced under Toxicology Profile. Didnt Guelph also find aminopterin, which is not mentioned in the report.. Are the melamine and analogues in the scenarios realistic? This I ...
Find public databases by data type Version: EMBOSS:6.5.0.0 Standard (Mandatory) qualifiers: [-query] string List of EDAM data keywords (Any string) [-outfile] outresource [*.drfinddata] Output data resource file name Additional (Optional) qualifiers: (none) Advanced (Unprompted) qualifiers: -sensitive boolean [N] By default, the query keywords are matched against the EDAM term names (and synonyms) only. This option also matches the keywords against the EDAM term definitions and will therefore (typically) report more matches. -[no]subclasses boolean [Y] Extend the query matches to include all terms which are specialisations (EDAM sub-classes) of the matched type. Associated qualifiers: "-outfile" associated qualifiers -odirectory2 string Output directory -oformat2 string Data resource output format General qualifiers: -auto boolean Turn off prompts -stdout boolean Write first file to standard output -filter boolean Read first file from standard input, write first file to standard output -options ...
DBL Calcium Folinate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to DBL Calcium Folinate is available on the Drugs.com website.
Discovering Health Insights. Accelerating Healthcare TransformationTuesday, March 28, 7:00 a.m. - 8:15 a.m.Cyril Magnin Ballroom(not eligible for CME)
The folic acid antagonists, aminopterin and then methotrexate, have been the primary systemically administered drugs for the treatment of severe psoriasis for 25 years. Methotrexate was finally approved by the FDA 5 years ago and was recently estimated to be used for approximately 25 000 psoriatic patients annually. With the small but chronic doses used for psoriasis, methotrexate has been relatively safe, except for a limited occurrence of significant hepatotoxicity. The good to excellent results obtained in most patients must, therefore, be weighed against the small risk of liver damage. Methotrexate has also been used with some effectiveness in several other dermatologic conditions, including mycosis fungoides, dermatomyositis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and others, although they are not yet FDA-approved indications. The recent successful introduction of photochemotherapy (psoralen and ultraviolet light) for moderate and severely affected psoriatics will probably lead to a substantial decrease ...
Contribution: S.M.H. contributed to conceiving and designing the study, collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data, and writing and approving the manuscript; Y.H.K. contributed to designing, collecting, and analyzing the data, interpreting the data, writing/commenting and approving the manuscript, and providing study materials or patients; F.F. contributed to writing/commenting and approving the manuscript; J.M.Z. contributed to collecting data, providing study material or patients, writing/commenting, and final approval of the manuscript; P.L.M. contributed to collecting and assembling data, writing/commenting, and approving the manuscript; M.J.L. contributed to analyzing and interpreting data, writing/commenting, and approving the manuscript; D.C.F. contributed to collecting, assembling, and interpreting data, writing/commenting on the manuscript, and providing final approval; A.R.S. contributed to collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data, writing/commenting and approving the ...
Calciumfolinat information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Schumit 1967, Calciumfolinat indications, usages and related health products lists
Learn more about Methotrexate at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Alternate Names : Amethopterin MTX Trade Names : Immunex Folex PFS Rheumatrex ...
Learn more about Methotrexate at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Alternate Names : Amethopterin MTX Trade Names : Immunex Folex PFS Rheumatrex ...
Synonyms for antifolate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for antifolate. 6 synonyms for folic acid: folacin, folate, pteroylglutamic acid, pteroylmonoglutamic acid, vitamin Bc, vitamin M. What are synonyms for antifolate?
Robbie was really happy to be diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Before he arrived he was convinced he had lung cancer. Robbie is in his late 50s, he was born in Glasgow and left school at fifteen with no qualifications. His father was a shipbuilder on the Clyde. Robbie thought he would do the same, but…
Emazian B12 Injections information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Pfizer, Emazian B12 Injections indications, usages and related health products lists
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Learn more about Methotrexate at LewisGale Regional Health System Alternate Names : Amethopterin MTX Trade Names : Immunex Folex PFS Rheumatrex ...
Monday November 6, 7:00 a.m. - 8:15 a.m.NLM: A platform for discovery and a pathway for engagementPatricia Flatley Brennan, RN, PhDDirector, National Library of MedicineInterim Associate Director for Data ScienceNational Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services
Lichter, sneller en betere rijeigenschappen - de Epic Hardtail Comp Carbon zet de wereld van XC hardtails op zijn kop. Met een gewicht van 1175 gram is dit een van de lichtste frames die we ooit hebben gemaakt. Om dit lage gewicht te bereiken, hebben we gebruikt gemaakt van onze ongeëvenaarde FACT 10m carbon vezels. Daarnaast hebben we elementen van het Rider-First Engineered™ concept op het nieuwe frame toegepast, net als bij enkele van onze racefietsen wordt elke framemaat individueel ontworpen. Hierdoor kunnen we voor elke maat de perfecte balans tussen gewicht, stijfheid en rijeigenschappen bereiken. We hebben op de geometrie gefinetuned om voor nog meer snelheid en stabiliteit te zorgen. Een minder steile balhoofdbuis, een langere bovenbuis en gecorrigeerde hoek van de zadelbuis zorgen voor een geometrie die nog meer vertrouwen geeft. Daarnaast hebben de we inbouwbreedte vergroot naar 12x148mm en hebben we het frame voorzien van interne split-housing kabelvoering. Voor de afmontage hebben we
Bio-Rex information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Aandersen Farmaceutisk Institut, Bio-Rex indications, usages and related health products lists
Polyglutamase which preferentially modifies alpha-tubulin. Involved in the side-chain elongation step of the polyglutamylation reaction rather than in the initiation step (By similarity). Required for CCSAP localization to both spindle and cilia microtubules (PubMed:22493317). Generates long side-chains (By similarity ...
The drug Folotyn (pralatrexate) has been approved to treat Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma (PTCL), an often aggressive form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said Friday. The drug, given accelerated approval because it treats an unmet medical need, was sanctioned for people whose disease has returned or hasnt responded to other types of chemotherapy, the agency said in a news release.
The drug Folotyn (pralatrexate) has been approved to treat Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma (PTCL), an often aggressive form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said Friday. The drug, given accelerated approval because it treats an unmet medical need, was sanctioned for people whose disease has returned or hasnt responded to other types of chemotherapy, the agency said in a news release.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a chronic incurable disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of CTCL depends on clinical stage and includes both topical and systemic therapies, including psoralene plus UVA irradiation (PUVA), total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT), systemic chemotherapy, and three new drugs (vorinostat, romidepsin, and pralatrexate), which have been approved by the FDA based on overall response rates of 29% to 34%. Unfortunately, these interventions are associated with sometimes debilitating and dose-limiting side effects, and they are not curative. Partial responses, progression and relapses do often occur, and prolonged disease-free survival is rare except in patients whose CTCL is diagnosed and treated from an early stage. Fortunately, CTCL is highly responsive to radiotherapy, and TSEBT has evolved as a powerful treatment regimen. Current low-dose (8-10 Gy) TSEBT treatment regimens can generate very good responses with minimal toxicity. However, ...
Due to inconsistencies between the drug labels on DailyMed and the pill images provided by RxImage, we no longer display the RxImage pill images associated with drug labels. We anticipate reposting the images once we are able identify and filter out images that do not match the information provided in the drug labels. ...
Glutamylase which preferentially modifies beta-tubulin and non-tubulin proteins, such as NAP1L1, NAP1L4 and CGAS/MB21D1. Involved in the side-chain initiation step of the polyglutamylation reaction rather than in the elongation step. Involved in formation of short side-chains. Mediates initiation of polyglutamylation of nucleosome assembly proteins NAP1L1 and NAP1L4. Also acts as a monoglutamylase: generates monoglutamylation of CGAS/MB21D1, leading to impair the nucleotidyltransferase activity of CGAS/MB21D1.
Synonyms for Antimetabolic agent in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Antimetabolic agent. 9 words related to antimetabolite: antineoplastic, antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, Purinethol, amethopterin, methotrexate.... What are synonyms for Antimetabolic agent?
Tài liệu về Methotrexate - Tài liệu , Methotrexate - Tai lieu tại 123doc - Thư viện trực tuyến hàng đầu Việt Nam
Afryka jest jednym z najbardziej inspirujących miejsc na Ziemi. Wynika to m.in. z olbrzymiej różnorodności jaka cechuje ten kontynent. Z jednej strony fascynuje nas spaloną słońcem Saharą a z drugiej oszałamia wiecznie zielonymi lasami równikowymi.
15.06.05 10:01am Its June, and that means its time to lock in nominations for the AMIA Board of Directors for the 2015 ballot.. Are you interested in running for the Board? Do you know someone else who would be a great candidate for the Board?. AMIA is seeking nominations for four positions on the AMIA Board of Directors. The positions are:. 1. President of the Board. 2. Director of the Board. 3. Director of the Board. 4. Director of the Board. AMIA relies on the Board of Directors to lead the association forward and to promote its mission. For information about the duties of the Board, you can find the Guide to the AMIA Board of Directors at. http://www.amianet.org/sites/all/files/About%20-%20Board%20Guide.pdf.. All nominees must be members of AMIA and each term is for two years.. AMIA members are encouraged to submit recommendations of candidates to the Elections Committee. While the Committee is responsible for determining the final nominations, recommendations from the membership are ...
O experimento de Griffith, relatado em 1928 por Frederick Griffith, foi o primeiro experimento sugerindo que bactérias são capazes de transferir informação genética através de um processo conhecido como Transformação. A descoberta de Griffith foi seguida pela do final da década de 1930 e início da década de 1940 que isolou o DNA como o material que comunicava esta informação genética. Griffith, Fred. (janeiro de 1928). «The Significance of Pneumococcal Types» 2 ed. Cambridge University Press. Journal of Hygiene. 27: 113-159. JSTOR 4626734. PMC 2167760. PMID 20474956. doi:10.1017/S0022172400031879 Lorenz, M. G.; Wackernagel, W. (1 de setembro de 1994). «Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment» 3 ed. Microbiological Reviews. 58: 563-602. PMC 372978. PMID 7968924 Downie, A. W. (1972). «Pneumococcal transformation - a backward view: Fourth Griffith Memorial Lecture» (PDF) 1 ed. Journal of General Microbiology. 73: 1-11. PMID 4143929. ...
In an attempt to combat the dullness of German food, we deep-fried some cheese the other night. Ordinary German cheese is good but bland: Gouda, Edam, the occasional unripe Camembert or Brie. They even manage to make mozarella and feta dull. Its sort of like going to Baskin-Robbins and finding out that all 31 flavors are vanilla. You might learn to appreciate the subtleties, but when all is said and done, youre still eating vanilla.. We occasionally stumble across a stronger cheese. These come under such innocuous names as "butter cheese" and are often quite potent. Im always trying to find something new and interesting for Karin, so I try a lot different cheeses. I seem to have a knack for finding the smelly ones.. Now, the cheese in question was smelly, as in smells-like-somebody-disemboweled-a-goat-and-left-it-under-the-tropical-sun smelly. It had already taken over the refrigerator and established a solid beachhead in the kitchen. An assault on the front room was imminent, so we had to do ...
Anyone else terrified by spiders? Im a grown damn man, I can destroy any bug, but catch sight of a spider and I turn into a 4 four year old who has happen...
Previous work showed that acute myelocytic leukemia blasts accumulate less long chain polyglutamates of methotrexate (MTX) than acute lymphocytic leukemia blasts when incubated with this radiolabeled antifolate. This difference likely explains the in
Metallocarboxypeptidase that mediates deglutamylation of target proteins. Catalyzes the deglutamylation of polyglutamate side chains generated by post-translational polyglutamylation in proteins such as tubulins. Also removes gene-encoded polyglutamates from the carboxy-terminus of target proteins such as MYLK. Acts as a long-chain deglutamylase and specifically shortens long polyglutamate chains, while it is not able to remove the branching point glutamate, a process catalyzed by AGBL5/CCP5.
CB30900 is a novel, potent thymidylate synthase inhibitor which can not be polyglutamated and may be active in cancers expressing low or defective folylpolyglutamate synthetase. Pharmacokinetics were studied in mouse tumors and tissues after bolus or infusion protocols. Elimination was triphasic after 100 mg kg-1 i.v. (T 1/2 alpha, 2.8 min; T 1/2 beta, 19.1 min and T 1/2 gamma, 4.1 hr). Peak concentrations were 716 microM; clearance, 1.19 ml g-1 hr-1; and area under the curve (AUC 0-2 hr), 131 microM hr. Biphasic elimination occurred after i.p. administration and was comparable to the i.v. route giving complete i.p. bioavailability. Kidney concentrations were similar to plasma (AUC 0-2 hr, 84.3 microM hr). CB30900 concentrations in the gut increased steadily with time (AUC 0-2 hr, 645 microM hr) and liver drug concentrations were 7-fold greater than plasma (AUC 0-2 hr, 847 microM hr). Peak tumor concentrations occurred at 30 min and were 27% of plasma concentrations, but tumor drug clearance was ...
Learn more about Methotrexate at Reston Hospital Center Alternate Names : Amethopterin MTX Trade Names : Immunex Folex PFS Rheumatrex ...
Drs. Takimoto and Allegra present a comprehensive overview of the development of antifolates over the past decade and a half. The antifolates are antimetabolite antineoplastic agents that are structurally and chemically similar to naturally occurring folates required for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. These drugs interfere with DNA synthesis by inhibiting key
The massive open online course provider edX announced a new open-source platform on Friday: Edraak, an online education platform for Arabic-speaking students. The Queen Rania Foundation for Education and Development, which promotes efforts to strengthen education in Jordan, will use Open edX, the MOOC providers open-source platform, to feature select courses translated into Arabic.
Damijan Knez, Natalia Colettis, Luca Giacinto Iacovino, Matej Sova, Anja Pišlar, Janez Konc, Samo Lešnik, Josefina Higgs, Fabiola Kamecki, Irene Mangialavori, Ana Dolšak, Simon Žakelj, Jurij Trontelj, Janko Kos, Claudia Binda, Mariel Marder, Stanislav Gobec. Stereoselective Activity of 1-Propargyl-4-Styrylpiperidine-Like Analogues that can Discriminate between Monoamine Oxidase Isoforms A and B. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2020, 63, 1361-1387. Full Text ...
Methotrexate is an immunosuprresive disease modifying anti rheumatoid drug or DMARD. Methotrexate is useful in as an anti cancer therapy due to its cytotoxic characteristic. Methotrexate is polyglutamated.
Hi, im 18 yo and i have RA since 2015 and currently i take humira and methotrexate. I take methotrexate every two weeks (i know the usual dose is everyweek, but i was losing my hair and the decided...
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the answer for process B ; assume the Irvine32 library is installed During this folder ; update if Its not. contain C:IrvineIrvine32.inc includelib C:IrvineIrvine32.lib .386 .stack 4096 ExitProcess PROTO,dwExitCode:DWORD .details prompt1 BYTE The biggest selection within the sequence which fits within a 32-bit sign up is , 0 prompt2 BYTE The value of n in sum(n) which generates the largest variety is , 0 comma BYTE , .code major PROC ; pseudocode, use unsigned integers ; sum = 0 ; stage = one ; while (genuine) ; newsum = sum + phase; ; if (newsum , 0) break; ; else ; sum = newsum; ; action = phase + one; ; print sum and a comma; ; ; ; print The end result (sum and stage - one) ; mov eax, 0 ; sum = 0 mov ecx, one ; next stage = 1 up coming: ; endeavor to make the next price during the sequence mov edx, eax add edx, ecx ; edx = eax + ecx, the new sum ; Test If your have flag is ready jc accomplished ; if not, print the value and go on increase new worth from the sequence mov eax, edx simply ...
Learn about methotrexate, the most frequently used treatment worldwide for rheumatoid arthritis. Also, learn about an injectable form of methotrexate.

Aminopterin - Википедија, слободна енциклопедијаAminopterin - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

Aminopterin je sintetički derivat pterina. Aminopterin dejstvuje kao inhibitor enzima dihidrofolat reduktaze. Njegov afinitet ... Aminopterin je u toku svog tržišnog veka korišćen i za tretman psorijaze u SAD. Ovaj lek je doveo do dramatičnog čišćenja ... No Aminopterin in Tissues of Animals Killed by Recalled Pet Food". PRNewsWire. 30. 3. 2007. Приступљено 14. 04. 2007.. ... Aminopterin i metotreksat su široko korišćeni u selekciji medija (kao što je HAT medijum) za ćelijske kulture. ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminopterin

Fetal Aminopterin SyndromeFetal Aminopterin Syndrome

... is a condition affecting babies whose mothers were exposed to the chemical aminopterin or ... Symptoms of fetal aminopterin syndrome depend on how early in pregnancy the woman is exposed to aminopterin or methotraxate and ... There is no cure for fetal aminopterin syndrome, though symptoms can be managed. Aminopterin is no longer used, but ... Babies exposed to aminopterin or methotraxate during development can be born with developmental delays such as inability to ...
more infohttp://diseaseinfosearch.org/Fetal+Aminopterin+Syndrome/2818

Aminopterin (4-Aminofolic acid) | Folic Acid/ DHFR Antagonist | MedChemExpressAminopterin (4-Aminofolic acid) | Folic Acid/ DHFR Antagonist | MedChemExpress

Aminopterin has anticancer and immunosuppressive activity. Aminopterin is used in treatment of pediatric leukemia. - Mechanism ... Aminopterin catalyses the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, and competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase ( ... Aminopterin (4-Aminofolic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is a folic acid antagonist. ... Aminopterin (4-Aminofolic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is a folic acid antagonist. Aminopterin catalyses the ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/aminopterin.html

Plus itPlus it

Aminopterin was accumulated mainly as the diglutamate, particularly in Manca cells where 70% of total drug was in the ... In L1210 cells incubated for 3 h with drug, efflux of methotrexate and aminopterin polyglutamates was found to be slower than ... In murine Sarcoma 180 cells, 10-ethyl-10-deazaaminopterin and aminopterin were similarly potent but were 5- to 10-fold more ... In L1210 and Sarcoma 180 cells, the relative rates of polyglutamylation were in the order aminopterin , 10-ethyl-10- ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/45/4/1488

Folic acid antagonists | Define Folic acid antagonists at Dictionary.comFolic acid antagonists | Define Folic acid antagonists at Dictionary.com

Modified pterins, such as aminopterin and amethopterin, that interfere with the action of folic acid and produce the symptoms ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/folic-acid-antagonists

Methotrexate - For All Medical Treatment Options Explained, Visit CureCrowdMethotrexate - For All Medical Treatment Options Explained, Visit CureCrowd

Methotrexate began to replace the more toxic antifolate aminopterin starting in the 1950s. The drug was developed by ...
more infohttps://www.curecrowd.com/treatments/methotrexate

Folic acid antagonists | Article about folic acid antagonists by The Free DictionaryFolic acid antagonists | Article about folic acid antagonists by The Free Dictionary

Aminopterin and methotrexate, which have a structure similar to that of folic acid, are used in the treatment of certain types ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/folic+acid+antagonists

Aminopterin - WikipediaAminopterin - Wikipedia

Aminopterin has a single-dose LDLo of 2.5 mg/kg when orally administered to rats. Aminopterin is widely used in selection media ... Aminopterin is a synthetic derivative of pterin. Aminopterin works as an enzyme inhibitor by competing for the folate binding ... and 0.097 mg/kg aminopterin each day for 7 to 12 days. Folic acid was given in a weight ratio to aminopterin of 200:1 to 800:1 ... the enzyme inhibited by aminopterin. Leucovorin has been used in rats, dogs and humans to rescue aminopterin toxicity. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminopterin

Aminopterin - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedijaAminopterin - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija

Analogi folne kisline (aminopterin, metotreksat, pemetreksed, raltitreksed) Purinski analogi (kladribin, klofarabin, fludarabin ... Aminopterin se je nekoč uporabljal za zdravljenje raka, dandanes pa ga je povsem nadomestil metotreksat, ki je spojina s ... Aminopterin je sintezni derivat pterina. Deluje kot encimski zaviralec, ker se veže na vezišča encima dihidrofolat reduktaze ( ... Aminopterin (4-aminopterojska kislina) je 4-amino derivat folne kisline, ki izkazuje imunosupresivno in citostatično delovanje ...
more infohttps://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminopterin

Tetrazole-aminopterin | C19H20N12O3 - PubChemTetrazole-aminopterin | C19H20N12O3 - PubChem

Tetrazole-aminopterin , C19H20N12O3 , CID 124422 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/124422

aminopterin: Topics by WorldWideScience.orgaminopterin: Topics by WorldWideScience.org

Aminopterin had a similar effect on deoxyuridine reversal of tritiated dThd incorporation into DNA. Aminopterin had no effect ... aminopterin was safe and efficacious in canine AD. Twice-weekly dosing negated efficacy despite having the same daily and ... aminopterin was safe and efficacious in canine AD. Twice-weekly dosing negated efficacy despite having the same daily and ... LD-aminopterin in the canine homologue of human atopic dermatitis: a randomized, controlled trial reveals dosing factors ...
more infohttps://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/a/aminopterin.html

Aminopterin Dose Finding Treatment for Methotrexate-Naïve Rheumatoid Arthritis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAminopterin Dose Finding Treatment for Methotrexate-Naïve Rheumatoid Arthritis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

1 mg of LD-aminopterin, or 3 mg of LD-aminopterin in a 1:1:1 ratio. The study hypothesis is that the 3 mg LD-aminopterin per ... Aminopterin Dose Finding Treatment for Methotrexate-Naïve Rheumatoid Arthritis. The safety and scientific validity of this ... Intestinal transport of aminopterin enantiomers in dogs and humans with psoriasis is stereoselective: evidence for a mechanism ... Aminopterin. Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal. Abortifacient Agents. Reproductive Control Agents. Physiological Effects of ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01724931

Congenital Cardiac Defects: A Possible Association of Aminopterin Syndrome and In Utero Methotrexate Exposure?Congenital Cardiac Defects: A Possible Association of Aminopterin Syndrome and In Utero Methotrexate Exposure?

There is now a well-defined syndrome of congenital anomalies associated with the use of aminopterin. The aminopterin syndrome ... The use of aminopterin has now fallen out of favor. Methotrexate is a folate antagonist that is now used more frequently. A ... Newborns who survived after aminopterin exposure were noted for years to have defects of the neural tube, skull, or limbs. ... We report two patients who presented with classic features of aminopterin syndrome combined with significant congenital cardiac ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Congenital-Cardiac-Defects-Possible-Association/21327892.html

9781157367390: Chemotherapeutic agents: Chemotherapy, Pawpaw, Biosynthesis of doxorubicin, Camptothecin, Epothilone,...9781157367390: Chemotherapeutic agents: Chemotherapy, Pawpaw, Biosynthesis of doxorubicin, Camptothecin, Epothilone,...

Aminopterin, ABVD, Cyclophosphamide von Source: Wikipedia bei AbeBooks.de - ISBN 10: 1157367399 - ISBN 13: 9781157367390 - ... Chemotherapeutic agents: Chemotherapy, Pawpaw, Biosynthesis of doxorubicin, Camptothecin, Epothilone, Aminopterin, ABVD, ... Chemotherapeutic agents: Chemotherapy, Pawpaw, Biosynthesis of doxorubicin, Camptothecin, Epothilone, Aminopterin, ABVD, ... Chapters: Chemotherapy, Pawpaw, Biosynthesis of doxorubicin, Camptothecin, Epothilone, Aminopterin, ABVD, Cyclophosphamide, ...
more infohttps://www.abebooks.de/9781157367390/Chemotherapeutic-Agents-Chemotherapy-Pawpaw-Biosynthesis-1157367399/plp

Aminopterin inhibition in Aerobacter aerogenes: alanine and valine accumulation during the inhibition and their utilization on...Aminopterin inhibition in Aerobacter aerogenes: alanine and valine accumulation during the inhibition and their utilization on...

Aminopterin inhibition in Aerobacter aerogenes: alanine and valine accumulation during the inhibition and their utilization on ... Aminopterin inhibition in Aerobacter aerogenes: alanine and valine accumulation during the inhibition and their utilization on ... Aminopterin inhibition in Aerobacter aerogenes: alanine and valine accumulation during the inhibition and their utilization on ... Aminopterin inhibition in Aerobacter aerogenes: alanine and valine accumulation during the inhibition and their utilization on ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/70/3/472

Aminopterin - wikidocAminopterin - wikidoc

Aminopterin is a synthetic derivative of pterin. Aminopterin works as an enzyme inhibitor by competing for the folate binding ... the enzyme inhibited by aminopterin. Leucovorin has been used in rats, dogs and humans to rescue aminopterin toxicity.[19][20][ ... and 0.097 mg/kg aminopterin each day for 7 to 12 days. Folic acid was given in a weight ratio to aminopterin of 200:1 to 800:1 ... optimal of 1 hour prior to aminopterin) of administration in relation to aminopterin.[24][25] The temporal relationship between ...
more infohttp://es.wikidoc.org/index.php/Aminopterin

AMINOPTERIN - Manufacturer, Supplier & ExporterAMINOPTERIN - Manufacturer, Supplier & Exporter

... exporter of AMINOPTERIN including all laboratory Chemicals, and offered to our clients at the best industry prices, Inquire us ...
more infohttp://www.alphachemikaindia.com/aminopterin-2711943.html

Fetal aminopterin syndrome             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramFetal aminopterin syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

... information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Fetal aminopterin ... Fetal aminopterin syndrome Title Other Names:. Aminopterin embryopathy syndrome; Aminopterin fetopathy syndrome; Aminopterin ... syndrome; Aminopterin embryopathy syndrome; Aminopterin fetopathy syndrome; Aminopterin syndrome; Fetal methotrexate syndrome ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cluster&id=24751

Edatrexate (10-ethyl-deaza-aminopterin) (NSC #626715) with or without leucovorin rescue for malignant mesothelioma. Sequential...Edatrexate (10-ethyl-deaza-aminopterin) (NSC #626715) with or without leucovorin rescue for malignant mesothelioma. Sequential...

10-ethyl-deaza-aminopterin) (NSC #626715) with or without leucovorin rescue for malignant mesothelioma. Sequential phase II ... Edatrexate (10-ethyl-deaza-aminopterin) (NSC #626715) with or without leucovorin rescue for malignant mesothelioma. Sequential ...
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub709776

Products in LKT Labs on Thomas ScientificProducts in LKT Labs on Thomas Scientific

Aminopterin LKT Labs. Aminopterin is a folic acid analog and derivative of pterin; it is very similar to methotrexate in ... Aminopterin exhibits anticancer chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive activities. Like other folic acid analogs, aminopterin ...
more infohttp://www.thomassci.com/nav/manufacturer/lktlabs/0

Thymidine kinase - WikipediaThymidine kinase - Wikipedia

"Aminopterin". PubChem. [ ] Köhler G, Milstein C (1975). "Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined ... After fusion, the cells are grown in a medium with methotrexate or aminopterin that inhibit the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymidine_kinase

2007 - Page 3 of 19 - Baseline of Health Foundation2007 - Page 3 of 19 - Baseline of Health Foundation

Poisoned Pet Food, Aminopterin. 3/23/2007. The New York State Food Laboratory has identified the presence of aminopterin in all ...
more infohttps://www.jonbarron.org/2007/page/3/?taxonomy&term

Veterinary Homeopathy - Page 7 of 7 - Hpathy.comVeterinary Homeopathy - Page 7 of 7 - Hpathy.com

A useful article about Treating a Case of Suspected Feline Aminopterin Poisoning.Full details about... ...
more infohttps://hpathy.com/veterinary-homeopathy/page/7/

Folic acid - test: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaFolic acid - test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood.
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003686.htm
  • Aminopterin (4-Aminofolic acid) produces a marked inhibition of mitosis in low concentrations in human leukemic leukocytes . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Aminopterin , 4-amino analog folne kiseline , je antineoplastični lek sa imunosupresivnim osobinama koji se koristi u hemoterapiji . (wikipedia.org)
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