Aminooxyacetic Acid: A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.Oxamic Acid: Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.FiresWater: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Alkanesulfonic Acids: Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.LLC-PK1 Cells: Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Plant Dormancy: The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Lepidium sativum: A plant species of the genus LEPIDIUM, family BRASSICACEAE that is a fast-growing, often weedy native of western Asia. It is widely grown, especially in its curl-leaved form, and used as a garnishSulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.

Glutathione-dependent metabolism of cis-3-(9H-purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid to yield the chemotherapeutic drug 6-mercaptopurine: evidence for two distinct mechanisms in rats. (1/114)

cis-3-(9H-Purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid (PTA) is a structural analog of azathioprine, a prodrug of the antitumor and immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of PTA in rats. Two metabolites of PTA, 6-MP and the major metabolite, S-(9H-purin-6-yl)glutathione (PG), were formed in a time- and GSH-dependent manner in vitro. Formation of 6-MP and PG occurred nonenzymatically, but 6-MP formation was enhanced 2- and 7-fold by the addition of liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. Purified rat liver glutathione S-transferases enhanced 6-MP formation from PTA by 1.8-fold, whereas human recombinant alpha, mu, and pi isozymes enhanced 6-MP formation by 1.7-, 1.3-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. In kidney homogenate incubations, PG accumulation was only observed during the first 15 min because of further metabolism by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, dipeptidase, and beta-lyase to yield 6-MP, as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence, two different GSH-dependent pathways are proposed for 6-MP formation: an indirect pathway involving PG formation and further metabolism to 6-MP, and a direct pathway in which PTA acts as a Michael acceptor. HPLC analyses of urine of rats treated i.p. with PTA (100 mg/kg) showed that 6-MP was formed in vivo and excreted in urine without apparent liver or kidney toxicity. Collectively, these studies show that PTA is metabolized to 6-MP both in vitro and in vivo and may therefore be a useful prodrug of 6-MP.  (+info)

GABA agonists differentially modify blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. (2/114)

This study described the effects of GABA agonists on glucose plasma concentrations of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Low doses of an indirect GABA agonist, AOAA (aminooxyacetic acid); a GABA(A) and a GABA(B) agent, THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridone) and baclofen, respectively; and a benzodiazepine were administered to non-diabetic and to diabetic rats. Plasma glucose concentrations were estimated during fasting and after an oral glucose load. Diazepam (1 mg/kg), baclofen (1 mg/kg) and AOAA (30 mg/kg), significantly decreased glycemia after oral glucose overload of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. None of the GABA-acting agents tested changed fasting or glucose overload glycemia of normal rats. Diazepam was the only drug to increase the fasting blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats. Treatment with AOAA or diazepam was accompanied by increased insulin plasma concentrations in diabetic rats to levels similar to the ones of non-diabetic animals. These results demonstrate that benzodiazepines and other GABA drugs act the endocrine pancreas in vivo, ultimately increasing plasma insulin and decreasing high blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. The acute and prolonged effects of the multitude of drugs acting on the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine-chloride ionophore complex remain to be broadly investigated as a therapeutic tool in diabetes.  (+info)

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase: purification and characterization. (3/114)

Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase [L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN), EC 4.4.1.9] was purified about 4000-fold from blue lupine seedlings. The enzyme was homoegeneous on gel electrophoresis and free of contamination by other pyridoxal-P-dependent lyases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52,000 and contains 1 mole of pyridoxal-P per mole of protein; its isoelectric point is situated at pH 4.7. Its absorption spectrum has two maxima, at 280 and 410 nm. L-Cysteine is the natural primary (amino acid) substrate; beta-chloro- and beta-thiocyano can serve (with considerably lower affinity) instead of cyanide as cosubstrates for cyanoalanine synthase. The synthase is refractory to DL-cycloserine and D-penicillamine, potent inhibitors of many pyridoxal-P-dependent enzymes. Cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes slow isotopic alpha-H exchange in cysteine and in end-product amino acids; the rates of alpha-H exchange in nonreacted (excess) cysteine are markedly increased in the presence of an adequate cosubstrate; no exchange is observed of H atoms in beta-position.  (+info)

The oscillatory behavior of pancreatic islets from mice with mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase knockout. (4/114)

Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta cells induces oscillations of the membrane potential, cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), and insulin secretion. Each of these events depends on glucose metabolism. Both intrinsic oscillations of metabolism and repetitive activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases by Ca(2+) have been suggested to be decisive for this oscillatory behavior. Among these dehydrogenases, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH), the key enzyme of the glycerol phosphate NADH shuttle, is activated by cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i). In the present study, we compared different types of oscillations in beta cells from wild-type and mGPDH(-/-) mice. In clusters of 5-30 islet cells and in intact islets, 15 mM glucose induced an initial drop of [Ca(2+)](i), followed by an increase in three phases: a marked initial rise, a partial decrease with rapid oscillations and eventually large and slow oscillations. These changes, in particular the frequency of the oscillations and the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)] rise, were similar in wild-type and mGPDH(-/-) mice. Glucose-induced electrical activity (oscillations of the membrane potential with bursts of action potentials) was not altered in mGPDH(-/-) beta cells. In single islets from either type of mouse, insulin secretion strictly followed the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) during imposed oscillations induced by pulses of high K(+) or glucose and during the biphasic elevation induced by sustained stimulation with glucose. An imposed and controlled rise of [Ca(2+)](i) in beta cells similarly increased NAD(P)H fluorescence in control and mGDPH(-/-) islets. Inhibition of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle with aminooxyacetate only had minor effects in control islets but abolished the electrical, [Ca(2+)](i) and secretory responses in mGPDH(-/-) islets. The results show that the two distinct NADH shuttles play an important but at least partially redundant role in glucose-induced insulin secretion. The oscillatory behavior of beta cells does not depend on the functioning of mGPDH and on metabolic oscillations that would be generated by cyclic activation of this enzyme by Ca(2+).  (+info)

Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in freshly isolated human proximal tubular cells. (5/114)

Trichloroethylene (Tri) caused modest cytotoxicity in freshly isolated human proximal tubular (hPT) cells, as assessed by significant decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity after 1 h of exposure to 500 microM Tri. Oxidative metabolism of Tri by cytochrome P-450 to form chloral hydrate (CH) was only detectable in kidney microsomes from one patient out of four tested and was not detected in hPT cells. In contrast, GSH conjugation of Tri was detected in cells from every patient tested. The kinetics of Tri metabolism to its GSH conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) followed biphasic kinetics, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.51 and 24.9 mM and 0.10 and 1.0 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), the cysteine conjugate metabolite of Tri that is considered the penultimate nephrotoxic species, caused both time- and concentration-dependent increases in LDH release in freshly isolated hPT cells. Preincubation of hPT cells with 0.1 mM aminooxyacetic acid did not protect hPT cells from DCVC-induced cellular injury, suggesting that another enzyme besides the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase may be important in DCVC bioactivation. This study is the first to measure the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri and DCVC in freshly isolated cells from the human kidney. These data indicate that the pathway involved in the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri in hPT cells is the GSH conjugation pathway and that the cytochrome P-450-dependent pathway has little direct role in renal Tri metabolism in humans.  (+info)

The effect of culture age, chloramphenicol and B6 inhibitors on intra- and extracellular keto and amino acids of Escherichia coli B. (6/114)

Keto acids and free amino acids were assayed in the cells and the medium of Escherichia coli B growing in the presence of chloramphenicol, cycloserines, aminooxyacetate, and limiting nitrogen source. Under these growth-limiting conditions the cells accumulated ketoglutarate and 'ketovaline' but no other keto acids. In all experiments only ketoglutarate, pyruvate, and 'ketovaline' were found in the medium. Amino acids are released into the medium in the early phases of growth and the composition of the extracellular amino acids is similar to that of the amino acid pool. The concentrations of free amino acids were 10-3-10-4 times higher in the cell than in the medium. The internal pool composition is fixed under all growth-limiting conditions. In the presence of the drugs the cells release amino acids into the medium.  (+info)

Use of sulfhydryl reagents to investigate branched chain alpha-keto acid transport in mitochondria. (7/114)

The goal of this paper was to determine the contribution of the mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (BCATm) to branched chain alpha-keto acid transport within rat heart mitochondria. Isolated heart mitochondria were treated with sulfhydryl reagents of varying permeability, and the data suggest that essential cysteine residues in BCATm are accessible from the cytosolic face of the inner membrane. Treatment with 15 nmol/mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibited initial rates of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) uptake in reconstituted mitochondrial detergent extracts by 70% and in the intact organelle by 50%. KIC protected against inhibition suggesting that NEM labeled a cysteine residue that is inaccessible when substrate is bound to the enzyme. Additionally, the apparent mitochondrial equilibrium KIC concentration was decreased 50-60% after NEM labeling, and this difference could not be attributed to effects of NEM on matrix pH or KIC oxidation. In fact, NEM was a better inhibitor of KIC oxidation than rotenone. Measuring matrix aspartate and glutamate levels revealed that the effects of NEM on the steady-state KIC concentration resulted from inhibition of BCATm catalyzed transamination of KIC with matrix glutamate to form leucine. Furthermore, circular dichroism spectra of recombinant human BCATm with liposomes showed that the commercial lipids used in the reconstituted transport assay contain BCAT amino acid substrates. Thus BCATm is distinct from the branched chain alpha-keto acid carrier but may interact with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is necessary to inhibit or remove transaminase activity in both intact and reconstituted systems prior to quantifying transport of alpha-keto acids which are transaminase substrates.  (+info)

Contribution of glutamate dehydrogenase to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism studied by (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance. (8/114)

The relative contribution of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the aminotransferase activity to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism was investigated in dilute suspensions of purified mitochondria from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Measurements of glutamate-dependent oxygen consumption by mitochondria in different metabolic states were complemented by novel in situ NMR assays of specific enzymes that metabolize glutamate. First, a new assay for aminotransferase activity, based on the exchange of deuterium between deuterated water and glutamate, provided a method for establishing the effectiveness of the aminotransferase inhibitor amino-oxyacetate in situ, and thus allowed the contribution of the aminotransferase activity to glutamate oxidation to be assessed unambiguously. Secondly, the activity of GDH in the mitochondria was monitored in a coupled assay in which glutamine synthetase was used to trap the ammonium released by the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Thirdly, the reversibility of the GDH reaction was investigated by monitoring the isotopic exchange between glutamate and [(15)N]ammonium. These novel approaches show that the oxidative deamination of glutamate can make a significant contribution to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism and that GDH can support the aminotransferases in funneling carbon from glutamate into the TCA cycle.  (+info)

Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. Subsequently, the level of GABA is increased in tissues. At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. The inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle prevents the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by the mitochondria in nerve terminals. Also in the nerve terminals, ...
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. Extinguishing media: Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam ...
Background: H2S is a neuromodulator that may inhibit intestinal motility. H2S production in colon is yielded by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enzymes and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize intestinal microbiota. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of TLR2 and TLR4 on the endogenous and SRB-mediated synthesis of H2S and its consequences on the colonic motility of mouse. Methods: Muscle contractility studies were performed in colon from WT, Tlr2-/-, and Tlr4-/- mice. The mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4, CBS, CSE, and SRB were measured by real-time PCR. Free sulfide levels in colon and feces were determined by colorimetric assays. Results: NaHS and GYY4137, donors of H2S, reduced the contractility of colon. Aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), inhibitor of CBS, and D-L propargylglycine (PAG), inhibitor of CSE, increased the contractility of colon. In vivo treatment with NaHS or GYY4137 inhibited the spontaneous contractions and ...
1. Rat kidney-cortex slices incubated with d-malate alone formed very little glucose. d-Malate, however, augmented gluconeogenesis from l-lactate and inhibited gluconeogenesis from pyruvate and l-malate. 2. d-Malate had little effect on the rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with or without other substrates added. 3. d-Malate inhibited the activity of the l-malate dehydrogenase in a high-speed-supernatant fraction from kidney cortex. 4. It was concluded that d-malate inhibited either the operation of the cytoplasmic l-malate dehydrogenase or malate outflow from the mitochondria in the intact kidney-cortex cell. This supports the hypothesis of Lardy, Paetkau & Walter (1965) and Krebs, Gascoyne & Notton (1967) on the role of malate as carrier for carbon and reducing equivalents in gluconeogenesis. 5. Gluconeogenesis from l-lactate in kidney-cortex slices was strongly inhibited by a low concentration (0.1mm) of amino-oxyacetate, whereas glucose formation from pyruvate, malate, aspartate and ...
Purpose: Glutamine addiction in c-MYC-overexpressing breast cancer is targeted by the aminotransferase inhibitor, aminooxyacetate (AOA). However, the mechanism of ensuing cell death remains unresolved.. Experimental Design: A correlation between glutamine dependence for growth and c-MYC expression was studied in breast cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of AOA, its correlation with high c-MYC expression, and effects on enzymes in the glutaminolytic pathway were investigated. AOA-induced cell death was assessed by measuring changes in metabolite levels by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), the effects of amino acid depletion on nucleotide synthesis by cell-cycle and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) uptake analysis, and activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. Antitumor effects of AOA with or without common chemotherapies were determined in breast cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice and in a transgenic MMTV-rTtA-TetO-myc mouse mammary tumor model.. Results: ...
In this study aminotransferase inhibitors were used to determine the relative importance of different aminotransferases in providing nitrogen for de novo glutamate synthesis in the retina. Aminooxyacetate, which inhibits all aminotransferases, blocke
The oxidation of L-glutamate and L-glutamine by enterocyte mitochondria was supported by malate. The stimulation of the rate of oxidation of the two amino acids by small amounts of added malate was 93% and 76% respectively. This could not be accounted for by the oxidation of the small amounts of malate added. Amino-oxyacetate added initially inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 81% and that of L-glutamine by 38%. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was partially reversed by L-glutamine. The dicarboxylate-carrier inhibitor 2-phenylsuccinate inhibited the malate-supported oxidation of both amino acids, but appeared to be slightly stimulatory to L-glutamine oxidation when added initially. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was reversed by L-glutamine. The mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 78% when added initially. The oxidation of L-glutamine was completely inhibited. ...
Eboli, M L.; Paradies, G; and Papa, S, "Transport of anionic substrates and glutamate metabolism in mitochondria from ascites tumor cells." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 2337 ...
Als verantwortungsbewusster Inverkehrbringer der NADH - Produkte nach der orginalen Formulierung arbeiten die Prof. Birkmayer Laboratorien eng mit renommierten Experten der Rechtswissenschaften sowie aus dem Bereich der Life Science zusammen ...
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Similar to AOA treatment, knocking down GOT2 could also effectively inhibit the malate-aspartate shuttle, resulting in a significant increase (by 1.3‐fold; P , 0.01) in the cytosolic NADH level in Panc‐1 cells (Supplementary Fig S8A). Concomitantly, GOT2 knockdown led to a substantial reduction in the mitochondrial NADH level (by 33%; P , 0.01) (Supplementary Fig S8B), affirming the vital role of GOT2 in controlling the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. As a result, GOT2 knockdown significantly reduced ATP production (by 26%; P , 0.01) in Panc‐1 cells (Supplementary Fig S8C). Moreover, in these stable Panc‐1 cells with GOT2 knockdown, we found that re‐expression of acetylation‐mimetic 3KQ mutant GOT2 led to a significant (P , 0.05) reduction in the cytosolic NADH level as compared to wild‐type‐rescued cells when treated without or with glucose (i.e., 0 and 12 mM glucose) (Fig 4B). Meanwhile, 3KQ mutant GOT2‐rescued cells displayed a significant (P , 0.05 or P , ...
The lozalojo/mem package contains the following man pages: add.alpha calcular.indicadores calcular.indicadores.2.timings calcular.map calcular.optimo calcular.optimo.criterio calcular.optimo.derivada calcular.optimo.original calcular.optimo.pendiente comparar.metodos epimem epitiming extraer.datos.curva.map extraer.datos.epi extraer.datos.optimo.map extraer.datos.post.epi extraer.datos.pre.epi fill.missing flucyl flucylraw full.series.graph iconfianza iconfianza.aritmetica iconfianza.completo iconfianza.geometrica iconfianza.logx iconfianza.percentil.boot iconfianza.percentil.kc iconfianza.x max.fix.na max.n.valores memevolution memgoodness memintensity memmodel mem-package memstability memsurveillance memsurveillance.animated memtiming memtrend min.fix.na min.n.valores missings.inside normalizar optimal.tickmarks optimum.by.inspection output.ci processPlots roc.analysis semana.absoluta suavizado transformdata transformdata.back transformseries transformseries.odd transformseries.twowaves
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0040]FIG. 6 is a flowchart of transmission timing adjustment processing according to the present embodiment. Reception timing detection unit 12 detects the reception timing of a received downlink radio frame (S100). Reception signal demodulation unit 14 demodulates the received signal (S101). If transmission timing information is included in the control signal, reception signal demodulation unit 14 sends the above transmission timing information to transmission timing adjustment unit 15. Transmission timing adjustment unit 15 decides the presence or absence of transmission timing information at each predetermined decision interval (S102). If the transmission timing information is sent, transmission timing adjustment unit 15 adjusts the transmission timing to a specified value included in the transmission timing information (S103). If the transmission timing information is not sent, transmission timing adjustment unit 15 decides whether the handover processing is in progress, based on the ...
Studies on a 27-year-old man with a 3-year history of exercise-induced muscle pain, passage of red urine and elevated serum creatine kinase are described. Histological examination of a biopsy from quadriceps revealed non-specific myopathic changes with occasional clusters of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. The phosphorylase stain was normal. Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles showed no abnormalities at rest. During aerobic exercise there was an abnormally rapid decrease in phosphocreatine concentration but the pH remained within the normal range. There was a build-up of phosphomonoester (probably glucose 6-phosphate), usually indicative of a block in glycolysis. However, a primary defect in the glycolytic pathway seemed unlikely because muscle acidified normally during ischaemic exercise. Recovery from exercise was unusual in that phosphocreatine resynthesis and inorganic phosphate disappearance followed similar
Incretins, hormones released by the stomach after meal ingestion, are essential for maintaining systemic glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. 1988; Porte, 1991) and is usually a target for its treatment. According to the consensus model of TBC-11251 glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), GIIS depends on a series of cautiously orchestrated cell responses: mitochondrially generated ATP results in closure of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which in change causes membrane depolarization, electrical activity, and opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), with the resultant elevation of [Ca2+]i initiating Ca2+-induced insulin granule exocytosis (Henquin, 2000). Thus, ATP produced by glucose metabolism is usually a crucial transmission in GIIS. Pancreatic cells are equipped with two highly active NADH shuttles linked to glycolysis: the malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle, both of which contribute to ATP production. Whereas inhibition of either one ...
integral component of membrane, mitochondrial inner membrane, L-aspartate transmembrane transporter activity, L-glutamate transmembrane transporter activity, aspartate transport, L-glutamate transmembrane transport, malate-aspartate shuttle
Shuttle found in: HIROBO HELIS SHUTTLE PLUS 60 Econo Power Manufacturer/Model By Series, HIROBO HELIS SHUTTLE ZX Econo Power Manufacturer/Model By..
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The extremely halophilic archaeon Natrialba aegyptiaca secretes the L-homo type of poly-g-glutamate (PGA) as an extremolyte. We examined the enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism and verified the presence of L-glutamate dehydrogenases, L-aspartate aminotransferase, and L-glutamate synthase. However, neither glutamate racemase nor D-amino acid aminotransferase activity was detected, suggesting the absence of sources of D-glutamate. In contrast, D-glutamate-rich PGA producers mostly possess such intracellular sources of D-glutamate. The results of our present study indicate that the D-glutamate-anabolic enzyme
Glutamine and glutamate are known to play important roles in cancer biology. However, no detailed information is available in terms of their levels of involvement in various biological processes across different cancer types, whereas such knowledge could be critical for understanding the distinct characteristics of different cancer types. Our computational study aimed to examine the functional roles of glutamine and glutamate across different cancer types. We conducted a comparative analysis of gene expression data of cancer tissues versus normal control tissues of 11 cancer types to understand glutamine and glutamate metabolisms in cancer. Specifically, we developed a linear regression model to assess differential contributions by glutamine and/or glutamate to each of seven biological processes in cancer versus control tissues. While our computational predictions were consistent with some of the previous observations, multiple novel predictions were made: (1) glutamine is generally not involved in
View Notes - lecture14_10_21_08 from CHM 6620 at Wayne State University. Lecture 14 Overview: -glycolysis regulation -glucose synthesis -gluconeogenesis regulation Control of the glycolytic pathway
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors. Inhibiting ethylene ... It can be produced via dehydration of ethanol with sulfuric acid or in the gas phase with aluminium oxide. Ethylene serves as a ... The main method practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts: C2H4 + H2O ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ...
Aminooxyacetic acid Gabaculine Phenelzine Phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH) Rosmarinic acid Valproic acid Vigabatrin Awad, ...
"Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated animals". Neuropharmacology. 10 (1): ... Sheng-Dun Lin, et al., Bioactive components and antioxidant properties of g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea leaves. LWT - Food ... began developing GABA-rich tea in 1984 and successfully produced a new type tea in which almost all glutamic acid has been ... Effect of green tea rich in gamma-aminobutyric acid on blood pressure of Dahl saltsensitive rats. Am J Hypertens. 1995, 8: 74- ...
ACC Synthase is also competitively inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), inhibitors to many ... α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid, and S-adenosylhomocysteine. ACC Synthase is 450-516 amino acid long sequence depending on the ... Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACC synthase, ACS) (EC 4.4.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of 1- ... 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthetase, aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid ...
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors.[44][45] Inhibiting ethylene ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ... Ethylene appears to have been discovered by Johann Joachim Becher, who obtained it by heating ethanol with sulfuric acid;[48] ...
... aminooxyacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.440 --- edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 ... aminooxyacetic acid MeSH D02.092.570.394 --- hydroxamic acids MeSH D02.092.570.394.150 --- bufexamac MeSH D02.092.570.394.265 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ...
... aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general ... I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid ... and was prepared by the hydrolysis of ethylbenzhydroximinoacetic acid. In 1936, Anchel and Shoenheimer used aminooxyacetic acid ...
"Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated animals". Neuropharmacology. 10 (1): ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid (γ-Aminobutyric acid) /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/ (GABA /ˈɡæbə/) is the chief inhibitory ... GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it is rarely referred to as such ...
... aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general ... I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid ... and was prepared by the hydrolysis of ethylbenzhydroximinoacetic acid. In 1936, Anchel and Shoenheimer used aminooxyacetic acid ...
... thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues. [PubChem] ... Carboxylic acids. Direct Parent. Carboxylic acids. Alternative Parents. Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organic oxides ... Aminooxyacetic_acid. PDB Entries. 1h0c / 1j04 / 1wyv. Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials Not Available. Pharmacoeconomics. ... Aminooxyacetic acid. Accession Number. DB02079 (EXPT00528) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. A compound ...
... oxyacetic acid , C18H14N2O4 , CID 53962608 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Aminooxyacetic acid (АОА), inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid (AСС) synthesis, suppresses self-incompatibility- ... Wu L, Williams JS, Wang N, Khatri WA, San Román D, T-h K (2018) Use of domain-swapping to identify candidate amino acids ... Kovaleva LV, Zakharova EV, Voronkov AC, Timofeeva GV, Andreev IM (2017) Role of abscisic acid and ethylene in the control of ... found that preliminary treatment before self-pollination of stigmas of petunia self-incompatible line with aminooxyacetic acid ...
... acetic acid, 98% 1g Alfa Aesar™ Bis(Boc-aminooxy)acetic acid, 98% Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives ... 1-dimethylethoxy carbonyl amino oxy-acetic acid, bis-boc-aminooxyacetic acid, bis tert-butoxycarbonyl amino oxy acetic acid, ... 1-dimethylethoxy carbonyl amino oxy-acetic acid, bis-boc-aminooxyacetic acid, bis tert-butoxycarbonyl amino oxy acetic acid, ... bis-boc-amino-oxyacetic acid, bis-boc-aoa, bis 1,1-dimethylethoxy carbonyl amino oxy acetic acid, bis 1, ...
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. Extinguishing media: Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam ...
US Patent for Amino thioxomethyl amino oxyacetic acid derivatives Patent (Patent # 6,472,430) Amino thioxomethyl amino ... N-methyl Aminooxy Acetic Acid Hydrochloride (5, R1=Me). A mixture of ethyl N-methyl N-ethoxy carbonyl aminooxy acetate ( ... A solution of N-methyl aminooxy acetic acid hydrochloride (9.5 g) in ethanol (100 mL) was saturated with hydrogen chloride. The ... This invention specifically relates to amino thioxomethyl amino oxyacetic acid derivatives that elevate HDL cholesterol ...
Alcoholism , Aminooxyacetic Acid , Animals , Hippocampus , Learning , Male , Maze Learning , Memory , Rats , Rats, Sprague- ... Effects of aminooxyacetic acid on the learning and memory ability and its possible mechanism in rats with chronic alcoholism / ... Effects of aminooxyacetic acid on the learning and memory ability and its possible mechani ... [email protected]#To investigate the effects of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) on learning and memory ability and possible mechanisms in ...
Aminooxyacetic Acid Prodrugs for Colon Cancer Therapy SBC: CBS THERAPEUTICS, INC. Topic: 102 ...
Global "Aminooxyacetic Acid(AOA) Market 2020-2025" Research Report categorizes the global Aminooxyacetic Acid(AOA) market by ... Global Aminooxyacetic Acid(AOA) Market Huge Growth Opportunity between 2020-2025 LP INFORMATION recently released a research ... report on the Aminooxyacetic Acid(AOA) market analysis, which studies the Aminooxyacetic Acid(AOA)s industry coverage, current ... Global "Acid Violet 43 Market 2020-2025" Research Report categorizes the global Acid Violet 43 market by key players, product ...
In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM) reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D ... Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each) attenuated KYNA ... Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each) attenuated KYNA ... In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM) reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D ...
Aminooxyacetic acid (C13408). 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (M5801). γ-Acetylenic GABA (A230). GABA (A2129). │ │---------------→. │ ... Aminooxyacetic acid (C13408). 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (M5801). γ-Vinyl GABA (V8261). GABAculine (A3539). ... Aminooxyacetic acid (C13408). α-Ketoglutarate (m) (K1750). │ │---------------→. ↓. Dicarboxylate carrier. Malate (02300). ... Another problem with amino-oxyacetic acid is that it potently inhibits both glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase (see ...
... aminooxyacetic acid (AOAC), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4-HOCA), theonyl-trifluoroacetone (TTFA), and carbonyl cyanide m- ... AOAC, aminooxyacetic acid; AT, α-tocopherol; CCCP, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; DAG, diacylglycerol; DCF-DA, 5-( ... Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) kit was obtained from Pierce. Enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) and PKC activity kits were purchased ... Kadri-Hassani N, Leger CL, Descomps B: The fatty acid bimodal action on superoxide production by human adherent monocytes under ...
... were performed in the presence and absence of aminooxyacetic acid. As shown in Table 3, aminooxyacetic acid was able to ... aminooxyacetic acid. MTT. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. MSeCys. Se-methyl-l-selenocysteine. H2 ... At this concentration aminooxyacetic acid alone had no effect on the cell viability of both cell lines (Fig. 3, A and B). ... Furthermore, 250 μM aminooxyacetic acid, a well known potent inhibitor of PLP-dependent β-lyases, was shown to reduce the ...
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. AOA. Aminooxyacetic acid. ARF. Adventitious root formation ... De Klerk GJ, Ter Brugge J, Marinova S (1997) Effectiveness of indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid and naphthaleneacetic acid ... acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid on internal levels of the respective auxins and their conjugation with aspartic acid ... Cuttings with indolbutyric acid in five media. Ciênc Rural 29:207-211. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84781999000200004 Google Scholar ...
Inhibitors: aminooxyacetic acid and vigabatrin. Vigabatrin used to treat epilepsy 27 Which GABA receptors are IONOTROPIC? ...
It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. ... It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. ... amino-oxyacetic acid), ACO activity (CoCl2; α-AIB: α-aminoisobutyric acid), or ethylene action (2,5 NBD: 2,5-norbornadiene; STS ... ABA, abscisic acid; ABI3, ABA insensitive3; ABI5, ABA insensitive5; ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid; ACO, ACC ...
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors. Inhibiting ethylene ... It can be produced via dehydration of ethanol with sulfuric acid or in the gas phase with aluminium oxide. Ethylene serves as a ... The main method practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts: C2H4 + H2O ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ...
at 19-21 days of age, mutants have prolonged periods of great rigor or stiffness; therapy with aminooxyacetic acid is helpful ...
Aminooxyacetic Acid (administration & dosage, pharmacology) *Animals. *Anoxia (complications) *Hydrogen Sulfide (administration ...
Aminooxyacetic Acid 6. NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) 7. Thioredoxins 8. Oxygen ...
Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ...
The binding of 2-aminooxyacetic acid.AOA, a mimic of β-alanine, is a known inhibitor of aminotransferases (72) and also ... a number of β-amino acids and α-amino acids were tested (Table 1). The results show that VpAT acts exclusively on β-amino acids ... The simplest β-amino acid, β-alanine, occurs in carnosine, coenzyme A, and pantothenic acid. Other β-amino acids are present in ... and 2-aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. (S)-β-Phenylalanine and (R)-β-phenylalanine were purchased ...
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors.[44][45] Inhibiting ethylene ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ... Ethylene appears to have been discovered by Johann Joachim Becher, who obtained it by heating ethanol with sulfuric acid;[48] ...
  • Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid can also inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase preventing ethylene synthesis, which can increase the vase life of cut flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid was previously used in a clinical trial to reduce symptoms of Huntington's disease by increasing GABA levels in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 3) we inhibited subsequent metabolism by renal cysteine conjugate beta- lyase to the nephrotoxic halothionoacetyl halides by administering aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). (unipr.it)
  • d,l-Propargylglycine (PAG) is a CSE inhibitor whereas both aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and hydroxylamine (HA) are CBS inhibitors. (uab.cat)
  • We following exposed SH3RF1 that endogenous creation of H2S plays a part in substance 48/80-induced itch feeling through the use of CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acidity (AOAA) and CSE inhibitor dl-Propargylglycine (PAG). (biobeds.info)
  • GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the major inhibitory or relaxing neurotransmitter in your brain. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Edetic Acid" by people in this website by year, and whether "Edetic Acid" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Visfatin Increases VEGF Expression and EPC Angiogenesis in Human OASFs No detailed information exists regarding any crosstalk (S)-Glutamic acid between visfatin and VEGF in the pathogenesis of OA or on how such an interaction may influence (S)-Glutamic acid EPC angiogenesis. (stopvivisection.info)