Porphyria, Acute Intermittent
Thylakoid Membrane Proteins
RNA, Transfer, Glu
Diffusion Chambers, Culture
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Improvement of systemic 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy in vivo using light fractionation with a 75-minute interval. (1/636)We have studied different single and fractionated illumination schemes after systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to Improve the response of nodular tumors to ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy. Tumors transplanted on the thigh of female WAG/Rij rats were transdermally illuminated with red light (633 nm) after systemic ALA administration (200 mg/kg). The effectiveness of each treatment scheme was determined from the tumor volume doubling time. A single illumination (100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2, 2.5 h after ALA administration) yielded a doubling time of 6.6+/-1.2 days. This was significantly different from the untreated control (doubling time, 1.7+/-0.1 days). The only treatment scheme that yielded a significant improvement compared to all other schemes studied was illumination at both 1 and 2.5 h after ALA administration (both 100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2) and resulted in a tumor volume doubling time of 18.9+/-2.9 days. A possible mechanism to explain this phenomenon is that the protoporphyrin IX formed after administration of ALA is photodegraded by the first illumination. In the 75-min interval, new porphyrin is formed enhancing the effect of the second illumination. (+info)
Timing of illumination is essential for effective and safe photodynamic therapy: a study in the normal rat oesophagus. (2/636)5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an experimental treatment modality for (pre)malignant oesophageal lesions. This study aimed to optimize the time of illumination after ALA administration. Six groups of eight rats received 200 mg kg(-1) ALA orally, eight rats served as controls. Illumination was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 or 12 h after ALA administration with a 1-cm cylindrical diffuser placed in a balloon catheter (laser parameters: 633 nm, 25 J radiant energy, power output 100 mW). During illumination, fluorescence measurements and light dosimetry were performed. Animals were sacrificed at 48 h (n = 4) or 28 days (n = 4) after PDT. At day 28, an oesophagogram was performed. Largest PpIX fluorescence was found at 3 h after ALA administration. In vivo fluence rate was three times higher than the calculated incident fluence rate. At 48 h after PDT, major epithelial damage was found in all animals illuminated at 2 h, whereas less epithelial damage was found at 3-6 h and none at 1 and 12 h. In animals illuminated at 4, 6 and 12 h, but not at 2 h, oesophagograms showed severe dilatations and histology showed loss of Schwann cells. These results demonstrate that the choice of time interval between ALA administration and illumination is critical for achieving epithelial damage without oesophageal functional impairment. A short interval of 2-3 h seems to be most appropriate. (+info)
Clinical spectral characterisation of colonic mucosal lesions using autofluorescence and delta aminolevulinic acid sensitisation. (3/636)BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) from colonic mucosa was measured in vivo with and without delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in an attempt to differentiate between neoplasia and non-neoplasia in real time during colonoscopy. METHODS: Spectra from 32 adenomas, 68 normal sites, and 14 hyperplastic polyps in 41 patients were obtained with a point monitoring system. Twenty one of the patients had been given a low dose of ALA as a photosensitiser before the examination. Light of 337, 405, or 436 nm wavelength was used as excitation. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: With 337 nm excitation, 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity was obtained between normal mucosa and adenomas. Seventy seven per cent of the hyperplastic polyps were classified as non-neoplastic. When exciting with 405 and 436 nm, the possibility of distinguishing different types of tissue was considerably better in the ALA patients than in the non-ALA patients. CONCLUSIONS: The in vivo point measurements imply that a good discrimination between normal tissue and adenomatous polyps can be obtained using the LIF technique. Excitation at 337 nm and at 405 nm or 436 nm using ALA gives good results. LIF also shows potential for distinguishing adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps. The number of detection wavelengths could be reduced if chosen properly. (+info)
Ultrastructural changes in PAM cells after photodynamic treatment with delta-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins or photosan. (4/636)Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the combination of a photosensitizing drug (Ps) with light in the presence of oxygen leading to the generation of reactive molecular species and destruction of cancer cells. In this study we compared PDT with two Ps, the hematoporphyrin derivative Photosan (Ph) and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced endogenous protoporphyrin IX, with respect to mitochondrial function and ultrastructural alterations. The effects of PDT were investigated in PAM 212 cells after different Ps incubation times, light doses, and post-treatment periods. Both Ps induced a light dose-dependent impairment of the mitochondrial function with the dose-response curve being steep for ALA and flat for Ph. The prolongation of the incubation time from 4 to 20 h resulted in an increased reduction of mitochondrial activity after ALA PDT but not after Ph PDT. Treatment with an irradiation dose that decreased mitochondrial activity by 50% (IC50) led to early and profound changes of mitochondrial morphology in ALA photosensitized cells, whereas photosensitization with Ph resulted in more pronounced alterations of lysosomes. We conclude that at bioequivalent sublethal PDT exposures of PAM 212 cells, ALA-induced damage is primarily restricted to mitochondria, whereas Ph-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by damage of the lysosomal system. (+info)
Role of heme in intracellular trafficking of thyroperoxidase and involvement of H2O2 generated at the apical surface of thyroid cells in autocatalytic covalent heme binding. (5/636)Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a glycosylated hemoprotein that plays a key role in thyroid hormone synthesis. We previously showed that in CHO cells expressing human TPO (hTPO) only 2% of synthesized hTPO reaches the cell surface. Herein, we investigated the role of heme moiety insertion in the exit of hTPO from the endoplasmic reticulum. Peroxidase activity at the cell surface and cell surface expression of hTPO were decreased by approximately 30 and approximately 80%, respectively, with succinyl acetone, an inhibitor of heme biosynthesis, and were increased by 20% with holotransferrin and aminolevulinic acid, precursors of heme biosynthesis. Results were similar with holotransferrin plus aminolevulinic acid or hemin, but hemin increased cell surface activity more efficiently (+120%) relative to the control. It had been suggested (DePillis, G., Ozaki, S., Kuo, J. M., Maltby, D. A., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8857-8960) that covalent attachment of heme to mammalian peroxidases could be an H2O2-dependent autocatalytic processing. In our study, heme associated intracellularly with hTPO, and we hypothesized that there was insufficient exposure to H2O2 in Chinese hamster ovary cells before hTPO reached the cell surface. After a 10-min incubation, 10 microM H2O2 led to a 65% increase in cell surface activity. In contrast, in thyroid cells, H2O2 was synthesized at the apical cell surface and allowed covalent attachment of heme. Two-day incubation of primocultures of thyroid cells with catalase led to a 30% decrease in TPO activity at the cell surface. In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence for an essential role of 1) heme incorporation in the intracellular trafficking of hTPO and of 2) H2O2 generated at the apical pole of thyroid cells in the autocatalytic covalent heme binding to the TPO molecule. (+info)
Hypoxia significantly reduces aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX synthesis in EMT6 cells. (6/636)We have studied the effects of hypoxia on aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis in EMT6 monolayer cultures characterized by different cell densities and proliferation rates. Specifically, after ALA incubation under hypoxic or normoxic conditions, we detected spectrofluorometrically the PpIX content of the following populations: (a) low-density exponentially growing cells; (b) high-density fed-plateau cells; and (c) high-density unfed-plateau cells. These populations were selected either for the purpose of comparison with other in vitro studies (low-density exponentially growing cells) or as representatives of tumour regions adjacent to (high-density fed-plateau cells) and further away from (high-density unfed-plateau cells) capillaries. The amount of PpIX per cell produced by each one of these populations was higher after normoxic ALA incubation. The magnitude of the effect of hypoxia on PpIX synthesis was dependent on cell density and proliferation rate. A 42-fold decrease in PpIX fluorescence was observed for the high-density unfed-plateau cells. PpIX production by the low-density exponential cells was affected the least by ALA incubation under hypoxic conditions (1.4-fold decrease), whereas the effect on the high-density fed-plateau population was intermediate (20-fold decrease). (+info)
Optimum porphyrin accumulation in epithelial skin tumours and psoriatic lesions after topical application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid. (7/636)Photodynamic therapy with topically applied delta-aminolaevulinic acid is used to treat skin tumours by employing endogenously formed porphyrins as photosensitizers. This study examines the time course of porphyrin metabolite formation after topical application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid. Porphyrin biosynthesis in human skin tumours (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma), in psoriatic lesions, and in normal skin was investigated. Skin areas were treated with delta-aminolaevulinic acid, and levels of total porphyrins, porphyrin metabolites and proteins were measured in samples excised after 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h. There was an increase in porphyrin biosynthesis in all tissues with maximum porphyrin levels in tumours between 2 and 6 h and in psoriatic lesions 6 h after treatment. The pattern of porphyrins showed no significant difference between normal and neoplastic skin, protoporphyrin being the predominant metabolite. The results suggest that optimum irradiation time for superficial epithelial skin tumours may be as soon as 2 h after application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid, whereas for treatment of psoriatic lesions an application time of 6 h is more suitable. (+info)
The iron regulatory protein can determine the effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid in inducing protoporphyrin IX in human primary skin fibroblasts. (8/636)The level of endogenous photosensitiser, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), can be enhanced in the cells by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). We investigated the effect of critical parameters such as growth state of the cells and availability of intracellular iron in modulating the level of PPIX, in human primary cultured skin fibroblasts (FEK4) maintained either in exponentially growing or growth-arrested phase, following treatment with ALA. The addition of ALA to exponentially growing cells increased the level of PPIX 6-fold relative to control cells; however, in growth-arrested cells the same treatment increased the level of PPIX up to 34-fold. The simultaneous addition of the hydrophilic iron-chelator Desferal with ALA, boosted the level of PPIX up to 47-fold in growing cells and up to 42-fold in growth-arrested cells, suggesting that iron is limiting under the latter conditions. The strict dependence of PPIX enhancement on free available iron levels was examined by the level of activation of iron regulatory protein in band shift assays. This analysis revealed that the basal level of iron regulatory protein in growth-arrested cells was 6-fold higher than in growing cells, reflecting the influence of the free available iron pool in exponentially growing cells. Interestingly, the same ratio was found between the basal level concentration of PPIX in growing and growth-arrested cells. We propose that iron regulatory protein activation could serve as a marker for developing photodynamic therapy protocols because it identifies cells and tissues with a propensity to accumulate PPIX and it is therefore likely to predict the effectiveness of such therapies. (+info)
Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring amino acid that is involved in the biosynthesis of heme, a pigment found in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other proteins. In the medical field, ALA is used as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of various types of cancer, including skin cancer, lung cancer, and head and neck cancer. In PDT, a patient is given a topical application of a solution containing ALA, which is absorbed by the cancer cells. The ALA is then converted into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly fluorescent molecule that accumulates in the cancer cells. The patient is then exposed to a specific wavelength of light, which activates the PpIX and causes the destruction of the cancer cells. ALA is also used in the treatment of porphyria, a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of heme. In porphyria, the accumulation of PpIX can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. By inhibiting the production of PpIX, ALA can help to alleviate these symptoms and prevent the development of more severe complications.
Protoporphyrins are a group of pigments that are synthesized in the body as part of the heme biosynthesis pathway. Heme is a vital component of hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen in red blood cells. Protoporphyrins are also found in other proteins, such as cytochromes, which are involved in cellular respiration. In the medical field, protoporphyrins are often measured in blood tests as a marker of iron metabolism. Elevated levels of protoporphyrins can indicate a deficiency in iron or other nutrients involved in heme synthesis, such as vitamin B12 or folate. On the other hand, low levels of protoporphyrins can be a sign of excessive iron stores or other medical conditions, such as liver disease or kidney failure. Protoporphyrins are also used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of certain types of cancer, such as bladder cancer and lung cancer. In these cases, elevated levels of protoporphyrins in the urine or blood can indicate the presence of cancer cells. Additionally, protoporphyrins have been studied as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, anemia, and neurological disorders.
Porphobilinogen synthase (also known as PBGS) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of heme, a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other heme-containing proteins. PBGS catalyzes the condensation of four molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to form porphobilinogen (PBG), a precursor of heme. In the medical field, PBGS deficiency is a rare genetic disorder known as porphyria, which is characterized by the accumulation of toxic intermediates in the heme biosynthesis pathway. There are several types of porphyria, including acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), and variegate porphyria (VP), which are caused by mutations in the PBGS gene. These mutations can result in reduced PBGS activity, leading to an accumulation of ALA and its toxic intermediates, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, neurologic symptoms, and skin damage. In addition to its role in porphyria, PBGS is also a target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of other diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.
Levulinic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound that is produced during the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is a colorless, water-soluble liquid with a slightly acidic taste and a pungent odor. In the medical field, levulinic acid is used as a chemical intermediate in the production of various pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. It is also used as a solvent and a corrosion inhibitor. In addition, levulinic acid has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain types of cancer and other diseases.
5-Aminolevulinate synthetase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of heme, a pigment found in red blood cells and other cells throughout the body. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glycine and succinyl-CoA to 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is the first and rate-limiting step in the heme biosynthetic pathway. In the medical field, 5-aminolevulinate synthetase is of particular interest because it is involved in the production of porphyrins, a group of pigments that are the building blocks of heme. Porphyrin metabolism disorders, such as porphyria, can result from mutations in the gene encoding 5-aminolevulinate synthetase or other enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, neurological problems, and skin sensitivity to light. In addition to its role in heme biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinate synthetase has also been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy. ALA is a precursor to porphyrins, which can be converted to photodynamic therapy agents that can selectively kill cancer cells when exposed to light. This approach, known as photodynamic therapy, is being investigated as a treatment for various types of cancer, including skin cancer, lung cancer, and head and neck cancer.
In the medical field, "heptanoates" refers to a group of compounds that contain a heptanoic acid functional group. Heptanoic acid is a seven-carbon carboxylic acid, and its derivatives are known as heptanoates. Heptanoates are commonly used in the production of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and personal care products. They can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. In some cases, heptanoates may be used as a source of energy for the body. For example, heptanoic acid is a component of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), which are a type of dietary fat that can be easily metabolized by the body for energy. It is worth noting that the use of heptanoates in medicine and other fields is typically limited to specific applications and may require careful consideration of potential risks and side effects.
Glutethimide is a medication that was previously used to treat insomnia and other sleep disorders. It works by increasing the amount of a chemical in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the nervous system and promote sleep. However, glutethimide has been associated with serious side effects, including liver damage, mental health problems, and addiction. As a result, it is no longer widely used in the medical field and is only available in some countries as a prescription medication. If you are considering taking glutethimide or any other medication, it is important to talk to your doctor first to discuss the potential risks and benefits.
Porphyrins are a group of organic compounds that are essential for the production of hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Porphyrins are also involved in the metabolism of other substances, such as bile pigments and vitamin B12. In the medical field, porphyrins are often used as diagnostic tools for certain diseases. For example, elevated levels of porphyrins in the blood or urine can be a sign of liver disease, kidney disease, or anemia. Porphyrins can also accumulate in the skin and other tissues in conditions such as porphyria, a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of porphyrins. In addition, porphyrins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. Some porphyrins have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, while others have been used to treat certain types of infections and to deliver drugs to specific cells in the body.
Porphobilinogen (PBG) is a chemical compound that is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of heme, a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other heme proteins. PBG is synthesized from glycine and succinyl-CoA in a series of enzymatic reactions that take place in the liver and other tissues. In the medical field, PBG is often measured in the blood as part of a diagnostic test for porphyria, a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of heme. Elevated levels of PBG in the blood can be an indicator of porphyria, which can cause a range of symptoms including abdominal pain, skin sensitivity to sunlight, and neurological problems.
Porphyria, Acute Intermittent (AI) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to produce heme, a protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells. This disorder is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase, which is necessary for the production of heme. The symptoms of Porphyria, Acute Intermittent can vary widely and may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation, muscle weakness, numbness or tingling in the extremities, and sensitivity to light (photophobia). In severe cases, the disorder can lead to seizures, confusion, and even coma. Porphyria, Acute Intermittent is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that an affected individual has a 50% chance of passing the disorder on to each of their children. There is currently no cure for Porphyria, Acute Intermittent, but treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include medications to relieve pain and nausea, as well as measures to prevent exposure to triggers such as alcohol, certain medications, and stress.
Melanoma, amelanotic is a type of melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that lacks the pigment (melanin) that gives most melanomas their characteristic black or brown color. This type of melanoma is usually pink, red, white, or light brown in color, which can make it more difficult to detect. Amelanotic melanoma is less common than other types of melanoma, but it is more aggressive and tends to spread more quickly to other parts of the body. It is important to have any unusual or changing moles checked by a dermatologist to detect melanoma early, when it is most treatable.
Tetrapyrroles are a class of organic compounds that contain four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges. They are important in the field of medicine because they are the building blocks of several important biological molecules, including heme, chlorophyll, and vitamin B12. Heme is a tetrapyrrole that is a key component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Chlorophyll is a tetrapyrrole that is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. Vitamin B12 is a tetrapyrrole that is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and the production of red blood cells. Tetrapyrroles can also be used as drugs to treat a variety of conditions. For example, heme is used to treat a type of anemia called hemolytic anemia, in which the body destroys red blood cells too quickly. Chlorophyll derivatives have been used to treat certain types of cancer, and vitamin B12 is used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency, which can cause anemia, nerve damage, and other problems.
Heme is a complex organic molecule that contains iron and is a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other proteins involved in oxygen transport and storage in living organisms. It is also a component of various enzymes involved in metabolism and detoxification processes. In the medical field, heme is often used as a diagnostic tool to detect and monitor certain medical conditions, such as anemia (a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin), liver disease (which can affect heme synthesis), and certain types of cancer (which can produce abnormal heme molecules). Heme is also used in the production of certain medications, such as heme-based oxygen carriers for use in patients with sickle cell disease or other conditions that affect oxygen transport. Additionally, heme is a component of some dietary supplements and is sometimes used to treat certain types of anemia.
Aldehyde oxidoreductases (ALDHs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of aldehydes, which are toxic compounds that can be produced during normal cellular metabolism or as a result of environmental exposure. ALDHs are found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, lungs, and kidneys, and they help to detoxify aldehydes by converting them into less toxic compounds. There are several different types of ALDHs, each with its own specific substrate and activity. Some ALDHs are involved in the metabolism of ethanol, while others are involved in the metabolism of other aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and acrolein. ALDHs are also involved in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxins, and they have been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In the medical field, ALDHs are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, drugs that inhibit ALDH activity have been shown to be effective in the treatment of certain types of cancer, and ALDHs are also being studied as potential biomarkers for the early detection of certain diseases. Additionally, ALDHs are being investigated as potential targets for the development of new therapies for the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions.
Uroporphyrins are a group of porphyrin compounds that are formed during the heme biosynthesis pathway. They are precursors to heme, which is a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other heme proteins that play important roles in oxygen transport and storage in the body. Uroporphyrins are synthesized in the liver and kidneys and are excreted in the urine. Abnormal levels of uroporphyrins in the urine can be an indication of certain medical conditions, such as porphyria, a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of porphyrins. In addition to their role in heme biosynthesis, uroporphyrins have also been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some uroporphyrins have been shown to have anti-cancer properties and are being investigated as potential treatments for various types of cancer.
Thylakoid membrane proteins are a group of proteins that are found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. These proteins play a crucial role in the process of photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. There are several different types of thylakoid membrane proteins, including light-harvesting proteins, reaction center proteins, and ATP synthase. Light-harvesting proteins are responsible for capturing light energy and transferring it to the reaction center proteins, where it is used to power the process of photosynthesis. ATP synthase is responsible for generating ATP, which is the energy currency of the cell. Thylakoid membrane proteins are essential for the proper functioning of photosynthesis, and mutations in these proteins can lead to a variety of problems, including reduced photosynthetic efficiency and impaired growth and development.
RNA, Transfer, Glu refers to a specific type of transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule that carries the amino acid glutamic acid (Glu) during protein synthesis in cells. Transfer RNAs are small RNA molecules that recognize specific sequences of messenger RNA (mRNA) and bring the corresponding amino acid to the ribosome, where it is incorporated into a growing polypeptide chain. RNA, Transfer, Glu is one of the 20 different types of tRNA molecules that are involved in protein synthesis in cells. Each tRNA molecule is specific to a particular amino acid and has a unique sequence of nucleotides that allows it to recognize and bind to the corresponding sequence of mRNA. The process of protein synthesis involves the coordinated action of many different types of RNA molecules, including mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), as well as various enzymes and other proteins.
Ferrochelatase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of iron in the human body. It is responsible for inserting iron into the heme molecule, which is a component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other proteins that transport oxygen in the body. Ferrochelatase is encoded by the HFE gene, which is located on chromosome 6. Mutations in the HFE gene can lead to a condition called hereditary hemochromatosis, which is characterized by an excessive accumulation of iron in the body. This can lead to a range of health problems, including liver damage, heart disease, and diabetes. In addition to its role in iron metabolism, ferrochelatase has also been implicated in the regulation of iron homeostasis and the response to oxidative stress. It is a potential target for the development of new treatments for iron overload disorders and other conditions related to iron metabolism.
Uroporphyrinogens are a group of molecules that are precursors to heme, a vital component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other proteins involved in oxygen transport in the body. They are synthesized in the liver from the amino acid glycine and a series of other precursors, including porphobilinogen. There are four different uroporphyrinogens, each of which is numbered according to the position of the first pyrrole ring in the porphyrin ring structure. Uroporphyrinogen I, II, III, and IV are synthesized in a stepwise manner, with each subsequent step involving the addition of a pyrrole ring to the growing porphyrin ring structure. Uroporphyrinogens are important for the production of heme, which is necessary for the proper functioning of red blood cells and other cells that require oxygen transport. Deficiencies in the enzymes involved in the synthesis of uroporphyrinogens can lead to a variety of disorders, including porphyria, a group of rare genetic disorders characterized by the accumulation of toxic porphyrin intermediates in the body.
Erythema is a redness or discoloration of the skin that is caused by an increase in blood flow to the affected area. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, allergies, exposure to sunlight or other environmental irritants, and certain medications. Erythema can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a skin infection or an allergic reaction, and it is important to seek medical attention if it is accompanied by other symptoms or if it does not resolve on its own.
Deferoxamine is a medication used to treat iron overload, a condition in which there is too much iron in the body. It works by binding to iron in the blood and removing it from the body through the kidneys. Deferoxamine is typically administered as an intravenous infusion and is used to treat conditions such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and hemochromatosis. It may also be used to prevent iron overload in people who receive frequent blood transfusions. Deferoxamine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure.
Allylisopropylacetamide (also known as acetamide allyl isopropyl ether or 2-(allyloxy)acetamide) is a chemical compound that has been used in the medical field as an anticonvulsant and anesthetic. It is a white, crystalline solid that is soluble in water and organic solvents. In the past, allylisopropylacetamide was used to treat seizures and other neurological disorders, but its use has been largely discontinued due to concerns about its toxicity and potential for adverse side effects. It is not currently approved for use in humans by any regulatory agency. In the laboratory, allylisopropylacetamide is used as a solvent and as a starting material for the synthesis of other compounds. It has also been studied for its potential as a fungicide and as a corrosion inhibitor.
Metalloporphyrins are a class of compounds that consist of a porphyrin ring with a metal ion (such as iron, cobalt, or manganese) at its center. They are often used in the medical field as a diagnostic tool for certain diseases, such as anemia, and as a treatment for others, such as certain types of cancer. Metalloporphyrins are also being studied for their potential use in the development of new drugs and therapies.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth and metabolism. In the medical field, chlorophyll has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that chlorophyll may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage from free radicals and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Chlorophyll has also been studied for its potential to support liver health, improve digestion, and boost energy levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of chlorophyll, and it is not currently used as a medical treatment. It is typically consumed as a dietary supplement or found in foods that are rich in chlorophyll, such as leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and parsley.
Bacteriochlorophylls are pigments found in certain bacteria that are similar in structure to chlorophyll, the pigment found in plants and algae that is responsible for photosynthesis. Bacteriochlorophylls are used by bacteria to convert light energy into chemical energy, which they use to fuel their metabolic processes. They are typically found in bacteria that live in environments that are low in light, such as deep sea vents or the soil. Bacteriochlorophylls are important for the study of bacterial metabolism and have potential applications in the development of new technologies for energy production and biotechnology.
Intramolecular transferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group within a single molecule, without the involvement of a coenzyme or a second substrate. These enzymes are involved in various metabolic pathways and play important roles in the synthesis and breakdown of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides. Examples of intramolecular transferases include: * Transketolase: This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a ketone group from one sugar molecule to another, as part of the pentose phosphate pathway. * Transaldolase: This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an aldehyde group from one sugar molecule to another, as part of the same pathway. * Phosphoglycerate mutase: This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group within a molecule of 3-phosphoglycerate, as part of the glycolytic pathway. * Glycogen phosphorylase: This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a molecule of glycogen, as part of the breakdown of glycogen. Intramolecular transferases are important in the regulation of metabolic pathways and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are also involved in the synthesis of important biomolecules such as nucleotides and amino acids.
Succinic acid is a naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid that is found in many plants and animals. It is also produced industrially as a precursor to other chemicals, such as polyester and nylon. In the medical field, succinic acid is used as a metabolic intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells to produce energy. It is also used as a medication to treat certain types of metabolic disorders, such as lactic acidosis, which is a condition characterized by an excess of lactic acid in the blood. Succinic acid is also used as a food additive, as a flavoring agent, and as a preservative. It is generally considered safe for consumption in small amounts, but larger amounts can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Ethylenediamines are a class of organic compounds that contain two amine groups (-NH2) bonded to a central carbon atom through an ethylene (-CH2-CH2-) bridge. They are commonly used as starting materials for the synthesis of various chemicals and polymers, including polyurethanes, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, ethylenediamines are used as intermediates in the synthesis of various drugs and as corrosion inhibitors in medical equipment. They have also been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. One specific ethylenediamine, called diethylenetriamine (DETA), has been used as an antifungal agent in the treatment of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, its use is limited due to its potential toxicity and side effects. Overall, ethylenediamines are an important class of compounds with a wide range of applications in the medical field, but their use must be carefully monitored to minimize potential risks and side effects.
In the medical field, esters are chemical compounds that are formed by the reaction of an alcohol and an acid. They are commonly used in medicine as drugs, solvents, and intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. One example of an ester used in medicine is acetylsalicylic acid, also known as aspirin. Aspirin is an ester of salicylic acid and acetic acid, and it is used as a pain reliever, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant. Esters can also be used as carriers for drugs, allowing them to be more easily absorbed into the body. For example, ethyl acetate is often used as a solvent for drugs that are not soluble in water, and it can also be used as a carrier for drugs that are not well absorbed through the digestive system. Overall, esters play an important role in the medical field, and their properties and uses continue to be studied and explored by researchers.
In the medical field, "lead" can refer to several different things, including: 1. Lead poisoning: A condition caused by exposure to high levels of lead, which can damage the brain, kidneys, and other organs. Lead poisoning can occur through ingestion of lead-contaminated food or water, inhalation of lead dust or fumes, or absorption through the skin. 2. Lead shield: A protective covering made of lead or lead alloy used to shield patients and medical personnel from ionizing radiation during medical imaging procedures such as X-rays or CT scans. 3. Lead apron: A protective garment worn by medical personnel during procedures involving ionizing radiation to shield the body from exposure to harmful levels of radiation. 4. Lead acetate: A medication used to treat lead poisoning by binding to lead ions in the body and preventing them from being absorbed into the bloodstream. 5. Lead poisoning test: A medical test used to diagnose lead poisoning by measuring the level of lead in the blood or urine.
Phenanthrolines are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used as chelating agents in the medical field. They are particularly useful in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, as they can bind to the metal ions and help to remove them from the body. Phenanthrolines are also used as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, and have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. One of the most well-known phenanthrolines is procaine, which is a local anesthetic used in dentistry and other medical procedures. Other phenanthrolines that are used in medicine include hydralazine, which is used to treat high blood pressure, and amantadine, which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and influenza. Overall, phenanthrolines are a versatile class of compounds with a wide range of potential medical applications.
Glycine is an amino acid that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can synthesize it from other compounds, but it is still important for various physiological processes. In the medical field, glycine is used as a dietary supplement to support muscle growth and recovery, as well as to improve sleep quality. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, as it can help to reduce the buildup of toxins in the liver. Glycine is also used in the production of various medications, including antibiotics and tranquilizers. It has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system and may be used to treat anxiety and other mental health conditions. Overall, glycine is an important nutrient that plays a vital role in many physiological processes in the body.
Glioblastoma is a type of brain tumor that is classified as a grade IV astrocytoma, which means it is a highly aggressive and rapidly growing cancer. It is the most common and deadly type of primary brain tumor in adults, accounting for about 15% of all brain tumors. Glioblastoma typically arises from the supportive cells of the brain called astrocytes, but it can also develop from other types of brain cells. The tumor is characterized by its ability to infiltrate and spread into the surrounding brain tissue, making it difficult to remove completely through surgery. Symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor in the brain, but common symptoms include headaches, seizures, nausea, vomiting, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. Treatment for glioblastoma typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Despite these treatments, glioblastoma is generally considered to be incurable, with a median survival rate of about 15 months from diagnosis.
Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells in the brain. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumors can occur in any part of the brain and can be primary (originating from brain cells) or secondary (spreading from other parts of the body to the brain). Symptoms of brain neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, difficulty with balance or coordination, and changes in personality or behavior. Diagnosis of brain neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for brain neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Glioma is a type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells, which are the supportive cells of the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for about 80% of all brain tumors. They can occur in any part of the brain, but are most commonly found in the frontal and temporal lobes. Gliomas are classified based on their degree of malignancy, with grades I to IV indicating increasing levels of aggressiveness. Grade I gliomas are slow-growing and have a better prognosis, while grade IV gliomas are highly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Symptoms of gliomas can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or speech, difficulty with coordination or balance, and personality changes. Treatment options for gliomas may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.
Astrocytoma is a type of brain tumor that arises from astrocytes, which are star-shaped cells that support and nourish neurons in the brain. Astrocytomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for about 30% of all brain tumors. They can occur at any age, but are most common in adults between the ages of 40 and 60. Astrocytomas are classified into four grades based on their degree of malignancy and ability to invade surrounding tissues. Grade I astrocytomas are slow-growing and low-grade, while grade IV astrocytomas are highly aggressive and fast-growing. Treatment options for astrocytomas depend on the grade of the tumor, the location of the tumor in the brain, and the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.
Dacarbazine (DTIC-DMA) is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including melanoma (a type of skin cancer), Hodgkin's lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It works by interfering with the growth and division of cancer cells, which can slow down or stop the growth of tumors. Dacarbazine is usually given intravenously (into a vein) or as an injection under the skin. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and low blood cell counts.
Aminolevulinic acid synthase
Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase
Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria
Risk factors of schizophrenia
Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Peptide transporter 1
Iron response element
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
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- The Efficacy and Safety of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy for Lichen Sclerosus: A Meta Analysis. (qxmd.com)
- To assess the efficacy and safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) for treatment of LS. (qxmd.com)
- Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a skin cancer therapy that still has limitations due to the low penetration of this drug into the skin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. (bvsalud.org)
- PDT approach More recently, a photodynamic therapy (PDT) approach using topical 5-aminolevulinic acid 20 percent (5-ALA, Levulan Kerastick, Dusa) applied for a 30 minute to 60 minute contact period followed by irradiation with a pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light source, or blue or red light source has been investigated for treating acne. (dermatologytimes.com)
- The topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) followed by light irradiation is a new concept of PDT [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to aminolevulinic acid, porphyrins, or any other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
- Consistent with this hypothesis is our finding that on the conversion of porphobilinogen to porphyrins, either by heating under acid conditions or by enzymatic conversion in cell-free extracts, formaldehyde i, formed. (nationalacademies.org)
- When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions. (medlineplus.gov)
- 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and its metabolite protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) show anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects for Zika, Dengue, influenza A viruses, and SARS-CoV-2. (asploro.com)
- Increases in erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic-acid-dehydratase and zinc-protoporphyrin following lead (7439921) exposure were mentioned as examples of biomarkers of exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing agents. (medlineplus.gov)
- Two mole cules of aminolevulinic acid are condensed through the action porphobilinogen synthase to form porphobilinogen. (others-signal.com)
- For example, if you have aminolevulinic acid applied in the late afternoon, you will need to have the blue light treatment the next morning. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor will examine you 8 weeks after aminolevulinic acid and PDT treatment to decide whether you need retreatment of the same skin area. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you become pregnant during treatment with aminolevulinic acid, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you cannot return to the doctor for blue light treatment 14 to 18 hours after levulinic acid application, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
- Aminolevulinic acid comes in a special applicator to be made into a solution and applied to the affected skin area by a doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
- you should know that aminolevulinic acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). (medlineplus.gov)
- Use of other skin products while using azelaic acid gel might trigger extra inflammation. (lowescouponn.com)
- It may be worth noting that azaserine has no inhibitory effect on the conversion of b-aminolevulinic acid to heme. (nationalacademies.org)
- A portion of amino acids 480-530 of human ALAS-1 was used as the immunogen. (lsbio.com)
- This is not a checklist of all drugs or health issue that interact with aminolevulinic acid gel. (lowescouponn.com)
- You must return to the doctor 14 to 18 hours after aminolevulinic acid application to be treated by blue light PDT. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your doctor will probably tell you not to use aminolevulinic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
- if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using aminolevulinic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
- Call your doctor right now if your bronchial asthma becomes worse while you use azelaic acid gel. (lowescouponn.com)
- Within the anaerobic branch, 7 archaeal enzymes are acknowledged to be concerned from the conversion of precorrin 2 into cobyrinic acid, but two pathway gaps nonetheless continue to be. (others-signal.com)
- A set of eleven genes is acknowledged for being involved in conversion of cobyrinic acid into adenosylco balamin. (others-signal.com)
- magadii was incapable of de novo cobalamin biosyn thesis considering that it lacked the genes encoding enzymes for conversion of precorrin 2 into cobyrinic acid. (others-signal.com)
- magadii also contained a set of genes that have been predicted to get involved in the conversion of cobyrinic acid into adenosylcobalamin, like a gene that's certain for the archaeal corrinoid salvage pathway. (others-signal.com)
- Aminolevulinic acid-induced photodynamic therapy has been used successfully to treat various skin lesions of the nipple. (nih.gov)
- Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Safety of a 10% Aminolevulinic Acid Hydrochloride Nanoemulsion Gel (BF-200 ALA) in Photodynamic Therapy of Patients Extensively Affected With Actinic Keratosis: Results of 2 Maximal Usage Pharmacokinetic Trials. (nih.gov)
- Aminolevulinic acid (Levulan) in photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses. (nih.gov)
- Comparison of efficiency of photodynamic diagnostics with topical use of the 3% and 15% aminolevulinic acid in the detection of vulvar lesions. (nih.gov)
- Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor to the potent photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an established modality for several malignant and premalignant diseases. (nih.gov)
- Although various photodynamic therapy photosensitizers have been studied in dermatology, this article focuses on the uses of topically applied aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methylaminolevulinate (MAL). (medscape.com)
- Oral 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic diagnosis using fluorescence cystoscopy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: A multicenter phase III study. (bvsalud.org)
- To confirm the reproducibility of the effectiveness and safety in photodynamic diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer using 5- aminolevulinic acid in a prospective multicenter non-randomized phase III trial. (bvsalud.org)
- These findings confirm the diagnostic efficacy and safety of photodynamic diagnosis with 20 mg/kg of oral 5- aminolevulinic acid , and show that transurethral resection of bladder tumors with a fluorescent light source using oral 5- aminolevulinic acid is well tolerated. (bvsalud.org)
- Temperature monitoring during photodynamic therapy of skin tumors with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid application. (jamanetwork.com)
- Improved response of plaque psoriasis after multiple treatments with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. (jamanetwork.com)
- Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid or placebo for recalcitrant foot and hand warts: randomised double-blind trial. (jamanetwork.com)
- Primary clinical response and long-term follow-up of solar keratoses treated with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid and irradiation by different wave bands of light. (jamanetwork.com)
- Prenatal lead exposure, delta-aminolevulinic acid, and schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
- Attacks of neuropathic pain, usually abdominal, are characteristic of the acute porphyrias and accompanied by overproduction of heme-precursor molecules, specifically delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. (nih.gov)
- Although each of these conditions has characteristic urine biochemistry, all exhibit excess delta-aminolevulinic acid. (nih.gov)
- Delta-aminolevulinic acid in a water-in-oil emulsion was applied to the lesions and irradiation was performed. (who.int)
- PDT employs a photosensitizing medication called the Levulan® Kerastick® (aminolevulinic acid) and application of a light source, typically blue light . (medage.com)
- Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants. (usgs.gov)
- 2. Impact of the combination of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-guided surgery for glioma. (nih.gov)
- 3. Counterbalancing risks and gains from extended resections in malignant glioma surgery: a supplemental analysis from the randomized 5-aminolevulinic acid glioma resection study. (nih.gov)
- 4. Endoscopic-assisted visualization of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in malignant glioma surgery: a technical note. (nih.gov)
- 6. 5-Aminolevulinic acid fluorescence guided resection of malignant glioma: Hong Kong experience. (nih.gov)
- 10. Observational, retrospective study of the effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid in malignant glioma surgery in Spain (The VISIONA study). (nih.gov)
- 11. Coregistered fluorescence-enhanced tumor resection of malignant glioma: relationships between δ-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging enhancement, and neuropathological parameters. (nih.gov)
- 18. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: Pitfalls of Fluorescence-guided Resection for Malignant Gliomas and Application for Malignant Glioma Therapy. (nih.gov)
- 5- Aminolevulinic acid (20 mg/kg) was orally administered 3 h before transurethral resection of bladder tumors using white light or fluorescent light . (bvsalud.org)
- Cysview should not be used in patients with porphyria, gross hematuria, or with known hypersensitivity to hexaminolevulinate or any derivative of aminolevulinic acid. (cysview.com)
- When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions. (medlineplus.gov)
- Aminolevulinic acid comes in a special applicator to be made into a solution and applied to the affected skin area by a doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
- 1. Fluorescence-guided resection of primary and recurrent malignant gliomas with 5-aminolevulinic acid. (nih.gov)
- 5. Feasibility of fluorescence-guided resection of recurrent gliomas using five-aminolevulinic acid: retrospective analysis of surgical and neurological outcome in 58 patients. (nih.gov)
- 9. Combining 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Fluorescence and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Glioblastoma Surgery: A Histology-Based Evaluation. (nih.gov)
- 17. Enhanced resection of primary high-grade gliomas using a combination of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative fluorescence (5-aminolevulinic acid): A single-centre experience. (nih.gov)
- 19. A prospective Phase II clinical trial of 5-aminolevulinic acid to assess the correlation of intraoperative fluorescence intensity and degree of histologic cellularity during resection of high-grade gliomas. (nih.gov)
- 12. Role of neurochemical navigation with 5-aminolevulinic acid during intraoperative MRI-guided resection of intracranial malignant gliomas. (nih.gov)
- We report the results of cloning genes for two key biosynthetic enzymes of different 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) biosynthetic routes from Streptomyces. (unipr.it)
- Hypotension and urticaria were severe adverse events whose relationship to oral 5- aminolevulinic acid could not be excluded. (bvsalud.org)
- Delta-ALA is a protein (amino acid ) produced by the liver. (nih.gov)
- For example, if you have aminolevulinic acid applied in the late afternoon, you will need to have the blue light treatment the next morning. (medlineplus.gov)
- No information is available on the use of oral aminolevulinic acid during breastfeeding. (nih.gov)
- 5- Aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine. (nih.gov)
- if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using aminolevulinic acid. (medlineplus.gov)
- Do not put a dressing or bandage on the area treated with aminolevulinic acid. (medlineplus.gov)