A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE. The common name of bellflower may sometimes be confused with other plants in the family that have similar appearance.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain hinesol and atractylon. Atractylodes rhizome is Byaku-jutsu. A. lancea rhizome is So-jutsu.
A plant species of the genus PANAX. It contains damarane-type tetracyclic TRITERPENES. The common names of Sanchi or Tienchi are also used for Panax pseudoginseng which is distinguished in containing oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenoids.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substances that alter the metabolism of LIPIDS.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.
Inflammation of the tongue.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.
A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.
A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.

A novel domain of the inhibitory glycine receptor determining antagonist efficacies: further evidence for partial agonism resulting from self-inhibition. (1/351)

Different amino side chains in the N-terminal extracellular region of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) have been shown to be crucial for ligand recognition. Here we describe a novel domain of the GlyRalpha1 subunit that constitutes an important determinant of antagonist activity. The antagonists strychnine, nipecotic acid, and isobutyric acid displayed reduced potencies at recombinant GlyRs formed from alpha1 subunits, in which lysine 104, phenylalanine 108, or threonine 112 were replaced by alanine. Agonist affinities, in contrast, were slightly increased at these mutant receptors. Taurine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, which are partial agonists at the wild-type GlyR, behaved as full agonists at the mutant GlyRs and failed to inhibit glycine-induced currents. This is consistent with apolar residues at positions 104, 108, and 112 of the alpha1 subunit reducing the antagonistic, but not the agonistic, binding of beta-amino acids. Our data support a model in which the partial agonism of beta-amino acids results from their self-inhibitory activity.  (+info)

Novel strategies for the design of receptor-selective vasopressin analogues: Aib-substitution and retro-inverso transformation. (2/351)

1. We determined the pharmacological profile of novel backbone-modified peptides designed as protease-resistant, selective analogues of AVP. Binding affinities of peptides were determined at both V1A and V2 subtypes of vasopressin receptor (VPR). Biological potencies of selected peptides were tested in pressor and antidiuretic bioassays. 2. Substitution of the achiral alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) at position 4 or 7 of AVP produced peptides that selectively bound the V2 VPR. Both [Aib4]AVP (140 IU mg-1) and [Aib7]AVP (36 IU mg-1) are selective antidiuretic agonists with little or no activity in uterotonic and pressor assays. 3. [Aib4] and [Aib7] derivatives of the linear V1A-selective antagonist [PhaaDTyr(Et)2Arg6Tyr(NH2)9]AVP bound selectively and with high affinity (Kd 0.51 and 4.1 nM respectively) to the V1A VPR. Bioassays confirmed that these peptides were potent antivasopressor agents (pA2 8.10 and 8.36 respectively). 4. A total retro-inverso strategy was used to prepare protease-resistant mimetics of both AVP and linear V1A-selective antagonists. Cyclic retro-inverso mimetics of AVP did not bind either V1A or V2 VPRs. In contrast, rationally designed retro-inverso mimetics of linear V1A-selective antagonists selectively bound the V1A VPR. 5. Our findings indicate novel methods to improve the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters of neurohypophysial hormone analogues which could be equally applicable to other peptide-receptor systems.  (+info)

Cloning and functional identification of a neuronal glutamine transporter. (3/351)

Glutamine is the preferred precursor for the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. We have isolated a complementary DNA clone (designated GlnT) encoding a plasma membrane glutamine transporter from glutamatergic neurons in culture, and its properties have been examined using the T7 vaccinia system in fibroblasts. When GlnT is transfected into CV-1 cells, L-glutamine is the preferred substrate. Transport is Na(+)-dependent and inhibited by alpha-methylaminoisobutyric acid, a specific inhibitor of neutral amino acid transport system A. Kinetic analysis of glutamine uptake by GlnT is saturable, with a Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 489 +/- 88 microM at pH 7.4. Glutamine uptake mediated by GlnT is pH-sensitive with a 5-fold greater efficiency of uptake at pH 8.2 than at pH 6.6. Only the maximal velocity of transport increases without a significant change in K(m). The distribution of GlnT mRNA and protein in the central nervous system is widespread and is expressed on neurons that use glutamate as their neurotransmitter. In cultured cerebellar granule cells, GlnT is expressed only on neurons and is absent from astrocytes. GlnT expression increases concomitantly with the morphologic and functional differentiation of these cells in vitro, consistent with its role of supplying glutamatergic neurons with their neurotransmitter precursor. GlnT is the first member of the system A family of neutral amino acid transporters with 11 putative membrane-spanning domains and is a potential target to modulate presynaptic glutamatergic function.  (+info)

Effects of duration of positive-pressure ventilation on blood-brain barrier function in premature lambs. (4/351)

We have been studying the ontogeny of the blood-brain barrier function in ovine fetuses and lambs. During these studies, we have found that the duration of ventilation also influences blood-brain barrier permeability in premature lambs. Chronically instrumented hysterotomy-delivered surfactant-treated premature lambs were studied at 90% or 137 days of gestation (n = 9). Blood-brain barrier function was quantified with the blood-to-brain transfer constant K(i) to alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. Linear regression analysis was used to compare the K(i) values in the brain regions, as the dependent variable, to the duration of ventilation, as the independent variable. There were direct correlations (P < 0.05) between the K(i) values and the duration of ventilation [306 min (mean), 162-474 min (range)] in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, thalamus, pons, cervical spinal cord, and choroid plexus, but not in the pituitary gland. Ventilatory pressures and rates were established before the onset of the permeability studies. Calculated mean airway pressures [14 cmH(2)O (mean), 7-20 cmH(2)O (range)] from similarly studied premature lambs did not correlate with the duration of positive-pressure ventilation. We conclude that increases in the duration of positive-pressure ventilation predispose premature lambs to increases in regional blood-brain barrier permeability. These alterations in barrier function occur over relatively short time intervals (minutes to hours). In our study, these changes in permeability are most likely not attributable to changes in mean airway pressure.  (+info)

Studies on convulsants in the isolated frog spinal cord. I. Antagonism of amino acid responses. (5/351)

1. The isolated frog spinal cord was used to study the effects of picrotoxin, bicuculline, and strychnine on the responses of primary afferents to amino acids. Recording was by sucrose gap technique. 2. A series of neutral amino acids was found to depolarize primary afferents. Optimal activity was obtained by an amino acid whose carboxyl and amino groups were separated by a three-carbon chain length (i.e. GABA). Amino acids with shorter (i.e. beta-alanine, glycine) or longer (i.e. delta-aminovaleric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid) distances between the charged groups were less potent. Imidazoleacetic acid was the most potent depolarizing agent tested. 3. Picrotoxin and bicuculline antagonized the primary afferent depolarizations of a number of amino acids tested with equal specificity. Depolarizing responses to standard (10- minus 3 M) concentrations of beta-alanine and taurine were completely blocked by these convulsants, while depolarizations to 10- minus 3 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were only partially antagonized. Glycine responses were unaffected by these agentsk; Strychnine completely blocked beta-alanine and taurine depolarizations and incompletely antagonized several other neutral amino acids. GABA, glutamate, and glycine depolarizations were not affected. 5. These results suggest that there are at least three distinct populations of neutral amino acid receptors on primary afferent terminals: a GABA-like receptor, a taurine/beta-alanine receptor, and a glycine-like receptor. The strychnine resistance of the glycine responses indictaes that the primary afferent receptors for glycine differ from those on the somata of spinal neurones.  (+info)

Nucleocytoplasmic transport and distribution of an amino acid, in situ. (6/351)

Ultra-low temperature techniques (microdissection and autoradiography) were used to study the nucleocytoplasmic distribution and transport of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) in an amino acid-accumulating cell. In amphibiam oocytes incubated in AIB, the nuclear concentration of this non-metabolizable amino acid exceeds the cytoplasmic concentration by 45%, remaining constant both over time and variation in substrate concentration. The kinetics of uptake suggest that this nucleo-cytoplasmic asymmetry arises from solubility differences between the 2 compartments, and that the nuclear envelope plays a negligible role in amino acid transport. A solute exclusion model is offered to explain the nucleocytoplasmic asymmetry.  (+info)

Transport mechanisms of 3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine in a human glioma cell line: comparison with [3H]methyl]-L-methionine. (7/351)

The amino acid analog 3-[(123)I]iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) is under clinical evaluation as a SPECT tracer of amino acid transport in brain tumors. This study investigated the carrier systems involved in IMT transport in human glioma cells in comparison with [3H-methyl]-L-methionine (3H-MET). METHODS: Human glioma cells, type 86HG-39, were cultured and incubated for 1 min at 37 degrees C with IMT and 3H-MET in the lag phase (1.2 d after seeding), exponential growth phase (3 d after seeding), and plateau phase (8 d after seeding). Experiments were performed in the presence and absence of Na+, during inhibition of system L amino acid transport by 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1 ]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), and during inhibition of system A amino acid transport by 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid (MeAIB). RESULTS: IMT and 3H-MET uptake decreased by 55%-73% when the cells entered from the exponential growth phase into the plateau phase (P< 0.05; n = 3-11). Inhibition by BCH reduced uptake of IMT in the lag phase, exponential growth phase, and plateau phase by 90%-98% (P < 0.001; n = 3-6) and the uptake of 3H-MET by 73%-83% (P < 0.001; n = 3-11). In a Na+-free medium 3H-MET uptake was reduced by 23%-33% (P < 0.05; n = 3-11), whereas IMT uptake was not significantly different. MeAIB showed no significant effect on IMT or 3H-MET uptake in either phase. CONCLUSION: Transport of both IMT and 3H-MET depends on the proliferation rate of human glioma cells in vitro and is dominated by BCH-sensitive transport. These data indicate that system L is induced in rapidly proliferating glioma cells and is the main contributor to the uptake of both tracers. 3H-MET transport showed a minor Na+ dependency that was not attributable to system A. The similarity of transport mechanisms of both tracers emphasizes the clinical equivalence of IMT SPECT and (11)C-MET PET for the diagnostic evaluation of gliomas.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor regulates amino acid transport in chick embryo hepatocytes via protein kinase C. (8/351)

System A-mediated amino acid transport, activation of different steps of signal transduction and involvement of different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) have been investigated in chick embryo hepatocytes after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. EGF rapidly (10 min) increased the rate of aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake in chick embryo hepatocytes freshly isolated on the 19th day of embryonic life, while no change was detectable at other embryonal stages. The growth factor stimulation was abolished by PKC and tyrosine kinase inhibitors and was mimicked by 4-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, dimethyl-2 (PMA). EGF treatment did not modify the phosphorylation of the isoform of phospholipase C (PLC-), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and intracellular calcium levels, but it induced an increase in PKC activity. Our data show that EGF regulates amino acid uptake, via PKC and without PLC- activation, only in the last period of chick embryo hepatocyte development. The effects of growth factor on PKC activity suggest the involvement of PKC- and - isoforms in EGF modulation of amino acid transport.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors. AU - Roberts, Lee D.. AU - Boström, Pontus. AU - OSullivan, John F.. AU - Schinzel, Robert T.. AU - Lewis, Gregory D.. AU - Dejam, Andre. AU - Lee, Youn Kyoung. AU - Palma, Melinda J.. AU - Calhoun, Sondra. AU - Georgiadi, Anastasia. AU - Chen, Ming Huei. AU - Ramachandran, Vasan S.. AU - Larson, Martin G.. AU - Bouchard, Claude. AU - Rankinen, Tuomo. AU - Souza, Amanda L.. AU - Clish, Clary B.. AU - Wang, Thomas J.. AU - Estall, Jennifer L.. AU - Soukas, Alexander A.. AU - Cowan, Chad A.. AU - Spiegelman, Bruce M.. AU - Gerszten, Robert E.. PY - 2014/1/7. Y1 - 2014/1/7. N2 - Summary The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) regulates metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and contributes to the response of muscle to exercise. Muscle PGC-1α transgenic expression and exercise ...
The effect of Schellman motifs on the adoption of stable 310 helical conformations in a series of aminoisobutyric (Aib) oligomers has been studied in the solid state and solution. The destabilising effect of the Schellman motif (a local inversion of helical screw-sense due to a C-terminal ester residue) was
Crisma, M and Valle, G and Toniolo, C and Prasad, S and Rao, RB and Balaram, P (1995) Beta-Turn Conformations In Crystal-Structures Of Model Peptides Containing Alpha,Alpha-Di-N-Propylglycine And Alpha,Alpha-Di-N-Butylglycine. In: Biopolymers, 35 (1). pp. 1-9. Valle, Giovanni and Crisma, M and Toniolo, C and Balaji Rao, R and Prasad, Sudhanand and Balaram, Padmanabhan (1995) b-Turn conformations in crystal structures of model peptides containing a,a-di-n-propylglycine (Dpg) and a,a-di-n-butyl-glycine (Dbg). In: Biopolymers, 35 (01). pp. 1-9. Bardi, R and Piazzesi, AM and Crisma, M and Toniolo, C and Sukumar, M and Balaram, P (1992) Structure of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyryl-DL-pipecolyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid methyl ester. In: Acta Crystallographica Section C, 48 . pp. 1645-1648. Bardi, R and Piazzesi, AM and Crisma, M and Toniolo, C and Sukumar, M and Balaram, P (1992) Structure of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyryl-DL-pipecolyl-[alpha]-aminoisobutyric acid ...
rs37369 is a SNP located in the coding region of the alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-2 (AGXT2) gene within chromosome 5 at position 35,072,872. This polymorphism constitues a nonsynonymous valine-to-isoleucine (V140I) substitution in the AGXT2 protein. rs37369 has been proposed by one study to be the causative SNP of hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is the end product of pyrimidine metabolism. Hyper-BAIB is an autosomal recessive phenotype that is distinguished by high urinary excretion levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid [PMID 10819024]. Elevated levels of BAIB have been suggested to contribute to neurological and developmental problems, as BAIB is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine--two major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system [PMID 15385443]. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database states that hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria is likely the most common Mendelian metabolic variant in man ...
Albumin synthesis was measured in the isolated perfused rat liver by using the livers of both well-fed and starved rats. Starvation markedly decreased albumin synthesis. The livers from starved rats were unable to increase synthesis rates after the addition to the perfusates of single amino acids or the addition of both glucagon and tryptophan. Arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan and valine, added together to ten times their normal peripheral blood concentrations, restored synthesis rates to normal. The plasma aminogram (i.e. the relative concentrations, of amino acids) was altered by depriving rats of protein for 48h. The use of blood from the deprived rats as perfusate, instead of normal blood, decreased albumin synthesis rates significantly by livers obtained from well-fed rats. The addition of single amino acids, including the non-metabolizable amino acid, α-aminoisobutyric acid, to the above mixture increased albumin ...
21) Synthesis of enantiomerically enriched (R)-13C-labelled 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) by conformational memory in the alkylation of a derivative of L-alanine. ...
We use mixed classical/quantum simulations to study the time dependence of an excitation of a C=O vibration on a 3-10 helix of $\alpha$-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), a system which represents a test case for the formation of self-trapped vibrational excitation states on protein helices. Due to the inherent disorder in the system caused by the finite temperature and fluctuations in hydrogen bonding, the excitation tunnels randomly among C=O sites along the helix. Quantum forces are insufficient to establish a coherent relationship between the location of the excitation and the contraction of hydrogen bonds around this site. Our simulations indicate that the excitation frequently becomes localized on the end of the helix due to the defect in helical structure caused by unwinding. Our results generally do not support the existance of Davydov type solitons in biological helix systems under physiological conditions ...
The presented examples demonstrate that 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones are attractive intermediates not only for intermolecular but also for intramolecular reactions with nucleophiles. With a series of examples, the potential of these reactions was exemplified. The reactions of 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones, as starting materials or as intermediates, bearing the nucleophilic group in ω-postion of the substituent at C(2), belong to real ring enlargement reactions as all atoms of the oxazolone ring are included in the new ring. They proceed under acid catalysis, e.g. under the conditions of the direct amide cyclization. Together with the azirine/oxazolone method for the introduction of α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids into peptides, these reactions are ideally suited for the synthesis of cyclodepsipeptides and cyclopeptides, especially of sterically congested ones, which contain α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) or other α,α-disubstituted glycines. On the other hand, 4,4-disubstituted 1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones ...
Transport of α-aminoisobutyric acid and 2-deoxy-d-glucose in African green monkey kidney cells was measured 8 to 100 hr following permissive simian virus 40 infection. No differences in transport were detected during the time-period studies, and no significant differences were seen between the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of normal and virally infected cells. The absence of transport enhancement in permissive simian virus 40 infection suggests that the augmented transport of viral-transformed cell lines devolves upon altered host genome function.. ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 17288-15-2, Ethyl 2-amino-2-methylpropanoate hydrochloride, 2-Amino-2-methyl-propionic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride, 2-Aminoisobutyric acid ethyl ester hydrochloride, molecular formula: C6H13NO2.HCl.
The underlying goal of this thesis dissertation is to simulate small monolayer protected clusters (MPCs) via quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics calculations to derive electronic, structural, and dynamical properties. First we specifically focus on monolayers consisting of thiolated oligopeptides and alkanethiols. We construct MPCs with a layer of oligopeptides consisting of α-aminoisobutyric acid units. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine peptide arrangements and folding. We then perform NMR chemical shifts calculations and compare to experimental measurements to validate the predicted structure. The native -1 oxidation state can be oxidized into 0 and to +1 charge states. The neutral charge state is paramagnetic and behaves quite differently than the anion as manifested by the NMR spectra. The objective is to calculate NMR chemical shits, compare to experiment, and obtain insight into the electronic origin of these shifts. We also use DFT to simulate ENDOR spectra. Finally, we
Pyrimidine biosynthesis occurs both in the body and through organic synthesis. The first three enzymes are all coded by the same gene in Metazoa (CAD). In Fungi, a similar protein exists but lacks the dihydroorotase function: another protein catalyzes the second step. In other organisms (Bacteria, Archaea and the other Eukaryota), the first three steps are done by three different enzymes. Pyrimidines are ultimately catabolized (degraded) to CO2, H2O, and urea. Cytosine can be broken down to uracil, which can be further broken down to N-carbamoyl-β-alanine, and then to beta-alanine, CO2, and ammonia by beta-ureidopropionase. Thymine is broken down into β-aminoisobutyrate which can be further broken down into intermediates eventually leading into the citric acid cycle. β-aminoisobutyrate acts as a rough indicator for rate of DNA turnover. Modulating the pyrimidine metabolism pharmacologically has therapeutical uses. Pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors are used in active moderate to severe ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Comprehensive supplier list for Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-[[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-[2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethoxy]-, (R),Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-[[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-fluoro-alpha-methyl-
Buy high quality 6-[[2-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]methylamino]pyridin-3-ol 326496-02-0 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 4-{(1S)-1-Hydroxy-2-[(|sup>2|/sup>H|sub>3|/sub>)methylamino]ethyl}-1,2-benzenediol.
The effect of ethylene and its precursor ACC on root hydraulic properties, including aquaporin expression and abundance, is modulated by relative air humidity and plant sensitivity to ethylene. Relative air humidity (RH) is a main factor contributing to water balance in plants. Ethylene (ET) is known to be involved in the regulation of root water uptake and stomatal opening although its role on plant water balance under different RH is not very well understood. We studied, at the physiological, hormonal and molecular levels (aquaporins expression, abundance and phosphorylation state), the plant responses to exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; precursor of ET) and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; inhibitor of ET biosynthesis), after 24 h of application to the roots of tomato wild type (WT) plants and its ET-insensitive never ripe (nr) mutant, at two RH levels: regular (50%) and close to saturation RH ...
0038] These are, inter glia: [0039] α-amino acids with linear or branched alkyl side groups, such as α-aminobutyric acid, α-aminoheptanoic acid, α-aminooctanoic acid, α-aminoisobutyric acid, homoisoleucine or α-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and α-aminoadipic acid, [0040] α-amino acids with linear or branched aryl or arylalkyl side groups, such as α-amino-β-phenylbutyric acid, [0041] α-amino acids with cycloaliphatic side groups, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, [0042] α-amino acids with unsaturated aliphatic side groups, such as 2-amino-3-formyl-3-pentenoic acid, α-amino-4-hexenoic acid, α-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, hypoglycine A, α-amino-5-methylhex-4-enoic acid and α-(methylenecyclopropyl)glycine, [0043] α-amino acids with side groups bearing carboxylic functions or derivatives, such as α-aminopimelic acid, ethylasparagine, N-isopropylglutamine, N-methylasparagine, β-methylaspartic acid, γ-methylglutamic acid, theanine and m-carboxylphenylalanine, [0044] ...
Isobutyric acid, also known as 2-methylpropanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula (CH3)2CHCOOH. It is a colorless liquid with a somewhat unpleasant odor. It is soluble in water and organic solvents. Isobutyric acid is an isomer of n-butyric acid. Deprotonation or esterification of isobutyric acid gives derivatives called isobutyrates. Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua), in vanilla, and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.[5] ...
Cardiac arrest and resuscitation in immature piglets result in a delayed increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. We tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with oxygen radical scavengers reduces postischemic permeability.. Permeability was assessed by measuring the plasma-to-brain transfer coefficient of the small amino acid, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, in 2- to 3-week-old anesthetized piglets. Three groups were studied: (1) a nonischemic time control group (n = 5), (2) an ischemia group (n = 8) pretreated with 5 mL of polyethylene glycol vehicle, and (3) an ischemia group (n = 8) pretreated with polyethylene glycol conjugated to superoxide dismutase (10,000 U/kg) and to catalase (20,000 U/kg). The ischemia protocol consisted of 8 minutes of ventricular fibrillation, 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, and 4 hours of spontaneous circulation.. The mean +/- SEM of the transfer coefficient of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid in cerebrum was (in microL/g per minute): 1.54 +/- ...
The relative alkali metal ion (M(+)) affinities (binding energies) between seventeen different amino acids (AA) and the corresponding methyl esters (AAOMe) were determined in the gas phase by the kinetic method based on the dissociation of AA-M(+)-AAOMe heterodimers (M=Li, Na, K, Cs). With the exception of proline, the Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) affinities of the other aliphatic amino acids increase in the order AAAAOMe is already observed for K(+). Proline binds more strongly than its methyl ester to all M(+) except Li(+). Ab initio calculations on the M(+) complexes of alanine, beta-aminoisobutyric acid, proline, glycine methyl ester, alanine methyl ester, and proline methyl ester show that their energetically most favorable complexes result from charge solvation, except for proline which forms salt bridges. The most stable mode of charge solvation depends on the ligand (AA or AAOMe) and, for AA, it gradually changes with metal ion size. Esters chelate all M(+) ions through the amine and carbonyl groups.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperosmotic stress up-regulates amino acid transport in vascular endothelial cells. AU - Kempson, Stephen A.. AU - Hoshaw, Martha J.. AU - Hinesley, Rose S.. AU - Mcateer, James A.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Cultured vascular endothelial cells take up L-proline by sodium- dependent transport. Cells incubated in medium made hyperosmotic by addition of sucrose showed a dose-dependent increase in Na+/proline cotransport. Studies with α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid revealed that the up-regulation was specific for amino acid transport system A. Up-regulation was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating roles for gene transcription and protein synthesis. Upregulation was maximum after five to six hours of hyperosmotic treatment, but returned to control levels when osmotic stress was maintained for 24 hours. The decline at 24 hours was accompanied by a significant increase in Na+/γ-aminobutyric acid cotransport. The activity of this system, which also ...
Polymers hydrogen-bonding with solvent represent an important broad class of polymers, properties of which depend on solvation. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with the OPLS/AA force field we investigate the effect of hydrogen bonding on PEO conformation and chain motility by comparing its behavior in isobutyric acid and aqueous solutions. In agreement with experimental data, we found that in isobutyric acid PEO forms a rather rigid extended helical structure, while in water it assumes highly flexible coil conformation. We show that the difference in PEO conformation and flexibility is the result of the hydrogen bond stability and overall solvent dynamics near PEO. Isobutyric acid forms up to one hydrogen bond per repeat unit of PEO and interacts with PEO for a prolonged period of time thereby stabilizing the helical structure of the polymer and reducing its segmental mobility. In contrast, water forms on average 1.2 hydrogen bonds per repeat unit of PEO (with 60% of... Read more ...
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A mixture of isobutyric acid (IBA)+water has an upper critical point of solution at 26.7°C and an IBA concentration of 4.40M. We have determined the Langmuir isotherms for the hydroxide form of Amberlite IRN-78 resin in contact with mixtures of IBA+water at temperatures, 27.0, 29.0, 31.0 and 38.0°C, respectively. The Langmuir plot at 38.0°C forms a straight line. At the three lower temperatures, h ...
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the biochemical and morphological differentiation of selective populations of neurons during development. In this study we examined the energy requirements associated with the effects of BDNF on neuronal differentiation. Because glucose is the preferred energy substrate in the brain, the effect of BDNF on glucose utilization was investigated in developing cortical neurons via biochemical and imaging studies. Results revealed that BDNF increases glucose utilization and the expression of the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3. Stimulation of glucose utilization by BDNF was shown to result from the activation of Na+/K+-ATPase via an increase in Na+ influx that is mediated, at least in part, by the stimulation of Na+-dependent amino acid transport. The increased Na+-dependent amino acid uptake by BDNF is followed by an enhancement of overall protein synthesis associated with the differentiation of cortical neurons. Together, these data demonstrate the
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Peptaibols: A group of peptides characterized by length of 1-2 dozen residues with a high proportion of them being non-proteinogenic, notably alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and isovaline, and have a C-terminal amino alcohol and N terminal alkyl group. They are found in FUNGI and some are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. They form channels or pores in target organisms. The term is a contraction of peptide-Aib-alcohol.
The transport characteristics of amino acids in primary cell cultures from the proximal tubule of human adults (AHKE cells) were examined, using alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and beta-alanine as representatives of alpha- and beta-amino acids, respectively. The Na(+)-gradient dependent influx of AIB occurred by a single, saturable transport system, whereas the Na(+)-gradient dependent uptake data for beta-alanine could be described in terms of two-independent transport components as well as one-transport one-leak model with identical kinetic constants for the high-affinity system. Competition experiments revealed that all the neutral amino acids tested reduced the uptake of AIB, whereas there was no effect of taurine, L-aspartic acid, and L-arginine. By contrast, the influx of beta-alanine was only drastically reduced by beta-amino acids, whereas the inhibition by neutral alpha-amino acids was relatively low. Nor did L-arginine and L-aspartic acid affect the uptake of beta-alanine into AHKE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cycloleucine on SFV A7(74) infection in mice. AU - Amor, S. AU - Webb, H E. PY - 1987/4. Y1 - 1987/4. N2 - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain A7(74) infected and control mice. The maximum effects were seen when three daily doses of CL were given to mice 24 h after an SFV A7(74) infection. In these mice thymus atrophy led to abolition of thymus dependent immune responses and changes in the pathological features of the viral infection--the most striking feature being prevention of demyelination. In addition virus titres in the brains of CL treated infected mice were increased and prolonged. These results show that demyelination following an SFV A7(74) infection is not a result of direct virus action, but of a T-cell mediated mechanism.. AB - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki ...
Derivatives of p-alkyl-carbonyl-phenoxy-alkyl- and carboxy-phenoxy-alkyl-carboxylic acids complying to the general formula: R-C-O-CH-(CH2)n-C-Y PARALLEL PARALLEL XRO where R represents -H, NH2; (-CH3C2H5, C3H7, or the omega halogen derivatives of these groups); C6H5; -OH, -OCH3, OC2H5, NHOH or R1 N ANGLE R2 where R1 and R2 can be linear radicals such as -CH3 or -CH2-CH3 or can be a ring such as that of piperidine, methyl-2-piperidine, piperazine, morpholine, pyrrolidine, methyl-4-piperidine, N-phenyl-piperazine, N-p-methoxy-phenyl-piperazine, N-methyl-4-piperazine, N-p-chlorophenyl-piperazine or hexamethyleneimine or ethylamino-ethyl-amine; X represents =O or =N-O-H; R-C- represents -C 3BOND N; n is 0, 1, 2 or 3 normal or iso when R is -H and N IS 1, 2, 3 WHEN R is -C6H5; R represents -H or C6H5; and Y represents -OH -OCH3; -OC2H5; NHOH or R1 N ANGLE R2 where R1 and R2 can be linear radicals such as -CH3 or -CH2-CH3 or can be represented by a ring such as that of piperidine, methyl-2-piperidine,
(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide 135721-56-1 MSDS report, (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide MSDS safety technical specifications search, (2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[(2-amino-4-methylpentyl)-methylamino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-N-[(2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxo-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-1-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]propan-2-yl]pentanediamide safety information specifications ect.
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The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. Transports most neutral short chain amino acids electrogenically. Present only in liver and skeletal muscle. 47% and 57% identical to ATA1 and ATA2, respectively. A 10TMS topology [with N-and C-termini outside and a large N-glycosylated, extracellular loop domain (residues 242-335)] has been established (Shi et al., 2011). (Km(ALA)= 4mM; Na+:Ala= 1:1) (Sugawara et al., 2000 ...
The power of L systems goes beyond their capability to generate realistic images of plants […] they also provide a model of their operation, including processes such as tropisms, abscission, signal propagation, or watering. -Roberto S. Ferrero There is a number of applications in which L systems plays an important role as a biological model: ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminescationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; HMM-score: 69.1) ...
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule [(2R,3S,5S)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-3H-purine-1,7-diium-4-id-9-yl)-3-hydroxy-3-[2-(methylamino)benzoyl]tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl phosphono hydrogen phosphate (C18H23N6O11P2) from the PQR.
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-[6-amino-8-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)methylamino]purine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl]-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxymethyl]benzonitrile (C25H23Cl2N7O4) from the PQR.
Graph representation: Ac-Aib,Pro,Aib,Ala,Aib,Aib,Gln,Aib,Val,Aib,Gly,Leu,Aib,Pro,Val,Aib,Aib,Glu,Gln @1 @0,2 @1,3 @2,4 @3,5 @4,6 @5,7 @6,8 @7,9 @8,10 @9,11 @10,12 @11,13 @12,14 @13,15 @14,16 @15,17 @16,18 @17 ...
Graph representation: Ac-Aib,Ala,Ala,Leu,Aib,Gln,Aib,Val,Aib,Gly,Aib,Aib,Pro,Leu,Aib,Aib,Gln,Valol @1 @0,2 @1,3 @2,4 @3,5 @4,6 @5,7 @6,8 @7,9 @8,10 @9,11 @10,12 @11,13 @12,14 @13,15 @14,16 @15,17 @16 ...
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Formula: C14H24N2O7MW: 332. 35Salt: 2HClCAS: 22189-32-8TNP NUMBER: TNP00199MDL NUMBER: MFCD00058104IUPAC: (8S,11S,13S,14S,3R,6R,10R,12R)-12,14-bis(methylamino)-3,11,13-trihydroxy-6-met hyl-2,7,9-trioxatricyclo[8....
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CARAVACA J, GRISOLIA S (1958). "Enzymatic decarbamylation of carbamyl beta-alanine and carbamyl beta-aminoisobutyric acid". J. ...
... and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. The results also demonstrate ... phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid). Their half-lives were between 50 and 150 h ... Exposure of aminoacids: amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed to outer space. ... To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and ...
... can be produced by the hydrogenation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid or its esters. Aminomethyl propanol is ...
"Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by peptide analogues modified with alpha-aminoisobutyric acid". Angewandte Chemie. 43 ( ... Among the hydrophobic residues, aromatic amino-acids are found to have the highest amyloidogenic propensity. Cross- ... Fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase and semenogelins Functional amyloid in other organisms: Curli fibrils produced by E. ...
Nielsen HR, Sjolin KE, Nyholm K, Baliga BS, Wong R, Borek E (June 1974). "Beta-aminoisobutyric acid, a new probe for the ... broken down into β-aminoisobutyrate which can be further broken down into intermediates eventually leading into the citric acid ...
It belongs to peptaibol peptides which contain the non-proteinogenic amino acid residue Aib (2-aminoisobutyric acid). This ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid) In cell membranes, it forms voltage-dependent ion channels by aggregation of four to six molecules. ... this is followed by the sequential condensation of amino acids by each modular unit of the synthetase. Amino acids are ... The growing chain is attached to the amino acid bearing PCP by the "condensation" (C) domain, followed by another round of the ...
Hence, the β-aminoisobutyric acid could act as a messenger molecule of PGC-1α and explain the effects of PGC-1α increase in ... PGC-1α has been recently proposed to be responsible for β-aminoisobutyric acid secretion by exercising muscles. The effect of β ... aminoisobutyric acid in white fat includes the activation of thermogenic genes that prompt the browning of white adipose tissue ... "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic ...
... some of which are non-proteinogenic amino acids. In particular, they contain α-aminoisobutyric acid along with other unusual ... They are named pebtaibols due to them being peptides containing α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and ending in an alcohol. They are ... and the C-terminal amino acid is hydroxylated to an acid alcohol. ... Peptaibols are biologically active peptides containing between seven and twenty amino acid residues, ...
... and S-3-aminoisobutyric, R- and S-3-hydroxyisobutyric and S-2-(hydroxymethyl)butyric acids probably due to a defect in the ... aminoisobutyric acid (AIBA), which is then deaminated to (R)-methylmalonic semialdehyde. These two enantiomers of MMSA are ... and both isomers of 3-amino and 3-hydroxyisobutyric acids in urine organic acids. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase ... The mature protein that this gene translates in humans is 503 amino acids long, which is similar to other enzymes of this ...
These include equal amounts of D- and L-alanine, and the non-protein amino acids α-aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline as well ... Bar-nun, A. (1975). "Shock Synthesis of Amino Acids II". Origins of Life. 6 (1-2): 109-115. Bibcode:1975OrLi....6..109B. doi: ... Shock synthesis is the process of complex organic chemical creation through high velocity impact on simple amino acids, ... Hyper-velocity impact shock of a typical comet ice mixture produced several amino acids after hydrolysis. ...
... where alanine and lysine are replaced by 2-aminoisobutyric acid and arginine respectively. Amino acid substitution at position ... The only differences are two amino acid substitutions at positions 8 and 34, ...
Along with Isabella Karle, a frequent collaborator, he has also pioneered the use of alpha-amino isobutyric acid to induce and ...
... like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called trilongins (up to 10% w/w). Their toxicity is due to absorption into cells and ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum, produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common proteins, ...
... as well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanine, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid. They belong to ribosomally synthesized and ... Lantibiotics are a class of polycyclic peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic thioether amino acids lanthionine or ...
MK-2866 LGD-2226 LGD-3303 LGD-4033 RAD140 S-40503 S-23 YK-11 3-Aminoisobutyric acid Acadesine, AICAR AWRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL- ... According to the US Food and Drug Administration, "Piracetam is not a vitamin, mineral, amino acid, herb or other botanical, or ... Lysergamides are amide derivatives of the alkaloid lysergic acid. 1B-LSD, 1-Butanoyl-LSD 1cP-AL-LAD, 1-Cyclopropionyl-6-Allyl-6 ... Choline bitartrate - Choline bitartrate is a tartaric acid salt containing choline (41% choline by molecular weight). At least ...
... α-Aminobutyric acid β-Aminobutyric acid γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) 2-Aminoisobutyric acid 3-Aminoisobutyric acid Nitroisobutane ...
... a printed circuit board that acts an accessory for another device 2-Aminoisobutyric acid AIB interneurons, described in ...
... pipecolic acid, AIB = alpha-amino-isobutyric acid, leu = leucine, iva = isovaline, gly = glycine. This is a potent inhibitor of ... This contained a variety of very unusual amino acid residues. The sequence was shown to be: N-acetyl-L-pip-AIB-L-pip-AIB-AIB-L- ... compared to static FAB The first example of the practical application of this FAB was the elucidation of the amino acid ...
... aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D12.125.190.350 - gamma-aminobutyric acid MeSH D12.125.190.350.900 - vigabatrin MeSH D12.125.213.075 ... 2-aminoadipic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170 - aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 - ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 - isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.400 ... aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D12.125.070.577 - isoleucine MeSH D12.125.070.637 - leucine MeSH D12.125.070.950 - valine MeSH ...
... urocanic acid MeSH D02.241.081.160.050 - aminobutyric acids MeSH D02.241.081.160.050.055 - aminoisobutyric acids MeSH D02.241. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 - egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 - iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ...
... like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called trilongins (up to 10% w/w). Their toxicity is due to absorption into cells and ... The common house mold, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common ...
... to beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, respectively. UP deficiencies are associated with N-carbamyl-beta-amino aciduria ... Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 25 (9-11): 1093-8. doi:10.1080/15257770600956870. PMID 17065070. Collins JE, Wright CL, ...
The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid. Its name is derived from citrullus, the Latin word for watermelon, from ... Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, catalyzed ...
... amino acid residues containing quaternary carbons such as 2-Aminoisobutyric acid are used to promote formation of certain types ... The comparative rates of lactone formation (lactonization) of various 2-hydroxybenzenepropionic acids illustrate the effect. ...
... and β-ABA but low in α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and isovaline. This implies that they had formed by a different synthetic ... hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles ... The CM meteorite Murchison has over 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and other compounds including carboxylic acids, ... 2001) found that amino acids in Ivuna and Orgueil were present at much lower concentrations than in CM chondrites (~30%), and ...
... may refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds: 2-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) 3-Aminoisobutyric ... acid This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you ...
... (also known as β-aminoisobutyric acid or BAIBA) is a product formed by the catabolism of thymine. During ... January 2014). "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with ... Begriche K, Massart J, Fromenty B (June 2010). "Effects of β-aminoisobutyric acid on leptin production and lipid homeostasis: ... Tanianskii DA, Jarzebska N, Birkenfeld AL, O'Sullivan JF, Rodionov RN (February 2019). "Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid as a Novel ...
alanine aminoisobutyric acid dehydroalanine A subset of L-α-amino acids are ambiguous as to which of two ends is the α-carbon. ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. This imino acid differs ... and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group ...
Examples include 2-aminoisobutyric acid and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Non-proteinogenic amino acids often ... Amino acids with the sub-structure N-C-C-CO2 are classified as β- amino acids. γ-Amino acids contain the substructure N-C-C-C- ... Microorganisms and plants synthesize many uncommon amino acids. For example, some microbes make 2-aminoisobutyric acid and ... Amino acids are bidentate ligands, forming transition metal amino acid complexes. The ca. 20 canonical amino acids can be ...
Thymine, on the other hand, is converted into β-aminoisobutyric acid which is then used to form methylmalonyl-CoA. The leftover ... Nucleic acid metabolism is the process by which nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are synthesized and degraded. Nucleic acids are the ... Nucleic Acids Book (free online book on the chemistry and biology of nucleic acids) Interactive overview of nucleic acid ... Uric acid is then excreted from the body in different forms depending on the animal. Free purine and pyrimidine bases that are ...
... like alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, called trilongins (up to 10% w/w). Their toxicity is due to absorption into cells and ... The common house mold, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, produces small toxic peptides containing amino acids not found in common ...
Non-proteinogenic BCAAs include 2-aminoisobutyric acid. ... A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having an ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Branched-chain amino acids.. *Branched-chain+amino+acids at the US National Library of ... Degradation of branched-chain amino acids involves the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). A ... Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768.. ...
Gilead S, Gazit E (2004). "Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by peptide analogues modified with alpha-aminoisobutyric acid ...
... (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most ... Uric acid H H H O 7,9-Dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,8(3H)-trione Byproduct of purine nucleotides metabolism and a normal component of ... Methylxanthines induce acid and pepsin secretions in the GI tract. Methylxanthines are metabolized by cytochrome P450 in the ... People with the rare genetic disorder xanthinuria lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. ...
L-Ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA), a stable salt of ornithine and aspartic acid, has been used in the treatment of cirrhosis.[8] ... Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle. Ornithine is abnormally accumulated in the ... Ornithine is not an amino acid coded for by DNA, that is, not proteinogenic. However, in mammalian non-hepatic tissues, the ... Amino acid supplements, including L-ornithine, are frequently marketed to bodybuilders and weightlifters with claims for ...
... , or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated ...
3-Aminoisobutyric acid GABA receptor Giant depolarizing potential Spasticity Spastic diplegia, a GABA deficiency neuromuscular ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ...
... , or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methylalanine or 2-methylalanine, is the non-proteinogenic amino ... 2-Aminoisobutyric acid is not one of the proteinogenic amino acids and is rather rare in nature (cf. non-proteinogenic amino ... 3-Aminoisobutyric acid, or BAIBA, is found as a normal metabolite of skeletal muscle in 2014. The plasma concentrations are ... Clarke, H. T.; Bean, H. J. (1931). "α-Aminoisobutyric acid". Organic Syntheses. 11: 4.; Collective Volume, 2, p. 29. Toniolo, C ...
Aminoisobutyric acid may refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds: 2-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) 3-Aminoisobutyric ... acid This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you ...
3-Aminoisobutyric acid (also known as β-aminoisobutyric acid or BAIBA) is a product formed by the catabolism of thymine. During ... January 2014). "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with ... Begriche K, Massart J, Fromenty B (June 2010). "Effects of β-aminoisobutyric acid on leptin production and lipid homeostasis: ... Tanianskii DA, Jarzebska N, Birkenfeld AL, OSullivan JF, Rodionov RN (February 2019). "Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid as a Novel ...
Alpha amino acids. Alternative Parents. Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen ... Alpha-amino acid / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic ... Organic acids and derivatives. Class. Carboxylic acids and derivatives. Sub Class. Amino acids, peptides, and analogues. Direct ... Alpha-Aminoisobutyric Acid. Accession Number. DB02952 (EXPT00471) Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not ...
... units as an unnatural amino acid residue were synthesized by papain-catalyzed chemoenzymatic polymerization of a tripeptide ... Polypeptides containing 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) units as an unnatural amino acid residue were synthesized by papain- ... Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polypeptides containing the unnatural amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid K. Tsuchiya and K. Numata, ... Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polypeptides containing the unnatural amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid ...
"Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition." Journal of Nutritional ... Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. ... β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic ... Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. ...
PubMed journal article β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through ... 3T3-L1 CellsAMP-Activated Protein KinasesAdipocytesAminoisobutyric AcidsAnimalsInflammationInsulin Resistance ... β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise and has beneficial effects on obesity-related ... Β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through AMPK-mediated pathway. ...
The effect of Schellman motifs on the adoption of stable 310 helical conformations in a series of aminoisobutyric (Aib) ... Conformational analysis of helical aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) oligomers bearing C-terminal ester Schellman motifs S. J. Pike, J ... Conformational analysis of helical aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) oligomers bearing C-terminal ester Schellman motifs ... The effect of Schellman motifs on the adoption of stable 310 helical conformations in a series of aminoisobutyric (Aib) ...
Explore detailed TOC, tables and figures of Europe 2 Aminoisobutyric Acid Market Report 2017. ... Request sample of market research report on Europe 2 Aminoisobutyric Acid Market Report 2017. ... 5 UK 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid (Volume, Value and Sales Price). 5.1 UK 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid Sales and Value (2012-2017). 5.1.1 ... 4.3 France 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid Sales and Market Share by Type. 4.4 France 2-Aminoisobutyric Acid Sales and Market Share by ...
R)-3-aminoisobutyric acid + pyruvate =, 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + alanine Stable Identifier ... R)-3-aminoisobutyric acid + pyruvate => 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + alanine (Homo sapiens) ... Mitochondrial AGXT2 tetramer catalyzes the reaction of (R)-3-aminoisobutyric acid and pyruvate to form 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate ... R)-3-aminoisobutyric acid + pyruvate => 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + alanine (Rattus norvegicus) ...
... on ACh output from fetal vessels and on materno-fetal transfer of the nonmetabolizable amino acid alpha-aminoisobutyric acid ( ... 1008207-acetylcholine-output-and-materno-fetal-alpha-aminoisobutyric-acid-transfer-in-the-perfused-human-placental-lobule. ... ACETYLCHOLINE OUTPUT AND MATERNO-FETAL ALPHA-AMINOISOBUTYRIC-ACID TRANSFER IN THE PERFUSED HUMAN PLACENTAL LOBULE. ...
Creative Peptides offers DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process ... 3. Oleic acid and glucose regulate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression in a rat pancreatic ductal cell line ... Home > Amino Acids > Amino Acids & Derivatives > DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid. Products Therapeutic Peptides ...
S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid originating from the catabolism of thymine and valine. - Mechanism of ... beta-Aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-methyl-beta-alanine); a new amino-acid obtained from human urine. Nature. 1951 Feb 24;167(4243 ... beta-Aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-methyl-beta-alanine); a new amino-acid obtained from human urine. Nature. 1951 Feb 24;167(4243 ... S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid originating from the catabolism of thymine and valine. ...
3-aminoisobutyric acid MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3-aminoisobutyric acid safety information specifications ... DL-3-aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate 99 234-154-7 Hazard Symbols: None Listed. Risk Phrases: None Listed. Section 3 - HAZARDS ... DL-3-aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate - Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, or NTP.. Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION. Section 13 - ... Section 1 - Chemical Product MSDS Name:DL-3-aminoisobutyric acid monohydrate 99% Material Safety Data Sheet Synonym:(+/-)-3- ...
2-Aminoisobutyric acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. ... Substance Name: 2-Aminoisobutyric acid. RN: 62-57-7. UNII: 1E7ZW41IQU. InChIKey: FUOOLUPWFVMBKG-UHFFFAOYSA-N. ...
Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. In: Journal of Nutritional ... Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. Journal of Nutritional ... Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. / Rietman, Annemarie; ... title = "Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition", ...
... and L-amino acids and other amino acids such as β-alanine, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and β-AIB, which generally are not ... aminoisobutyric acid;. ppb,. parts per billion;. ABA,. amino-n-butyric acid;. HCN,. hydrogen cyanide. ... D-aspartic acid; 2, L-aspartic acid; 3, L-glutamic acid; 4, D-glutamic acid; 5, DL-serine; 6, glycine; 7, β-alanine; 8, γ-ABA; ... Other α-amino acids such as alanine, α-ABA, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and isovaline are present only in trace amounts (,200 ...
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated ...
Membrane activity; Peptaibol; Peptide synthesis; α-Aminoisobutyric acid. PMID:. 25796141. DOI:. 10.1016/j.bbapap.2015.03.003. ...
beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion, a metabolic process under simple genetic control in ... Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB), an amino acid end product of pyrimidine metabolism, is excreted in trace quantities... ... In the process of binary fission, an organism duplicates its genetic material, or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and then divides ...
However, total free amino acid and magnesium contents of Indolbi- applied sprouts were higher than in the fruit powder ... Aminoisobutyric acid. 0.35 ± 0.0c. 0.39 ± 0.1c. 0.57 ± 0.0b. 0.63 ± 0.2ab. 0.70 ± 0.1a. 0.58 ± 0.1ab. ... The most abundant amino acid in the sprout samples was glutamic acid. γ-Amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) is primarily synthesized in ... Free Amino Acid Composition. A total of 37 free amino acids were detected, out of which eight, eight, and 21 were essential, ...
A modified isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence encoding a photocatalytic unit of a photosynthetic organism ... L-N-methylaspartic acid. Nmasp. aminoisobutyric acid. Aib. L-N-methylcysteine. Nmcys. ... A "conservative amino acid substitution" is one in which the amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a ... "amino acids" is understood to include the 20 naturally occurring amino acids; those amino acids often modified post- ...
3-Aminoisobutyric acid. Apm. 2-Aminopimelic acid. Dbu. 2,4-Diaminobutyric acid. ... 2) Amino acids: Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO ... Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence ... II.REPRESENTATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AND AMINO ACIDS. 37 CFR 1.821(a)(1) and 37 CFR 1.821(a)(2) present further definitions for ...
... while the free amino acids content was generally increased. Fifteen metabolites whose abundance were affected by PGR treatment ... In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography ... β-Aminoisobutyric acid. 1.72 ± 0.42. 1.28 ± 0.58. 1.34. Valine. 12.34 ± 2.41. 9.42 ± 3.65. 1.31. ... General Increase in Free Amino Acids Content by PGR Treatment. The contents of 24 common free amino acids in C. Radix were ...
Dpr), 4-aminobutyric acid and so forth; α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib); ε-aminohexanoic acid (Aha); δ-aminovaleric acid (Ava); N- ... acidifying agents such as acetic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, hydrochloric acid, lactic acid and nitric acid; alkalinizing ... The amino acid notations used herein for the twenty genetically encoded L-amino acids and common non-encoded amino acids are ... 3-diaminopropionic Dpr acid α-aminoisobutyric acid Aib N-methylglycine MeGly (sarcosine) Citrulline Cit t-butylalanine t-BuA t- ...
Besides the natural occurring L‑amino acids, we offer a selection of unnatural D‑amino acids and DL‑amino acids. ... Our amino acids are of the highest purity and suitable for a broad range of applications in biochemistry. ...
Details DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid. rotate: click+drag; translate: alt. +click+drag; zoom: mousewheel; save: mol ... Replica of DL-3-Aminoisobutyric acid. reference substance. supplier. supplier code. lot. ...
Two non-protein amino acids, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) at 100 and 1 mM were applied to ... Contents of the major five phenolics (gallic acid, catechin, corilagin, epicatechin and gallocatechin gallate) were assayed by ... but lower content of gallic acid compared to the control in the pericarp of longan fruit during storage, which was associated ... Two non-protein amino acids, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) at 100 and 1 mM were applied to ...
β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic ... β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic ... β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic ... title = "β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / genetics * Aminoisobutyric Acids / urine * Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics ... Moreover, we identify rs37369 in AGXT2 as the genetic basis of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria. ...
The effects of the oral hypoglycemic drug metformin on glucose and amino acid transporter activity and subcellular localization ... Aminoisobutyric Acids * Insulin * Monosaccharide Transport Proteins * 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid * Cytochalasin B ... The effects of the oral hypoglycemic drug metformin on glucose and amino acid transporter activity and subcellular localization ... Uptake of the nonmetabolizable amino acid analog methylaminoisobutyrate was unaffected by treatment with the drug under ...
  • Mitochondrial AGXT2 tetramer catalyzes the reaction of (R)-3-aminoisobutyric acid and pyruvate to form 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate and alanine. (reactome.org)
  • Amino acid analyses using HPLC of pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna have found that β-alanine, glycine, and γ-amino- n -butyric acid (ABA) are the most abundant amino acids in these two meteorites, with concentrations ranging from ≈600 to 2,000 parts per billion (ppb). (pnas.org)
  • Carbon isotopic measurements of β-alanine and glycine and the presence of racemic (D/L ≈ 1) alanine and β-ABA in Orgueil suggest that these amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. (pnas.org)
  • The last amino acid analysis of Orgueil was reported in 1972 when GC analysis using a chiral derivatizing reagent showed that the meteorite contained D- and L-amino acids and other amino acids such as β-alanine, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and β-AIB, which generally are not present in terrestrial living organisms ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Further catabolism of nonrecycled degradation products in the liver leads to the formation of β‐alanine and β‐aminoisobutyric acid for pyrimidines, which enter the CAC, and the metabolic end product uric acid for purines (blue). (els.net)
  • Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency is a disorder that causes excessive amounts of molecules called N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to be released in the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This step converts N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid to beta-aminoisobutyric acid and also breaks down N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to beta-alanine, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Both beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine are thought to play roles in the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Loss of this enzyme function reduces the production of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine, and leads to an excess of their precursor molecules, N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, which are released in the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reduced production of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine may impair the function of these molecules in the nervous system, leading to neurological problems in some people with beta-ureidopropionase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • From here the UMP can either be used in the nucleic acid synthesis (up) or broken down to Beta-alanine or (S)-beta-aminoisobutyrate. (wikipathways.org)
  • Samples of the perfusate representing the extracellular fluid were collected over 5‐min periods and subsequently analyzed for contents of the amino acids glutamate, as‐partate, glutamine, taurine, alanine, and serine. (deepdyve.com)
  • Postembedding immunohistochemistry and silver intensification were used to quantify the relative distributions of glutamate, glutamine, and related amino acids (aspartate, alanine, GABA, and glycine) in the pigmented (PE) and nonpigmented (NPE) epithelial cells of the ciliary body. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition, the urinary concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid, β-alanine, β-aminoisobutyric acid, and glutamine were also increased substantially. (aacc.org)
  • 3-Aminoisobutyric acid, or BAIBA, is found as a normal metabolite of skeletal muscle in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise and has beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolic disorders such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Furthermore, BAIBA treatment ameliorated LPS-induced impairment of insulin signaling measured by IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We employed a metabolomic approach to examine metabolites secreted from myocytes with forced expression of PGC-1α, and identified β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) as a small molecule myokine. (elsevier.com)
  • One of the products of amino acid breakdown in muscle tissue is β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), arising from the degradation of thymine and valine. (anabolicminds.com)
  • BAIBA is believed to act as a messenger signalling molecule, released into the blood stream by exercise, that helps the body respond to demands for more energy by increasing β-oxidation of fatty acids. (anabolicminds.com)
  • β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a naturally-occurring amino acid that has recently been identified as an 'exercise mimetic' that activates a thermogenic white-fat browning program. (nutraplanet.com)
  • BAIBA is formed from the catabolism of thymine [1][2] and is also product of PGC1a-mediated amino acid breakdown. (nutraplanet.com)
  • Moreover, we identify rs37369 in AGXT2 as the genetic basis of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria. (nih.gov)
  • Diseases associated with AGXT2 include Beta-Aminoisobutyric Aciduria and Primary Hyperoxaluria . (genecards.org)
  • rs37369 has been proposed by one study to be the causative SNP of hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria . (snpedia.com)
  • The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database states that hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria is likely the most common Mendelian metabolic variant in man [1] . (snpedia.com)
  • In a 2011 study, rs37369 was found to have a strong association with hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria [ PMID 21572414 ]. (snpedia.com)
  • Given the strength of the association (2.1 x 10^-182), and the fact that rs37369 codes for a nonsynonymous substitution (V140I), it has been posed as the causal SNP of hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria, although this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally verified [ PMID 21572414 ]. (snpedia.com)
  • a new amino-acid obtained from human urine. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Using both blood and urine, the ION Profile with 40 Amino Acids is an advanced nutritional analysis that offers insight into imbalances that may precede abnormal findings on standard laboratory evaluations. (gdx.net)
  • The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate free amino acid profiles in their serum and urine. (medsci.org)
  • Genova Diagnostics Amino Acid Analysis Urine examines fasting blood or 24-hour urine samples for 40+ amino acids. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • The Amino Acids Analysis employs state-of-the-art high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to perform the most comprehensive and sensitive assay available for urine or plasma analytes. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • The 24-hour urine amino acid analysis has the highest probability of detecting abnormalities if renal function is normal. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Therefore, urine levels of amino acids decrease first and tend to give an earlier indication of inadequacy than do plasma levels. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • A first morning void urine amino acid analysis, with results normalized per gram creatinine, provides an alternative when a complete 24-hour collection is not a viable option. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • f Increased para-amino-isobutyric acid, leucine, and proline levels in the urine. (medscape.com)
  • Metabolic screening for free amino acids was performed on the child's urine, with concentrations quantified with an automated amino acid analyzer (Hitachi L-8800). (aacc.org)
  • What could potentially induce false increases in tryptophan concentrations when urine amino acids are quantified by ion-exchange liquid chromatographic separations and postcolumn ninhydrin derivatization before detection? (aacc.org)
  • wherein peptides denoted with * are acid forms and all others are amide forms. (google.es)
  • Amino acids, peptides, and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers from the universities of Aberdeen and Exeter tested how mammal immune cells responded to peptides (combinations of amino acids) containing two amino acids that are rare on Earth but are commonly found on meteorites. (express.co.uk)
  • The response was weak, with T-cell activation levels of 15 percent and 61 percent - compared to 82 percent and 91 percent when exposed to peptides made entirely of amino acids that are common on Earth. (express.co.uk)
  • We chemically synthetised 'exo-peptides' containing amino acids that are rare on Earth, and tested whether a mammal immune system could detect them. (express.co.uk)
  • Dually perfused human placental lobules were employed to study the effects of vesamicol (an inhibitor of acetylcholine (ACh) storage) and physostigmine (an inhibitor of cholinesterase breakdown of ACh) on ACh output from fetal vessels and on materno-fetal transfer of the nonmetabolizable amino acid alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB). (edu.au)
  • 5. A method according to claim 2 wherein the N-halo compound is selected from the group consisting of N-bromoglycine, N-iodoglycine, N-halosulfamic acid, N-halo 2-aminoethanol, N-halosarcosine, N-halotaurine, N-haloaminomethanesulfonic acidN-halo-N-acetyl glycine, N-halo octadecanyl glycine, N-halo alpha aminoisobutyric acid and N-halo ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • 16. A method according to claim 5 wherein the N-halo compound is N-halo alpha aminoisobutyric acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. (tudelft.nl)
  • By evaluating 150 key biomarkers and ratios, the ION Profile with 40 Amino Acids evaluates organic acids, fat-soluble vitamins, Coenzyme Q10, homocysteine, oxidative stress markers, nutrient and toxic elements, fatty acids, and amino acids. (gdx.net)
  • Ordinary white fat stores energy in the form of fat droplets, one droplet per adipocyte, which can be broken down by lipolysis into free fatty acids which are circulated into the blood stream and transported to the fuel-requiring tissue where they undergo beta-oxidation to acetyl-CoA which can be used to generate energy through the Krebs cycle. (anabolicminds.com)
  • and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. (springer.com)
  • while the free amino acids content was generally increased. (mdpi.com)
  • The potential of free amino acids, both proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic, as prostate cancer biomarkers and their utility in classification of study participants have been assessed. (medsci.org)
  • Since cancer cells are characterized by altered metabolic pathways, determination of low-molecular weight metabolites, such as free amino acids, in biological fluids can be a reduced invasive method associated to a high diagnostic potential [ 14 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Hill PMM, Young M. Net placental transfer of free amino acids against varying concentrations. (springer.com)
  • 61. The isolated peptide of claim 59, wherein, in General Formula 2, X16 is glutamic acid, X20 is lysine, and the side chains of X16 and X20 form a lactam ring. (patents.com)
  • Several reports have confirmed the compatibility of 2-aminoisobutyric acid with ribosomal elongation of peptide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An experiment was carried out to determine the flux of amino acids across the portal vein-drained tissue into and out of the plasma and red blood cell free amino acid pools and the plasma peptide pool of the portal vein blood of growing pigs. (tudelft.nl)
  • Total flux of amino acids were higher (P=0.02) in the plasma (55.7 vs 1.9 mmol/h) and plasma peptide (123.2 vs -1.2 mmol/h) pools of portal vein blood of fed compared to unfed pigs, respectively. (tudelft.nl)
  • A substantial proportion of the amino acids in the plasma peptide pool of portal vein blood of fed pigs were of dietary origin based on a similar amino acid profile to that of wheat gluten. (tudelft.nl)
  • In conclusion, the plasma free amino acid and plasma peptide pools, and probably the red blood cell free amino acid pool, of portal vein blood are involved in the flux of amino acids across the portal vein-drained tissue of pigs. (tudelft.nl)
  • 64. The isolated peptide of claim 59, which comprises an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOS: 12, 13, 15, and 36 to 44. (patents.com)
  • Amphipathic glycopeptides, the amino acid sequence of which comprises an N-terminal opioid message sequence, a C-terminal helical address sequence, and a linker sequence between the message sequence and the helical address sequence, where the C-terminal helical address sequence has a length of nine amino acids, and at least one of the amino acid residues of the peptide is glycosylated. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In addition, there are a number of other disorders of amino acid and organic acid metabolism, including those involving beta- and gamma-amino acids , the gamma-glutamyl cycle , glycine , histidine , lysine , proline and hydroxyproline , and miscellaneous other amino acid disorders . (merckmanuals.com)
  • Elevated levels of BAIB have been suggested to contribute to neurological and developmental problems, as BAIB is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine--two major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system [ PMID 15385443 ]. (snpedia.com)
  • 3. A method according to claim 2 wherein there is also present the free glycine, sulfamic acid or organic nitrogen compound in an amount of 1 to 14 moles per mole of N-halo compound. (patentgenius.com)
  • We studied the activity of the syncytiotrophoblast amino acid transporter system A and the transport of the essential amino acids leucine, lysine, and taurine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • All of these compounds utilize, or derive from, the essential amino acids provided by the diet. (directlabs.com)
  • Healthy kidneys efficiently conserve essential amino acids. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • Endogenous levels of d -serine are reduced in the hippocampus with aging, that correlates with a weaker expression of serine racemase synthesizing the amino acid. (frontiersin.org)
  • β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. (harvard.edu)
  • The presented research provides a strong evidence that ethanolamine, arginine and branched-chain amino acids metabolic pathways can be a valuable source of markers for prostate cancer. (medsci.org)
  • Hyper-BAIB is an autosomal recessive phenotype that is distinguished by high urinary excretion levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid [ PMID 10819024 ]. (snpedia.com)
  • Uptake of the nonmetabolizable amino acid analog methylaminoisobutyrate was unaffected by treatment with the drug under identical conditions. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM, which may be used in placental metabolism or be delivered to the fetus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, as a major storage site for glucose, lipids and amino acids, muscle is an essential coordinator of whole-body energy metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has a number of functions in the body, including influencing muscle fiber type determination, controlling lactate metabolism, and increasing amino acid breakdown in response to exercise stimulus. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Screening infants for increased levels of amino acids can help detect problems with metabolism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Defects in metabolism of amino acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first morning void analysis is excellent for identification of marked abnormalities, particularly with respect to gastrointestinal health, inherited disorders in amino acid metabolism, and renal function, and can be used for protein challenge testing. (integrativepsychiatry.net)
  • The patented formulation combines ease of use with unprecedented chemical stability, providing you with the confidence you require when evaluating concentrations of amino acids for diagnosis and monitoring of in born errors of metabolism (IEMs). (biochrom.co.uk)
  • Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is the end product of pyrimidine metabolism. (snpedia.com)
  • Very often, the stereoselectivity of these reactions is remarkably high, even when the chiral carbon atom is remote from the carboxylic acid group. (tudelft.nl)
  • An increase in pot life is also observed if a keto group is present in the copolymer rather than in the solvent, or if the solvent contains a carboxylic acid group. (google.es)
  • N-haloamines also containing a hydroxy group, a sulfonic acid group, and N-acyl group or a carboxylic acid group are useful in treating teeth to remove caries, dissolve or remove plaque, to help in the prevention of calculus formation and in the brightening of teeth. (patentgenius.com)
  • abstract = "Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. (wur.nl)
  • β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through AMPK-mediated pathway. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes through AMPK-mediated pathway. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Amino acids are more potent stimulators of fetal insulin release than glucose ( 17 - 19 ), and changes in amino acid delivery to the fetus may have profound effects on fetal growth rate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid originating from the catabolism of thymine and valine. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Two non-protein amino acids, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) at 100 and 1 mM were applied to longan fruit prior to storage for up to 8 days at 25 °C respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apparent ileal digestibility coefficients for dry matter (aDC DM), crude protein (aDC CP) and amino acids (aDC AA) in six diets, formulated with maize, wheat gluten, faba beans, lupins, soybean meal and casein as the main protein sources were determined in the ileostomised roosters fitted with silicon cannulas. (tudelft.nl)
  • There is sufficient evidence that ileal rather than fecal amino acid digestibility values provide a more reliable estimate of protein digestion and amino acid absorption. (tudelft.nl)
  • We hypothesize that IUGR is associated with (1) inhibition of placental mTORC1 and mTORC2 signalling pathways, (2) increased amino acid transporter ubiquitination in placental homogenates and (3) decreased protein expression of SNAT-2 in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (MVM). (portlandpress.com)
  • Beta-aminoisobutyric acid increases the production of a protein called leptin, which has been found to help protect brain cells from damage caused by toxins, inflammation, and other factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • EZ Nin is also unaffected by complex sample matrices allowing for excellent amino acid analysis of protein hydrolysates. (biochrom.co.uk)
  • The concentrations of γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) were too low to be measured reliably. (deepdyve.com)
  • The Amino Acids Analysis nutritional test helps to identify metabolic imbalances underlying many chronic disorders. (directlabs.com)
  • With the precise results and comprehensive commentary provided, nutritional deficiencies, metabolic impairments, and amino acid transport disorders can be accurately identified and corrected. (directlabs.com)
  • Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine , catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase . (wikipedia.org)
  • The test may also be used to look for decreased levels of amino acids in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Increased or decreased levels of amino acids in the blood may occur with fevers, inadequate nutrition, and certain medical conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers examined the reaction of T cells, which are key to immune responses, to the amino acids isovaline and α-aminoisobutyric acid. (express.co.uk)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall . (genecards.org)
  • Synthesis and x-ray analysis of cis-3,4-methylene-L-proline, the new natural amino acid from horse chestnuts, and of its trans isomer. (nih.gov)
  • 2016. "Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition. (harvard.edu)
  • Aminoisobutyric acid may refer to either of two isomeric chemical compounds: 2-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) 3-Aminoisobutyric acid This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • gamma-Keto acids are organic compounds containing an aldehyde substituted with a keto group on the C4 carbon atom. (hmdb.ca)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gamma-keto acids and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • The concentrations of the remaining amino acids were within their respective reference intervals. (aacc.org)
  • Over 70 different amino acids have been detected in Murchison, the majority of which have no known terrestrial occurrence ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesised that lifeforms that evolved in an environment of different amino acids might contain them in their structure. (express.co.uk)
  • Ureidosuccinic acid as a precursor of nucleic acid pyrimidines in normal and tumor-bearing mice. (springer.com)
  • Orotic acid as a precursor of pyrimidines in the rat. (springer.com)
  • This differential distribution of amino acids was abolished by a single injection of MSO that caused a decrease in glutamine and an increase in glutamate levels in NPE compared with PE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The organic compound citrulline is an α- amino acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrial scale synthesis can be achieved by the selective hydroamination of methacrylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis and examination of a systematic series of 5-substituted 2-keto oxazoles as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) defined a fundamental substituent effect that led to the discovery of inhibitors with Ki's as low as 400 pM. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The nucleoside uridine is well known for its role in critical cellular functions such as nucleic acid synthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Utilization of purines for nucleic acid synthesis in bone marrow slices. (springer.com)
  • For ileal aDC AA, the explained part of the variation between roosters and pigs, ranged from 62 to 96%, depending on the particular amino acids, with the exception of aDC of Arg. (tudelft.nl)
  • An increased level of a particular amino acid is a strong sign. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This amino acid distribution plus an observed strong labeling of EAAT3 in the interface between the PE and the NPE cell layers indicate that EAAT3 mediates the uptake of glutamate from the blood. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition to these routes of production, AKG can be produced from glutamate by oxidative deamination via glutamate dehydrogenase, and as a product of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent transamination reactions (mediated by branched-chain amino acid transaminases) in which glutamate is a common amino donor. (hmdb.ca)
  • PALMITOLEIC ACID METHYL ESTER (CAS 1120-25-8) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on palmitoleic acid methyl ester market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report includes palmitoleic acid methyl ester description, covers its application areas, manufacturing methods, patents. (marketpublishers.com)
  • It captures palmitoleic acid methyl ester market trends, pays close attention to palmitoleic acid methyl ester manufacturers and names suppliers. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Besides, the report provides palmitoleic acid methyl ester prices in regional markets. (marketpublishers.com)
  • In addition to the above the report determines palmitoleic acid methyl ester consumers. (marketpublishers.com)
  • PALMITOLEIC ACID METHYL ESTER (CAS 1120-25-8) Market Research Report 2018 contents were prepared and placed on the website in January, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that PALMITOLEIC ACID METHYL ESTER (CAS 1120-25-8) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The remaining purines are degraded by a battery of enzymes present in the intestinal mucosa which includes XDH, thereby ensuring their conversion into uric acid prior to absorption. (els.net)
  • Biosynthesis of nucleic acid purines. (springer.com)
  • Formation of nucleic acid purines from hypoxanthine and formate in bone marrow slices. (springer.com)
  • Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3. (uspto.gov)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Norvaline is an isomer of the more common amino acid valine. (drugbank.ca)
  • To enhance our knowledge of CI carbonaceous chondrites, we report here the results of amino acid analyses of Orgueil and Ivuna by using highly sensitive analytical techniques recently developed to study meteorites ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the present study, amino acid analyses, targeted and non-targeted analyses by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography-MS were used to analyze and compare the composition of untreated C. Radix and C. Radix treated with PGR. (mdpi.com)
  • Several possible methods could be used for in situ amino acid analyses on Mars, but capillary electrophoresis would likely be the most suitable because it can be easily miniaturized and has small reagent and power requirements. (usra.edu)
  • The effects of the oral hypoglycemic drug metformin on glucose and amino acid transporter activity and subcellular localization of GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporters were tested in cultured L6 myotubes. (nih.gov)
  • 2-Aminoisobutyric acid, or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methylalanine or 2-methylalanine, is the non-proteinogenic amino acid with the structural formula H2N-C(CH3)2-COOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Aminoisobutyric acid is not one of the proteinogenic amino acids and is rather rare in nature (cf. non-proteinogenic amino acids). (wikipedia.org)