Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Guanosine Diphosphate Fucose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar formed from GDPmannose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls, and for blood group substances and other glycoproteins.Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.Allylamine: Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.SemicarbazidesNecrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Lathyrism: A paralytic condition of the legs caused by ingestion of lathyrogens, especially BETA-AMINOPROPIONITRILE or beta-N-oxalyl amino-L-alanine, which are found in the seeds of plants of the genus LATHYRUS.Azetidinecarboxylic Acid: A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase: An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Xylosegamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.MercaptoethylaminesPatents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Atrial Remodeling: Long-term changes in the electrophysiological parameters and/or anatomical structures of the HEART ATRIA that result from prolonged changes in atrial rate, often associated with ATRIAL FIBRILLATION or long periods of intense EXERCISE.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).EstersAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Proplast: Polymer of polytetrafluoroethylene and carbon filaments; porous biocompatible material used in orofacial and middle ear reconstruction and as coating for metal implants.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Enophthalmos: Recession of the eyeball into the orbit.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)

The smooth muscle cell. III. Elastin synthesis in arterial smooth muscle cell culture. (1/87)

Primate arterial smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts were examined for their ability to synthesize elastin in culture. In the presence of the lathyrogen beta-aminopropionitrile, the smooth muscle cells incorporate [3H]lysine into a lysyl oxidase substrate that was present in the medium and associated with the cell layer. A component having a mol wt of 72,000 and an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of authentic tropoelastin was isolated from the labeled smooth muscle cells by coacervation and fractionation with organic solvents. In the absence of beta-aminopropionitrile, long-term cultures of smooth muscle cells incorporated [14C]lysine into desmosine and isodesmosine, the cross-link amino acids unique to elastin. In contrast, no desmosine formation occurred in the fibroblast cultures. These characteristics demonstrate that arterial smooth muscle cells are capable of synthesizing both soluble and cross-lined elastin in culture.  (+info)

Lysyl oxidase activates the transcription activity of human collagene III promoter. Possible involvement of Ku antigen. (2/87)

Lysyl oxidase is an extracellular enzyme that controls the maturation of collagen and elastin. Lysyl oxidase and collagen III often show similar expression patterns in fibrotic tissues. Therefore, we investigated the influence of lysyl oxidase overexpression on the promoter activity of human COL3A1 gene. Our results showed that when COS-7 cells overexpressed the mature form of lysyl oxidase, the activity of the human COL3A1 promoter was increased up to an average of 12 times when tested by luciferase reporter assay. The effect was specific, because other promoters were not affected. Moreover, lysyl oxidase effect was abolished by beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of its catalytic activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a binding activity in the region from -101 to -77 that was significantly increased by lysyl oxidase overexpression. The binding was specifically competed by the cold probe, and the mutagenesis of this region abolished both the binding activity in gel retardation and lysyl oxidase stimulation of COL3A1 promoter in transfection experiments. We identified the binding activity as Ku antigen in its two components: Ku80 and Ku70. This study suggests a new coordinated mechanism by which lysyl oxidase might control the development of fibrosis.  (+info)

Collagen synthesis in capsules surrounding dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat breast tumors and the effect of pretreatment with beta-aminopropionitrile. (3/87)

Collagen synthesis is increased over three-fold in capsules surrounding dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat breast tumors compared to the tumor parenchyma and over six-fold compared to normal breast connective tissue. Increased collagen synthesis is independent of the rate of tumor growth and final tumor size. Pretreatment of animals with beta-aminopropionitrile to inhibit collagen cross-linking caused an 82% decrease in tumor formation and a significant reduction in tumor volume (approximately 0.4 cu cm) compared to controls (approximately 10 cu cm). The four small tumors that did develop in the lathyritic animals had increased collagen synthesis in the interior tumor stroma and reduced collagen synthesis in the tumor capsule. These findings suggest that the collagenous capsule surrounding dimethylbenzanthracene tumors functions as a physical barrier to protect the tumor from the immune system of the host. The apparent antitumor effects of beta-aminopropionitrile may be due to immunopotentiation and/or cytotoxic actions of the drug.  (+info)

Analysis of the combined osteolathyritic effects of beta-aminopropionitrile and diethyldithiocarbamate on xenopus development. (4/87)

In order to examine the mechanistic basis between combined effects and mechanisms of action, two osteolathyrogens, beta-aminopropionitrile (betaAPN) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC), were tested together on Xenopus embryos. In a separate test, DTC was also tested with copper sulfate to determine the importance of copper in DTC-induced osteolathyrism. Frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) were exposed for 96 h, with daily solution removal and replacement. Preserved tadpoles were evaluated for osteolathyritic lesions. For the betaAPN:DTC test, a 1.2-factor matrix design was used, producing two single chemical and seven mixture-response curves. The chi(2) goodness-of-fit test was used to compare the experimental mixture-response curves with theoretical effects for two combined effects models, dose-addition and independence. All seven mixture curves were consistent with expected results for dose-addition, but the correlations were generally not high. For the DTC:copper test, the three mixture-response curves generated showed that added copper increased the DTC-alone EC(50), but there was no corresponding right shift at the top of the response curves, as observed previously with betaAPN and copper. In the betaAPN:DTC and DTC:copper tests, DTC alone showed a biphasic concentration-osteolathyrism curve, and the slope of the response curve for DTC alone in each test was statistically different than the slope for the betaAPN alone response curve. Taken together, the results suggest the potential for a second osteolathyritic effect of DTC that affected the combined toxicity enough to produce a dose-addition correlation without the chemicals necessarily having the same mechanism.  (+info)

Amine oxidase-like activity of polyphenols. Mechanism and properties. (5/87)

Polyphenols in several oxidation systems gained amine oxidase-like activity, probably due to the formation of the corresponding quinones. In the presence of Cu(II), o- and p-phenolic compounds exhibited amine oxidase-like activity, whereas only the o-phenolic compounds showed the activity in the presence of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The activity was determined by measuring the conversion of benzylamine to benzaldehyde by HPLC. Moreover, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, which are plant polyphenols, converted the lysine residue of bovine serum albumin to alpha-amino-adipic semialdehyde residue, indicating lysyl oxidase-like activity. We also characterized the activity of pyrocatechol, hydroquinone, and pyrogallol in the presence of Cu(II). The oxidative deamination was accelerated at a higher pH, and required O2 and transition metal ions. Furthermore, EDTA markedly inhibited the reaction but not beta-aminopropionitrile, which is a specific inhibitor of lysyl oxidase. Catalase significantly inhibited the oxidation, implying the participation of hydroxyl radical in the reaction, but superoxide dismutase stimulated the oxidation, probably due to its radical formation activity. We discussed the mechanism of the oxidative deamination by polyphenols and the possible significance of the activity for biological systems.  (+info)

The effect of beta aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) on experimental amyloidosis. (6/87)

Experimental amyloidosis was induced in mice with repeated injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) reinforced with bacterial vaccine. BAPN administered in a mixture with CFA or on its own before the injection of CFA reduced the incidence of amyloidosis. The reduction in the incidence of amyloidosis following the administration of BAPN may be due to its inhibitory effect on the oxidative deamination of amino acids, which presumably inhibit cross-linking of amyloid fibrils or interfere with metabolic pathways which involve the formations of mucopolysaccharide formation. It is suggested that the defective formation of the mucopolysaccharide-amyloid protein complex inhibits amyloid deposition and induces the activity of beta glucuronidase observed in the present study. The reduced incidence of amyloidosis following BAPN adminsitration cannot be due to lysosomal enzyme degradation of the amyloid as the activity of cathepsin D and acid phosphatase is decreased during this process.  (+info)

A molecular role for lysyl oxidase in breast cancer invasion. (7/87)

We identified previously an up-regulation in lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression,an extracellular matrix remodeling enzyme, in a highly invasive/metastatic human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, compared with MCF-7, a poorly invasive/nonmetastatic breast cancer cell line. In this study, we demonstrate that the mRNA expression of LOX and other LOX family members [lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL), LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4] was observed only in breast cancer cells with a highly invasive/metastatic phenotype but not in poorly invasive/nonmetastatic breast cancer cells. LOX and LOXL2 showed the strongest association with invasive potential in both highly invasive/metastatic breast cancer cell lines tested (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T). To determine whether LOX is directly involved in breast cancer invasion, LOX antisense oligonucleotides were transfected into MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells, and found to inhibit invasion through a collagen IV/laminin/gelatin matrix in vitro compared with LOX sense oligonucleotide-treated and untreated controls. In addition, treatment of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells with beta-aminopropionitrile (an irreversible inhibitor of LOX enzymatic activity) decreased invasive activity. Conversely, MCF-7 cells transfected with the murine LOX gene demonstrated a 2-fold increase in invasiveness that was reversible by the addition of beta-aminopropionitrile in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, endogenous LOX mRNA expression was induced when MCF-7 cells were cultured in the presence of fibroblast conditioned medium or conditioned matrix, suggesting a role for stromal fibroblasts in LOX regulation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the correlation of LOX up-regulation and invasive/metastatic potential was additionally demonstrated in rat prostatic tumor cell lines, and human cutaneous and uveal melanoma cell lines. These results provide substantial new evidence that LOX is involved in cancer cell invasion.  (+info)

An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, not an angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker, prevents beta-aminopropionitrile monofumarate-induced aortic dissection in rats. (8/87)

OBJECTIVE: Cystic medial degeneration (CMD) is a histologic abnormality that is common in aortic diseases such as aortic dilation, aneurysm, or dissection. Although little is known about the mechanism underlying CMD, we have previously demonstrated that angiotensin II signaling via angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) plays a central role in apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) occurring in CMD associated with Marfan syndrome. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of angiotensin II signaling in THE pathogenesis of aortic diseases associated with CMD. METHOD: We investigated the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), temocapril (n = 15), angiotensin II receptor type-1 (AT1R) blocker, CS-866 (n = 15), and vehicle control (n = 17) on 0.25% beta-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN)-induced aortic dissection and histopathologic findings in a rat model. RESULTS: Temocapril significantly prevented aortic dissection (P <.05), CMD (P <.01), and VSMC apoptosis (P <.01) compared with vehicle control in BAPN-fed rats. However, CS-866 did not show any preventive effect. Reversed transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that expression of both AT1R and AT2R was detected in control rat aortas, and that AT2R expression was significantly upregulated in the aortas of BAPN-fed rats (P <.01). Blood pressure was significantly and equally lowered in both temocapril and CS-866 groups compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: Differential expression of angiotensin II receptors and AT2R signaling are involved in the pathogenesis of CMD and aortic dissection in BAPN-fed rats. ACEIs might be of clinical value for the prevention and treatment of aortic diseases related to CMD.  (+info)

  • Treatment with the LOX inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile resulted in enhanced progression of CA. Expression of procollagen type I, III, and LOX was inhibited by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) in vitro. (
  • A. Sampath Narayanan, R. C. Siegel, and G. R. Martin, "On the inhibition of lysyl oxidase by β -aminopropionitrile," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 745-751, 1972. (
  • Parmi ces gènes, je me suis intéressée à un membre de la famille des lysyl oxydases, LOXL4, qui joue un rôle clé dans la dynamique de la matrice extracellulaire en régulant la réticulation du collagène. (
  • Then, the inhibition of the LOXL4 protein in scratch assay experiments (using β-aminopropionitrile or a specific siRNA) allowed us to demonstrate that the pro-healing effect of atRA was mediated, at least in part, by the retinoid-induction of this gene. (
  • All of the haplotype variants of LOXL1 (141R-153G, 141R-153D, 141L-153G, and 141L-153D) showed β-aminopropionitrile-inhibitable amine oxidase activity toward elastin, type I collagen, and cadaverine, indicating that each LOXL1 variant functions as an amine oxidase. (
  • The research team identified a compound, 3-aminopropionitrile, that inhibits the enzyme that causes graft contraction and combined it with a biocompatible polymer gel invented by chemist Steve Armes, also at Sheffield. (
  • Tritiated ß-aminopropionitrile was diffusely distributed throughout bone and was completely removed by saline extraction. (
  • Available data included measurements of tissue volume, biochemical composition, and tensile modulus for bovine calf articular cartilage (AC) explants harvested at three depths and incubated for 13 days in 20% fetal borine serum (FBS) and 20% FBS+ ß-aminopropionitrile. (