Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).EstersMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Codonopsis: A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE. The common name of bellflower may sometimes be confused with other plants in the family that have similar appearance.Atractylodes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.Panax notoginseng: A plant species of the genus PANAX. It contains damarane-type tetracyclic TRITERPENES. The common names of Sanchi or Tienchi are also used for Panax pseudoginseng which is distinguished in containing oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenoids.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lipid Regulating Agents: Substances that alter the metabolism of LIPIDS.Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Benzydamine: A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.Glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.PicratesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Receptors, Lysosphingolipid: A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.United StatesSphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.

A novel domain of the inhibitory glycine receptor determining antagonist efficacies: further evidence for partial agonism resulting from self-inhibition. (1/351)

Different amino side chains in the N-terminal extracellular region of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) have been shown to be crucial for ligand recognition. Here we describe a novel domain of the GlyRalpha1 subunit that constitutes an important determinant of antagonist activity. The antagonists strychnine, nipecotic acid, and isobutyric acid displayed reduced potencies at recombinant GlyRs formed from alpha1 subunits, in which lysine 104, phenylalanine 108, or threonine 112 were replaced by alanine. Agonist affinities, in contrast, were slightly increased at these mutant receptors. Taurine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, which are partial agonists at the wild-type GlyR, behaved as full agonists at the mutant GlyRs and failed to inhibit glycine-induced currents. This is consistent with apolar residues at positions 104, 108, and 112 of the alpha1 subunit reducing the antagonistic, but not the agonistic, binding of beta-amino acids. Our data support a model in which the partial agonism of beta-amino acids results from their self-inhibitory activity.  (+info)

Novel strategies for the design of receptor-selective vasopressin analogues: Aib-substitution and retro-inverso transformation. (2/351)

1. We determined the pharmacological profile of novel backbone-modified peptides designed as protease-resistant, selective analogues of AVP. Binding affinities of peptides were determined at both V1A and V2 subtypes of vasopressin receptor (VPR). Biological potencies of selected peptides were tested in pressor and antidiuretic bioassays. 2. Substitution of the achiral alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) at position 4 or 7 of AVP produced peptides that selectively bound the V2 VPR. Both [Aib4]AVP (140 IU mg-1) and [Aib7]AVP (36 IU mg-1) are selective antidiuretic agonists with little or no activity in uterotonic and pressor assays. 3. [Aib4] and [Aib7] derivatives of the linear V1A-selective antagonist [PhaaDTyr(Et)2Arg6Tyr(NH2)9]AVP bound selectively and with high affinity (Kd 0.51 and 4.1 nM respectively) to the V1A VPR. Bioassays confirmed that these peptides were potent antivasopressor agents (pA2 8.10 and 8.36 respectively). 4. A total retro-inverso strategy was used to prepare protease-resistant mimetics of both AVP and linear V1A-selective antagonists. Cyclic retro-inverso mimetics of AVP did not bind either V1A or V2 VPRs. In contrast, rationally designed retro-inverso mimetics of linear V1A-selective antagonists selectively bound the V1A VPR. 5. Our findings indicate novel methods to improve the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters of neurohypophysial hormone analogues which could be equally applicable to other peptide-receptor systems.  (+info)

Cloning and functional identification of a neuronal glutamine transporter. (3/351)

Glutamine is the preferred precursor for the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. We have isolated a complementary DNA clone (designated GlnT) encoding a plasma membrane glutamine transporter from glutamatergic neurons in culture, and its properties have been examined using the T7 vaccinia system in fibroblasts. When GlnT is transfected into CV-1 cells, L-glutamine is the preferred substrate. Transport is Na(+)-dependent and inhibited by alpha-methylaminoisobutyric acid, a specific inhibitor of neutral amino acid transport system A. Kinetic analysis of glutamine uptake by GlnT is saturable, with a Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 489 +/- 88 microM at pH 7.4. Glutamine uptake mediated by GlnT is pH-sensitive with a 5-fold greater efficiency of uptake at pH 8.2 than at pH 6.6. Only the maximal velocity of transport increases without a significant change in K(m). The distribution of GlnT mRNA and protein in the central nervous system is widespread and is expressed on neurons that use glutamate as their neurotransmitter. In cultured cerebellar granule cells, GlnT is expressed only on neurons and is absent from astrocytes. GlnT expression increases concomitantly with the morphologic and functional differentiation of these cells in vitro, consistent with its role of supplying glutamatergic neurons with their neurotransmitter precursor. GlnT is the first member of the system A family of neutral amino acid transporters with 11 putative membrane-spanning domains and is a potential target to modulate presynaptic glutamatergic function.  (+info)

Effects of duration of positive-pressure ventilation on blood-brain barrier function in premature lambs. (4/351)

We have been studying the ontogeny of the blood-brain barrier function in ovine fetuses and lambs. During these studies, we have found that the duration of ventilation also influences blood-brain barrier permeability in premature lambs. Chronically instrumented hysterotomy-delivered surfactant-treated premature lambs were studied at 90% or 137 days of gestation (n = 9). Blood-brain barrier function was quantified with the blood-to-brain transfer constant K(i) to alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. Linear regression analysis was used to compare the K(i) values in the brain regions, as the dependent variable, to the duration of ventilation, as the independent variable. There were direct correlations (P < 0.05) between the K(i) values and the duration of ventilation [306 min (mean), 162-474 min (range)] in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, thalamus, pons, cervical spinal cord, and choroid plexus, but not in the pituitary gland. Ventilatory pressures and rates were established before the onset of the permeability studies. Calculated mean airway pressures [14 cmH(2)O (mean), 7-20 cmH(2)O (range)] from similarly studied premature lambs did not correlate with the duration of positive-pressure ventilation. We conclude that increases in the duration of positive-pressure ventilation predispose premature lambs to increases in regional blood-brain barrier permeability. These alterations in barrier function occur over relatively short time intervals (minutes to hours). In our study, these changes in permeability are most likely not attributable to changes in mean airway pressure.  (+info)

Studies on convulsants in the isolated frog spinal cord. I. Antagonism of amino acid responses. (5/351)

1. The isolated frog spinal cord was used to study the effects of picrotoxin, bicuculline, and strychnine on the responses of primary afferents to amino acids. Recording was by sucrose gap technique. 2. A series of neutral amino acids was found to depolarize primary afferents. Optimal activity was obtained by an amino acid whose carboxyl and amino groups were separated by a three-carbon chain length (i.e. GABA). Amino acids with shorter (i.e. beta-alanine, glycine) or longer (i.e. delta-aminovaleric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid) distances between the charged groups were less potent. Imidazoleacetic acid was the most potent depolarizing agent tested. 3. Picrotoxin and bicuculline antagonized the primary afferent depolarizations of a number of amino acids tested with equal specificity. Depolarizing responses to standard (10- minus 3 M) concentrations of beta-alanine and taurine were completely blocked by these convulsants, while depolarizations to 10- minus 3 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were only partially antagonized. Glycine responses were unaffected by these agentsk; Strychnine completely blocked beta-alanine and taurine depolarizations and incompletely antagonized several other neutral amino acids. GABA, glutamate, and glycine depolarizations were not affected. 5. These results suggest that there are at least three distinct populations of neutral amino acid receptors on primary afferent terminals: a GABA-like receptor, a taurine/beta-alanine receptor, and a glycine-like receptor. The strychnine resistance of the glycine responses indictaes that the primary afferent receptors for glycine differ from those on the somata of spinal neurones.  (+info)

Nucleocytoplasmic transport and distribution of an amino acid, in situ. (6/351)

Ultra-low temperature techniques (microdissection and autoradiography) were used to study the nucleocytoplasmic distribution and transport of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) in an amino acid-accumulating cell. In amphibiam oocytes incubated in AIB, the nuclear concentration of this non-metabolizable amino acid exceeds the cytoplasmic concentration by 45%, remaining constant both over time and variation in substrate concentration. The kinetics of uptake suggest that this nucleo-cytoplasmic asymmetry arises from solubility differences between the 2 compartments, and that the nuclear envelope plays a negligible role in amino acid transport. A solute exclusion model is offered to explain the nucleocytoplasmic asymmetry.  (+info)

Transport mechanisms of 3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine in a human glioma cell line: comparison with [3H]methyl]-L-methionine. (7/351)

The amino acid analog 3-[(123)I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) is under clinical evaluation as a SPECT tracer of amino acid transport in brain tumors. This study investigated the carrier systems involved in IMT transport in human glioma cells in comparison with [3H-methyl]-L-methionine (3H-MET). METHODS: Human glioma cells, type 86HG-39, were cultured and incubated for 1 min at 37 degrees C with IMT and 3H-MET in the lag phase (1.2 d after seeding), exponential growth phase (3 d after seeding), and plateau phase (8 d after seeding). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of Na+, during inhibition of system L amino acid transport by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1 ]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), and during inhibition of system A amino acid transport by 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid (MeAIB). RESULTS: IMT and 3H-MET uptake decreased by 55%-73% when the cells entered from the exponential growth phase into the plateau phase (P< 0.05; n = 3-11). Inhibition by BCH reduced uptake of IMT in the lag phase, exponential growth phase, and plateau phase by 90%-98% (P < 0.001; n = 3-6) and the uptake of 3H-MET by 73%-83% (P < 0.001; n = 3-11). In a Na+-free medium 3H-MET uptake was reduced by 23%-33% (P < 0.05; n = 3-11), whereas IMT uptake was not significantly different. MeAIB showed no significant effect on IMT or 3H-MET uptake in either phase. CONCLUSION: Transport of both IMT and 3H-MET depends on the proliferation rate of human glioma cells in vitro and is dominated by BCH-sensitive transport. These data indicate that system L is induced in rapidly proliferating glioma cells and is the main contributor to the uptake of both tracers. 3H-MET transport showed a minor Na+ dependency that was not attributable to system A. The similarity of transport mechanisms of both tracers emphasizes the clinical equivalence of IMT SPECT and (11)C-MET PET for the diagnostic evaluation of gliomas.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor regulates amino acid transport in chick embryo hepatocytes via protein kinase C. (8/351)

System A-mediated amino acid transport, activation of different steps of signal transduction and involvement of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) have been investigated in chick embryo hepatocytes after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. EGF rapidly (10 min) increased the rate of aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake in chick embryo hepatocytes freshly isolated on the 19th day of embryonic life, while no change was detectable at other embryonal stages. The growth factor stimulation was abolished by PKC and tyrosine kinase inhibitors and was mimicked by 4-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, dimethyl-2 (PMA). EGF treatment did not modify the phosphorylation of the isoform of phospholipase C (PLC-), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and intracellular calcium levels, but it induced an increase in PKC activity. Our data show that EGF regulates amino acid uptake, via PKC and without PLC- activation, only in the last period of chick embryo hepatocyte development. The effects of growth factor on PKC activity suggest the involvement of PKC- and - isoforms in EGF modulation of amino acid transport.  (+info)

*Pyrimidine metabolism

"Beta-aminoisobutyric acid, a new probe for the metabolism of DNA and RNA in normal and tumorous tissue". Cancer Research. 34 (6 ... broken down into β-aminoisobutyrate which can be further broken down into intermediates eventually leading into the citric acid ...

*3-Aminoisobutyric acid

... (or β-aminoisobutyric acid, BAIBA) is a product formed by the catabolism of thymine. During exercise, ... "Β-Aminoisobutyric Acid Induces Browning of White Fat and Hepatic β-Oxidation and is Inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic ...

*2-Aminoisobutyric acid

... , or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methylalanine or 2-methylalanine, is an amino acid with the ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid is not one of the proteinogenic amino acids and rather rare in nature (cf. non-proteinogenic amino acids ... non-proteinogenic amino acids). In the laboratory, 2-aminoisobutyric acid may be prepared from acetone cyanohydrin, by reaction ... Clarke, H. T.; Bean, H. J. (1931). "α-Aminoisobutyric acid". Organic Syntheses. 11: 4. ; Collective Volume, 2, p. 29 . Roberts ...

*Beta-ureidopropionase

CARAVACA J, GRISOLIA S (1958). "Enzymatic decarbamylation of carbamyl beta-alanine and carbamyl beta-aminoisobutyric acid". J. ...

*Amino acid

Examples include 2-aminoisobutyric acid and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Non-proteinogenic amino acids often ... "N-alkylated alpha-amino acid". The α-carboxylic acid group of amino acids is a weak acid, meaning that it releases a hydron ( ... Microorganisms and plants can synthesize many uncommon amino acids. For example, some microbes make 2-aminoisobutyric acid and ... The other product of transamidation is a keto acid that enters the citric acid cycle. Glucogenic amino acids can also be ...

*Amyloid

... such as proline or non-coded alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. For example, humans produce amylin, an amyloidogenic peptide ... "Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by peptide analogues modified with alpha-aminoisobutyric acid". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. ... The major component of pancreatic amyloid is a 37-amino acid residue peptide known as islet amyloid polypeptide or amylin. This ... aromatic amino-acids are found to have the highest amyloidogenic propensity. For these peptides, cross-polymerization (fibrils ...

*Aminomethyl propanol

... can be produced by the hydrogenation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid or its esters. Aminomethyl propanol is ... It is a precursor to oxazolines via its reaction with acid chlorides. Via sulfation of the alcohol, the compound is also a ...

*Alamethicin

It belongs to peptaibol peptides which contain the non-proteinogenic amino acid residue Aib (2-aminoisobutyric acid). This ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid) In cell membranes, it forms voltage-dependent ion channels by aggregation of four to six molecules. ... this is followed by the sequential condensation of amino acids by each modular unit of the synthetase. Amino acids are ... The growing chain is attached to the amino acid bearing PCP by the "condensation" (C) domain, followed by another round of the ...

*PPARGC1A

Hence, the β-aminoisobutyric acid could act as a messenger molecule of PGC-1α and explain the effects of PGC-1α increase in ... PGC-1α has been recently proposed to be responsible for β-aminoisobutyric acid secretion by exercising muscles. The effect of β ... aminoisobutyric acid in white fat includes the activation of thermogenic genes that prompt the browning of white adipose tissue ... "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic ...

*Peptaibol

... some of which are non-proteinogenic amino acids. In particular, they contain α-aminoisobutyric acid along with other unusual ... They are named pebtaibols due to them being peptides containing α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and ending in an alcohol. They are ... and the C-terminal amino acid is hydroxylated to an acid alcohol. ... Peptaibols are biologically active peptides containing between seven and twenty amino acid residues, ...

*Aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 family, member A1

... and S-3-aminoisobutyric, R- and S-3-hydroxyisobutyric and S-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyric acids probably due to a defect in the ... aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA), which is then deaminated to (R)-methylmalonic semialdehyde. These two enantiomers of MMSA are ... and both isomers of 3-amino and 3-hydroxyisobutyric acids in urine organic acids. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... The mature protein that this gene translates in humans is 503 amino acids long, which is similar to other enzymes of this ...

*Nucleic acid metabolism

Thymine, on the other hand, is converted into β-aminoisobutyric acid which is then used to form methylmalonyl-CoA. The leftover ... Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are ... Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids) Interactive overview of nucleic acid ... Uric acid is then excreted from the body in different forms depending on the animal. Free purine and pyrimidine bases that are ...

*Shock synthesis

These include equal amounts of D- and L-alanine, and the non-protein amino acids α-aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline as well ... Bar-nun, A. (1975). "Shock Synthesis of Amino Acids II". Origins of Life. 6: 109. Bibcode:1975OrLi....6..109B. doi:10.1007/ ... Shock synthesis is the process of complex organic chemical creation through high velocity impact on simple amino acids, ... Hyper-velocity impact shock of a typical comet ice mixture produced several amino acids after hydrolysis. ...

*Trichoderma longibrachiatum

... like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called trilongins (up to 10% w/w). Their toxicity is due to absorption into cells and ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum, produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common proteins, ...

*List of designer drugs

3-Aminoisobutyric acid Acadesine, AICAR AWRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL-amide Anserine beta-Hydroxybutyric acid GHRH analogues ... Lysergamides are amide derivatives of the alkaloid lysergic acid. 1P-ETH-LAD, 1-Propionyl-ETH-LAD 1P-LSD, 1-Propionyl-LSD ALD- ... According to the US Food and Drug Administration, "Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or ... γ-Hydroxyvaleric acid (4-Methyl-GHB) GVL, γ-Valerolactone Afloqualone Etaqualone, 2-Ethylnormethaqualone, "ECQ" Mebroqualone, 2 ...

*AIB

... a printed circuit board in electronics 2-Aminoisobutyric acid AIB interneurons (described in Caenorhabditis elegans) AAIB ( ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.125)

... aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D12.125.190.350 --- gamma-aminobutyric acid MeSH D12.125.190.350.900 --- vigabatrin MeSH D12.125. ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 --- isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500. ... 2-aminoadipic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170 --- aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 ... aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D12.125.070.577 --- isoleucine MeSH D12.125.070.637 --- leucine MeSH D12.125.070.950 --- valine MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... urocanic acid MeSH D02.241.081.160.050 --- aminobutyric acids MeSH D02.241.081.160.050.055 --- aminoisobutyric acids MeSH ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ...

*Lantibiotics

... as well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanine and 2-aminoisobutyric acid. Lanthionine is composed of two alanine ... Lantibiotics are a class of peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic polycyclic thioether amino acids lanthionine or ...

*UPB1

... to beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, respectively. UP deficiencies are associated with N-carbamyl-beta-amino aciduria ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1093-8. doi:10.1080/15257770600956870. PMID 17065070. Collins JE, Wright CL, ...

*Mold health issues

... produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common proteins, like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called ...

*Carbonaceous chondrite

... and β-ABA but low in α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline. This implies that they had formed by a different synthetic ... hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles ... The CM meteorite Murchison has over 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and other compounds including carboxylic acids, ... 2001) found that amino acids in Ivuna and Orgueil were present at much lower concentrations than in CM chondrites (~30%), and ...

*Non-proteinogenic amino acids

alanine aminoisobutyric acid dehydroalanine A subset of L-α-amino acids are ambiguous as to which of two ends is the α-carbon. ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created ... Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. This imino acid differs ...

*Padmanabhan Balaram

Along with Isabella Karle, a frequent collaborator, he has also pioneered the use of alpha-amino isobutyric acid to induce and ...

*Fast atom bombardment

... pipecolic acid, AIB = alpha-amino-isobutyric acid, leu = leucine, iva = isovaline, gly = glycine. This is a potent inhibitor of ... This contained a variety of very unusual amino acid residues. The sequence was shown to be: N-acetyl-L-pip-AIB-L-pip-AIB-AIB-L- ... The first example of the practical application of this FAB was the elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the oligopeptide ...

*Trichoderma

... like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called trilongins (up to 10% w/w). Their toxicity is due to absorption into cells and ... The common house mold, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common ...
β-Aminoisobutyric acid, a catabolite of thymine metabolism, originates from the thymine of both DNA and transfer RNA. The β-aminoisobutyric acid originating from the thymine of DNA and transfer RNA can be distinguished by specific labeling of the former with 14C formate and of the latter with methionine-methyl-3H. Therefore, it can serve as a probe for the metabolism of each macromolecule. In an animal with a rapidly growing tumor (Novikoff hepatoma), the excretion of β-aminoisobutyric acid diminishes, probably because of the salvage of thymine and its reutilization for DNA synthesis. Such a salvage path is suggested by the increased presence of tritium-labeled thymine in the DNA of the tumor.. AIB3 is a catabolic product that is normally excreted in low levels in human urine (1), and this excretion is elevated in many patients with urothelial tumors (9). Until recently, the origin of this metabolic product was thought to be the thymine of DNA. However, since thymine is present in low levels ...
The effect of Schellman motifs on the adoption of stable 310 helical conformations in a series of aminoisobutyric (Aib) oligomers has been studied in the solid state and solution. The destabilising effect of the Schellman motif (a local inversion of helical screw-sense due to a C-terminal ester residue) was
Crisma, M and Valle, G and Toniolo, C and Prasad, S and Rao, RB and Balaram, P (1995) Beta-Turn Conformations In Crystal-Structures Of Model Peptides Containing Alpha,Alpha-Di-N-Propylglycine And Alpha,Alpha-Di-N-Butylglycine. In: Biopolymers, 35 (1). pp. 1-9. Valle, Giovanni and Crisma, M and Toniolo, C and Balaji Rao, R and Prasad, Sudhanand and Balaram, Padmanabhan (1995) b-Turn conformations in crystal structures of model peptides containing a,a-di-n-propylglycine (Dpg) and a,a-di-n-butyl-glycine (Dbg). In: Biopolymers, 35 (01). pp. 1-9. Bardi, R and Piazzesi, AM and Crisma, M and Toniolo, C and Sukumar, M and Balaram, P (1992) Structure of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyryl-DL-pipecolyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid methyl ester. In: Acta Crystallographica Section C, 48 . pp. 1645-1648. Bardi, R and Piazzesi, AM and Crisma, M and Toniolo, C and Sukumar, M and Balaram, P (1992) Structure of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyryl-DL-pipecolyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid ...
rs37369 is a SNP located in the coding region of the alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-2 (AGXT2) gene within chromosome 5 at position 35,072,872. This polymorphism constitues a nonsynonymous valine-to-isoleucine (V140I) substitution in the AGXT2 protein. rs37369 has been proposed by one study to be the causative SNP of hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is the end product of pyrimidine metabolism. Hyper-BAIB is an autosomal recessive phenotype that is distinguished by high urinary excretion levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid [PMID 10819024]. Elevated levels of BAIB have been suggested to contribute to neurological and developmental problems, as BAIB is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine--two major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system [PMID 15385443]. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database states that hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria is likely the most common Mendelian metabolic variant in man ...
Albumin synthesis was measured in the isolated perfused rat liver by using the livers of both well-fed and starved rats. Starvation markedly decreased albumin synthesis. The livers from starved rats were unable to increase synthesis rates after the addition to the perfusates of single amino acids or the addition of both glucagon and tryptophan. Arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan and valine, added together to ten times their normal peripheral blood concentrations, restored synthesis rates to normal. The plasma aminogram (i.e. the relative concentrations, of amino acids) was altered by depriving rats of protein for 48h. The use of blood from the deprived rats as perfusate, instead of normal blood, decreased albumin synthesis rates significantly by livers obtained from well-fed rats. The addition of single amino acids, including the non-metabolizable amino acid, α-aminoisobutyric acid, to the above mixture increased albumin ...
21) Synthesis of enantiomerically enriched (R)-13C-labelled 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) by conformational memory in the alkylation of a derivative of L-alanine. ...
The presented examples demonstrate that 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones are attractive intermediates not only for intermolecular but also for intramolecular reactions with nucleophiles. With a series of examples, the potential of these reactions was exemplified. The reactions of 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones, as starting materials or as intermediates, bearing the nucleophilic group in ω-postion of the substituent at C(2), belong to real ring enlargement reactions as all atoms of the oxazolone ring are included in the new ring. They proceed under acid catalysis, e.g. under the conditions of the direct amide cyclization. Together with the azirine/oxazolone method for the introduction of α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids into peptides, these reactions are ideally suited for the synthesis of cyclodepsipeptides and cyclopeptides, especially of sterically congested ones, which contain α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) or other α,α-disubstituted glycines. On the other hand, 4,4-disubstituted 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones ...
Transport of α-aminoisobutyric acid and 2-deoxy-d-glucose in African green monkey kidney cells was measured 8 to 100 hr following permissive simian virus 40 infection. No differences in transport were detected during the time-period studies, and no significant differences were seen between the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of normal and virally infected cells. The absence of transport enhancement in permissive simian virus 40 infection suggests that the augmented transport of viral-transformed cell lines devolves upon altered host genome function.. ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 17288-15-2, Ethyl 2-amino-2-methylpropanoate hydrochloride, 2-Amino-2-methyl-propionic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride, 2-Aminoisobutyric acid ethyl ester hydrochloride, molecular formula: C6H13NO2.HCl.
The underlying goal of this thesis dissertation is to simulate small monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) via quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations to derive electronic, structural, and dynamical properties. First we specifically focus on monolayers consisting of thiolated oligopeptides and alkanethiols. We construct MPCs with a layer of oligopeptides consisting of α-aminoisobutyric acid units. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine peptide arrangements and folding. We then perform NMR chemical shifts calculations and compare to experimental measurements to validate the predicted structure. The native -1 oxidation state can be oxidized into 0 and to +1 charge states. The neutral charge state is paramagnetic and behaves quite differently than the anion as manifested by the NMR spectra. The objective is to calculate NMR chemical shits, compare to experiment, and obtain insight into the electronic origin of these shifts. We also use DFT to simulate ENDOR spectra. Finally, we
Pyrimidine biosynthesis occurs both in the body and through organic synthesis. The first three enzymes are all coded by the same gene in Metazoa (CAD). In Fungi, a similar protein exists but lacks the dihydroorotase function: another protein catalyzes the second step. In other organisms (Bacteria, Archaea and the other Eukaryota), the first three steps are done by three different enzymes. Pyrimidines are ultimately catabolized (degraded) to CO2, H2O, and urea. Cytosine can be broken down to uracil, which can be further broken down to N-carbamoyl-β-alanine, and then to beta-alanine, CO2, and ammonia by beta-ureidopropionase. Thymine is broken down into β-aminoisobutyrate which can be further broken down into intermediates eventually leading into the citric acid cycle. β-aminoisobutyrate acts as a rough indicator for rate of DNA turnover. Modulating the pyrimidine metabolism pharmacologically has therapeutical uses. Pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors are used in active moderate to severe ...
Buy α-(Methylamino)isobutyric acid (CAS 2566-34-9), a water soluble glutamine Transporters inhibitor. Join researchers using high quality…
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Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 4-{(1S)-1-Hydroxy-2-[(|sup>2|/sup>H|sub>3|/sub>)methylamino]ethyl}-1,2-benzenediol.
peptaibol definition: Noun (plural peptaibols) 1. (biochemistry) Any of a group of oligopeptides, produced by some fungi, that contain α-aminoisobutyric acid and terminate in a hydroxyl group...
The effect of ethylene and its precursor ACC on root hydraulic properties, including aquaporin expression and abundance, is modulated by relative air humidity and plant sensitivity to ethylene. Relative air humidity (RH) is a main factor contributing to water balance in plants. Ethylene (ET) is known to be involved in the regulation of root water uptake and stomatal opening although its role on plant water balance under different RH is not very well understood. We studied, at the physiological, hormonal and molecular levels (aquaporins expression, abundance and phosphorylation state), the plant responses to exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; precursor of ET) and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; inhibitor of ET biosynthesis), after 24 h of application to the roots of tomato wild type (WT) plants and its ET-insensitive never ripe (nr) mutant, at two RH levels: regular (50%) and close to saturation RH ...
0038] These are, inter glia: [0039] α-amino acids with linear or branched alkyl side groups, such as α-aminobutyric acid, α-aminoheptanoic acid, α-aminooctanoic acid, α-aminoisobutyric acid, homoisoleucine or α-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and α-aminoadipic acid, [0040] α-amino acids with linear or branched aryl or arylalkyl side groups, such as α-amino-β-phenylbutyric acid, [0041] α-amino acids with cycloaliphatic side groups, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, [0042] α-amino acids with unsaturated aliphatic side groups, such as 2-amino-3-formyl-3-pentenoic acid, α-amino-4-hexenoic acid, α-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, hypoglycine A, α-amino-5-methylhex-4-enoic acid and α-(methylenecyclopropyl)glycine, [0043] α-amino acids with side groups bearing carboxylic functions or derivatives, such as α-aminopimelic acid, ethylasparagine, N-isopropylglutamine, N-methylasparagine, β-methylaspartic acid, γ-methylglutamic acid, theanine and m-carboxylphenylalanine, [0044] ...
Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) catalyzes the degradation of 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine to N-carbamyl-β-alanine and N-carbamyl-β-aminoisobutyric acid, respectively. In the absence of DHP, large quantities of dihydrouracil and dihydrothymine and moderate amounts of uracil and thymine are excreted in the urine. The absence of DHP is responsible for a variety of clinical features. ...
... , also known as 2-methylpropanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula (CH3)2CHCOOH. It is a colorless liquid with a somewhat unpleasant odor. It is soluble in water and organic solvents. Isobutyric acid is an isomer of n-butyric acid. Deprotonation or esterification of isobutyric acid gives derivatives called isobutyrates. Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua), in vanilla, and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.[5] ...
Cardiac arrest and resuscitation in immature piglets result in a delayed increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. We tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with oxygen radical scavengers reduces postischemic permeability.. Permeability was assessed by measuring the plasma-to-brain transfer coefficient of the small amino acid, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, in 2- to 3-week-old anesthetized piglets. Three groups were studied: (1) a nonischemic time control group (n = 5), (2) an ischemia group (n = 8) pretreated with 5 mL of polyethylene glycol vehicle, and (3) an ischemia group (n = 8) pretreated with polyethylene glycol conjugated to superoxide dismutase (10,000 U/kg) and to catalase (20,000 U/kg). The ischemia protocol consisted of 8 minutes of ventricular fibrillation, 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, and 4 hours of spontaneous circulation.. The mean +/- SEM of the transfer coefficient of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid in cerebrum was (in microL/g per minute): 1.54 +/- ...
Polymers hydrogen-bonding with solvent represent an important broad class of polymers, properties of which depend on solvation. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with the OPLS/AA force field we investigate the effect of hydrogen bonding on PEO conformation and chain motility by comparing its behavior in isobutyric acid and aqueous solutions. In agreement with experimental data, we found that in isobutyric acid PEO forms a rather rigid extended helical structure, while in water it assumes highly flexible coil conformation. We show that the difference in PEO conformation and flexibility is the result of the hydrogen bond stability and overall solvent dynamics near PEO. Isobutyric acid forms up to one hydrogen bond per repeat unit of PEO and interacts with PEO for a prolonged period of time thereby stabilizing the helical structure of the polymer and reducing its segmental mobility. In contrast, water forms on average 1.2 hydrogen bonds per repeat unit of PEO (with 60% of... Read more ...
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A mixture of isobutyric acid (IBA)+water has an upper critical point of solution at 26.7°C and an IBA concentration of 4.40M. We have determined the Langmuir isotherms for the hydroxide form of Amberlite IRN-78 resin in contact with mixtures of IBA+water at temperatures, 27.0, 29.0, 31.0 and 38.0°C, respectively. The Langmuir plot at 38.0°C forms a straight line. At the three lower temperatures, h ...
Benzoic acid,2-[[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]methylamino]-/ACM141871025 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the biochemical and morphological differentiation of selective populations of neurons during development. In this study we examined the energy requirements associated with the effects of BDNF on neuronal differentiation. Because glucose is the preferred energy substrate in the brain, the effect of BDNF on glucose utilization was investigated in developing cortical neurons via biochemical and imaging studies. Results revealed that BDNF increases glucose utilization and the expression of the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3. Stimulation of glucose utilization by BDNF was shown to result from the activation of Na+/K+-ATPase via an increase in Na+ influx that is mediated, at least in part, by the stimulation of Na+-dependent amino acid transport. The increased Na+-dependent amino acid uptake by BDNF is followed by an enhancement of overall protein synthesis associated with the differentiation of cortical neurons. Together, these data demonstrate the
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Peptaibols: A group of peptides characterized by length of 1-2 dozen residues with a high proportion of them being non-proteinogenic, notably alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and isovaline, and have a C-terminal amino alcohol and N terminal alkyl group. They are found in FUNGI and some are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. They form channels or pores in target organisms. The term is a contraction of peptide-Aib-alcohol.
The transport characteristics of amino acids in primary cell cultures from the proximal tubule of human adults (AHKE cells) were examined, using alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and beta-alanine as representatives of alpha- and beta-amino acids, respectively. The Na(+)-gradient dependent influx of AIB occurred by a single, saturable transport system, whereas the Na(+)-gradient dependent uptake data for beta-alanine could be described in terms of two-independent transport components as well as one-transport one-leak model with identical kinetic constants for the high-affinity system. Competition experiments revealed that all the neutral amino acids tested reduced the uptake of AIB, whereas there was no effect of taurine, L-aspartic acid, and L-arginine. By contrast, the influx of beta-alanine was only drastically reduced by beta-amino acids, whereas the inhibition by neutral alpha-amino acids was relatively low. Nor did L-arginine and L-aspartic acid affect the uptake of beta-alanine into AHKE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cycloleucine on SFV A7(74) infection in mice. AU - Amor, S. AU - Webb, H E. PY - 1987/4. Y1 - 1987/4. N2 - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain A7(74) infected and control mice. The maximum effects were seen when three daily doses of CL were given to mice 24 h after an SFV A7(74) infection. In these mice thymus atrophy led to abolition of thymus dependent immune responses and changes in the pathological features of the viral infection--the most striking feature being prevention of demyelination. In addition virus titres in the brains of CL treated infected mice were increased and prolonged. These results show that demyelination following an SFV A7(74) infection is not a result of direct virus action, but of a T-cell mediated mechanism.. AB - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki ...
Derivatives of p-alkyl-carbonyl-phenoxy-alkyl- and carboxy-phenoxy-alkyl-carboxylic acids complying to the general formula: R-C-O-CH-(CH2)n-C-Y PARALLEL PARALLEL XRO where R represents -H, NH2; (-CH3C2H5, C3H7, or the omega halogen derivatives of these groups); C6H5; -OH, -OCH3, OC2H5, NHOH or R1 N ANGLE R2 where R1 and R2 can be linear radicals such as -CH3 or -CH2-CH3 or can be a ring such as that of piperidine, methyl-2-piperidine, piperazine, morpholine, pyrrolidine, methyl-4-piperidine, N-phenyl-piperazine, N-p-methoxy-phenyl-piperazine, N-methyl-4-piperazine, N-p-chlorophenyl-piperazine or hexamethyleneimine or ethylamino-ethyl-amine; X represents =O or =N-O-H; R-C- represents -C 3BOND N; n is 0, 1, 2 or 3 normal or iso when R is -H and N IS 1, 2, 3 WHEN R is -C6H5; R represents -H or C6H5; and Y represents -OH -OCH3; -OC2H5; NHOH or R1 N ANGLE R2 where R1 and R2 can be linear radicals such as -CH3 or -CH2-CH3 or can be represented by a ring such as that of piperidine, methyl-2-piperidine,
(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide 135721-56-1 MSDS report, (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide MSDS safety technical specifications search, (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide safety information specifications ect.
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Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: (5S,6S,7S)-6-methoxy-5-methyl-7-(methylamino)-6,7,8,9,15,16-hexahydro-5H,14H-5,9-epoxy-4b,9a,15-.
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ethyl 2-(methylamino)acetate | C5H11NO2 | CID 95849 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. Transports most neutral short chain amino acids electrogenically. Present only in liver and skeletal muscle. 47% and 57% identical to ATA1 and ATA2, respectively. A 10TMS topology [with N-and C-termini outside and a large N-glycosylated, extracellular loop domain (residues 242-335)] has been established (Shi et al., 2011). (Km(ALA)= 4mM; Na+:Ala= 1:1) (Sugawara et al., 2000 ...
The power of L systems goes beyond their capability to generate realistic images of plants […] they also provide a model of their operation, including processes such as tropisms, abscission, signal propagation, or watering." -Roberto S. Ferrero There is a number of applications in which L systems plays an important role as a biological model: ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminescationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; HMM-score: 69.1) ...
Steroids reduce permeability of the blood-brain barrier and inhibit active sodium transport by brain capillaries in vitro. Since the rate of edema formation during the early stages of ischemia is related to the rate of sodium transport from blood to brain, this study was designed to determine whether steroids reduce ischemic edema formation by inhibiting blood-brain barrier sodium transport. Dexamethasone was compared with progesterone since the latter is a more potent inhibitor of sodium transport in isolated capillaries. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle (n = 22) or 2 mg/kg of either dexamethasone (n = 22) or progesterone (n = 17) 1 hour before occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. After 4 hours of ischemia, brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability to [3H] alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and sodium-22 were determined. In controls, mean +/- SEM water content of tissue in the center of the ischemic zone was 82.4 +/- 0.2%. Brain edema was significantly reduced following ...
(2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid 2566-30-5 NMR spectrum, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, (2S)-2-(methylamino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule [(2R,3S,5S)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-3H-purine-1,7-diium-4-id-9-yl)-3-hydroxy-3-[2-(methylamino)benzoyl]tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl phosphono hydrogen phosphate (C18H23N6O11P2) from the PQR.
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-[6-amino-8-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)methylamino]purine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl]-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxymethyl]benzonitrile (C25H23Cl2N7O4) from the PQR.
1H-Isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione, 4,7-bis(methylamino)- | C10H11N3O2 | CID 71379898 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Graph representation: Ac-Aib,Ala,Ala,Leu,Aib,Gln,Aib,Val,Aib,Gly,Aib,Aib,Pro,Leu,Aib,Aib,Gln,Valol @1 @0,2 @1,3 @2,4 @3,5 @4,6 @5,7 @6,8 @7,9 @8,10 @9,11 @10,12 @11,13 @12,14 @13,15 @14,16 @15,17 @16 ...
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Formula: C14H24N2O7MW: 332. 35Salt: 2HClCAS: 22189-32-8TNP NUMBER: TNP00199MDL NUMBER: MFCD00058104IUPAC: (8S,11S,13S,14S,3R,6R,10R,12R)-12,14-bis(methylamino)-3,11,13-trihydroxy-6-met hyl-2,7,9-trioxatricyclo[8....
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About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
a,a-DIMETHYL-3,4-METHYLENEDIOXY- PHENETHYLAMINE; 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYPHENTERMINE. SYNTHESIS: To 150 mL of THF, under an atmosphere of nitrogen, there was added 11.2 g diisopropylamine, and the solution was cooled with external dry ice/IPA. There was then added 48 mL of a 2.3 M solution of butyllithium in hexane, dropwise, with good stirring. This was warmed to room temperature, stirred for a few min, and then all was cooled again in the dry ice bath. Following the dropwise addition of 4.4 g of isobutyric acid there was added 10.5 mL hexamethylphosphoramide. Again, the stirred reaction mixture was brought to room temperature for about 0.5 h. There was then added, drop-wise, 8.5 g 3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl chloride and the mixture allowed to stir overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was poured into 100 mL 10% HCl, and the excess THF was removed under vacuum. The acidic aqueous residue was extracted with 2×150 mL Et2O. These extracts were pooled, washed with 10% HCl, and then extracted ...
Does anyone know about non-metabolizable inducer for GAL promoter(s) in ,yeast cells? , ,Thanks , ,--------------------------------- , ,Masato NAKAI Didier Picard has made a GAL4(DNA-binding domain)-Estrogen receptor hormone binding domain-VP16 activation domain fusion protein that activates transcription from GAL4 sites in yeast in a hormone dependent fashion (Gene 131 (1993) 129-134). This might be helpful. Randy Morse Wadsworth Center NY State Dept. of Health Albany, NY 12201-2002 ...
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Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents a significant component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. AntiCIL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. mAb attenuate ischemia-reperfusionCrelated increases in BBB permeability in sheep fetuses (16). However, the role of IL-6 after injury in the immature brain has been studied much less extensively than those of IL-1and TNF-in the immature brain. We recently generated pharmacologic quantities of a highly selective, ovine-specific antiCIL-6 mAb and antiCIL-1mAb. The neutralizing abilities of these mAbs have previously been confirmed in ovine splenic mononuclear cell cultures (35). Moreover, we recently demonstrated that infusions of an antiCIL-1mAb result in the uptake of the antiCIL-1mAb into the brain and attenuate ischemia-reperfusionCrelated increases in BBB permeability in ovine fetal brain using the preclinical translational fetal sheep model ...
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Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a on Insulin Stimulated Amino Acid Transport in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Farook Adam,; Jeyashelly Andas.Amino benzoic acid modified silica--an improved catalyst for the mono-substituted product in the benzylation of toluene with benzyl chloride.. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science.2007, 311 (1), 135-143.. Andrea Martorana et. al. Insights into the homocoupling reaction of 4-methylamino benzoic acid mediated by Trametes versicolor laccase.. Molecular BioSystems.2011, 7 (11) , 2967-2969 .. ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
Hello All, A review of the Source Hydration ILPS system. For a while now I have been searching for a hydration system to integrate into my LBT 6094 Slick carrier. The idea was is that the Slick being the base system for all my current rigs I would like to keep the hydration on it. Some requiremen...
Amino acid transport across the plasma membrane is mediated by both sodium-dependent and sodium independent transport mechanisms (1). The recent…
UCSJYZPVAKXKNQ-HZYVHMACSA-N 1-[(1S,2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3-carbamimidamido-6-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S)-3-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(methylamino)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-4-formyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyloxolan-2-yl]oxy}-2,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexyl]guanidine Chemical compound ...
Our research should stimulate renewed clinical interest in developing glucocorticoid therapies to treat blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and other disorders of the central nervous system," Morrison says. His findings also hold important implications for military personnel exposed to blast injury. "We may be able to improve outcomes in brain-injured soldiers and civilians," he continues, "and reduce the length of their mandatory rest periods before returning to duty, making the difference between requiring only days rather than weeks or longer to recover.". This improvement could be a significant result, as there are currently no approved pharmaceutical therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI), and recently completed clinical trials have not demonstrated any benefit of other tested neuro-protective interventions. For patients with head injuries (non-blast related) and brain edema, doctors have been prescribing glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones, as standard treatment for ...
Looking for carrot oil? Find out information about carrot oil. A light-yellow oil distilled from the seeds of the carrot , and containing carotene, pinene, palmitic acid, limonene, and butyric or isobutyric acid; used... Explanation of carrot oil
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
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Barclay Morrison III, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Columbia Engineering, has led the first study to determine underlying biological mechanisms that promote functional recovery of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after blast injury.
R&D Systems is a global resource for cell biology. Find quality proteins, antibodies, ELISA kits, laboratory reagents, and tools.
Luca Bors1, Ágnes Bajza1, Barbara Hutka1, László Dénes1, Krisztián Szigeti2, Nikolett Hegedűs2, Dávid Szöllősi2, Domokos Máthé2, Attila Csorba3 and Franciska Erdő1. Investigation of the impact of aging on blood-brain barrier function in rats - Does P-glycoprotein (P-gp) have any role in changing BBB permeability?. ...
N,N-(2,2-(hexa-2,4-diyne-1,6-diylbis(oxy))bis(2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2,1-diyl))bis(1-(2-cyclohexyl-2-(2-(methylamino)propanamido)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide ...
A beautifully detailed model by Roco in HO scale of this very unusual subject of an acid transport wagon as used by the Deutsche Bundesbahn (DB) for Rudolph Koepp & Co. The model is very true to scale with original style lettering and livery.
Formula: C9H13NO2MW: 167. 21Salt: HClCAS: 61-76-7MDL NUMBER: MFCD00063028IUPAC: 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino)ethan-1-olSmiles: c1cc(cc(c1)O)C(CNC)OL(-)-Phenylephrine hydrochloride 99%THERAPEUTIC CATEGORY: Phenylephrine or neosynephrine is an ?...
Phosphorus › (R)-(+)-7-[N-(1,3-Dithian-2-yl)methylamino]-7-[bis(3,5-di-t-butylphenyl)phosphino]-2,2,3,3-tetrahydro-1,1-spirobindane, 97+% (,99% ee) [(R)-DTB-SpiroSAP] ...
Eh! Whats up Doc? Looney Tunes was started alongside its sister series, Merrie Melodies, in the 1930s, highlighting a vast music collection. How many of these Looney Tunes characters will you recognize from an image?
Associate Professor. One in four people worldwide - over 1.5 billion people - suffer from brain disorders, including depression, infection, trauma, stroke, seizures, dementia, and tumors. Despite this huge demand for treatments, delivery of drugs into the brain to treat these disorders is greatly impaired by the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is the interface between blood and brain that controls what goes in and comes out of the brain. Anatomically, the blood-brain barrier is made of endothelial cells forming a complex vascular network that supplies the brain with oxygen and nutrients, and disposes of carbon dioxide and wastes. Recent studies show that the blood-brain barrier is affected by brain disorders and itself plays a role in causing brain disease. Therefore, understanding blood-brain barrier function is critical for devising new therapeutic strategies to enhance brain drug delivery, improve brain protection, and treat brain disorders. Currently, we study the role of the ...
In the small intestine, gluten triggers the release of zonulin, a protein that regulates the tight junctions between epithelial cells and therefore intestinal, but also blood-brain barrier function. Recent evidence suggests that overstimulation of zonulin in susceptible individuals could dysregulate intercellular communication promoting tumorigenesis at specific organ sites ...
xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
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This course uses the learning platform software called Desire2Learn (D2L.) D2L integrates text, video, and audio. Before enrolling in the course, review the D2L system recommendations [2].. Students will be required to perform tasks for assignments requiring the use of technology: downloading and installing fonts to your computer, converting a word file to a .pdf, etc.. Back to Top. ...
Nma-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-His-Leu-Val-Ile-His-Thr-Lys(DNP)-D-Arg-D-Arg-NH2 3229-v 1 mg | 135.00 EUR[2- (Methylamino)benzoyl]- L- isoleucyl- L- ...
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Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular focus on the situation of B0AT1 and B0AT3, that associate with members of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely Tmem27 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in a tissue specific manner. The role of this association in relation to the formation of a functional unit related to Na+ or amino acid transport will be assessed. We will conclude with some remarks concerning the relevance of this association to Hartnup disorder, where some mutations have been shown to differentially interact with the partner proteins. ...
Electronic medication dispensing system | Flavoring with 2-methoxy-4-(2-methylpropenyl) phenyl ester of isobutyric acid | Phenoxyphenyl acetic acids and their medicinal use | Medicinal use of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated fatty acids | Closure safety latch means |
We demonstrate that, in contrast to the insulin-sensitizing actions of adiponectin in liver and muscle, fAd attenuates insulin signaling in primary human trophoblast cells. As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of regulation of amino acid transport by adiponectin, in any tissue.. It is well established that insulin stimulates placental system A amino acid transport (39,40); however, the underlying mechanism has not previously been explored. We found that physiological levels of insulin increased the mRNA expression of all system A isoforms. In contrast, only SNAT2 was upregulated at the protein level, indicating that changes in SNAT2 protein expression are important in mediating the regulation of system A activity by insulin. These findings are in line with observations that SNAT2 appears to be a highly regulated SNAT isoform both in the placenta (31,32,55,56) and in other tissues and cells such as the mammary ...
Journal of Amino Acids is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of amino acids.
Wang, M and Halliday, W J., "Immune responses of mice to iodoacetate-treated ehrlich ascites tumour cells." (1967). Subject Strain Bibliography 1967. 671 ...
The transport mechanisms of cis-4-[(18)F]fluoro-L-proline (cis-FPro) and trans-4-[(18)F]fluoro-L-proline (trans-FPro) were studied in F98 rat glioma cells in comparison to the natural parent [(3)H]-L-proline. Uptake rates of cis-FPro and trans-FPro in F98 glioma cells were 50-70% lower than those of [(3)H]-L-proline. The amino transport system A inhibitor MeAIB reduced the uptake ...

Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix | HTMLMolecules | Free Full-Text | Influence of Plant Growth Retardants on Quality of Codonopsis Radix | HTML

... while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment ... In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography ... β-Aminoisobutyric acid. 1.72 ± 0.42. 1.28 ± 0.58. 1.34. Valine. 12.34 ± 2.41. 9.42 ± 3.65. 1.31. ... General Increase in Free Amino Acids Content by PGR Treatment. The contents of 24 common free amino acids in C. Radix were ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/10/1655/htm

Alpha-Aminoisobutyric Acid - DrugBankAlpha-Aminoisobutyric Acid - DrugBank

Alpha amino acids. Alternative Parents. Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen ... Alpha-amino acid / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic ... Organic acids and derivatives. Class. Carboxylic acids and derivatives. Sub Class. Amino acids, peptides, and analogues. Direct ... Alpha-Aminoisobutyric Acid. Accession Number. DB02952 (EXPT00471) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB02952

3-Aminoisobutyric acid - Wikipedia3-Aminoisobutyric acid - Wikipedia

3-Aminoisobutyric acid (or β-aminoisobutyric acid, BAIBA) is a product formed by the catabolism of thymine. During exercise, ... "Β-Aminoisobutyric Acid Induces Browning of White Fat and Hepatic β-Oxidation and is Inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3-Aminoisobutyric_acid

2-Aminoisobutyric acid - Wikipedia2-Aminoisobutyric acid - Wikipedia

2-Aminoisobutyric acid, or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methylalanine or 2-methylalanine, is an amino acid with the ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid is not one of the proteinogenic amino acids and rather rare in nature (cf. non-proteinogenic amino acids ... non-proteinogenic amino acids). In the laboratory, 2-aminoisobutyric acid may be prepared from acetone cyanohydrin, by reaction ... Clarke, H. T.; Bean, H. J. (1931). "α-Aminoisobutyric acid". Organic Syntheses. 11: 4. ; Collective Volume, 2, p. 29 . Roberts ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Aminoisobutyric_acid

Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body compositionAssociations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition

"Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition." Journal of Nutritional ... Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. ... β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic ... Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/27320326

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polypeptides containing the unnatural amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid - Chemical Communications ...Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polypeptides containing the unnatural amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid - Chemical Communications ...

... units as an unnatural amino acid residue were synthesized by papain-catalyzed chemoenzymatic polymerization of a tripeptide ... Polypeptides containing 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) units as an unnatural amino acid residue were synthesized by papain- ... Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polypeptides containing the unnatural amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid K. Tsuchiya and K. Numata, ... Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polypeptides containing the unnatural amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/cc/c7cc03095a

PRIME PubMed | β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through AMPK...PRIME PubMed | β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through AMPK...

PubMed journal article β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through ... 3T3-L1 CellsAMP-Activated Protein KinasesAdipocytesAminoisobutyric AcidsAnimalsInflammationInsulin Resistance ... β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise and has beneficial effects on obesity-related ... Β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through AMPK-mediated pathway. ...
more infohttps://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29592806/%CE%B2_aminoisobutyric_acid_attenuates_LPS_induced_inflammation_and_insulin_resistance_in_adipocytes_through_AMPK_mediated_pathway_

Conformational analysis of helical aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) oligomers bearing C-terminal ester Schellman motifs - Organic &...Conformational analysis of helical aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) oligomers bearing C-terminal ester Schellman motifs - Organic &...

The effect of Schellman motifs on the adoption of stable 310 helical conformations in a series of aminoisobutyric (Aib) ... Conformational analysis of helical aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) oligomers bearing C-terminal ester Schellman motifs S. J. Pike, J ... Conformational analysis of helical aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) oligomers bearing C-terminal ester Schellman motifs ... The effect of Schellman motifs on the adoption of stable 310 helical conformations in a series of aminoisobutyric (Aib) ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2014/OB/C4OB00268G?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2FOB+%28RSC+-+Org.+Biomol.+Chem.+latest+articles%29

Europe 2 Aminoisobutyric Acid Market Report 2017 - Absolute ReportsEurope 2 Aminoisobutyric Acid Market Report 2017 - Absolute Reports

Explore detailed TOC, tables and figures of Europe 2 Aminoisobutyric Acid Market Report 2017. ... Request sample of market research report on Europe 2 Aminoisobutyric Acid Market Report 2017. ... 5 UK 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid (Volume, Value and Sales Price). 5.1 UK 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid Sales and Value (2012-2017). 5.1.1 ... 4.3 France 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid Sales and Market Share by Type. 4.4 France 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid Sales and Market Share by ...
more infohttps://www.absolutereports.com/europe-2-aminoisobutyric-acid-market-report-2017-10623621

DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid - Creative PeptidesDL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid - Creative Peptides

Creative Peptides offers DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process ... 3. Oleic acid and glucose regulate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression in a rat pancreatic ductal cell line ... Home > Amino Acids > Amino Acids & Derivatives > DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid. Products Therapeutic Peptides ...
more infohttps://www.creative-peptides.com/product/dl-aminoisobutyric-acid-item-cp04001-26244.html

S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid | Endogenous Metabolite | MedChemExpressS)-b-aminoisobutyric acid | Endogenous Metabolite | MedChemExpress

S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid originating from the catabolism of thymine and valine. - Mechanism of ... beta-Aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-methyl-beta-alanine); a new amino-acid obtained from human urine. Nature. 1951 Feb 24;167(4243 ... beta-Aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-methyl-beta-alanine); a new amino-acid obtained from human urine. Nature. 1951 Feb 24;167(4243 ... S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid originating from the catabolism of thymine and valine. ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/_S_-b-aminoisobutyric_acid.html

3-aminoisobutyric acid 10569-72-9 MSDS, Safety Technical Specifications   MSDS3-aminoisobutyric acid 10569-72-9 MSDS, Safety Technical Specifications MSDS

3-aminoisobutyric acid MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3-aminoisobutyric acid safety information specifications ... DL-3-aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate 99 234-154-7 Hazard Symbols: None Listed. Risk Phrases: None Listed. Section 3 - HAZARDS ... DL-3-aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate - Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, or NTP.. Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION. Section 13 - ... Section 1 - Chemical Product MSDS Name:DL-3-aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate 99% Material Safety Data Sheet Synonym:(+/-)-3- ...
more infohttp://www.molbase.com/en/msds_10569-72-9-moldata-52870.html

ChemIDplus - 62-57-7 - FUOOLUPWFVMBKG-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 2-Aminoisobutyric acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas,...ChemIDplus - 62-57-7 - FUOOLUPWFVMBKG-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 2-Aminoisobutyric acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas,...

2-Aminoisobutyric acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. ... Substance Name: 2-Aminoisobutyric acid. RN: 62-57-7. UNII: 1E7ZW41IQU. InChIKey: FUOOLUPWFVMBKG-UHFFFAOYSA-N. ...
more infohttps://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/62-57-7

Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition<...Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition<...

Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. In: Journal of Nutritional ... Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. Journal of Nutritional ... Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. / Rietman, Annemarie; ... title = "Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition", ...
more infohttps://research.wur.nl/en/publications/associations-between-plasma-branched-chain-amino-acids-%CE%B2-aminoiso

GMD - DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid - InChI=1S/C4H9NO2/c1-3(2-5)4(6)7/h3H,2,5H2,1H3,(H,6,7)GMD - DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid - InChI=1S/C4H9NO2/c1-3(2-5)4(6)7/h3H,2,5H2,1H3,(H,6,7)

Details DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid. rotate: click+drag; translate: alt. +click+drag; zoom: mousewheel; save: mol ... Replica of DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid. reference substance. supplier. supplier code. lot. ...
more infohttp://gmd.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/ReferenceSubstances/8CF84ADB-B4DB-4807-AC98-0004247C35DF.aspx

Application of α-aminoisobutyric acid and β-aminoisobutyric acid inhibits pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit |...Application of α-aminoisobutyric acid and β-aminoisobutyric acid inhibits pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit |...

Two non-protein amino acids, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) at 100 and 1 mM were applied to ... Contents of the major five phenolics (gallic acid, catechin, corilagin, epicatechin and gallocatechin gallate) were assayed by ... but lower content of gallic acid compared to the control in the pericarp of longan fruit during storage, which was associated ... Two non-protein amino acids, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) at 100 and 1 mM were applied to ...
more infohttps://ccj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13065-015-0124-1

The natural, peptaibolic peptide SPF-5506-A4 adopts a β-bend spiral structure, shows low hemolytic activity and targets...The natural, peptaibolic peptide SPF-5506-A4 adopts a β-bend spiral structure, shows low hemolytic activity and targets...

Membrane activity; Peptaibol; Peptide synthesis; α-Aminoisobutyric acid. PMID:. 25796141. DOI:. 10.1016/j.bbapap.2015.03.003. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796141

Patente US6025326 - Compositions and methods for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis - Google PatentesPatente US6025326 - Compositions and methods for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis - Google Patentes

Dpr), 4-aminobutyric acid and so forth; α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib); ε-aminohexanoic acid (Aha); δ-aminovaleric acid (Ava); N- ... acidifying agents such as acetic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, hydrochloric acid, lactic acid and nitric acid; alkalinizing ... The amino acid notations used herein for the twenty genetically encoded L-amino acids and common non-encoded amino acids are ... 3-diaminopropionic Dpr acid α-aminoisobutyric acid Aib N-methylglycine MeGly (sarcosine) Citrulline Cit t-butylalanine t-BuA t- ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US6025326?hl=es&dq=flatulence

Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Tracers and Immunohistochemistry | SpringerLinkBlood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Tracers and Immunohistochemistry | SpringerLink

14C-α -Aminoisobutyric acid (MW 103). 14C Sucrose (MW: 342) ... peroxidase mediated by metabolites of arachidonic acid. J. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1385%2F1-59259-419-0%3A133

Frontiers | Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain | NeurologyFrontiers | Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain | Neurology

β -Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic beta-oxidation and is inversely correlated with ... For instance, forced overexpression of PGC-1α in myocytes triggers the production and release of β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA ... β-Aminoisobutyric acid; BDNF, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; BMAL1, Also known as Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear ... and quinolinic acid (QUIN), while the alternative pathway converts KYN to kynurenic acid (KYNA). In the brain, the conversion ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2018.00698/full

AGXT2 Gene - GeneCards | AGT2 Protein | AGT2 AntibodyAGXT2 Gene - GeneCards | AGT2 Protein | AGT2 Antibody

Excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in urine is a common, benign, metabolic trait.. ... 514 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 57156 Da. Cofactor:. Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;. Quaternary ... affects, Beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria. 35,037,010(-). C/T. coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant. ... Diseases associated with AGXT2 include Beta-Aminoisobutyric Aciduria and Primary Hyperoxaluria. Among its related pathways are ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=64902

594-61-6 - 2-Hydroxyisobutyric acid, 99% (dry wt.), water |2% - 2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid - 2-Methyllactic acid - A13146...594-61-6 - 2-Hydroxyisobutyric acid, 99% (dry wt.), water |2% - 2-Hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid - 2-Methyllactic acid - A13146...

2-Aminoisobutyric acid, 99%. * L12858. 3-Hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropionic acid, 97+% ... 2-Hydroxyisobutyric acid is used as an electrolyte in the separation of the metal ions by on-line cyclic voltammetry. It is ... and O2 for improved production of methacrylate precursor 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid by engineered Cupriavidus necator strains. ...
more infohttps://www.alfa.com/en/catalog/A13146/

Antaeus Labs Introduces: Lipomorph - AnabolicMinds.comAntaeus Labs Introduces: Lipomorph - AnabolicMinds.com

β-aminoisobutyric acid What is it?. BAIBA is a naturally occurring amino acid, a product of the metabolism of thymine and ... The main active metabolite of vitamin A is retinoic acid.. Target(s):. *Retinoic acid binds to and activates the retinoic acid ... One of the products of amino acid breakdown in muscle tissue is β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), arising from the degradation of ... Beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Antaeus Labs LipoMorph is the only supplement to contain this exciting new ingredient that is ...
more infohttp://anabolicminds.com/forum/antaeus-labs/251859-antaeus-labs-introduces.html

Amino Acid Profiles of Serum and Urine in Search for Prostate Cancer Biomarkers: a Pilot StudyAmino Acid Profiles of Serum and Urine in Search for Prostate Cancer Biomarkers: a Pilot Study

β-aminoisobutyric acid. 2.0. 1.7. 0.7 - 7.3. 1.9. 1.8. 0.8 - 4.2. 0.843. 0.510. ... β-aminoisobutyric acid. 1639.6. 866.2. 209.9 - 9144.3. 1716.0. 871.6. 115.0 - 9943.9. 0.795. 0.516. ... Urine amino acid profiles. LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of urine samples. Free amino acid profiles in urine samples were obtained for ... Serum amino acid profiles. LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of serum samples. Free amino acid profiles in serum samples of prostate cancer ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v14p0001.htm

Plus itPlus it

The petiole bending response was stimulated by ACC spray but diminished by treatment with aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), which ... 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. ACO. ACC oxidase. TF. transcription factor. CaMV. cauliflower mosaic virus. EMSA. ... 2007). Abscisic acid antagonizes ethylene-induced hyponastic growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 143: 1013-1023. ... The NAC TF VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN INTERACTING2 (ANAC083) integrates abscisic acid signaling with leaf senescence (Yang et ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/25/12/4941
  • Müller, R. H. Exploiting mixtures of H 2 , CO 2 , and O 2 for improved production of methacrylate precursor 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid by engineered Cupriavidus necator strains. (alfa.com)
  • Moreover, as a major storage site for glucose, lipids and amino acids, muscle is an essential coordinator of whole-body energy metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in the case of prostate cancer the potential of amino acids as markers of that condition has not been explored enough so far and only articles about determination of the selected amino acids in body fluids and tissues of prostate cancer patients have been published. (medsci.org)
  • In the laboratory, 2-aminoisobutyric acid may be prepared from acetone cyanohydrin, by reaction with ammonia followed by hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction mixture is heated for 5 hours at 60°, then well cooled in an ice-water mixture, and poured, with precautions (under a well-ventilated hood ), into a 5-l. round-bottomed flask which is immersed up to the neck in an ice-water mixture and which contains 800 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid (sp. (orgsyn.org)
  • The reaction flask is rinsed with two 25-ml. portions of water, which are added to the hydrochloric acid solution. (orgsyn.org)
  • Moreover, exogenous application of AIB and BAIB maintained higher contents of catechin, corilagin, epicatechin and gallocatechin gallate, but lower content of gallic acid compared to the control in the pericarp of longan fruit during storage, which was associated with the oxidation of browning substrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presented paper shows the first comprehensive analysis of a wide panel of amino acids in two different physiological fluids obtained from the same groups of prostate cancer patients (n = 49) and healthy men (n = 40). (medsci.org)
  • Contents of the major five phenolics (gallic acid, catechin, corilagin, epicatechin and gallocatechin gallate) were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The solid residue is evaporated on a water bath twice with 100-ml. portions of water in order to remove as much hydrochloric acid as possible. (orgsyn.org)