A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.

Glutathione-dependent metabolism of cis-3-(9H-purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid to yield the chemotherapeutic drug 6-mercaptopurine: evidence for two distinct mechanisms in rats. (1/114)

cis-3-(9H-Purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid (PTA) is a structural analog of azathioprine, a prodrug of the antitumor and immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of PTA in rats. Two metabolites of PTA, 6-MP and the major metabolite, S-(9H-purin-6-yl)glutathione (PG), were formed in a time- and GSH-dependent manner in vitro. Formation of 6-MP and PG occurred nonenzymatically, but 6-MP formation was enhanced 2- and 7-fold by the addition of liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. Purified rat liver glutathione S-transferases enhanced 6-MP formation from PTA by 1.8-fold, whereas human recombinant alpha, mu, and pi isozymes enhanced 6-MP formation by 1.7-, 1.3-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. In kidney homogenate incubations, PG accumulation was only observed during the first 15 min because of further metabolism by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, dipeptidase, and beta-lyase to yield 6-MP, as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence, two different GSH-dependent pathways are proposed for 6-MP formation: an indirect pathway involving PG formation and further metabolism to 6-MP, and a direct pathway in which PTA acts as a Michael acceptor. HPLC analyses of urine of rats treated i.p. with PTA (100 mg/kg) showed that 6-MP was formed in vivo and excreted in urine without apparent liver or kidney toxicity. Collectively, these studies show that PTA is metabolized to 6-MP both in vitro and in vivo and may therefore be a useful prodrug of 6-MP.  (+info)

GABA agonists differentially modify blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. (2/114)

This study described the effects of GABA agonists on glucose plasma concentrations of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Low doses of an indirect GABA agonist, AOAA (aminooxyacetic acid); a GABA(A) and a GABA(B) agent, THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridone) and baclofen, respectively; and a benzodiazepine were administered to non-diabetic and to diabetic rats. Plasma glucose concentrations were estimated during fasting and after an oral glucose load. Diazepam (1 mg/kg), baclofen (1 mg/kg) and AOAA (30 mg/kg), significantly decreased glycemia after oral glucose overload of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. None of the GABA-acting agents tested changed fasting or glucose overload glycemia of normal rats. Diazepam was the only drug to increase the fasting blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats. Treatment with AOAA or diazepam was accompanied by increased insulin plasma concentrations in diabetic rats to levels similar to the ones of non-diabetic animals. These results demonstrate that benzodiazepines and other GABA drugs act the endocrine pancreas in vivo, ultimately increasing plasma insulin and decreasing high blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. The acute and prolonged effects of the multitude of drugs acting on the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine-chloride ionophore complex remain to be broadly investigated as a therapeutic tool in diabetes.  (+info)

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase: purification and characterization. (3/114)

Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase [L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN), EC 4.4.1.9] was purified about 4000-fold from blue lupine seedlings. The enzyme was homoegeneous on gel electrophoresis and free of contamination by other pyridoxal-P-dependent lyases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52,000 and contains 1 mole of pyridoxal-P per mole of protein; its isoelectric point is situated at pH 4.7. Its absorption spectrum has two maxima, at 280 and 410 nm. L-Cysteine is the natural primary (amino acid) substrate; beta-chloro- and beta-thiocyano can serve (with considerably lower affinity) instead of cyanide as cosubstrates for cyanoalanine synthase. The synthase is refractory to DL-cycloserine and D-penicillamine, potent inhibitors of many pyridoxal-P-dependent enzymes. Cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes slow isotopic alpha-H exchange in cysteine and in end-product amino acids; the rates of alpha-H exchange in nonreacted (excess) cysteine are markedly increased in the presence of an adequate cosubstrate; no exchange is observed of H atoms in beta-position.  (+info)

The oscillatory behavior of pancreatic islets from mice with mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase knockout. (4/114)

Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta cells induces oscillations of the membrane potential, cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), and insulin secretion. Each of these events depends on glucose metabolism. Both intrinsic oscillations of metabolism and repetitive activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases by Ca(2+) have been suggested to be decisive for this oscillatory behavior. Among these dehydrogenases, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH), the key enzyme of the glycerol phosphate NADH shuttle, is activated by cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i). In the present study, we compared different types of oscillations in beta cells from wild-type and mGPDH(-/-) mice. In clusters of 5-30 islet cells and in intact islets, 15 mM glucose induced an initial drop of [Ca(2+)](i), followed by an increase in three phases: a marked initial rise, a partial decrease with rapid oscillations and eventually large and slow oscillations. These changes, in particular the frequency of the oscillations and the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)] rise, were similar in wild-type and mGPDH(-/-) mice. Glucose-induced electrical activity (oscillations of the membrane potential with bursts of action potentials) was not altered in mGPDH(-/-) beta cells. In single islets from either type of mouse, insulin secretion strictly followed the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) during imposed oscillations induced by pulses of high K(+) or glucose and during the biphasic elevation induced by sustained stimulation with glucose. An imposed and controlled rise of [Ca(2+)](i) in beta cells similarly increased NAD(P)H fluorescence in control and mGDPH(-/-) islets. Inhibition of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle with aminooxyacetate only had minor effects in control islets but abolished the electrical, [Ca(2+)](i) and secretory responses in mGPDH(-/-) islets. The results show that the two distinct NADH shuttles play an important but at least partially redundant role in glucose-induced insulin secretion. The oscillatory behavior of beta cells does not depend on the functioning of mGPDH and on metabolic oscillations that would be generated by cyclic activation of this enzyme by Ca(2+).  (+info)

Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in freshly isolated human proximal tubular cells. (5/114)

Trichloroethylene (Tri) caused modest cytotoxicity in freshly isolated human proximal tubular (hPT) cells, as assessed by significant decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity after 1 h of exposure to 500 microM Tri. Oxidative metabolism of Tri by cytochrome P-450 to form chloral hydrate (CH) was only detectable in kidney microsomes from one patient out of four tested and was not detected in hPT cells. In contrast, GSH conjugation of Tri was detected in cells from every patient tested. The kinetics of Tri metabolism to its GSH conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) followed biphasic kinetics, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.51 and 24.9 mM and 0.10 and 1.0 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), the cysteine conjugate metabolite of Tri that is considered the penultimate nephrotoxic species, caused both time- and concentration-dependent increases in LDH release in freshly isolated hPT cells. Preincubation of hPT cells with 0.1 mM aminooxyacetic acid did not protect hPT cells from DCVC-induced cellular injury, suggesting that another enzyme besides the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase may be important in DCVC bioactivation. This study is the first to measure the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri and DCVC in freshly isolated cells from the human kidney. These data indicate that the pathway involved in the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri in hPT cells is the GSH conjugation pathway and that the cytochrome P-450-dependent pathway has little direct role in renal Tri metabolism in humans.  (+info)

The effect of culture age, chloramphenicol and B6 inhibitors on intra- and extracellular keto and amino acids of Escherichia coli B. (6/114)

Keto acids and free amino acids were assayed in the cells and the medium of Escherichia coli B growing in the presence of chloramphenicol, cycloserines, aminooxyacetate, and limiting nitrogen source. Under these growth-limiting conditions the cells accumulated ketoglutarate and 'ketovaline' but no other keto acids. In all experiments only ketoglutarate, pyruvate, and 'ketovaline' were found in the medium. Amino acids are released into the medium in the early phases of growth and the composition of the extracellular amino acids is similar to that of the amino acid pool. The concentrations of free amino acids were 10-3-10-4 times higher in the cell than in the medium. The internal pool composition is fixed under all growth-limiting conditions. In the presence of the drugs the cells release amino acids into the medium.  (+info)

Use of sulfhydryl reagents to investigate branched chain alpha-keto acid transport in mitochondria. (7/114)

The goal of this paper was to determine the contribution of the mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (BCATm) to branched chain alpha-keto acid transport within rat heart mitochondria. Isolated heart mitochondria were treated with sulfhydryl reagents of varying permeability, and the data suggest that essential cysteine residues in BCATm are accessible from the cytosolic face of the inner membrane. Treatment with 15 nmol/mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibited initial rates of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) uptake in reconstituted mitochondrial detergent extracts by 70% and in the intact organelle by 50%. KIC protected against inhibition suggesting that NEM labeled a cysteine residue that is inaccessible when substrate is bound to the enzyme. Additionally, the apparent mitochondrial equilibrium KIC concentration was decreased 50-60% after NEM labeling, and this difference could not be attributed to effects of NEM on matrix pH or KIC oxidation. In fact, NEM was a better inhibitor of KIC oxidation than rotenone. Measuring matrix aspartate and glutamate levels revealed that the effects of NEM on the steady-state KIC concentration resulted from inhibition of BCATm catalyzed transamination of KIC with matrix glutamate to form leucine. Furthermore, circular dichroism spectra of recombinant human BCATm with liposomes showed that the commercial lipids used in the reconstituted transport assay contain BCAT amino acid substrates. Thus BCATm is distinct from the branched chain alpha-keto acid carrier but may interact with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is necessary to inhibit or remove transaminase activity in both intact and reconstituted systems prior to quantifying transport of alpha-keto acids which are transaminase substrates.  (+info)

Contribution of glutamate dehydrogenase to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism studied by (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance. (8/114)

The relative contribution of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the aminotransferase activity to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism was investigated in dilute suspensions of purified mitochondria from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Measurements of glutamate-dependent oxygen consumption by mitochondria in different metabolic states were complemented by novel in situ NMR assays of specific enzymes that metabolize glutamate. First, a new assay for aminotransferase activity, based on the exchange of deuterium between deuterated water and glutamate, provided a method for establishing the effectiveness of the aminotransferase inhibitor amino-oxyacetate in situ, and thus allowed the contribution of the aminotransferase activity to glutamate oxidation to be assessed unambiguously. Secondly, the activity of GDH in the mitochondria was monitored in a coupled assay in which glutamine synthetase was used to trap the ammonium released by the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Thirdly, the reversibility of the GDH reaction was investigated by monitoring the isotopic exchange between glutamate and [(15)N]ammonium. These novel approaches show that the oxidative deamination of glutamate can make a significant contribution to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism and that GDH can support the aminotransferases in funneling carbon from glutamate into the TCA cycle.  (+info)

Aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) is a chemical compound that is an irreversible inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes. Pyridoxal phosphate is a cofactor involved in several important biochemical reactions, including the transamination of amino acids. By inhibiting these enzymes, AOAA can alter the normal metabolism of amino acids and other related compounds in the body.

AOAA has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Huntington's disease and epilepsy. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and potential side effects before it can be used as a routine therapy.

It is important to note that AOAA is not a naturally occurring substance in the human body and should only be used under medical supervision.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxamic Acid" is not a recognized term in medical terminology or pharmacology. It might be a chemical compound that you're interested in, and its scientific definition is as follows:

Oxamic acid, systematically named as ethanedioloic acid or oxalic acid diethyl ester, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3CH2)2C(COOH)2. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of other chemicals.

If you're looking for medical information or definitions related to a different term, please let me know and I would be happy to help!

4-Aminobutyrate transaminase (GABA transaminase or GABA-T) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) to 2-oxoglutarate, forming succinic semialdehyde and glutamate. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central nervous system. Inhibition of GABA transaminase is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and anxiety, due to its ability to increase GABA levels in the brain.

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and functions as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions in the human body. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and neurotransmitters. Pyridoxal phosphate is involved in more than 140 different enzyme-catalyzed reactions, making it one of the most versatile cofactors in human biochemistry.

As a cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate helps enzymes carry out their functions by facilitating chemical transformations in substrates (the molecules on which enzymes act). In particular, PLP is essential for transamination, decarboxylation, racemization, and elimination reactions involving amino acids. These processes are vital for the synthesis and degradation of amino acids, neurotransmitters, hemoglobin, and other crucial molecules in the body.

Pyridoxal phosphate is formed from the conversion of pyridoxal (a form of vitamin B6) by the enzyme pyridoxal kinase, using ATP as a phosphate donor. The human body obtains vitamin B6 through dietary sources such as whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, and animal products like poultry, fish, and pork. It is essential to maintain adequate levels of pyridoxal phosphate for optimal enzymatic function and overall health.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

A Schiff base is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical concept that can be relevant in various scientific and medical fields. A Schiff base is a chemical compound that contains a carbon-nitrogen double bond with the nitrogen atom connected to an aryl or alkyl group, excluding hydrogen. This structure is also known as an azomethine.

The general formula for a Schiff base is R1R2C=NR3, where R1 and R2 are organic groups (aryl or alkyl), and R3 is a hydrogen atom or an organic group. These compounds can be synthesized by the condensation of a primary amine with a carbonyl compound, such as an aldehyde or ketone.

Schiff bases have been studied in various medical and biological contexts due to their potential bioactivities. Some Schiff bases exhibit antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. They can also serve as ligands for metal ions, forming complexes with potential applications in medicinal chemistry, such as in the development of new drugs or diagnostic agents.

Transaminases, also known as aminotransferases, are a group of enzymes found in various tissues of the body, particularly in the liver, heart, muscle, and kidneys. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

There are two major types of transaminases: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Both enzymes are normally present in low concentrations in the bloodstream. However, when tissues that contain these enzymes are damaged or injured, such as during liver disease or muscle damage, the levels of AST and ALT in the blood may significantly increase.

Measurement of serum transaminase levels is a common laboratory test used to assess liver function and detect liver injury or damage. Increased levels of these enzymes in the blood can indicate conditions such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, drug-induced liver injury, heart attack, and muscle disorders. It's important to note that while elevated transaminase levels may suggest liver disease, they do not specify the type or cause of the condition, and further diagnostic tests are often required for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

... aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general ... I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid ... and was prepared by the hydrolysis of ethylbenzhydroximinoacetic acid. In 1936, Anchel and Shoenheimer used aminooxyacetic acid ...
Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors. Inhibiting ethylene ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ... SAM is then converted to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by the enzyme ACC synthase (ACS). The activity of ACS ... Smoke contains ethylene, and once this was realized the smoke was replaced with ethephon or naphthalene acetic acid, which ...
"Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated animals". Neuropharmacology. 10 (1): ... Stanton, 1963 Elliott & Hobbiger, 1959 Abe Y, et al., Effect of green tea rich in gamma-aminobutyric acid on blood pressure of ... Sheng-Dun Lin, et al., Bioactive components and antioxidant properties of g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea leaves. LWT - Food ... began developing GABA-rich tea in 1984 and successfully produced a new type tea in which almost all glutamic acid has been ...
Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-gamma-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid- ... gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (or γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid) is a naturally occurring ... Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (GHV) γ-Valerolactone (GVL) β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) "Pingers, ... May 2003). "A tertiary alcohol analog of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid as a specific gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligand". ...
Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... γ-Aminobutyric acid (gamma-aminobutyric acid) /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ...
Aminooxyacetic acid Gabaculine Phenelzine Phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH) Rosmarinic acid Valproic acid Vigabatrin "4- ... As a transaminase, GABA-T's role is to move functional groups from an amino acid and a α-keto acid, and vice versa. In the case ... This succinate will then enter mitochondrion and become part of the citric acid cycle. The critic acid cycle can then produce 2 ... Amino acid residues found in the active site of 4-aminobutyrate transaminase include Lys-329, which are found on each of the ...
ACC Synthase is also competitively inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), inhibitors to many ... α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid, and S-adenosylhomocysteine. ACC Synthase is 450-516 amino acid long sequence depending on the ... 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthetase, aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid ... The reaction catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is the committed and rate-limiting step in the ...
The molecular formula C2H5NO3 (molar mass: 91.07 g/mol, exact mass: 91.0269 u) may refer to: Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA or AOAA) ...
... aminooxyacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.440 - edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 - egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 - ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... aminooxyacetic acid MeSH D02.092.570.394 - hydroxamic acids MeSH D02.092.570.394.150 - bufexamac MeSH D02.092.570.394.265 - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ...
... aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general ... I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid ... and was prepared by the hydrolysis of ethylbenzhydroximinoacetic acid. In 1936, Anchel and Shoenheimer used aminooxyacetic acid ...
... aminooxyacetic acid (AOAC), α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4-HOCA), theonyl-trifluoroacetone (TTFA), and carbonyl cyanide m- ... AOAC, aminooxyacetic acid; AT, α-tocopherol; CCCP, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; DAG, diacylglycerol; DCF-DA, 5-( ... Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) kit was obtained from Pierce. Enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) and PKC activity kits were purchased ... Kadri-Hassani N, Leger CL, Descomps B: The fatty acid bimodal action on superoxide production by human adherent monocytes under ...
H 2 S biogenesis by cystathionine beta-synthase: mechanism of inhibition by aminooxyacetic acid and unexpected role of serine. ... Here, we characterized binding and inhibitory mechanism of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), the most commonly used CBS inhibitor. We ...
Cystathionine-beta-synthase inhibition for colon cancer: Enhancement of the efficacy of aminooxyacetic acid via the prodrug ... H. Chen, Y. Gao, A. Wang, X. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Zhou. Evolution in Medicinal Chemistry of Ursolic Acid Derivatives as ... R. D. Anderson, III, J. Zhou, S. M. Hecht, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between Unnatural Amino Acids in a ...
... renal toxicity can be inhibited by pretreatment of animals with aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of renal cysteinyl-β-lyase ( ... together with chloroacetic acid and S-(2-chloroacetyl)-glutathione [D], the hydrolysis and GSH-conjugated products of 2- ... dichloroacetic acid, and dichloroethanol. An initial study with rat liver microsomes found a trace level of 2,2- ... and chloroacetic acid (Costa & Ivanetich, 1984). Forkert (1999a) and Forkert & Boyd (2001), using intact mice, found no acetal ...
... aminooxyacetic acid, AOAA, 30 μM) and cystathionine γ-lyase (propargylglycine, PAG, 1 mM) caused significant (p , 0.05) ... Concise syntheses of acromelic acid a and allo-acromelic acid A. Acromelic acid a 1 and allo-acromelic acid a 12 were ... Concise syntheses of acromelic acid a and allo-acromelic acid A. Acromelic acid a 1 and allo-acromelic acid a 12 were ... The syntheses of acromelic acid a 1, allo-acromelic acid a 19 and an approach towards acromelic acid B 2 are described. ...
Cultures of rat RPE cells were incubated in the presence of the glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor amino-oxyacetic acid (1 mM), ... amino-oxyacetic acid (AAOA), L-methionine sulfoximine, EGTA, ryanodine, dantrolene, and wortmannin were obtained from Merck ... Nicholls D, Attwell D. The release and uptake of excitatory amino acids. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1990; 11:462-8. [PMID: 1980041] ... Effect of excitatory amino acid analogues on the release of D-[3H]aspartate from chick retina. Eur J Pharmacol. 1987; 142:409- ...
1< 0.05 at 10 μM °°°< 0.001 at 100 μM). Pre-treatment with DL-propargylglycine (PAG; 10 mM) or aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM ...
... aminooxyacetic acid) are preferred. The aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) reacts with aldehydes to form stable oximes.. Picture 1: ... In addition to a simple thiol, a thioctic acid modification is also suitable for binding oligonucleotides to gold surfaces. Due ... 4. UV crosslinking of proteins to nucleic acids. Chodosh LA; Curr Protoc Mol Biol. (2001), Chapter 12:Unit 12.5. doi: 10.1002/ ... Olejnik J, Lüdemann HC, Krzymanska-Olejnik E, Berkenkamp S, Hillenkamp F, Rothschild KJ; Nucleic Acids Res. (1999), 27(23):4626 ...
aminooxy)acetic acid (hydroxymethyl)carbamic acid 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-6-fluoro-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-oxo-1,4- ... amino acid (CHEBI:33709). Annotations: Rat: (15625) Mouse: (16062) Human: (16814) Chinchilla: (0) Bonobo: (0) Dog: (39) ... 5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid + 7-(3-aminopyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4- ... 1-(Trifluoromethyl)cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid 1-[(6-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-thiazolo[3,2-b][1,2,4]triazolyl)-(3,4,5- ...
216_35 THE ROLE OF AMINO-OXYACETIC ACID, TRITON X-100 AND KINETIN AS COMPONENTS OF A PRETREATMENT SOLUTION FOR CARNATIONS ...
Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride is a malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) inhibitor which also inhibits the GABA degradating ... Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride is a malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) inhibitor which also inhibits the GABA degradating ... The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief ... L-Allylglycine is an amino acid derivative that reduces glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity by 60% when administered at a ...
Acetic Acid. *Acetic Anhydrides. *Aminooxyacetic Acid. *Chloroacetates. *Edetic Acid. *Egtazic Acid. *Fluoroacetates ...
Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride leads to decreased intracellular ATP levels and altered cell cycle of prostate cancer ... We previously discovered that aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride (AOAA) suppressed bone resorption and osteoclast growth by ... We aimed to determine efficacy of BPPs on maintaining bone health and pH regulation in acid-exposed mice. Using a diet-induced ... This is due in part to metabolic acid-induced bone dissolution. Bisphosphonates (BPPs) are a potential treatment for inhibiting ...
KYNA production from d-KYN was not influenced in the presence of a KAT inhibitor, aminooxyacetic acid, compared to one from L- ... 5. Amino Acid Oxidase and d-Amino Acids. DAAO oxidizes d-amino acids to the corresponding amino acids, producing ammonia and ... In addition, D-enantiomers of amino acids and D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) have been observed to contribute to L-amino acid ... KYN donates hydrogen, forming an unstable imino acid, which is the hydrolyzed to 2-oxo acid and ammonia. The 2-oxo acid ...
Immunogen: This antibody was raised by immunising mice with a haloperidol coupled to BSA via an aminooxyacetic acid arm through ...
Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride 氨氧基乙酸半盐酸盐. Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride 是苹果酸-天冬氨酸穿梭 (MAS) 抑制剂,也能抑制 GABA 降解酶 GABA ... Amino acid transporter Aquaporin (AQP) ATP synthase ATPase BCRP Calcium Channel CD markers CFTR Chloride Channel CRAC Channel ... Baclofen is a synthetic chlorophenyl-butanoic acid derivative used to treat spasms due to spinal cord damage and multiple ... R)-baclofen (formerly STX-209; STX209; STX 209), a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid, is
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA), and ethylene ... total amino acids, pH, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA) and SS/TA ratio were evaluated. The sweet potato roots cv. ... titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content were performed. There were significant differences among the studied progenies, ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547.276 D2.241.755.547.276 Aminooxyacetic Acid D2.241.81.38.350 D2.241. ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
... is an amino acid & neurotransmitter with many cognitive benefits. Learn about GABA supplements, dosages, & more inside. ... viii] Kuriyama K., Sze P.Y. "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated animals" ... GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid and neurotransmitter. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter of your ... The amino acid L-glutamine is the precursor to GABA production in your body. L-Glutamine is a precursor the synthesis of L- ...
... as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence ... 6-aminocaproic acid MeSH D02.241.081.193.467 - hexanoic acids MeSH D02.241.081.193.467.700 - penicillic acid MeSH D02.241. ... ... Aminosalicylic Acids. A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6- ... These include: folic acid analogues, such as methotrexate purine analogues, such as azathioprine and mercaptopurine pyrimidine ...
In contrast, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) both inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis are... ... Liming of acid soils is expected to be beneficial for the growth of tobacco plants. The objectives of this study were to ... Tobacco accumulates heavy metals, such as Cd, and this might be a problem in the case tobacco is cultivated in acid soils, ... Heavy metal levels in acid soils of Northwest Greece and in leaves of Oriental tobacco BARBAYIANNIS N.; THEODORA M.; PAPATOLIOS ...
Acetic Acid. *Acetic Anhydrides. *Aminooxyacetic Acid. *Chloroacetates. *Edetic Acid. *Egtazic Acid. *Fluoroacetates ...
  • Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride is a malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) inhibitor which also inhibits the GABA degradating enzyme GABA-T. (targetmol.com)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we characterized binding and inhibitory mechanism of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), the most commonly used CBS inhibitor. (rcsb.org)
  • They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. (lookformedical.com)
  • It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage. (nih.gov)
  • The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system. (targetmol.com)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory or relaxing neurotransmitter in your brain. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Recent studies have focused on asymmetric synthesis of structurally complex amino acids, using what has proved to be a very versatile radical-based methodology and also the use of structurally unusual heterocycles for masking the reactivity of synthetically valuable functional groups. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The use of radical-based methodology in the synthesis of highly substituted amines and amino acids. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The aim of these studies has been to develop a much-needed general synthetic route to amino acids (and other amine derivatives) possessing a quaternary chiral centre alpha -to the nitrogen atom and in particular, alpha , alpha -disubstituted alpha -amino acids. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • In addition, D-enantiomers of amino acids and D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) have been observed to contribute to L-amino acid concentration. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid was previously used in a clinical trial to reduce symptoms of Huntington's disease by increasing GABA levels in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homocarnosine acetate is a dipeptide unique to brain consisting of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and histidine. (targetmol.com)
  • GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) is a crucial neurotransmitter that contributes to stress relief, relaxation, and improved sleep quality. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid and neurotransmitter . (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • GABA isa naturally occurring amino acid synthesized in brain cells from glutamate . (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • STX 209), a derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid, is a selective GABAB receptor agonist that has been primarily used to treat spasticity. (sparkjadesd.com)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid can also inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase preventing ethylene synthesis, which can increase the vase life of cut flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia. (lookformedical.com)
  • Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism. (lookformedical.com)
  • Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid and ethyl bromoacetate, followed by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibody was raised by immunising mice with a haloperidol coupled to BSA via an aminooxyacetic acid arm through the keto group of the butyrophenone chain (oxime conjugate). (absoluteantibody.com)
  • L-Allylglycine is an amino acid derivative that reduces glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity by 60% when administered at a dose of 39.8 μmol/g per hour ex vivo. (targetmol.com)
  • Due to the partly complex reactions with aldehydes, reactions with aminooxy compounds (e.g. aminooxyacetic acid) are preferred. (biomers.net)
  • The central theme of this methodology is the formation of alpha -aminoalkyl radicals from existing amino acid and alpha -amino alcohol derivatives by 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer and the subsequent trapping of these radicals with appropriate radicalphiles, thus generating quaternary centres with high efficiency and excellent stereocontrol. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is poorly permeable to kynurenic acid (KYNA). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • A group of 2-hydroxybenzoic acids that can be substituted by amino groups at any of the 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-positions. (lookformedical.com)
  • 1-Ethoxyethylidene, a New Group for the Stepwise SPPS of Aminooxyacetic Acid Containing Peptides. (univ-grenoble-alpes.fr)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid also has anticonvulsant properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to a simple thiol, a thioctic acid modification is also suitable for binding oligonucleotides to gold surfaces. (biomers.net)
  • The peripheral administration of kynurenic acid (KYNA) precursor, kynurenine (KYN) was found to lead to neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic animal models [ 1 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the uptake inhibitor, probenecid, and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), a beta-lyase inhibitor, decreased the covalent binding from N-acetyl [35S]DCVC (80 and 50%, respectively), but only AOAA inhibited the covalent binding of DCVC. (nih.gov)
  • [ 8 ] L -cysteine, the precursor of H 2 S, also reduces glucose-induced insulin release in pancreatic β cells, and this effect is reversed by the CSE inhibitor DL -propargylglycine or the CBS inhibitor amino-oxyacetic acid. (medscape.com)
  • salicylic acid = SA) and an ethylene action inhibitor (silver thiosulfate = STS) on flower abscission and flower senescence of bluebonnet racemes. (ashs.org)
  • To study the physiological role of Ala AT, a pyridoxal phosphate inhibitor, aminooxyacetic acid, was added at 40 microM to the growth medium when cells were beginning to adapt to low CO2. (unipr.it)
  • Thus, pendant aminooxy groups were introduced into an octaamino COSS precursor by amide coupling with protected aminooxy acetic acid. (tu-darmstadt.de)
  • DCVC, in contrast, was not transported by the organic anion system, but may be transported by one or more amino acid systems. (nih.gov)
  • GABA isa naturally occurring amino acid synthesized in brain cells from glutamate . (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence shows about 50% identity with alanine: alpha-ketogutarate aminotransferase (Ala AT, EC 2.6.1.2) from plants and animals, and the mRNA of this clone increased 4- to 5-fold 4 h after cells were switched from high-CO2 to low-CO2 growth conditions. (unipr.it)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid can also inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase preventing ethylene synthesis, which can increase the vase life of cut flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the inhibition of aspartate aminotransferase by aminooxyacetic acid has clinical implications for the treatment of breast cancer, since a decrease in glycolysis disrupts breast adenocarcinoma cells more than normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14. Synergistic Effect of β-Lapachone and Aminooxyacetic Acid on Central Metabolism in Breast Cancer. (nih.gov)
  • A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH. (nih.gov)
  • Metal ions needed by plants in trace quantity for normal growth and development play roles in nucleic acid metabolism and redox reactions or as structural configuration of many enzyme molecules. (researchsquare.com)