Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Methylmalonate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (Acylating): An enzyme that plays a role in the VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE catabolic pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-oxopropanate to propanoyl-CoA using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by elevated BETA-ALANINE and 3-hydropropionic acid.Aminomuconate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde to 2-aminomuconate.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde, orthophosphate, and NADP+ to yield L-4-aspartyl phosphate and NADPH. EC 184.108.40.206.Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.AminohydrolasesBrain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn: Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 220.127.116.11.NitrobenzenesHydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseSodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 18.104.22.168.Glutamate-5-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An NADP+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde to L-glutamyl 5-phosphate. It plays a role in the urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.GlutaratesNAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Aspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 22.214.171.124.Azospirillum brasilense: A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseMalate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 188.8.131.52.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 184.108.40.206.) EC 220.127.116.11.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 18.104.22.168-Aminoadipic Acid: A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase: An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 22.214.171.124Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseIsomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Homoserine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 126.96.36.199.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Saccharopine Dehydrogenases: Amine oxidoreductases that use either NAD+ (EC 188.8.131.52) or NADP+ (EC 184.108.40.206) as an acceptor to form L-LYSINE or NAD+ (EC 220.127.116.11) or NADP+ (EC 18.104.22.168) as an acceptor to form L-GLUTAMATE. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERLYSINEMIAS.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 22.214.171.124; EC 126.96.36.199; EC 188.8.131.52 and EC 184.108.40.206.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step in the beta-oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Malonate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (Acetylating): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-oxopropanoate (malonate semialdehyde) to acetyl COENZYME A. It plays a role in the metabolism of BETA-ALANINE.IMP Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 22.214.171.124.Lactate Dehydrogenases: Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating): An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.Formate Dehydrogenases: Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 126.96.36.199.Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.TartronatesSulfolobales: An order of CRENARCHAEOTA consisting of aerobic or facultatively aerobic, chemolithotrophic cocci which are extreme thermoacidophiles. They lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide): A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.Aminolevulinic Acid: A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide): The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Ketone Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP): An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 184.108.40.206.1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Mannitol Dehydrogenases: Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 220.127.116.11.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for short-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 18.104.22.168-Hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxyanthranilate to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde. It was formerly characterized as EC 22.214.171.124.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 126.96.36.199) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 188.8.131.52).Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2: An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
Studies of the catabolic pathway of degradation of nitrobenzene by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45: removal of the amino group from 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde. (1/2)Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45 utilizes nitrobenzene as the sole source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy. Previous studies have shown that degradation of nitrobenzene involves the reduction of nitrobenzene to nitrosobenzene and hydroxylaminobenzene, followed by rearrangement to 2-aminophenol, which then undergoes meta ring cleavage to 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde. In the present paper, we report the enzymatic reactions responsible for the release of ammonia after ring cleavage. 2-Aminomuconic semialdehyde was oxidized to 2-aminomuconate in the presence of NAD by enzymes in crude extracts. 2-Aminomuconate was subsequently deaminated stoichiometrically to 4-oxalocrotonic acid. No cofactors are required for the deamination. Two enzymes, 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and a novel 2-aminomuconate deaminase, distinguished by partial purification of the crude extracts, catalyzed the two reactions. 4-Oxalocrotonic acid was further degraded to pyruvate and acetaldehyde. The key enzyme, 2-aminomuconate deaminase, catalyzed the hydrolytic deamination that released ammonia, which served as the nitrogen source for growth of the organism. (+info)
Purification, characterization, and sequence analysis of 2-aminomuconic 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45. (2/2)2-Aminonumconic 6-semialdehyde is an unstable intermediate in the biodegradation of nitrobenzene and 2-aminophenol by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JS45. Previous work has shown that enzymes in cell extracts convert 2-aminophenol to 2-aminomuconate in the presence of NAD+. In the present work, 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme migrates as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 57 kDa. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was estimated to be 160 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimal pH for the enzyme activity was 7.3. The enzyme is able to oxidize several aldehyde analogs, including 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, hexaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. The gene encoding 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase was identified by matching the deduced N-terminal amino acid sequence of the gene with the first 21 amino acids of the purified protein. Multiple sequence alignment of various semialdehyde dehydrogenase protein sequences indicates that 2-aminomuconic 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase has a high degree of identity with 2-hydroxymuconic 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenases. (+info)
Other names in common use include 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... an aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-aminomuconate 6- ... alpha-aminomuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxymuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and 2- ... 2-aminomuconate + NADH + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 ...
List of MeSH codes (D08)
... aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.374 --- aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811. ... succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.875 --- succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) MeSH ... l-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.812 --- malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.562 --- glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657. ...
List of EC numbers (EC 1)
L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase EC 220.127.116.11: aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase EC 18.104.22.168: (R)- ... glutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase EC 22.214.171.124: glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase EC 126.96.36.199: lactaldehyde dehydrogenase EC 1.2. ... succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acylating) EC 188.8.131.52: 3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.2. ... glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase EC 184.108.40.206: hexadecanal dehydrogenase (acylating) EC 220.127.116.11: formate dehydrogenase ( ...
List of EC numbers (EC 3)
2-hydroxymuconate-semialdehyde hydrolase EC 18.104.22.168: cyclohexane-1,3-dione hydrolase EC 22.214.171.124: cyclohexane-1,2-dione ... pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring))-phosphatase EC 126.96.36.199: (acetyl-CoA carboxylase)-phosphatase EC 188.8.131.52: 3- ... 2-aminomuconate deaminase EC 184.108.40.206: glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase EC 220.127.116.11: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring))-phosphatase EC 18.104.22.168: (myosin-light-chain) ...
Finished genome sequence and methylome of the cyanide-degrading Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain CECT5344 as resolved by...
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 tolerates cyanide and is also able to utilize cyanide and cyano-derivatives as a nitrogen source under alkaline conditions. The strain is considered as candidate for bioremediation of habitats contaminated with cyanide-containing liquid wastes. Information on the genome sequence of the strain CECT5344 became available previously. The P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 genome was now resequenced by applying the single molecule, real-time (SMRT()) sequencing technique developed by Pacific Biosciences. The complete and finished genome sequence of the strain consists of a 4,696,984 bp chromosome featuring a GC-content of 62.34%. Comparative analyses between the new and previous versions of the P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 genome sequence revealed additional regions in the new sequence that were missed in the older version. These additional regions mostly represent mobile genetic elements. Moreover, five additional genes predicted to play a role in sulfoxide ...
Learn more about Allergies, Respiratory at Grand Strand Medical Center Related Terms Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic Pharyngitis Allergic Rhinitis Allergic Sinusitis Hay...
According to a recently published report, the Nitrobenzene Market is expected to grow at the CAGR of % during 2015-2022. The segmentation of GLOBAL NITROBENZENE MARKET is based on application, type, metal derivatives and geography. The report on GLOBAL NITROBENZENE MARKET Forecast2015-2022 (byapplication, type, metal derivative and geography) provides.... ...
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岩木 宏明 - 化学生命工学部 生命・生物工学
... towards 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde was 195 U/mg of protein.Further processing of 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde ... cyclohexanol dehydrogenase; ChnD, 6-hydroxyhexanoate dehydrogenase;and ChnE,6-oxohexanoate dehydrogenase).Besides the will ... carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde,while the NbaD enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of the latter compound to 2-aminomuconate-6- ... 5-hydroxyvalerate dehydrogenase, and 5-oxovalerate dehydrogenase,respectively.Inactivation of cpnBby using a lacZ-Kmrcassette ...http://gakujo.kansai-u.ac.jp/profile/ja/f7c4d4dRdc88edf6Q06qH93_15.html
Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase - Wikipedia
Other names in common use include 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... an aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-aminomuconate 6- ... alpha-aminomuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxymuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and 2- ... 2-aminomuconate + NADH + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminomuconate-semialdehyde_dehydrogenase
RCSB PDB - 4I1W: 2.00 Angstroms X-ray crystal structure of NAD- bound 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from...
2.00 Angstroms X-ray crystal structure of NAD- bound 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens ... An enzyme of this pathway, 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, is responsible for disarming the final aldehydic ... Crystallographic and spectroscopic snapshots reveal a dehydrogenase in action.. Huo, L., Davis, I., Liu, F., Andi, B., Esaki, S ... bound 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens ...https://www.rcsb.org/structure/4I1W
σ54-Dependent Response to Nitrogen Limitation and Virulence in Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain H111 | Applied and Environmental...
2-Aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. nbaE. 21.2. ND. I35_6214. BCAM2323. Putative FMN oxidoreductase. 68.0. ND. ... FAD/FMN-containing dehydrogenases. NA. ND. *. ↵a Nomenclature is given according to the data in GenBank (accession no. HG938370 ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. NA. ND. Transcription and signal transduction. I35_0200. BCAL0209. Histone acetyltransferase HPA2. ...https://aem.asm.org/content/81/12/4077/figures-only
KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry)
126.96.36.199 L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase 188.8.131.52 aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase 184.108.40.206 (R)- ... 220.127.116.11 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) 101298221 aldehyde dehydrogenase family 2 member B4 101311183 aldehyde dehydrogenase ... 101298824 aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1 K00128 ALDH; aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) [EC:18.104.22.168] K00128 ALDH; ... 101311533 aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member H1-like 101313059 aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member H1-like 101310892 ...http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?fve01000+101313059
EC 22.214.171.124 to 50
... aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Reaction: 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O = 2-aminomuconate + NADH + 2 H+ ... 2-aminomuconate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; 2-hydroxymuconic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase; 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde ... succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+); succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+); succinyl semialdehyde dehydrogenase ( ... EC 126.96.36.199 L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. EC 188.8.131.52 aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. EC 184.108.40.206 (R)- ...http://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC1/0201a.html
L-DOPA - Wikipedia
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase. *Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. PHENYLALANINE→tyrosine→. *(see ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L-dopa
Kynureninase - Wikipedia
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase. *Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. PHENYLALANINE→tyrosine→. *(see ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kynureninase
Aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 220.127.116.11 L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase 18.104.22.168 Aminomuconate-semialdehyde ... Malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase 22.214.171.124 Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)(+)) 126.96.36.199 Glyoxylate dehydrogenase ... Glutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase 188.8.131.52 Glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase 184.108.40.206 Lactaldehyde dehydrogenase 220.127.116.11 2- ... Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) 18.104.22.168 3,4-dehydroadipyl-CoA semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 22.214.171.124 ...https://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/1.2.-.-
Amino acid synthesis - wikidoc
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase. *Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. PHENYLALANINE→tyrosine→. *(see ...https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Amino_acid_synthesis
Aspartate transaminase - wikidoc
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase. *Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. PHENYLALANINE→tyrosine→. *(see ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3). *(regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase ...https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/SGOT
Amino acid synthesis : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase · Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... Branched chain aminotransferase · Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex · Isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase · ... Branched chain aminotransferase · Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex · Enoyl-CoA hydratase · 3- ... Glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reductive amination of α-ketoglutarate to glutamate. A transamination reaction takes ...http://www.thefullwiki.org/Amino_acid_synthesis
Serine dehydratase - wikidoc
Read eBooks online | World Heritage Encyclopedia | Glutaminase
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase * Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase PHENYLALANINE→tyrosine→ * (see below ... Gene, Metabolism, Branched chain aminotransferase, Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, Tyrosine ... as does glutamate dehydrogenase. Glutaminase is also expressed in the epithelial cells of the renal tubules, where the ...http://worldheritage.org/articles/eng/Glutaminase
Branched chain aminotransferase
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase. * Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. PHENYLALANINE→tyrosine→. * (see ... and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), two other enzymes in the glutamate and GABA metabolic pathway. ... oxidative carboxylation by branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase) stimulates insulin secretion. Loss of BCATm correlates with a ...https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Branched_chain_aminotransferase.html
List of MeSH codes (D08) - Wikipedia
... aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.374 --- aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811. ... succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.875 --- succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) MeSH ... l-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.812 --- malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating) ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.562 --- glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657. ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D08)
Toxicity and Microbial Degradation of Nitrobenzene, Monochloronitrobenzenes, Polynitrobenzenes, and Pentachloronitrobenzene
6-dioxygenase and the 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde oxidized to 2-aminomuconic acid by a dehydrogenase. The aminomuconic acid is ... deaminated to 4-oxaloisocrotonate by 2-aminomuconate deaminase. 4-Oxaloisocrotonate is then decarboxylated to 2-oxopent-4- ... 2-amino-5-chloromuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (CnbD), 2-hydroxy-5-chloromuconic acid tautomerase, and 2-amino-5- ... 2-aminophenol is cleaved to 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde by 2-aminophenol-1, ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/265140/
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase · Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... cortisol/cortisone: 17α-hydroxylase · 11β dehydrogenase (HSD11B1, HSD11B2). both: 3β dehydrogenase · 21α-hydroxylase · 11β- ... Branched chain aminotransferase · Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex · Isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase · ... 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase · 3β dehydrogenase · 17β dehydrogenase · 5α reductase (1,2) ...https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/12355/5197195
KEGG PATHWAY: Metabolic pathways - Ruminiclostridium cellulolyticum
M00013 Malonate semialdehyde pathway, propanoyl-CoA => acetyl-CoA. *. M00741 Propanoyl-CoA metabolism, propanoyl-CoA => ... M00526 Lysine biosynthesis, DAP dehydrogenase pathway, aspartate => lysine. *. M00527 Lysine biosynthesis, DAP aminotransferase ... M00038 Tryptophan metabolism, tryptophan => kynurenine => 2-aminomuconate. *. Other amino acid metabolism *. M00027 GABA (gamma ... M00810 Nicotine degradation, pyridine pathway, nicotine => 2,6-dihydroxypyridine/succinate semialdehyde. *. M00811 Nicotine ...https://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?cce01100+Ccel_3188
KEGG PATHWAY: Metabolic pathways + T30329
M00013 Malonate semialdehyde pathway, propanoyl-CoA => acetyl-CoA. *. M00741 Propanoyl-CoA metabolism, propanoyl-CoA => ... M00526 Lysine biosynthesis, DAP dehydrogenase pathway, aspartate => lysine. *. M00527 Lysine biosynthesis, DAP aminotransferase ... M00038 Tryptophan metabolism, tryptophan => kynurenine => 2-aminomuconate. *. Other amino acid metabolism *. M00027 GABA (gamma ... M00810 Nicotine degradation, pyridine pathway, nicotine => 2,6-dihydroxypyridine/succinate semialdehyde. *. M00811 Nicotine ...https://www.kegg.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?T30329_01100+M00016
KEGG PATHWAY: Metabolic pathways + T30245
M00013 Malonate semialdehyde pathway, propanoyl-CoA => acetyl-CoA. *. M00741 Propanoyl-CoA metabolism, propanoyl-CoA => ... M00526 Lysine biosynthesis, DAP dehydrogenase pathway, aspartate => lysine. *. M00527 Lysine biosynthesis, DAP aminotransferase ... M00038 Tryptophan metabolism, tryptophan => kynurenine => 2-aminomuconate. *. Other amino acid metabolism *. M00027 GABA (gamma ... M00810 Nicotine degradation, pyridine pathway, nicotine => 2,6-dihydroxypyridine/succinate semialdehyde. *. M00811 Nicotine ...https://www.kegg.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?T30245_01100+14995
Reaction: 2-aminophenol + O2 = 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde. Other name(s): amnA (gene name); amnB (gene name); 2-aminophenol ... The other enzymes involved in the abscisic-acid biosynthesis pathway are EC 126.96.36.1998 (xanthoxin dehydrogenase), EC 188.8.131.52 ( ... Reaction: L-dopa + O2 = 5-(L-alanin-3-yl)-2-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate 6-semialdehyde. Glossary: L-dopa = 3,4-dihydroxy-L- ... Reaction: L-dopa + O2 = 4-(L-alanin-3-yl)-2-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate 6-semialdehyde. Systematic name: 3,4-dihydroxy-L- ...https://www.qmul.ac.uk/sbcs/iubmb/enzyme/EC1/1311.html
2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde hydrolase 184.108.40.206 Cyclohexane-1,3-dione hydrolase 220.127.116.11 Cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)]-phosphatase 18.104.22.168 [Acetyl-CoA carboxylase]-phosphatase 22.214.171.124 3-deoxy-manno- ... 2-aminomuconate deaminase 126.96.36.199 Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 188.8.131.52 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase 3.5. ... 2-aminomuconate deaminase (2-hydroxymuconate-forming) 184.108.40.206 Inorganic diphosphatase 220.127.116.11 Trimetaphosphatase 18.104.22.168 ...https://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/3.-.-.-
Reaction: 2-aminophenol + O2 = 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde. Other name(s): amnA (gene name); amnB (gene name); 2-aminophenol ... The other enzymes involved in the abscisic-acid biosynthesis pathway are EC 22.214.171.1248 (xanthoxin dehydrogenase), EC 126.96.36.199 ( ... Reaction: L-dopa + O2 = 5-(L-alanin-3-yl)-2-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate 6-semialdehyde. Glossary: L-dopa = 3,4-dihydroxy-L- ... Reaction: L-dopa + O2 = 4-(L-alanin-3-yl)-2-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate 6-semialdehyde. Systematic name: 3,4-dihydroxy-L- ...http://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC1/1311.html
Compositions and Methods for Modeling Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism - Patent application
AM6SA 2-Aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde AMA L-2-Aminoadipate AMASA L-2-Aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde AMG Methyl-D-glucoside AMP AMP ... Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase YJR139C 188.8.131.52 hom6 Homoserine dehydrogenase I ASPSA + NADH -, NAD + HSER hom6_1 YJR139C ... YGL154C 184.108.40.206 lys5 L-Aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, small subunit YNR050C 220.127.116.11 lys9 Saccharopine dehydrogenase ... YBR115C 18.104.22.168 lys2 L-Aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, AMA + NADH + ATP -, AMASA + NAD + AMP + lys2_2 large subunit ...http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100280803