Glutathione-dependent metabolism of cis-3-(9H-purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid to yield the chemotherapeutic drug 6-mercaptopurine: evidence for two distinct mechanisms in rats. (1/114)

cis-3-(9H-Purin-6-ylthio)acrylic acid (PTA) is a structural analog of azathioprine, a prodrug of the antitumor and immunosuppressive drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of PTA in rats. Two metabolites of PTA, 6-MP and the major metabolite, S-(9H-purin-6-yl)glutathione (PG), were formed in a time- and GSH-dependent manner in vitro. Formation of 6-MP and PG occurred nonenzymatically, but 6-MP formation was enhanced 2- and 7-fold by the addition of liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. Purified rat liver glutathione S-transferases enhanced 6-MP formation from PTA by 1.8-fold, whereas human recombinant alpha, mu, and pi isozymes enhanced 6-MP formation by 1.7-, 1.3-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. In kidney homogenate incubations, PG accumulation was only observed during the first 15 min because of further metabolism by gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, dipeptidase, and beta-lyase to yield 6-MP, as indicated by the use of the inhibitors acivicin and aminooxyacetic acid. Based on these results and other lines of evidence, two different GSH-dependent pathways are proposed for 6-MP formation: an indirect pathway involving PG formation and further metabolism to 6-MP, and a direct pathway in which PTA acts as a Michael acceptor. HPLC analyses of urine of rats treated i.p. with PTA (100 mg/kg) showed that 6-MP was formed in vivo and excreted in urine without apparent liver or kidney toxicity. Collectively, these studies show that PTA is metabolized to 6-MP both in vitro and in vivo and may therefore be a useful prodrug of 6-MP.  (+info)

GABA agonists differentially modify blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. (2/114)

This study described the effects of GABA agonists on glucose plasma concentrations of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Low doses of an indirect GABA agonist, AOAA (aminooxyacetic acid); a GABA(A) and a GABA(B) agent, THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridone) and baclofen, respectively; and a benzodiazepine were administered to non-diabetic and to diabetic rats. Plasma glucose concentrations were estimated during fasting and after an oral glucose load. Diazepam (1 mg/kg), baclofen (1 mg/kg) and AOAA (30 mg/kg), significantly decreased glycemia after oral glucose overload of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. None of the GABA-acting agents tested changed fasting or glucose overload glycemia of normal rats. Diazepam was the only drug to increase the fasting blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats. Treatment with AOAA or diazepam was accompanied by increased insulin plasma concentrations in diabetic rats to levels similar to the ones of non-diabetic animals. These results demonstrate that benzodiazepines and other GABA drugs act the endocrine pancreas in vivo, ultimately increasing plasma insulin and decreasing high blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. The acute and prolonged effects of the multitude of drugs acting on the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine-chloride ionophore complex remain to be broadly investigated as a therapeutic tool in diabetes.  (+info)

Beta-cyanoalanine synthase: purification and characterization. (3/114)

Beta-cyano-L-alanine synthase [L-cysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (adding HCN), EC 4.4.1.9] was purified about 4000-fold from blue lupine seedlings. The enzyme was homoegeneous on gel electrophoresis and free of contamination by other pyridoxal-P-dependent lyases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52,000 and contains 1 mole of pyridoxal-P per mole of protein; its isoelectric point is situated at pH 4.7. Its absorption spectrum has two maxima, at 280 and 410 nm. L-Cysteine is the natural primary (amino acid) substrate; beta-chloro- and beta-thiocyano can serve (with considerably lower affinity) instead of cyanide as cosubstrates for cyanoalanine synthase. The synthase is refractory to DL-cycloserine and D-penicillamine, potent inhibitors of many pyridoxal-P-dependent enzymes. Cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes slow isotopic alpha-H exchange in cysteine and in end-product amino acids; the rates of alpha-H exchange in nonreacted (excess) cysteine are markedly increased in the presence of an adequate cosubstrate; no exchange is observed of H atoms in beta-position.  (+info)

The oscillatory behavior of pancreatic islets from mice with mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase knockout. (4/114)

Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta cells induces oscillations of the membrane potential, cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), and insulin secretion. Each of these events depends on glucose metabolism. Both intrinsic oscillations of metabolism and repetitive activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases by Ca(2+) have been suggested to be decisive for this oscillatory behavior. Among these dehydrogenases, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH), the key enzyme of the glycerol phosphate NADH shuttle, is activated by cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i). In the present study, we compared different types of oscillations in beta cells from wild-type and mGPDH(-/-) mice. In clusters of 5-30 islet cells and in intact islets, 15 mM glucose induced an initial drop of [Ca(2+)](i), followed by an increase in three phases: a marked initial rise, a partial decrease with rapid oscillations and eventually large and slow oscillations. These changes, in particular the frequency of the oscillations and the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)] rise, were similar in wild-type and mGPDH(-/-) mice. Glucose-induced electrical activity (oscillations of the membrane potential with bursts of action potentials) was not altered in mGPDH(-/-) beta cells. In single islets from either type of mouse, insulin secretion strictly followed the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) during imposed oscillations induced by pulses of high K(+) or glucose and during the biphasic elevation induced by sustained stimulation with glucose. An imposed and controlled rise of [Ca(2+)](i) in beta cells similarly increased NAD(P)H fluorescence in control and mGDPH(-/-) islets. Inhibition of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle with aminooxyacetate only had minor effects in control islets but abolished the electrical, [Ca(2+)](i) and secretory responses in mGPDH(-/-) islets. The results show that the two distinct NADH shuttles play an important but at least partially redundant role in glucose-induced insulin secretion. The oscillatory behavior of beta cells does not depend on the functioning of mGPDH and on metabolic oscillations that would be generated by cyclic activation of this enzyme by Ca(2+).  (+info)

Metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in freshly isolated human proximal tubular cells. (5/114)

Trichloroethylene (Tri) caused modest cytotoxicity in freshly isolated human proximal tubular (hPT) cells, as assessed by significant decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity after 1 h of exposure to 500 microM Tri. Oxidative metabolism of Tri by cytochrome P-450 to form chloral hydrate (CH) was only detectable in kidney microsomes from one patient out of four tested and was not detected in hPT cells. In contrast, GSH conjugation of Tri was detected in cells from every patient tested. The kinetics of Tri metabolism to its GSH conjugate S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG) followed biphasic kinetics, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.51 and 24.9 mM and 0.10 and 1.0 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), the cysteine conjugate metabolite of Tri that is considered the penultimate nephrotoxic species, caused both time- and concentration-dependent increases in LDH release in freshly isolated hPT cells. Preincubation of hPT cells with 0.1 mM aminooxyacetic acid did not protect hPT cells from DCVC-induced cellular injury, suggesting that another enzyme besides the cysteine conjugate beta-lyase may be important in DCVC bioactivation. This study is the first to measure the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri and DCVC in freshly isolated cells from the human kidney. These data indicate that the pathway involved in the cytotoxicity and metabolism of Tri in hPT cells is the GSH conjugation pathway and that the cytochrome P-450-dependent pathway has little direct role in renal Tri metabolism in humans.  (+info)

The effect of culture age, chloramphenicol and B6 inhibitors on intra- and extracellular keto and amino acids of Escherichia coli B. (6/114)

Keto acids and free amino acids were assayed in the cells and the medium of Escherichia coli B growing in the presence of chloramphenicol, cycloserines, aminooxyacetate, and limiting nitrogen source. Under these growth-limiting conditions the cells accumulated ketoglutarate and 'ketovaline' but no other keto acids. In all experiments only ketoglutarate, pyruvate, and 'ketovaline' were found in the medium. Amino acids are released into the medium in the early phases of growth and the composition of the extracellular amino acids is similar to that of the amino acid pool. The concentrations of free amino acids were 10-3-10-4 times higher in the cell than in the medium. The internal pool composition is fixed under all growth-limiting conditions. In the presence of the drugs the cells release amino acids into the medium.  (+info)

Use of sulfhydryl reagents to investigate branched chain alpha-keto acid transport in mitochondria. (7/114)

The goal of this paper was to determine the contribution of the mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (BCATm) to branched chain alpha-keto acid transport within rat heart mitochondria. Isolated heart mitochondria were treated with sulfhydryl reagents of varying permeability, and the data suggest that essential cysteine residues in BCATm are accessible from the cytosolic face of the inner membrane. Treatment with 15 nmol/mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibited initial rates of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) uptake in reconstituted mitochondrial detergent extracts by 70% and in the intact organelle by 50%. KIC protected against inhibition suggesting that NEM labeled a cysteine residue that is inaccessible when substrate is bound to the enzyme. Additionally, the apparent mitochondrial equilibrium KIC concentration was decreased 50-60% after NEM labeling, and this difference could not be attributed to effects of NEM on matrix pH or KIC oxidation. In fact, NEM was a better inhibitor of KIC oxidation than rotenone. Measuring matrix aspartate and glutamate levels revealed that the effects of NEM on the steady-state KIC concentration resulted from inhibition of BCATm catalyzed transamination of KIC with matrix glutamate to form leucine. Furthermore, circular dichroism spectra of recombinant human BCATm with liposomes showed that the commercial lipids used in the reconstituted transport assay contain BCAT amino acid substrates. Thus BCATm is distinct from the branched chain alpha-keto acid carrier but may interact with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is necessary to inhibit or remove transaminase activity in both intact and reconstituted systems prior to quantifying transport of alpha-keto acids which are transaminase substrates.  (+info)

Contribution of glutamate dehydrogenase to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism studied by (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance. (8/114)

The relative contribution of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the aminotransferase activity to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism was investigated in dilute suspensions of purified mitochondria from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Measurements of glutamate-dependent oxygen consumption by mitochondria in different metabolic states were complemented by novel in situ NMR assays of specific enzymes that metabolize glutamate. First, a new assay for aminotransferase activity, based on the exchange of deuterium between deuterated water and glutamate, provided a method for establishing the effectiveness of the aminotransferase inhibitor amino-oxyacetate in situ, and thus allowed the contribution of the aminotransferase activity to glutamate oxidation to be assessed unambiguously. Secondly, the activity of GDH in the mitochondria was monitored in a coupled assay in which glutamine synthetase was used to trap the ammonium released by the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Thirdly, the reversibility of the GDH reaction was investigated by monitoring the isotopic exchange between glutamate and [(15)N]ammonium. These novel approaches show that the oxidative deamination of glutamate can make a significant contribution to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism and that GDH can support the aminotransferases in funneling carbon from glutamate into the TCA cycle.  (+info)

*Aminooxyacetic acid

... aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general ... I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid ... and was prepared by the hydrolysis of ethylbenzhydroximinoacetic acid. In 1936, Anchel and Shoenheimer used aminooxyacetic acid ...

*Ethylene

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors. Inhibiting ethylene ... It can be produced via dehydration of ethanol with sulfuric acid or in the gas phase with aluminium oxide. Ethylene serves as a ... The main method practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts: C2H4 + H2O ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ...

*4-aminobutyrate transaminase

Aminooxyacetic acid Gabaculine Phenelzine Phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH) Rosmarinic acid Valproic acid Vigabatrin Awad, ...

*1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase

ACC Synthase is also competitively inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), inhibitors to many ... α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid, and S-adenosylhomocysteine. ACC Synthase is 450-516 amino acid long sequence depending on the ... Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACC synthase, ACS) (EC 4.4.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of 1- ... 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthetase, aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid ...

*GABA tea

"Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated animals". Neuropharmacology. 10 (1): ... Sheng-Dun Lin, et al., Bioactive components and antioxidant properties of g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea leaves. LWT - Food ... began developing GABA-rich tea in 1984 and successfully produced a new type tea in which almost all glutamic acid has been ... Effect of green tea rich in gamma-aminobutyric acid on blood pressure of Dahl saltsensitive rats. Am J Hypertens. 1995, 8: 74- ...

*Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

"Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated animals". Neuropharmacology. 10 (1): ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid (γ-Aminobutyric acid) /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/ (GABA /ˈɡæbə/) is the chief inhibitory ... GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it is rarely referred to as such ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... aminooxyacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.440 --- edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 ... aminooxyacetic acid MeSH D02.092.570.394 --- hydroxamic acids MeSH D02.092.570.394.150 --- bufexamac MeSH D02.092.570.394.265 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...
Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. Subsequently, the level of GABA is increased in tissues. At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. The inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle prevents the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by the mitochondria in nerve terminals. Also in the nerve terminals, ...
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. Extinguishing media: Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam ...
Participation of endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the functions of dog cardiac ganglia was investigated. The ganglionic stimulants as well as agents affecting GABA system were given directly into the cardiac sympathetic ganglia through the right subclavian artery (i.a.), unless otherwise mentioned. Inhibition of endogenous GABA degradation by the GABA-transaminase inhibitor, aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) administered 10 mg/kg i.v. 2 hr before completion of surgical procedures did not alter the positive chronotropic responses to bethanecol (25 and 50 micrograms) and acetylcholine (25, 50 and 100 micrograms) but reduced markedly those to angiotensin II (1 and 2 micrograms). This reduction was antagonized by picrotoxin (5 mg). Diazepam given 10 mg/kg i.v. also inhibited the ganglionic responses to angiotensin II in both untreated and AOAA-pretreated dogs, this inhibition by diazepam being more marked in the AOAA-pretreated than in the untreated dogs. The same dose of diazepam did not ...
1. Rat kidney-cortex slices incubated with d-malate alone formed very little glucose. d-Malate, however, augmented gluconeogenesis from l-lactate and inhibited gluconeogenesis from pyruvate and l-malate. 2. d-Malate had little effect on the rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with or without other substrates added. 3. d-Malate inhibited the activity of the l-malate dehydrogenase in a high-speed-supernatant fraction from kidney cortex. 4. It was concluded that d-malate inhibited either the operation of the cytoplasmic l-malate dehydrogenase or malate outflow from the mitochondria in the intact kidney-cortex cell. This supports the hypothesis of Lardy, Paetkau & Walter (1965) and Krebs, Gascoyne & Notton (1967) on the role of malate as carrier for carbon and reducing equivalents in gluconeogenesis. 5. Gluconeogenesis from l-lactate in kidney-cortex slices was strongly inhibited by a low concentration (0.1mm) of amino-oxyacetate, whereas glucose formation from pyruvate, malate, aspartate and ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Purpose: Glutamine addiction in c-MYC-overexpressing breast cancer is targeted by the aminotransferase inhibitor, aminooxyacetate (AOA). However, the mechanism of ensuing cell death remains unresolved.. Experimental Design: A correlation between glutamine dependence for growth and c-MYC expression was studied in breast cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of AOA, its correlation with high c-MYC expression, and effects on enzymes in the glutaminolytic pathway were investigated. AOA-induced cell death was assessed by measuring changes in metabolite levels by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), the effects of amino acid depletion on nucleotide synthesis by cell-cycle and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) uptake analysis, and activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. Antitumor effects of AOA with or without common chemotherapies were determined in breast cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice and in a transgenic MMTV-rTtA-TetO-myc mouse mammary tumor model.. Results: ...
In this study aminotransferase inhibitors were used to determine the relative importance of different aminotransferases in providing nitrogen for de novo glutamate synthesis in the retina. Aminooxyacetate, which inhibits all aminotransferases, blocke
The relative contribution of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the aminotransferase activity to mitochondrial glutamate metabolism was investigated in dilute suspensions of purified mitochondria from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Measurements of glutamate-dependent oxygen consumption by mitochondria in different metabolic states were complemented by novel in situ NMR assays of specific enzymes that metabolize glutamate. First, a new assay for aminotransferase activity, based on the exchange of deuterium between deuterated water and glutamate, provided a method for establishing the effectiveness of the aminotransferase inhibitor amino-oxyacetate in situ, and thus allowed the contribution of the aminotransferase activity to glutamate oxidation to be assessed unambiguously. Secondly, the activity of GDH in the mitochondria was monitored in a coupled assay in which glutamine synthetase was used to trap the ammonium released by the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Thirdly, the reversibility of the
The oxidation of L-glutamate and L-glutamine by enterocyte mitochondria was supported by malate. The stimulation of the rate of oxidation of the two amino acids by small amounts of added malate was 93% and 76% respectively. This could not be accounted for by the oxidation of the small amounts of malate added. Amino-oxyacetate added initially inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 81% and that of L-glutamine by 38%. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was partially reversed by L-glutamine. The dicarboxylate-carrier inhibitor 2-phenylsuccinate inhibited the malate-supported oxidation of both amino acids, but appeared to be slightly stimulatory to L-glutamine oxidation when added initially. The inhibition of L-glutamate oxidation was reversed by L-glutamine. The mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone) inhibited malate-supported oxidation of L-glutamate by 78% when added initially. The oxidation of L-glutamine was completely inhibited. ...
Eboli, M L.; Paradies, G; and Papa, S, "Transport of anionic substrates and glutamate metabolism in mitochondria from ascites tumor cells." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 2337 ...
Als verantwortungsbewusster Inverkehrbringer der NADH - Produkte nach der orginalen Formulierung arbeiten die Prof. Birkmayer Laboratorien eng mit renommierten Experten der Rechtswissenschaften sowie aus dem Bereich der Life Science zusammen ...
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Similar to AOA treatment, knocking down GOT2 could also effectively inhibit the malate-aspartate shuttle, resulting in a significant increase (by 1.3‐fold; P , 0.01) in the cytosolic NADH level in Panc‐1 cells (Supplementary Fig S8A). Concomitantly, GOT2 knockdown led to a substantial reduction in the mitochondrial NADH level (by 33%; P , 0.01) (Supplementary Fig S8B), affirming the vital role of GOT2 in controlling the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. As a result, GOT2 knockdown significantly reduced ATP production (by 26%; P , 0.01) in Panc‐1 cells (Supplementary Fig S8C). Moreover, in these stable Panc‐1 cells with GOT2 knockdown, we found that re‐expression of acetylation‐mimetic 3KQ mutant GOT2 led to a significant (P , 0.05) reduction in the cytosolic NADH level as compared to wild‐type‐rescued cells when treated without or with glucose (i.e., 0 and 12 mM glucose) (Fig 4B). Meanwhile, 3KQ mutant GOT2‐rescued cells displayed a significant (P , 0.05 or P , ...
The lozalojo/mem package contains the following man pages: add.alpha calcular.indicadores calcular.indicadores.2.timings calcular.map calcular.optimo calcular.optimo.criterio calcular.optimo.derivada calcular.optimo.original calcular.optimo.pendiente comparar.metodos epimem epitiming extraer.datos.curva.map extraer.datos.epi extraer.datos.optimo.map extraer.datos.post.epi extraer.datos.pre.epi fill.missing flucyl flucylraw full.series.graph iconfianza iconfianza.aritmetica iconfianza.completo iconfianza.geometrica iconfianza.logx iconfianza.percentil.boot iconfianza.percentil.kc iconfianza.x max.fix.na max.n.valores memevolution memgoodness memintensity memmodel mem-package memstability memsurveillance memsurveillance.animated memtiming memtrend min.fix.na min.n.valores missings.inside normalizar optimal.tickmarks optimum.by.inspection output.ci processPlots roc.analysis semana.absoluta suavizado transformdata transformdata.back transformseries transformseries.odd transformseries.twowaves
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0040]FIG. 6 is a flowchart of transmission timing adjustment processing according to the present embodiment. Reception timing detection unit 12 detects the reception timing of a received downlink radio frame (S100). Reception signal demodulation unit 14 demodulates the received signal (S101). If transmission timing information is included in the control signal, reception signal demodulation unit 14 sends the above transmission timing information to transmission timing adjustment unit 15. Transmission timing adjustment unit 15 decides the presence or absence of transmission timing information at each predetermined decision interval (S102). If the transmission timing information is sent, transmission timing adjustment unit 15 adjusts the transmission timing to a specified value included in the transmission timing information (S103). If the transmission timing information is not sent, transmission timing adjustment unit 15 decides whether the handover processing is in progress, based on the ...
Studies on a 27-year-old man with a 3-year history of exercise-induced muscle pain, passage of red urine and elevated serum creatine kinase are described. Histological examination of a biopsy from quadriceps revealed non-specific myopathic changes with occasional clusters of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. The phosphorylase stain was normal. Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles showed no abnormalities at rest. During aerobic exercise there was an abnormally rapid decrease in phosphocreatine concentration but the pH remained within the normal range. There was a build-up of phosphomonoester (probably glucose 6-phosphate), usually indicative of a block in glycolysis. However, a primary defect in the glycolytic pathway seemed unlikely because muscle acidified normally during ischaemic exercise. Recovery from exercise was unusual in that phosphocreatine resynthesis and inorganic phosphate disappearance followed similar
Incretins, hormones released by the stomach after meal ingestion, are essential for maintaining systemic glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. 1988; Porte, 1991) and is usually a target for its treatment. According to the consensus model of TBC-11251 glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), GIIS depends on a series of cautiously orchestrated cell responses: mitochondrially generated ATP results in closure of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which in change causes membrane depolarization, electrical activity, and opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), with the resultant elevation of [Ca2+]i initiating Ca2+-induced insulin granule exocytosis (Henquin, 2000). Thus, ATP produced by glucose metabolism is usually a crucial transmission in GIIS. Pancreatic cells are equipped with two highly active NADH shuttles linked to glycolysis: the malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle, both of which contribute to ATP production. Whereas inhibition of either one ...
Dow Corning Trust Claims are still active. If you have filed a Dow Corning Claim and Need help call our Dow Corning Claims lawyers today.
The GSH dependence of the metabolic pathways involved in the conversion of cysteine to sulfate in intact cells has been investigated. It was found that hepatocyte-catalysed sulfate formation from added L-cysteine did not occur if hepatocyte GSH was depleted beforehand, but was restored when GSH levels recovered. Furthermore, sulfate formation did not recover in GSH-depleted hepatocytes if GSH synthesis was prevented with buthionine sulfoximine. Thiosulfate formation was, however, markedly enhanced in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. These results suggest that thiosulfate is an intermediate in the formation of inorganic sulfate from L-cysteine and that GSH was required for the conversion of thiosulfate to inorganic sulfate. Much less sulfate was formed if the cysteine was replaced with cysteinesulfinate. Furthermore, sulfate formation from L-cysteine was markedly inhibited by the addition of the transaminase inhibitor DL-cycloserine or the gamma-cystathionase inhibitor DL-propargylglycine. The major ...
integral component of membrane, mitochondrial inner membrane, L-aspartate transmembrane transporter activity, L-glutamate transmembrane transporter activity, aspartate transport, L-glutamate transmembrane transport, malate-aspartate shuttle
Shuttle found in: HIROBO HELIS SHUTTLE PLUS 60 Econo Power Manufacturer/Model By Series, HIROBO HELIS SHUTTLE ZX Econo Power Manufacturer/Model By..
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The extremely halophilic archaeon Natrialba aegyptiaca secretes the L-homo type of poly-g-glutamate (PGA) as an extremolyte. We examined the enzymes involved in glutamate metabolism and verified the presence of L-glutamate dehydrogenases, L-aspartate aminotransferase, and L-glutamate synthase. However, neither glutamate racemase nor D-amino acid aminotransferase activity was detected, suggesting the absence of sources of D-glutamate. In contrast, D-glutamate-rich PGA producers mostly possess such intracellular sources of D-glutamate. The results of our present study indicate that the D-glutamate-anabolic enzyme
kynurenic definition: Of or regarding kynurenic acid or its types; regarding, or designating, an acid received from urine of puppies. By decomposition the acid yields a nitrogenous base (called kynurin)…
4-Amino-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester - CAS-RN:[71469-93-7] - 4-Amino-2-(methoxycarbonyl)pyridine; Methyl 4-aminopicolinate; Methyl 4-aminopyridine-2-carboxylate
These and other objects of the present invention are achieved in a body fluid sampling system for use on a tissue site that includes a single drive force generator. A plurality of penetrating members are operatively coupled to the force generator. The force generator moves each of the members along a path out of a housing with a penetrating member exit, into the tissue site, stops in the tissue site, and withdraws out of the tissue site. A flexible support member couples the penetrating members to define a linear array. The support member is movable and configured to move each of the penetrating members to a launch position associated with the force generator. A user interface is configured to relay at least one of, penetrating member performance or a penetrating member setting.
View Notes - lecture14_10_21_08 from CHM 6620 at Wayne State University. Lecture 14 Overview: -glycolysis regulation -glucose synthesis -gluconeogenesis regulation Control of the glycolytic pathway

Aminooxyacetic acid - WikipediaAminooxyacetic acid - Wikipedia

... aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general ... I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Also in 1936, Kitagawa and Takani described the preparation of aminooxyacetic acid by the condensation of benzhydroxamic acid ... and was prepared by the hydrolysis of ethylbenzhydroximinoacetic acid. In 1936, Anchel and Shoenheimer used aminooxyacetic acid ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminooxyacetic_acid

Aminooxyacetic acid hemichlorideAminooxyacetic acid hemichloride

Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution. Extinguishing media: Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam ...
more infohttp://www.chemicaldictionary.org/dic/A/Aminooxyacetic-acid-hemichloride_1486.html

Aminooxyacetic acid - DrugBankAminooxyacetic acid - DrugBank

... thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues. [PubChem] ... Carboxylic acids. Direct Parent. Carboxylic acids. Alternative Parents. Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organic oxides ... Aminooxyacetic_acid. PDB Entries. 1h0c / 1j04 / 1wyv. Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials Not Available. Pharmacoeconomics. ... Aminooxyacetic acid. Accession Number. DB02079 (EXPT00528) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. A compound ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB02079

Aminooxyacetic acid (АОА), inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid (AСС) synthesis, suppresses self-incompatibility...Aminooxyacetic acid (АОА), inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid (AСС) synthesis, suppresses self-incompatibility...

Aminooxyacetic acid (АОА), inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid (AСС) synthesis, suppresses self-incompatibility- ... Wu L, Williams JS, Wang N, Khatri WA, San Román D, T-h K (2018) Use of domain-swapping to identify candidate amino acids ... Kovaleva LV, Zakharova EV, Voronkov AC, Timofeeva GV, Andreev IM (2017) Role of abscisic acid and ethylene in the control of ... found that preliminary treatment before self-pollination of stigmas of petunia self-incompatible line with aminooxyacetic acid ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00709-019-01430-x

2-[(2-Phenylquinoline-4-carbonyl)amino]oxyacetic acid | C18H14N2O4 - PubChem2-[(2-Phenylquinoline-4-carbonyl)amino]oxyacetic acid | C18H14N2O4 - PubChem

... oxyacetic acid , C18H14N2O4 , CID 53962608 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/53962608

Alfa Aesar™ Bis(Boc-aminooxy)acetic acid, 98% 1g Alfa Aesar™ Bis(Boc-aminooxy)acetic acid, 98%Alfa Aesar™ Bis(Boc-aminooxy)acetic acid, 98% 1g Alfa Aesar™ Bis(Boc-aminooxy)acetic acid, 98%

... acetic acid, 98% 1g Alfa Aesar™ Bis(Boc-aminooxy)acetic acid, 98% Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives ... 1-dimethylethoxy carbonyl amino oxy-acetic acid, bis-boc-aminooxyacetic acid, bis tert-butoxycarbonyl amino oxy acetic acid, ... 1-dimethylethoxy carbonyl amino oxy-acetic acid, bis-boc-aminooxyacetic acid, bis tert-butoxycarbonyl amino oxy acetic acid, ... bis-boc-amino-oxyacetic acid, bis-boc-aoa, bis 1,1-dimethylethoxy carbonyl amino oxy acetic acid, bis 1, ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.dk/shop/products/bis-boc-aminooxy-acetic-acid-98/15469328

Excitatory And Inhibitory AAs Flashcards by Amy Hannaford  | BrainscapeExcitatory And Inhibitory AAs Flashcards by Amy Hannaford | Brainscape

Inhibitors: aminooxyacetic acid and vigabatrin. Vigabatrin used to treat epilepsy 27 Which GABA receptors are IONOTROPIC? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/excitatory-and-inhibitory-aas-3181628/packs/4993237

Frontiers | Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum | Frontiers in Cellular NeuroscienceFrontiers | Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM) reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D ... Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each) attenuated KYNA ... Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each) attenuated KYNA ... In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM) reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2015.00178/full

Glutamate/GABA Synthesis and Metabolism | Sigma-AldrichGlutamate/GABA Synthesis and Metabolism | Sigma-Aldrich

Aminooxyacetic acid (C13408). 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (M5801). γ-Acetylenic GABA (A230). GABA (A2129). │ │---------------→. │ ... Aminooxyacetic acid (C13408). 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (M5801). γ-Vinyl GABA (V8261). GABAculine (A3539). ... Aminooxyacetic acid (C13408). α-Ketoglutarate (m) (K1750). │ │---------------→. ↓. Dicarboxylate carrier. Malate (02300). ... Another problem with amino-oxyacetic acid is that it potently inhibits both glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase (see ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/biology/rbi-handbook/non-peptide-receptors-synthesis-and-metabolism/glutamate-gaba-synthesis-and-metabolism.html

Plus itPlus it

... were performed in the presence and absence of aminooxyacetic acid. As shown in Table 3, aminooxyacetic acid was able to ... aminooxyacetic acid. MTT. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. MSeCys. Se-methyl-l-selenocysteine. H2 ... At this concentration aminooxyacetic acid alone had no effect on the cell viability of both cell lines (Fig. 3, A and B). ... Furthermore, 250 μM aminooxyacetic acid, a well known potent inhibitor of PLP-dependent β-lyases, was shown to reduce the ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/301/3/884

Adventitious rooting of conifers: influence of physical and chemical factors | SpringerLinkAdventitious rooting of conifers: influence of physical and chemical factors | SpringerLink

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. AOA. Aminooxyacetic acid. ARF. Adventitious root formation ... De Klerk GJ, Ter Brugge J, Marinova S (1997) Effectiveness of indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid and naphthaleneacetic acid ... acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid on internal levels of the respective auxins and their conjugation with aspartic acid ... Cuttings with indolbutyric acid in five media. Ciênc Rural 29:207-211. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84781999000200004 Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00468-010-0488-8

Endogenous preoptic hydrogen sulphide attenuates hypoxia-induced hyperventilation. | CureHunterEndogenous preoptic hydrogen sulphide attenuates hypoxia-induced hyperventilation. | CureHunter

Aminooxyacetic Acid (administration & dosage, pharmacology) *Animals. *Anoxia (complications) *Hydrogen Sulfide (administration ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed24119224.do

sodium sulfide
     Summary Report | CureHuntersodium sulfide Summary Report | CureHunter

Aminooxyacetic Acid 6. NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) 7. Thioredoxins 8. Oxygen ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC033479-sodium-sulfide.do

Biochemical Properties and Crystal Structure of a β-Phenylalanine Aminotransferase from Variovorax paradoxus | Applied and...Biochemical Properties and Crystal Structure of a β-Phenylalanine Aminotransferase from Variovorax paradoxus | Applied and...

The binding of 2-aminooxyacetic acid.AOA, a mimic of β-alanine, is a known inhibitor of aminotransferases (72) and also ... a number of β-amino acids and α-amino acids were tested (Table 1). The results show that VpAT acts exclusively on β-amino acids ... The simplest β-amino acid, β-alanine, occurs in carnosine, coenzyme A, and pantothenic acid. Other β-amino acids are present in ... and 2-aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. (S)-β-Phenylalanine and (R)-β-phenylalanine were purchased ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/79/1/185

اتیلن - ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاداتیلن - ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors.[44][45] Inhibiting ethylene ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ... Ethylene appears to have been discovered by Johann Joachim Becher, who obtained it by heating ethanol with sulfuric acid;[48] ...
more infohttps://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D8%AA%DB%8C%D9%84%D9%86?match=en

Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition ameliorates neurodegeneration by modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites | PNASTryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition ameliorates neurodegeneration by modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites | PNAS

1990) Determination of extracellular kynurenic acid in the striatum of unanesthetized rats: Effect of aminooxyacetic acid. ... S1 D and E). To reduce levels of KYNA in the HTT93Q v−/− background, we used the nonspecific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid ... 1981) Quinolinic acid: A potent endogenous excitant at amino acid receptors in CNS. Eur J Pharmacol 72(4):411-412. ... 1984) Kynurenic acid blocks neurotoxicity and seizures induced in rats by the related brain metabolite quinolinic acid. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/113/19/5435.full

Plus itPlus it

I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Five organic ligands were used in the measurements: citric acid, oxalic acid, malic acid, salicylic acid, and GABA. Stock ... 1973). The role of GABA metabolism in the convulsant and anticonvulsant actions of aminooxyacetic acid. J. Neurochem. 20: 379- ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulation of anion flux through ALMT proteins requires a specific amino acid motif in ALMTs ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/30/5/1147

JCI -
Isocitrate-to-SENP1 signaling amplifies insulin secretion and rescues dysfunctional β cellsJCI - Isocitrate-to-SENP1 signaling amplifies insulin secretion and rescues dysfunctional β cells

... and glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and a drop in asparagine/aspartic acid (Asx), which are blocked by aminooxyacetic acid (AOA; ... Fatty acid-free BSA was from Roche. Fatty acid stock solution was prepared as follows. Oleate and palmitate were dissolved at ... Fatty acid complexation was achieved by dissolving 1 volume of the previous solution in 1 volume of free fatty acid BSA (8.35% ... When indicated, the general transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid was present at 10 mM during both the preincubation and ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/82498

Rat brain aspartate β-decarboxylase. A comparative study with the liver enzyme | ScholarBank@NUSRat brain aspartate β-decarboxylase. A comparative study with the liver enzyme | [email protected]

However, aminooxyacetic acid is a potent inhibitor. There is an apparent 8-fold variation in AspD in the seven brain regions ... Various amino acids were found to inhibit both brain and liver AspD. Serine, however, activated the liver enzyme but inhibited ...
more infohttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/134284

Overproduction of Cytokinins in Petunia Flowers Transformed with PSAG12-IPT Delays Corolla Senescence and Decreases Sensitivity...Overproduction of Cytokinins in Petunia Flowers Transformed with PSAG12-IPT Delays Corolla Senescence and Decreases Sensitivity...

Fujino DW, Reid MS, Yang SF (1980) Effects of aminooxyacetic acid on postharvest characteristics of carnation. Acta Hortic 113: ... Panavas T, Walker EL, Rubinstein B (1998) Possible involvement of abscisic acid in senescence of daylily petals. J Exp Bot 49: ... Banowetz GM, Hess JR, Carman JG (1994) A monoclonal antibody against the plant growth regulator, abscisic acid. Hybridoma 13: ... Mayak S, Dilley DR (1976) Effect of sucrose on response of cut carnation to kinetin, ethylene and abscisic acid. J Am Soc ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/node/23961.full.print

Fmoc-ACPC-OH (CAS 126705-22-4) Market Research Report 2018Fmoc-ACPC-OH (CAS 126705-22-4) Market Research Report 2018

Fmoc-aminooxyacetic acid (CAS 123106-21-8) Market Research Report 2018 US$ 2,200.00 Jan, 2018 · 70 pages ... Inorganic Chemicals Alkali Inorganic Salts Non-Metallic Oxides Inorganic Acids Metal Oxides Chemical Company Reports Chemical ... Organic Chemicals Alcohols Alkenes (Olefins) Ethers Organic Acids & Derivatives Aldehydes & Ketones Amines Halogenated Polymers ... Fmoc-Aminomalonic acid (CAS 296261-32-0) Market Research Report 2018 US$ 2,200.00 Jan, 2018 · 70 pages ...
more infohttps://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/fmoc-acpc-oh_126705-22-4_market_research_report.html

Discriminative stimulus effects of tiagabine and related GABAergic drugs in rats | SpringerLinkDiscriminative stimulus effects of tiagabine and related GABAergic drugs in rats | SpringerLink

It acts by inhibiting reuptake at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (GAT-1). ... Löscher W, Hönack D, Taylor CP (1991) Gabapentin increases aminooxyacetic acid-induced GABA accumulation in several regions of ... nipecotic acid binds with high affinity to the brain gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake carrier. J Neurochem 54:639-647PubMed ... Smith SE, Parvez NS, Chapman AG, Meldrum BS (1995) The g-aminobutyric acid uptake inhibitor, tiagabine, is anticonvulsant in ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-008-1077-z

Ethylene - WikipediaEthylene - Wikipedia

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), and silver salts are ethylene inhibitors. Inhibiting ethylene ... It can be produced via dehydration of ethanol with sulfuric acid or in the gas phase with aluminium oxide. Ethylene serves as a ... The main method practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts: C2H4 + H2O ... Ethylene is biosynthesized from the amino acid methionine to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM, also called Adomet) by the enzyme ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethylene

Inhalation Toxicity Study of a Haloalkene Degradant of Sevoflurane, Compound A (PIFE), in Sprague-Dawley Rats | Anesthesiology ...Inhalation Toxicity Study of a Haloalkene Degradant of Sevoflurane, Compound A (PIFE), in Sprague-Dawley Rats | Anesthesiology ...

These investigators also demonstrated that aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of beta-lyase, protected the cells from toxicity. ... Hinchman CA, Ballatori N: Glutathione conjugation and conversion to mercapturic acids can occur as an intrahepatic process. J ... Tissues for microscopic examination were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in 10% formic acid (nasal ... N-acetylation serves as a detoxification reaction resulting in the formation of excretable mercapturic acids. ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2323548

Frontiers | ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination | Plant ScienceFrontiers | ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination | Plant Science

It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. ... It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. ... amino-oxyacetic acid), ACO activity (CoCl2; α-AIB: α-aminoisobutyric acid), or ethylene action (2,5 NBD: 2,5-norbornadiene; STS ... ABA, abscisic acid; ABI3, ABA insensitive3; ABI5, ABA insensitive5; ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid; ACO, ACC ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2013.00063/full
  • Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid can also inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase preventing ethylene synthesis, which can increase the vase life of cut flowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid was previously used in a clinical trial to reduce symptoms of Huntington's disease by increasing GABA levels in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protective activity against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation was blocked by aminooxyacetic acid, a selective inhibitor of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent cysteine conjugate β-lyases, further supporting the role of β-lyase in the observed chemoprotection. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been demonstrated in the rat brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • The crystal structure was used to rationalize the stereo- and regioselectivity of V. paradoxus aminotransferase and to define a sequence motif with which new aromatic β-amino acid-converting aminotransferases may be identified. (asm.org)
  • Other β-amino acids are present in bioactive peptides, such as the protease inhibitor bestatin, which contains a (2 S ,3 R )-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoyl group, and microcystin, a cyclic nonribosomal peptide that acts as a phosphatase inhibitor and contains both an aliphatic and an aromatic β-amino acid moiety ( 2 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • In view of the growing importance of pharmaceutical compounds containing β-amino acid groups, there is demand for new tools for their production in enantiopure form. (asm.org)
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulation of anion flux through ALMT proteins requires a specific amino acid motif in ALMTs that shares similarity with a GABA binding site in mammalian GABA A receptors. (plantcell.org)
  • The mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) provides additional metabolites that funnel into lipid, amino acid and nucleotide synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In protein science , an Imino Acid (Secondary Amino Acid) is a molecule, related to amino acids (differing in the bonding to the nitrogen), that contains both an imino (>C=NH) and a carboxyl (-C(=O)-OH) functional group, which occurs as either an acyclic acid or a cyclic imino acid . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Aminooxyacetic acid has been shown to cause excitotoxic lesions of the striatum, similar to Huntington's disease, potentially due to its impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydroformylation (oxo reaction) of ethylene results in propionaldehyde, a precursor to propionic acid and n-propyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant senescence is regulated by a coordinated genetic program mediated in part by changes in ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin content. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Senescence is accompanied by changes in endogenous ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinins, and these changes are believed to mediate signaling events that control the process. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. (frontiersin.org)
  • It was found that preliminary treatment before self-pollination of stigmas of petunia self-incompatible line with aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), inhibitor of ACC synthesis, led to stimulation of pollen tubes growth when the latter did not exhibit any hallmarks of PCD. (springer.com)
  • Comparative localization of two forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase and their mRNAs in rat brain supports the concept of functional differences between the forms. (nih.gov)
  • Also in the nerve terminals, aminooxyacetic acid prevents the mitochondria from utilizing pyruvate generated from glycolysis, thus leading to a bioenergetic state similar to that of hypoglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main method practiced since the mid-1990s is the direct hydration of ethylene catalyzed by solid acid catalysts: C2H4 + H2O → CH3CH2OH Ethylene is dimerized by hydrovinylation to give n-butenes using processes licensed by Lummus or IFP. (wikipedia.org)