A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

A novel domain of the inhibitory glycine receptor determining antagonist efficacies: further evidence for partial agonism resulting from self-inhibition. (1/351)

Different amino side chains in the N-terminal extracellular region of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) have been shown to be crucial for ligand recognition. Here we describe a novel domain of the GlyRalpha1 subunit that constitutes an important determinant of antagonist activity. The antagonists strychnine, nipecotic acid, and isobutyric acid displayed reduced potencies at recombinant GlyRs formed from alpha1 subunits, in which lysine 104, phenylalanine 108, or threonine 112 were replaced by alanine. Agonist affinities, in contrast, were slightly increased at these mutant receptors. Taurine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, which are partial agonists at the wild-type GlyR, behaved as full agonists at the mutant GlyRs and failed to inhibit glycine-induced currents. This is consistent with apolar residues at positions 104, 108, and 112 of the alpha1 subunit reducing the antagonistic, but not the agonistic, binding of beta-amino acids. Our data support a model in which the partial agonism of beta-amino acids results from their self-inhibitory activity.  (+info)

Novel strategies for the design of receptor-selective vasopressin analogues: Aib-substitution and retro-inverso transformation. (2/351)

1. We determined the pharmacological profile of novel backbone-modified peptides designed as protease-resistant, selective analogues of AVP. Binding affinities of peptides were determined at both V1A and V2 subtypes of vasopressin receptor (VPR). Biological potencies of selected peptides were tested in pressor and antidiuretic bioassays. 2. Substitution of the achiral alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) at position 4 or 7 of AVP produced peptides that selectively bound the V2 VPR. Both [Aib4]AVP (140 IU mg-1) and [Aib7]AVP (36 IU mg-1) are selective antidiuretic agonists with little or no activity in uterotonic and pressor assays. 3. [Aib4] and [Aib7] derivatives of the linear V1A-selective antagonist [PhaaDTyr(Et)2Arg6Tyr(NH2)9]AVP bound selectively and with high affinity (Kd 0.51 and 4.1 nM respectively) to the V1A VPR. Bioassays confirmed that these peptides were potent antivasopressor agents (pA2 8.10 and 8.36 respectively). 4. A total retro-inverso strategy was used to prepare protease-resistant mimetics of both AVP and linear V1A-selective antagonists. Cyclic retro-inverso mimetics of AVP did not bind either V1A or V2 VPRs. In contrast, rationally designed retro-inverso mimetics of linear V1A-selective antagonists selectively bound the V1A VPR. 5. Our findings indicate novel methods to improve the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters of neurohypophysial hormone analogues which could be equally applicable to other peptide-receptor systems.  (+info)

Cloning and functional identification of a neuronal glutamine transporter. (3/351)

Glutamine is the preferred precursor for the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. We have isolated a complementary DNA clone (designated GlnT) encoding a plasma membrane glutamine transporter from glutamatergic neurons in culture, and its properties have been examined using the T7 vaccinia system in fibroblasts. When GlnT is transfected into CV-1 cells, L-glutamine is the preferred substrate. Transport is Na(+)-dependent and inhibited by alpha-methylaminoisobutyric acid, a specific inhibitor of neutral amino acid transport system A. Kinetic analysis of glutamine uptake by GlnT is saturable, with a Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 489 +/- 88 microM at pH 7.4. Glutamine uptake mediated by GlnT is pH-sensitive with a 5-fold greater efficiency of uptake at pH 8.2 than at pH 6.6. Only the maximal velocity of transport increases without a significant change in K(m). The distribution of GlnT mRNA and protein in the central nervous system is widespread and is expressed on neurons that use glutamate as their neurotransmitter. In cultured cerebellar granule cells, GlnT is expressed only on neurons and is absent from astrocytes. GlnT expression increases concomitantly with the morphologic and functional differentiation of these cells in vitro, consistent with its role of supplying glutamatergic neurons with their neurotransmitter precursor. GlnT is the first member of the system A family of neutral amino acid transporters with 11 putative membrane-spanning domains and is a potential target to modulate presynaptic glutamatergic function.  (+info)

Effects of duration of positive-pressure ventilation on blood-brain barrier function in premature lambs. (4/351)

We have been studying the ontogeny of the blood-brain barrier function in ovine fetuses and lambs. During these studies, we have found that the duration of ventilation also influences blood-brain barrier permeability in premature lambs. Chronically instrumented hysterotomy-delivered surfactant-treated premature lambs were studied at 90% or 137 days of gestation (n = 9). Blood-brain barrier function was quantified with the blood-to-brain transfer constant K(i) to alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. Linear regression analysis was used to compare the K(i) values in the brain regions, as the dependent variable, to the duration of ventilation, as the independent variable. There were direct correlations (P < 0.05) between the K(i) values and the duration of ventilation [306 min (mean), 162-474 min (range)] in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, thalamus, pons, cervical spinal cord, and choroid plexus, but not in the pituitary gland. Ventilatory pressures and rates were established before the onset of the permeability studies. Calculated mean airway pressures [14 cmH(2)O (mean), 7-20 cmH(2)O (range)] from similarly studied premature lambs did not correlate with the duration of positive-pressure ventilation. We conclude that increases in the duration of positive-pressure ventilation predispose premature lambs to increases in regional blood-brain barrier permeability. These alterations in barrier function occur over relatively short time intervals (minutes to hours). In our study, these changes in permeability are most likely not attributable to changes in mean airway pressure.  (+info)

Studies on convulsants in the isolated frog spinal cord. I. Antagonism of amino acid responses. (5/351)

1. The isolated frog spinal cord was used to study the effects of picrotoxin, bicuculline, and strychnine on the responses of primary afferents to amino acids. Recording was by sucrose gap technique. 2. A series of neutral amino acids was found to depolarize primary afferents. Optimal activity was obtained by an amino acid whose carboxyl and amino groups were separated by a three-carbon chain length (i.e. GABA). Amino acids with shorter (i.e. beta-alanine, glycine) or longer (i.e. delta-aminovaleric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid) distances between the charged groups were less potent. Imidazoleacetic acid was the most potent depolarizing agent tested. 3. Picrotoxin and bicuculline antagonized the primary afferent depolarizations of a number of amino acids tested with equal specificity. Depolarizing responses to standard (10- minus 3 M) concentrations of beta-alanine and taurine were completely blocked by these convulsants, while depolarizations to 10- minus 3 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were only partially antagonized. Glycine responses were unaffected by these agentsk; Strychnine completely blocked beta-alanine and taurine depolarizations and incompletely antagonized several other neutral amino acids. GABA, glutamate, and glycine depolarizations were not affected. 5. These results suggest that there are at least three distinct populations of neutral amino acid receptors on primary afferent terminals: a GABA-like receptor, a taurine/beta-alanine receptor, and a glycine-like receptor. The strychnine resistance of the glycine responses indictaes that the primary afferent receptors for glycine differ from those on the somata of spinal neurones.  (+info)

Nucleocytoplasmic transport and distribution of an amino acid, in situ. (6/351)

Ultra-low temperature techniques (microdissection and autoradiography) were used to study the nucleocytoplasmic distribution and transport of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) in an amino acid-accumulating cell. In amphibiam oocytes incubated in AIB, the nuclear concentration of this non-metabolizable amino acid exceeds the cytoplasmic concentration by 45%, remaining constant both over time and variation in substrate concentration. The kinetics of uptake suggest that this nucleo-cytoplasmic asymmetry arises from solubility differences between the 2 compartments, and that the nuclear envelope plays a negligible role in amino acid transport. A solute exclusion model is offered to explain the nucleocytoplasmic asymmetry.  (+info)

Transport mechanisms of 3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine in a human glioma cell line: comparison with [3H]methyl]-L-methionine. (7/351)

The amino acid analog 3-[(123)I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) is under clinical evaluation as a SPECT tracer of amino acid transport in brain tumors. This study investigated the carrier systems involved in IMT transport in human glioma cells in comparison with [3H-methyl]-L-methionine (3H-MET). METHODS: Human glioma cells, type 86HG-39, were cultured and incubated for 1 min at 37 degrees C with IMT and 3H-MET in the lag phase (1.2 d after seeding), exponential growth phase (3 d after seeding), and plateau phase (8 d after seeding). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of Na+, during inhibition of system L amino acid transport by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1 ]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), and during inhibition of system A amino acid transport by 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid (MeAIB). RESULTS: IMT and 3H-MET uptake decreased by 55%-73% when the cells entered from the exponential growth phase into the plateau phase (P< 0.05; n = 3-11). Inhibition by BCH reduced uptake of IMT in the lag phase, exponential growth phase, and plateau phase by 90%-98% (P < 0.001; n = 3-6) and the uptake of 3H-MET by 73%-83% (P < 0.001; n = 3-11). In a Na+-free medium 3H-MET uptake was reduced by 23%-33% (P < 0.05; n = 3-11), whereas IMT uptake was not significantly different. MeAIB showed no significant effect on IMT or 3H-MET uptake in either phase. CONCLUSION: Transport of both IMT and 3H-MET depends on the proliferation rate of human glioma cells in vitro and is dominated by BCH-sensitive transport. These data indicate that system L is induced in rapidly proliferating glioma cells and is the main contributor to the uptake of both tracers. 3H-MET transport showed a minor Na+ dependency that was not attributable to system A. The similarity of transport mechanisms of both tracers emphasizes the clinical equivalence of IMT SPECT and (11)C-MET PET for the diagnostic evaluation of gliomas.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor regulates amino acid transport in chick embryo hepatocytes via protein kinase C. (8/351)

System A-mediated amino acid transport, activation of different steps of signal transduction and involvement of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) have been investigated in chick embryo hepatocytes after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. EGF rapidly (10 min) increased the rate of aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake in chick embryo hepatocytes freshly isolated on the 19th day of embryonic life, while no change was detectable at other embryonal stages. The growth factor stimulation was abolished by PKC and tyrosine kinase inhibitors and was mimicked by 4-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, dimethyl-2 (PMA). EGF treatment did not modify the phosphorylation of the isoform of phospholipase C (PLC-), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and intracellular calcium levels, but it induced an increase in PKC activity. Our data show that EGF regulates amino acid uptake, via PKC and without PLC- activation, only in the last period of chick embryo hepatocyte development. The effects of growth factor on PKC activity suggest the involvement of PKC- and - isoforms in EGF modulation of amino acid transport.  (+info)

... may refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds: 2-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) 3-Aminoisobutyric ... acid This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you ...
... (also known as α-aminoisobutyric acid, AIB, α-methylalanine, or 2-methylalanine) is the non- ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid is not one of the proteinogenic amino acids and is rather rare in nature (cf. non-proteinogenic amino ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid is compatible with ribosomal elongation of peptide synthesis. Katoh et al. used flexizymes and an ... Branched-chain amino acids, Amino acids, Non-proteinogenic amino acids). ...
... (also known as β-aminoisobutyric acid or BAIBA) is a product formed by the catabolism of thymine. During ... 7 January 2014). "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with ... Begriche K, Massart J, Fromenty B (June 2010). "Effects of β-aminoisobutyric acid on leptin production and lipid homeostasis: ... Tanianskii DA, Jarzebska N, Birkenfeld AL, O'Sullivan JF, Rodionov RN (February 2019). "Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid as a Novel ...
"a-AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACID". Organic Syntheses. 11: 4. 1931. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.011.0004. Drauz, Karlheinz; Grayson, Ian; Kleemann ... The Strecker amino acid synthesis, also known simply as the Strecker synthesis, is a method for the synthesis of amino acids by ... Otherwise amino acids are produced by enzymatic conversions of synthetic intermediates. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid is ... While usage of ammonium salts gives unsubstituted amino acids, primary and secondary amines also give substituted amino acids. ...
Non-proteinogenic BCAAs include 2-aminoisobutyric acid. The three proteinogenic BCAAs are among the nine essential amino acids ... Branched-chain+amino+acids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Branched-chain amino acid ... A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having an aliphatic side-chain with a branch (a central carbon atom bound ... May 2019). "Branched chain amino acids impact health and lifespan indirectly via amino acid balance and appetite control". ...
Examples include 2-aminoisobutyric acid and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Non-proteinogenic amino acids often ... Microorganisms and plants synthesize many uncommon amino acids. For example, some microbes make 2-aminoisobutyric acid and ... As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react ... The other product of transamidation is a keto acid that enters the citric acid cycle. Glucogenic amino acids can also be ...
CARAVACA J, GRISOLIA S (1958). "Enzymatic decarbamylation of carbamyl beta-alanine and carbamyl beta-aminoisobutyric acid". J. ...
... and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. The results also demonstrate ... phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid). Their half-lives were between 50 and 150 h ... Exposure of aminoacids: amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed to outer space. ... To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and ...
... can be produced by the hydrogenation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid or its esters. Aminomethyl propanol is ...
"Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by peptide analogues modified with alpha-aminoisobutyric acid". Angewandte Chemie. 43 ( ... Among the hydrophobic residues, aromatic amino-acids are found to have the highest amyloidogenic propensity. Cross- ... Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase and semenogelins Functional amyloid in other organisms: Curli fibrils produced by E. ...
Nielsen HR, Sjolin KE, Nyholm K, Baliga BS, Wong R, Borek E (June 1974). "Beta-aminoisobutyric acid, a new probe for the ... broken down into β-aminoisobutyrate which can be further broken down into intermediates eventually leading into the citric acid ...
alanine aminoisobutyric acid dehydroalanine A subset of L-α-amino acids are ambiguous as to which of two ends is the α-carbon. ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α-amino acids ... Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. This imino acid differs ... and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group ...
Thymine, on the other hand, is converted into β-aminoisobutyric acid which is then used to form methylmalonyl-CoA. The leftover ... Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are the ... Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids) Interactive overview of nucleic acid ... Uric acid is then excreted from the body in different forms depending on the animal. Free purine and pyrimidine bases that are ...
It belongs to peptaibol peptides which contain the non-proteinogenic amino acid residue Aib (2-aminoisobutyric acid). This ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid) In cell membranes, it forms voltage-dependent ion channels by aggregation of four to six molecules. ... this is followed by the sequential condensation of amino acids by each modular unit of the synthetase. Amino acids are ... The growing chain is attached to the amino acid bearing PCP by the "condensation" (C) domain, followed by another round of the ...
Hence, the β-aminoisobutyric acid could act as a messenger molecule of PGC-1α and explain the effects of PGC-1α increase in ... PGC-1α has been recently proposed to be responsible for β-aminoisobutyric acid secretion by exercising muscles. The effect of β ... aminoisobutyric acid in white fat includes the activation of thermogenic genes that prompt the browning of white adipose tissue ... "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic ...
... some of which are non-proteinogenic amino acids. In particular, they contain α-aminoisobutyric acid along with other unusual ... They are named pebtaibols due to them being peptides containing α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and ending in an alcohol. They are ... and the C-terminal amino acid is hydroxylated to an acid alcohol. ... Peptaibols are biologically active peptides containing between seven and twenty amino acid residues, ...
... and S-3-aminoisobutyric, R- and S-3-hydroxyisobutyric and S-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyric acids probably due to a defect in the ... aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA), which is then deaminated to (R)-methylmalonic semialdehyde. These two enantiomers of MMSA are ... and both isomers of 3-amino and 3-hydroxyisobutyric acids in urine organic acids. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... The mature protein that this gene translates in humans is 503 amino acids long, which is similar to other enzymes of this ...
These include equal amounts of D- and L-alanine, and the non-protein amino acids α-aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline as well ... Bar-nun, A. (1975). "Shock Synthesis of Amino Acids II". Origins of Life. 6 (1-2): 109-115. Bibcode:1975OrLi....6..109B. doi: ... Shock synthesis is the process of complex organic chemical creation through high velocity impact on simple amino acids, ... Hyper-velocity impact shock of a typical comet ice mixture produced several amino acids after hydrolysis. ...
... where alanine and lysine are replaced by 2-aminoisobutyric acid and arginine, respectively. Amino-acid substitution at position ... The only differences are two amino-acid substitutions at positions 8 and 34, ...
Along with Isabella Karle, a frequent collaborator, he has also pioneered the use of alpha-amino isobutyric acid to induce and ...
... α-dialkylated non-proteinogenic amino acids [α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), isovaleric acid (Iva), hydroxyproline (Hyp)]. In ... α-aminoisobutyric acid is a turn/helix forming agent). α,α-dialkylated amino acid residues in peptaibols create substantial ... abundant α-aminoisobutyric acid content, and a 1,2-amino alcohol located at the C-terminus) which have membrane-modifying ... "Conformational Manifold of α-Aminoisobutyric Acid (Aib) Containing Alanine-Based Tripeptides in Aqueous Solution Explored by ...
... like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called trilongins (up to 10% w/w). Their toxicity is due to absorption into cells and ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum, produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common proteins, ...
... as well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanine, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid. They belong to ribosomally synthesized and ... Lantibiotics are a class of polycyclic peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic thioether amino acids lanthionine or ...
3-Aminoisobutyric acid 4-aminobutyrate transaminase (GABA-transaminase) deficiency GABA analogue GABA receptor GABA tea Giant ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... γ-Aminobutyric acid (gamma-aminobutyric acid) /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ...
MK-2866 LGD-2226 LGD-3303 LGD-4033 RAD140 S-40503 S-23 YK-11 3-Aminoisobutyric acid Acadesine, AICAR AWRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL- ... Lysergamides are amide derivatives of the alkaloid lysergic acid. 1B-LSD, 1-Butanoyl-LSD 1cP-AL-LAD, 1-Cyclopropionyl-6-Allyl-6 ... γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (4-Methyl-GHB) GVL, γ-Valerolactone Afloqualone Etaqualone, 2-Ethylnormethaqualone, "ECQ" Mebroqualone, 2 ... amide Anserine beta-Hydroxybutyric acid GHRH analogues stimulate the release of growth hormone. CJC-1293 CJC-1295 Sermorelin ...
... α-Aminobutyric acid β-Aminobutyric acid γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) 2-Aminoisobutyric acid 3-Aminoisobutyric acid Nitroisobutane ...
... a printed circuit board that acts an accessory for another device 2-Aminoisobutyric acid AAIB (disambiguation) Amplified in ...
... pipecolic acid, AIB = alpha-amino-isobutyric acid, leu = leucine, iva = isovaline, gly = glycine. This is a potent inhibitor of ... This contained a variety of very unusual amino acid residues. The sequence was shown to be: N-acetyl-L-pip-AIB-L-pip-AIB-AIB-L- ... compared to static FAB The first example of the practical application of this FAB was the elucidation of the amino acid ...
... aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D12.125.190.350 - gamma-aminobutyric acid MeSH D12.125.190.350.900 - vigabatrin MeSH D12.125.213.075 ... 2-aminoadipic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170 - aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 - ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 - isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.400 ... aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D12.125.070.577 - isoleucine MeSH D12.125.070.637 - leucine MeSH D12.125.070.950 - valine MeSH ...
... urocanic acid MeSH D02.241.081.160.050 - aminobutyric acids MeSH D02.241.081.160.050.055 - aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D02.241. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 - egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 - iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ...
... like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called trilongins (up to 10% w/w). Their toxicity is due to absorption into human cells and ... The common house mold, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common ...
... amino acid residues containing quaternary carbons such as 2-aminoisobutyric acid are used to promote formation of certain types ... The comparative rates of lactone formation (lactonization) of various 2-hydroxybenzenepropionic acids illustrate the effect. ...
... and β-ABA but low in α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline. This implies that they had formed by a different synthetic ... hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles ... The CM meteorite Murchison has over 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and other compounds including carboxylic acids, ... 2001) found that amino acids in Ivuna and Orgueil were present at much lower concentrations than in CM chondrites (~30%), and ...
We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 56-12-2 4-Aminobutyric acid. ... Synonyms: 4-AMINOBUTANOIC ACID;4-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID;4-AMINO-N-BUTYRIC ACID;ALPHA-AMINOBUTANOIC ACID;AMINOBUTYRIC ACID, 4-; ... It is a gamma-amino acid and a monocarboxylic acid. It derives from a butyric acid. It is a conjugate acid of a gamma- ... ChEBI: Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a gamma-amino acid that is butanoic acid with the amino substituent located at C-4. It has a ...
... usually done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino acids in the blood. Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins ... Plasma amino acids is a screening test, usually done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino acids in the blood. Amino ... Amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In: Rifai N, Chiu RWK, Young I, Burnham C-A D, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of ... Beta-amino-isobutyric acid:. *Children: not detected. *Adults: not detected. Carnosine:. *Children: not detected ...
Aminoisobutyric Acids Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
2-aminoisobutyric acid Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
MeSH Terms: Acetylcholine/metabolism*; Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism; Aminoisobutyric Acids/metabolism; Biological Transport ... scopolamine and lidocaine reduced Na-gradient active transport of kappa-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB). No effect on Na-independent ...
Excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in health, in systemic lupus erythematosus and leukemia].. Mazurik VK; Kondrateva AP; ... Urinary elimination of beta aminoisobutyric acid in malignant hemopathies].. Roulaud F; Boisseau M; Moreau F; Labatut M. C R ... Urinary amino acid excretion in subjects with leukaemia.. Lee MB; Neill DW; Bridges JM. J Clin Pathol; 1967 Jan; 20(1):70-4. ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids; 2003; 22(5-8):987-9. PubMed ID: 14565327. [TBL] ...
83; was AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACID 1963-82. Online Note. use AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACIDS to search AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACID 1966-82. History ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Amino Acids [D12.125] * Amino Acids, Branched-Chain [D12.125.070] * Aminoisobutyric ... Amino Acids [D12.125] * Aminobutyrates [D12.125.190] * Aminoisobutyric Acids [D12.125.190.055] * gamma-Aminobutyric Acid [ ... A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.. Terms. Aminoisobutyric Acids ...
D2.455.426.559.389.127.85.67 Aminoisobutyric Acids D2.241.81.160.50.55 D2.241.81.114.968.249 Aminolevulinic Acid D2.241.607.547 ... D10.251.400.143 Butyric Acid D2.241.81.160.140 D2.241.81.114.750 D10.251.400.241.140 D10.251.400.143.500 Caffeic Acids D2.241. ... B5.80.750.450 Keto Acids D2.241.607 D2.241.755 Ketoglutaric Acids D2.241.607.465 D2.241.755.465 L-Selectin D23.50.301.264. ... D2.705.675 Phosphoric Acid Esters D2.705.673 D2.705.400 (Replaced for 2012 by Organophosphates) Phosphorous Acids D2.705.676 ...
Aminoisobutyric Acids - Preferred Concept UI. M0000950. Scope note. A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid ... A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.. ... 83; was AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACID 1963-82. Online Note:. use AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACIDS to search AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACID 1966-82. ...
83; was AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACID 1963-82. Online Note. use AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACIDS to search AMINOISOBUTYRIC ACID 1966-82. History ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Amino Acids [D12.125] * Amino Acids, Branched-Chain [D12.125.070] * Aminoisobutyric ... Amino Acids [D12.125] * Aminobutyrates [D12.125.190] * Aminoisobutyric Acids [D12.125.190.055] * gamma-Aminobutyric Acid [ ... A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.. Terms. Aminoisobutyric Acids ...
Amino AcidChymotrypsinDietary ProteinsSerineFungal ProteinsAmino Acids, CyclicGlutamic AcidAminoisobutyric AcidsAmino Acyl-tRNA ... Amino acids ... glucogenic amino acid B. ketogenic amino acid C. ketogenic and glucogenic amino acid D. keto-gluco amino acid. ... Aliphatic amino acids5. *a) aliphatic amino acids b) all amino acids c) Non-polar amino acids d) aromatic amino acids Online ... Amino AcidsSequence Homology, Amino AcidAmino Acid SequenceAmino Acid SubstitutionCloning, MolecularAmino Acids, EssentialAmino ...
Dive into the research topics of Effect of Insulin on Amino Acid Uptake and Protein Turnover in Skeletal Muscle From Septic ... Effect of Insulin on Amino Acid Uptake and Protein Turnover in Skeletal Muscle From Septic Rats: Evidence for Insulin ...
... plasma/serum is a HIGH Complexity in General Chemistry using Beckman System 6300 Series Amino Acid Analyzer ... Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (K925093 , K925093) HIGH. Effective Date: 1994-11-10. Carnosine (K925093 , K925093) HIGH. Effective ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid (K925093 , K925093) HIGH. Effective Date: 1994-11-10. Glutamic acid (K925093 , K925093) HIGH. Effective ... Aspartic acid (K925093 , K925093) HIGH. Effective Date: 1994-11-10. Beta-alanine (K925093 , K925093) HIGH. Effective Date: 1994 ...
... organic acids, metabolic health test at Low cost from MyDiagnostics ... Fatty Acids Fatty acids are essential and it is important to ensure that it is not too low or too high in supply to your body. ... Amino Acids Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" of the human body and play a key role in the growth and maintenance of ... The analysis of amino acid levels reveals the cause behind fatigue, increased cardiovascular risk, mood swings and cognitive ...
R5- Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid 0 - 200. 0 - 215. 0 - 230. 0 - 175. ...
Buy the Citric Acid test kit is suitable for the rapid and reliable measurement and analysis of citric acid citrate in foods, ... Furthermore, the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoisobutyric acid reduced the Fe chelate reductase ... K-ISOC - D-Isocitric Acid Assay Kit K-LMAL-116A - L-Malic Acid Assay Kit (Manual Format) K-ACETRM - Acetic Acid Assay Kit ( ... The Citric Acid test kit is a flexible and simple method for the rapid and reliable measurement and analysis of citric acid ( ...
... ß-aminoisobutyric acid, and D-ß-aminobutyric acid. The proposed method uses a commercially available chiral derivatizing ... We observed that patients with MDD exhibited lower levels of amino acids, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and ... RESULTS: Amino acid residues in citrullinated peptide (cfc-1), which are essential for binding to CCP-Ab1 N-rev and original ... This enhancing activity required the sialic acid of the N-glycan and Fc region of CCP-Ab1. CCP-Ab1, but not CCP-Ab1 N-rev, ...
The problem in this gene causes excretion of Beta-aminoisobutyric acid in urine. Clinical features are benign and have no ...
Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by peptide analogues modified with α‐aminoisobutyric acid. S Gilead, E Gazit ... Rigid tightly packed amino acid crystals as functional supramolecular materials. W Ji, B Xue, ZA Arnon, H Yuan, S Bera, Q Li, D ...
BAJIB (b-amino-isobutyric acid) is an intermediate product of thymine metabolism that has appeared in human urine in a variety ... Acta, 279, 475 (1972). 3e H. R. Nielsen, K. Nyholm, and K.-E. Sjoiln, "Relationship Between Urinary B-Aminoisobutyric Acid and ... "amino Acid Pools," J. T. Holden, Ed., Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1962. Se H. K. Berry, "Individual Metabolic Patterns ...
Aminohippuric Acids N0000008276 Aminohydrolases N0000167061 Aminoimidazole Carboxamide N0000170279 Aminoisobutyric Acids ... Neutral N0000006806 Amino Acids N0000011372 Amino Acids, Acidic N0000011248 Amino Acids, Aromatic N0000011332 Amino Acids, ... Acyclic N0000008269 Acids, Aldehydic N0000007628 Acids, Carbocyclic N0000007629 Acids, Heterocyclic N0000007630 Acids, ... Amino Acid Isomerases N0000167825 Amino Acid Oxidoreductases N0000169801 Amino Acid Transport System A N0000169803 Amino Acid ...
Schaider, H; Haberkorn, U; Berger, MR; Oberdorfer, F; Morr, I; van Kaick, G Application of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, L- ... Lax, S; Schauer, G; Prein, K; Kapitan, M; Silbert, D; Berghold, A; Berger, A; Trauner, M Expression of the nuclear bile acid ... MW Dietary omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent the development of metastases of colon carcinoma in rat liver. Eur J ...
IncrediBurn™, a non-proteinogenic amino acid formed by the catabolism of valine, is known as β-aminoisobutyric acid or L-BAIBA ... Foregen Nutra innovated β-aminoisobutyric acid or L-BAIBA production process and is the sole manufacturer of this ingredient. ( ... Moreover, Foregen IncrediBurn™β-aminoisobutyric acid or L-BAIBA could synergy with Foregen THEROMOFUEL™ (grains of paradise ... That will Brown the white adipose tissue and greatly increase fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. ...
TL;DR BAIBA (or β-aminoisobutyric acid) is an "amino acid" generated during exercise. It is involved in several healthy ... 024: Shawn Wells #3 , BAIBA (β-Aminoisobutyric Acid) - Weight Loss Ingredient Mimics Exercise?! ... When supplemented, it is pro-ketogenic and increases fatty acid oxidation in the liver while protecting against fat gain an… ... Optimizing Omega-3 Fatty Acids with Nutrashures SmartPrime-Om We sat down with Brandon Sojka, founder and CEO of Nutrashure ( ...
β-Aminoisobutyric Acid Induces Browning of White Fat and Hepatic β-oxidation and is Inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic ... 2-Aminoadipic acid is a biomarker for diabetes risk. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2013 Oct 1;123(10):4309-17. PMID: ... Branched chain and aromatic amino acids change acutely following two medical therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism ...
Amino Acids, Cross-Over Studies, Aminoisobutyric Acids, Biogenic Amines, Rats, Inbred Dahl ... Treatment with β-aminoisobutyric acid significantly attenuated high-salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. ,b, ... associations of 24 h excretions of β-aminoisobutyric acid, cystine, citrulline, homocysteine and lysine with systolic blood ... analysis was performed in 24 h urine samples for 47 amino metabolites and 10 metabolites related to the tricarboxylic acid ...
9. Alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid Incorporation Induces Cell Permeability and Antiviral Activity of HIV-1 Major Homology Region ... 7. Design and Synthesis of 5-Chloro-2-hydroxy-3-triazolylbenzoic acids as HIV Integrase Inhibitors. Chen, J., C.F. Liu, C.W. ... Ionic Derivatives of Betulinic acid Exhibit Antiviral Activity against Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2), but not HIV-1 ...
Colitti M, Boschi F, Montanari T. Dynamic of lipid droplets and gene expression in response to β-aminoisobutyric acid treatment ... and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) [92]. MOTS-s can also be considered a myokine involved in exercise-induced thermogenesis. ... Indeed, MOTS-c treatment stimulates fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes through ... 1). Exercise offers metabolic advantages such as increased oxygen consumption, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation, ...
  • Fatty acids are essential and it is important to ensure that it is not too low or too high in supply to your body. (mydiagnostics.in)
  • AMP-90 (2-Amino-2 Methyl-1-Propanol) is a very efficient dispersant for pigments, and neutralizer for anionic emulsification systems (fatty acids, etc. (atamankimya.com)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amino acids, peptides, and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins. (lookformedical.com)
  • Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Probe Set ID Ref Seq Protein ID Signal Strength Name Gene Symbol Species Function Swiss-Prot ID Amino Acid Sequence 1367452_at NP_598278 7.9 small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 precursor Sumo2 Rattus norvegicus " Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (nih.gov)
  • They discovered that the manufacturing of a-amino acids, equivalent to alanine, glycine, a-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid, and ss-amino acids, equivalent to ss-alanine and ss-aminoisobutyric acid, rose within the irradiated options as the whole gamma-ray dose elevated. (space-news.co)
  • Foregen Nutra innovated β-aminoisobutyric acid or L-BAIBA production process and is the sole manufacturer of this ingredient. (mithilasamachar.in)
  • Currently , based on the technical breakthrough, Foregen is willing to make a concession to customers in price and bring a wider use range of our β-aminoisobutyric L-BAIBA. (mithilasamachar.in)
  • IncrediBurn™, a non-proteinogenic amino acid formed by the catabolism of valine, is known as β-aminoisobutyric acid or L-BAIBA. (mithilasamachar.in)
  • Moreover, Foregen IncrediBurn™β-aminoisobutyric acid or L-BAIBA could synergy with Foregen THEROMOFUEL™ (grains of paradise extract), which is a pure natural thermogenic generator and weight loss support supplement that works with your body to scientifically increase metabolism and calorie burning effect. (mithilasamachar.in)
  • Although chemically it is an amino acid, GABA is rarely referred to as such in the scientific or medical communities, because the term "amino acid," used without a qualifier, conventionally refers to the alpha amino acids, which GABA is not, nor is it ever incorporated into a protein. (lookchem.com)
  • 1. Effect of sepsis and starvation on amino acid uptake in skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Inhibited amino acid uptake in skeletal muscle during starvation. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Effect of sepsis on amino acid transport system A and its response to insulin in incubated rat skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Effect of insulin on glucose and amino acid uptake by skeletal muscle following burn injury. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Effect of exercise and obesity on skeletal muscle amino acid uptake. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Reduced amino acid transport in skeletal muscle caused by a circulating factor during endotoxemia. (nih.gov)
  • Screening infants for increased levels of amino acids can help detect problems with metabolism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Defects in metabolism of amino acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We observed that patients with MDD exhibited lower levels of amino acids, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and metabolites involved in tryptophan metabolism and the kynurenine pathway, and higher levels of cortisol at baseline. (bvsalud.org)
  • BAJIB (b-amino-isobutyric acid) is an intermediate product of thymine metabolism that has appeared in human urine in a variety of perplexing circumstances Ule. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Effect of platelet-activating factor on basal and insulin-mediated system A amino acid transport in rat soleus muscle. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transport in rat soleus muscle and its modification by membrane stabilizers and insulin. (nih.gov)
  • Exercise provides metabolic advantages by increasing oxygen consumption, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation [ 5 ]. (e-dmj.org)
  • A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The Citric Acid test kit is a flexible and simple method for the rapid and reliable measurement and analysis of citric acid (citrate) in foods, beverages and other materials. (megazyme.com)
  • Targeted chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis was performed in 24 h urine samples for 47 amino metabolites and 10 metabolites related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain. (lookformedical.com)
  • Branched chain and aromatic amino acids change acutely following two medical therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (baderc.org)
  • 8. Uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and cycloleucine on skeletal muscles in burned rats. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" of the human body and play a key role in the growth and maintenance of bones and muscles. (mydiagnostics.in)
  • Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories. (lookformedical.com)
  • 4. Inhibited muscle amino acid uptake in sepsis. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Reduced muscle amino acid uptake in sepsis and the effects in vitro of septic plasma and interleukin-1. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Plasma concentrations and tissue uptake of free amino acids in dogs in sepsis and starvation: effects of glucose infusion--some effects of low alimentation. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with β-aminoisobutyric acid significantly attenuated high-salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. (nih.gov)
  • There are several types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The analysis of amino acid levels reveals the cause behind fatigue, increased cardiovascular risk, mood swings and cognitive functions. (mydiagnostics.in)
  • 19. Dietary regulation of liver and muscle transport of amino acid. (nih.gov)
  • The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. (lookformedical.com)
  • Now, researchers reporting in ACS Central Science have experimentally proven that amino acids may have shaped in these early meteorites from reactions pushed by gamma rays produced contained in the house rocks. (space-news.co)
  • 4-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. (lookchem.com)
  • Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between metabolite levels and depression severity across seven measurement timepoints along with one correlation analysis and found that amino acids, including GABA and tryptophan catabolites, were significantly correlated with the severity of depression. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4-Aminobutyric acid was first synthesized in 1883, and was first known only as a plant and microbe metabolic product. (lookchem.com)
  • If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. (lookformedical.com)
  • If the preliminary house particles had included carbonaceous chondrites - a category of meteorite whose members include vital quantities of water and small molecules, equivalent to amino acids - then it may have contributed to the evolution of life on Earth. (space-news.co)
  • In earlier lab experiments, Yoko Kebukawa and colleagues confirmed that reactions between easy molecules, equivalent to ammonia and formaldehyde, can synthesize amino acids and different macromolecules, however liquid water and warmth are required. (space-news.co)
  • The test may also be used to look for decreased levels of amino acids in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Increased or decreased levels of amino acids in the blood may occur with fevers, inadequate nutrition, and certain medical conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Plasma amino acids is a screening test, usually done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino acids in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 3e H. R. Nielsen, K. Nyholm, and K.-E. Sjoiln, "Relationship Between Urinary B-Aminoisobutyric Acid and Transfer RNA Turnover in Cancer Patients," Cancer Res. (nih.gov)
  • The cholinergic agonist CCh had no effect on active AIB transport, although pharmacologic doses (lmM) of atropine, scopolamine and lidocaine reduced Na-gradient active transport of kappa-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB). (nih.gov)
  • 6. Effect of catabolic hormone infusion on organ amino acid uptake. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Effect of endotoxic shock on kinetics of system A amino acid transport in rat soleus muscle. (nih.gov)
  • So, Kebukawa and a brand new group wished to see whether or not radiation may have contributed to the formation of amino acids in early meteorites. (space-news.co)
  • One speculation is that meteorites delivered amino acids - life's constructing blocks - to our planet. (space-news.co)
  • 11. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid transport in rat soleus muscle during endotoxic shock. (nih.gov)
  • Welcome to the PulseAid listing for the Beckman System 6300 Series Amino Acid Analyzer medical device. (pulseaid.com)
  • β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors. (broadinstitute.org)
  • That will Brown the white adipose tissue and greatly increase fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. (mithilasamachar.in)
  • This test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • View our full list of organic acid test kits . (megazyme.com)
  • Random forest and generalized linear mixed model analyses identified significant (false discovery rate <0.05) associations of 24 h excretions of β-aminoisobutyric acid, cystine, citrulline, homocysteine and lysine with systolic blood pressure and cystine with diastolic blood pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, the supply of amino acids in meteorites has been arduous to pinpoint. (space-news.co)
  • 4-Aminobutyric acid is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, which has good water solubility and thermal stability. (lookchem.com)
  • Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. (lookformedical.com)
  • Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. (umassmed.edu)
  • An increased level of a particular amino acid shows that there is a problem with the body's ability to break down (metabolize) that amino acid. (medlineplus.gov)