A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.

Changes in renal haemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during acute hyperkalemia in conscious adrenalectomized sheep. (1/75)

The p-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance, inulin clearance and the excretion of electrolytes by 10 adrenalectomized sheep were measured before, during and after the infusion of 0-43 M-KCl at 2 ml./min for 2 hr. The PAH clearance increased as the plasma potassium concentration increased up to approximately 6-0 m-mole/l. Further increases in plasma potassium were associated with a progressive return of the PAH clearance to or below the pre-infusion levels. At its maximum the PAH clearance was 1-228 +/- 0-032 (S.E. of mean) times the pre-infusion levels. The inulin clearance increased to reach a mazimum coincident with or subsequent to the maximum PAH clearance. The maximum level of inulin clearance during the hyperkalaemia was 1-158 +/- 0-020 times the pre-infusion clearance. The increments in the clearance of potassium and of bicarbonate rose rapidly to exceed the increment in inulin clearance during the hyperkalaemia in all experiments. The increments in the clearance of sodium and of chloride exceeded the increment in inulin clearance in more than half the experiments. It was concluded that although hyperkalaemia was associated with increased glomerular filtration much of the increased excretion of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate was derived from depressed tubular reabsorption of the ions. When the infusion experiments were repeated on the same animals the sheep demonstrated an improved ability to control the rise in plasma potassium concentration which was similar to potassium adaptation described in other species. There were no apparent differences between sheep maintained on 1-5 mg and 5 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate daily in their adaptation to potassium loading and the effect was tentatively attributed to the level of steroid maintenance being chronically high. The toxicity of hyperkalaemia was not lessened by this adaptation to potassium loading.  (+info)

Renal excretion of monovalent cations during functional adrenalectomy in conscious sheep. (2/75)

In sheep with both adrenals removed and one re-implanted in the neck, functional adrenalectomy was produced in conscious undisturbed animals by occluding the blood supply to the transplanted gland. Functional adrenalectomy caused a fall in potassium excretion and a very large increase in sodium excretion and was reversed by aldosterone. Hydrocortisone infusions slightly increased potassium excretion and reduced solute-free water reabsorption. Preliminary evidence suggests that potassium secretion into urine was still occurring during the 8 hr period of adrenal occlusion and functional adrenalectomy.  (+info)

The transport of para-aminohippuric acid by the ciliary body and by the iris of the primate eye. (3/75)

Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) accumulates against a concentration gradient in the ciliary body and independently in the iris of the rhesus monkey eye. This accumulation is inhibited by incubation of 0 degrees C and shows saturation kinetics in both tissues. Cyanide, ouabain, dinitrophenol, iodopyracet, and probenecid effectively depress PAH uptake in both tissues, but anaerobic incubation conditions have little effect on uptake in either tissue. The washout of preaccumulated PAH occurs 2.5 times faster from the iris than from the ciliary body. The effects on washout of 10(-4)M PAH, 0 degrees C, and 10(-5)M dinitrophenol are consistent with washout occurring by a diffusional mechanism in both tissues, with some reaccumulation occurring in the ciliary body only. In addition, nonsaturable uptake of PAH, studied in both tissues under high PAH concentrations, also occurs significantly faster in the iris than in the ciliary body. The kinetic analysis of active PAH uptake in both tissues is discussed in terms of initial uptake and in terms of a steady-state model. This steady-state model compensates for some technical problems in applying in vitro incubation techniques to primate tissues and also includes a correction for the additional exchange processes that affect the two tissues differently. Results of the kinetic analysis suggest that, at least to an order of magnitude, iris uptake is significant with respect to ciliary body uptake.  (+info)

Inhibition of renal tubular transport of methotrexate by probenecid. (4/75)

The mechanism of excretion of methotrexate (MTX) has been investigated in the monkey. Under steady-state conditions of varied plasma levels of MTX, it was determined that MTX was excreted by renal tubular transport as well as by glomerular filtration. The maximum rate of renal tubular transport of MTX (81 mug/min) was attained at plasma levels of MTX from 6 to 8 mug/ml. Correspondingly, the rate of clearance of MTX from plasma was shown to diminish from a value that was 3-fold greater than the glomerular filtration rate at plasma levels of MTX from 6 to 32 mug/ml. Pretreatment of animals with probenecid (700 mg/sq m) totally inhibited renal tubular transport of MTX when MTX was administered in doses from 1.8 to 621 mg/sq m. Following inhibition of renal tubular transport of MTX by probenecid, steady-state plasma levels of MTX in animals pretreated with probenecid (700 mg/sq m) was reduced by a factor of 2.6 from values determined in non-probenecid-pretreated control animals receiving similar varied doses of MTX (1.8 P to greater than 600 mg/sq m). The mode of i.v. injection of MTX was seen to effect the concentration of MTX in plasma. Initial loading followed by continuous sustaining infusion of MTX provided stable and higher levels of MTX in plasma than was determined in controls or in experimental animals pretreated with probenecid and receiving identical doses of MTX by single bolus injection.  (+info)

Characterization of tubular functional capacity in humans using para-aminohippurate and famotidine. (5/75)

BACKGROUND: Renal drug excretion by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion may be altered by factors such as acute and chronic renal disease, nephrotoxins, and drug interactions. Thus, accurate and reproducible methods for quantitation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular functional capacity are critical. METHODS: We utilized a four-step sequential infusion method to characterize anionic [para-aminohippurate (PAH)] and cationic (famotidine) tubular functional capacity in healthy volunteers. Filtration and secretion rates were quantitated from renal clearance and iothalamate-derived GFR determinations. RESULTS: Concentration-dependent renal clearance of PAH was observed at plasma concentrations> 100 mg/L; renal clearances were 442 +/- 131 (mean +/- SD), 423 +/- 94, 233 +/- 45, and 152 +/- 18 mL/min/1.73 m2 at plasma concentrations of 18 +/- 2, 92 +/- 5, 291 +/- 47 and 789 +/- 28 mg/L, respectively. The apparent affinity (Km) and maximum secretory capacity (TmPAH) were 141 +/- 70 mg/L and 71 +/- 16 mg/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The unbound renal clearance and tubular secretory clearance of famotidine were 384 +/- 70 and 329 +/- 78 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, and were not significantly correlated with the unbound plasma concentrations, which ranged from 126 to 2659 ng/mL. The rate of tubular secretion was linear at unbound plasma concentrations up to 2659 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that a sequential infusion method using PAH may be used to characterize the anionic secretory component of proximal tubular function. The tubular clearance of famotidine may be a suitable index of the cationic secretory capacity of the proximal tubule in humans. Saturation of the cationic secretory pathway was not observed, and further investigation into parallel pathways of cationic secretion, such as p-glycoprotein, may be warranted.  (+info)

Renal intracortical blood flow distribution, function, and sodium excretion in unanesthetized dogs following vena caval ligation. (6/75)

We studied the renal function and the intrarenal blood flow of nine dogs whose thoracic inferior vena cava had been previously ligated (caval dogs) and nine other dogs. Following preparative surgery which included placement of a left atrial catheter, a femoral artery catheter, and bilateral ureteral catheters, the caval dogs gained an average of 2.1 kg of fluid weight, whereas the normal dogs gained no weight. Although neither the caval dogs' blood pressure (114 plus or minus 7 vs 120 plus or minus 4 mm Hg) nor their inulin clearance (0.64 plus or minus 0.06 vs. 0.79 plus or minus 0.06 ml/min g-1 kidney weight) was significantly reduced, their estimated renal blood flow (Cpah/[1-hematocrit]) was considerably lower (2.30 plus or minus 0.24 vs. 3.25 plus or minus 0.15 ml/min g-1). During the clearance study, the caval dogs' excretion of sodium (79 plus or minus 18 vs. 158 plus or minus 17 muEq/min) and their fractional clearance of sodium (2.0 plus or minus 0.4 vs. 3.4 plus or minus 0.5%) were reduced. Studies with microspheres failed to demonstrate a selective decrease in blood flow. However, comparison studies of nine other dogs (five caval and four normal) demonstrated that microsphere results were less reproducible in caval dogs than they were in normal dogs. We have concluded taht reduced blood flow is the only consistent alteration of renal function in this edematous animal model and that previous suggestions of altered distribution are not supported by these studies.  (+info)

The effect of insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in man. (7/75)

The effects of insulin on the renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate were studied in man while maintaining the blood glucose concentration at the fasting level by negative feedback servocontrol of a variable glucose infusion. In studies on six water-loaded normal subjects in a steady state of water diuresis, insulin was administered i.v. to raise the plasma insulin concentration to between 98 and 193 muU/ml and infused at a constant rate of 2 mU/kg body weight per min over a total period of 120 min. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly altered, and there was no change in the filtered load of glucose; glomerular filtration rate (CIN) and renal plasma flow (CPAH) were unchanged. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased from 401 plus or minus 46 (SEM) to 213 plus or minus 18 mueq/min during insulin administration, the change becoming significant (P smaller than 0.02) within the 30-60 min collection period. Free water clearance (CH2O) increased from 10.6 plus or minus 0.6 to 13 plus or minus 0.5 ml/min (P smaller than 0.025); osmolar clearance decreased and urine flow was unchanged. There was no change in plasma aldosterone concentration, which was low throughout the studies, and a slight reduction was observed in plasma glucagon concentration. Urinary potassium (UKV) and phosphate (UPV) excretion were also both decreased during insulin administration; UKV decreased from 66 plus or minus 9 to 21 plus or minus 1 mueq/min (P smaller than 0.005), and tupv decreased from 504 plus or minus 93 to 230 plus or minus 43 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). The change in UKV was associated with a significant reduction in plasma potassium concentration. There was also a statistically significant but small reduction in plasma phosphate concentration which was not considered sufficient alone to account for the large reduction in UPV. Urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) increased from 126 plus or minus 24 to 200 plus or minus 17 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). These studies demonstrate a reduction in UNaV associated with insulin administration that occurs in the absence of changes in the filtered load of glucose, glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The effect of insulin on CH2O suggests that insulin's effect on sodium excretion is due to enhancement of sodium reabsorption in the diluting segment of the distal nephron.  (+info)

Dependence of p-aminohippurate transport on calcium in canine renal cortical slices. (8/75)

1. Experiments were conducted on renal cortical slices from sixty-one adult mongrel dogs in order to evaluate the relationship between p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport and calcium. Tissues were found to be viable for at least 180 min.2. PAH uptake and the slice/medium (S/M) concentration ratio increased in normal tissues from 3 to 90 min whether data were expressed on a tissue weight or protein content basis. PAH uptake increased with time in calcium-depleted tissues, but all values were lower than normal. At 90 min, PAH S/M in calcium-depleted tissues (4.20 +/- 0.18) was reduced 40% compared to normal tissues (6.90 +/- 0.23).3. Over the time period of 3-90 min incubation, protein concentration ranged from 89.4 to 99.4 mg/g cortex in calcium-depleted tissues. During the same time period in normal tissues, protein concentration ranged from 105 to 117.6 mg/g cortex. No change was observed in medium protein concentration of calcium-depleted tissues.4. Lineweaver-Burke analysis showed similar values for K(m) in normal and calcium-depleted tissues (0.45-0.50 mumole ml.(-1)) although V(max) fell from control values of 0.082 to 0.052 mumole g(-1) min(-1) during calcium depletion.5. After 90 min incubation, addition of EGTA (7, 14 or 21 x 10(-3)M) to media containing calcium was associated with decreased S/M and uptake rates compared to control values from the same animals. The decreases observed were similar to those seen in tissues incubated in calcium-free media.6. Increased cell volume in the presence of calcium was not associated with decreased PAH uptake. Removal of calcium in association with constant cell volume was associated with reduced PAH uptake. Replacement of calcium, but not magnesium, is associated with a return of uptake to normal rates.7. It is concluded that (a) calcium removal causes increased water uptake into cells, (b) calcium removal causes a reduced V(max), (c) calcium is required for maintenance of intracellular PAH, (d) the effect of calcium on PAH is specific and reversible, and (e) the effect of calcium is not mediated by volume changes.  (+info)

Aminohippuric acids are a type of organic compound that contain both an amino group and a hippuric acid group in their chemical structure. Hippuric acid is a derivative of benzoic acid, which is conjugated with glycine in the body. Aminohippuric acids are primarily known for their use as diagnostic agents in renal function tests.

The most common aminohippuric acid is p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), which is used as a marker to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in the kidneys. PAH is freely filtered by the glomeruli and then actively secreted by the proximal tubules of the nephrons, making it an ideal agent for measuring ERPF.

In a renal function test using PAH, a small dose of the compound is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and its concentration in the blood is measured over time. By analyzing the clearance rate of PAH from the blood, healthcare providers can estimate the ERPF and assess kidney function.

Overall, aminohippuric acids are important diagnostic tools for evaluating renal function and identifying potential kidney-related health issues.

... or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical ... Aminohippuric acid is often used as the sodium salt sodium para-aminohippurate. During World War II, para-aminohippurate was ... Alpha-Amino acids, Amino acid derivatives, Anilines, Benzamides, Acetic acids). ... Beyer KH, Flippin H, Verwey WF, Woodward R (1944-12-16). "The effect of para-aminohippuric acid on plasma concentration of ...
para-Aminohippuric acid ortho-Iodohippuric acid Methylhippuric acid (three different isomers) Wishart, David S.; Guo, An Chi; ... Hippuric acid is readily hydrolysed by hot caustic alkalis to benzoic acid and glycine. Nitrous acid converts it into benzoyl ... hippuric acid is produced from benzoic acid by direct glycine acylation. It is one of the two conjugates of benzoic acid ... they are converted to hippuric acid by reaction with the amino acid, glycine. A modern synthesis of hippuric acid involves the ...
Starting material is 4-aminohippuric acid, obtained by coupling para-aminobenzoic acid and glycine. That product is then ... Reaction of this species with salicylic acid proceeds at the position para to the phenol to give balsalazide. "Colazide 750mg ... Balsalazide releases mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, or 5-ASA, in the large intestine. Its advantage over that ... treated with nitrous acid to give the diazonium salt. ...
2000). "p-aminohippuric acid transport at renal apical membrane mediated by human inorganic phosphate transporter NPT1". ...
It is informative to contrast the properties of inulin with those of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). PAH is partially filtered ... Andoh A.; Tsujikawa T.; Fujiyama Y. (2003). "Role of dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids in the colon". Curr. Pharm. Des ... Arifuzzaman, Mohammad (2022). "Inulin fibre promotes microbiota-derived bile acids and type 2 inflammation". Nature. 611 (7936 ...
... (ortho-iodohippurate, OIH) is an analog of p-aminohippuric acid for the determination of effective ... "Compound Summary for CID 8614: 2-Iodohippuric acid". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of ...
For instance, para aminohippuric acid (PAH) is almost completely excreted in the final urine, and thus almost none is found in ...
N-acetylprocainamide-N-oxide and N-acetyl-4-aminohippuric acid are also metabolites of procainamide. 4-amino-N-2-(diethylamino) ... These are aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives consisting of an amide with a benzamide moiety and a triethylamine attached to ... Other metabolites of procainamide include desethyl-N-acetylprocainamide, desethylprocainamide, p-aminobenzoic acid, which are ... N-acetyl-4-aminobenzoic acid as well as N-acetyl-3-hydroxyprocainamide, ...
... and others that secrete para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). However, its ability to do so is proportionate to the channel proteins ...
... aminohippuric acids MeSH D02.065.277.431.192.100 - p-aminohippuric acid MeSH D02.065.277.431.579 - iodohippuric acid MeSH ... aminohippuric acids MeSH D02.241.607.360.192.100 - p-aminohippuric acid MeSH D02.241.607.360.579 - iodohippuric acid MeSH ... aminohippuric acids MeSH D02.241.223.100.120.067.100 - p-aminohippuric acid MeSH D02.241.223.100.120.135 - cisapride MeSH ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ...
Paha or PAHA may also refer to: PAHA or para-aminohippuric acid Paha (landform), a hill or ridge, typically formed of sand and ...
Para-aminohippuric acid clearance, a measurement of renal plasma flow Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia, a potential complication ...
Sulpiride Sultopride Tiapride Opioids AH-7921 Bromadoline U-47700 U-77891 Others 3-Aminobenzamide aminohippuric acid Chidamide ... It is the simplest amide derivative of benzoic acid. In powdered form, it appears as a white solid, while in crystalline form, ...
... and other polyfructosans V04CH02 Indigo carmine V04CH03 Phenolsulfonphthalein V04CH04 Alsactide V04CH30 Aminohippuric acid ... V04CK03 Bentiromide QV04CV01 Lobeline V04CM01 Gonadorelin V04CX01 Indocyanine green V04CX02 Folic acid V04CX03 Methacholine ...
Aminohippuric acid or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical ... Aminohippuric acid is often used as the sodium salt sodium para-aminohippurate. During World War II, para-aminohippurate was ... Alpha-Amino acids, Amino acid derivatives, Anilines, Benzamides, Acetic acids). ... Beyer KH, Flippin H, Verwey WF, Woodward R (1944-12-16). "The effect of para-aminohippuric acid on plasma concentration of ...
"가토 신피질 절편에서 PAH(ρ-aminohippuric acid) 이동에 미치는 음이온의 영향 의 이용 수, 등재여부, 발행기관, 저자, 초록, 목차, 참고문헌 등 논문에 관한 다양한 정보 및 관련논문 목록과 논문의 분야별 ... 대한생리학회 대한생리학회지 제19권 제1호 가토 신피질 절편에서 PAH(ρ-aminohippuric acid) 이동에 미치는 음이온의 영향 ... 가토 신피질 절편에서 PAH(ρ-aminohippuric acid) 이동에 미치는 음이온의 영향 Effects of Anions on PAH Transport in Rabbit Kidney Cortical Slices ... The effects of anions on net accumulation of (ρ-aminohippuric acid)(PAH) were studied in rabbit kidney cortical slices. ...
... p-Aminohippuric acid, N-(4-Aminobenzoyl)glycine, PAH, N-(p-Aminobenzoyl)aminoacetic Acid, 4-Aminohippurate, Nefrotest with the ... CH$NAME: p-Aminohippuric acid. CH$NAME: N-(4-Aminobenzoyl)glycine. CH$NAME: PAH. CH$NAME: N-(p-Aminobenzoyl)aminoacetic Acid. ... p-Aminohippuric acid, N-(4-Aminobenzoyl)glycine, PAH, N-(p-Aminobenzoyl)aminoacetic Acid, 4-Aminohippurate, Nefrotest; LC-ESI- ... RECORD_TITLE: p-Aminohippuric acid, N-(4-Aminobenzoyl)glycine, PAH, N-(p-Aminobenzoyl)aminoacetic Acid, 4-Aminohippurate, ...
Uchino H, Tamai I, Yamashita K, Minemoto Y, Sai Y, Yabuuchi H, Miyamoto KI, Takeda E, and Tsuji A (2000) p-Aminohippuric acid ... ABBREVIATIONS: PAH, para-aminohippuric acid; hOAT, human organic anion transporter; PGF2α, prostaglandin F2α; rOAT, rat organic ... ethacrynic acid, furosemide, and methazolamide. In contrast, hOAT2 exhibited the lowest affinity for ethacrynic acid, ... in the tubular secretion of diuretics has been suggested in studies including bumetanide inhibition of para-aminohippuric acid ...
Amoxicillin and cefaclor inhibited hOAT1-mediated [3H]para-aminohippuric acid uptake (Ki = 11.0 and 1.15 mM, respectively). ... para-aminohippuric acid; YFP, yellow fluorescence protein; MDCK, Madin-Darby canine kidney; RFP, red fluorescence protein; MES ... 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid; LC/MS, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; MSD, mass selective detector. ...
Barium promotes the reaction [SLC22A12 protein results in increased uptake of p-Aminohippuric Acid]. CTD. PMID:15284287. NCBI ... fatty acid binding protein 4. decreases expression. EXP. Barium Sulfate results in decreased expression of FABP4 mRNA. CTD. ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester promotes the reaction ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester inhibits the reaction ...
It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.. Terms. Organic Anion ... It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.. Entry Term(s). OAT1 ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * Carrier Proteins [D12.776.157] * Membrane Transport Proteins [ ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins [D12] * Proteins [D12.776] * Carrier Proteins [D12.776.157] * Membrane Transport Proteins [ ...
Aminohippuric acid. The excretion of Stavudine can be decreased when combined with Aminohippuric acid. ... Alendronic acid. The risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Alendronic acid is ... Acetylsalicylic acid. The excretion of Stavudine can be decreased when combined with Acetylsalicylic acid. ... Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, ...
Studies in para-aminohippuric acid synthesis in the human: its application as a liver function test. J Clin Invest. 1950;29(8): ... Metabolism of 11C-PABA. PABA is predominantly conjugated to glycine to form para-aminohippuric acid (PAHA) by the glycine N- ... 11C-Para-aminobenzoic acid PET imaging of S. aureus and MRSA infection in preclinical models and humans. Alvaro A. Ordonez,1,2 ... The use of p-aminobenzoic acid as a probe substance for the targeted profiling of glycine conjugation. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. ...
Probenecid has also been reported to inhibit the renal transport of many other compounds including aminohippuric acid (PAH), ... As uric acid tends to crystallize out of an acid urine, a liberal fluid intake is recommended, as well as sufficient sodium ... aminosalicylic acid (PAS), indomethacin, sodium iodomethamate and related iodinated organic acids, 17-ketosteroids, pantothenic ... It inhibits the tubular reabsorption of urate, thus increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid and decreasing serum urate ...
... also has been reported to inhibit the renal transport of many other compounds including aminohippuric acid (PAH), ... As uric acid tends to crystallize out of an acid urine, a liberal fluid intake is recommended, as well as sufficient sodium ... aminosalicylic acid (PAS), indomethacin, sodium iodomethamate and related iodinated organic acids, 17 -ketosteroids, ... It inhibits the tubular reabsorption of urate, thus increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid and decreasing serum urate ...
acid answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... para-aminohippuric acid. para-aminohippuric acid. para-aminohippuric acid. ABBR: PAH, PAHA C9H10N2O3, a derivative of ... nonvolatile acid. nonvolatile acid. nonvolatile acid. An acid, such as lactic acid or sulfuric acid, that accumulates in the ... organic acid. organic acid. organic acid. An acid containing the carboxyl radical, -COOH. Organic acids include acetic acid, ...
... as well as competitive transport with para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a substrate for renal organic anion transporters, was ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for non-invasive biomonitoring of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 ... Biomonitoring; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; In vitro study; Animals; Laboratory animals; Proteins; Protein chemistry; Models ... Evaluation of non-invasive biomonitoring of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in saliva. ...
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography vs para-aminohippuric acid clearance. Marcel H. A. Muskiet, Anna L. Emanuel, Mark M. Smits, ... Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography vs para-aminohippuric acid clearance. / Muskiet, Marcel H. A.; Emanuel, Anna L.; Smits, Mark ... derived from para-aminohippuric acid-clearance methodology. Results: On Day-A, effective renal plasma flow increased by 68 [26- ... derived from para-aminohippuric acid-clearance methodology. Results: On Day-A, effective renal plasma flow increased by 68 [26- ...
It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID. ... Pombrio JM, Giangreco A, Li L, Wempe MF, Anders MW, Sweet DH, Pritchard JB, Ballatori N. Mercapturic acids (N-acetylcysteine S- ...
... p-aminohippuric acid, sulfobromophthalein, ibuprofen, furosemide, bumetanide and azidothymidine were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO ... No significant uptake of [14C]valproic acid, [14C]succinate, [3H]glucuronic acid, [3H]ibuprofen, [14C]TEA, and [3H]acyclovir ... hOAT3 cDNA consisted of 2179 base pairs encoding a 543-amino-acid residue protein. Figure 1 shows the deduced amino acid ... glucuronic acid (185 GBq/mmol), [14C]glutarate (2.0 GBq/mmol), [3H]ibuprofen (18.5 TBq/mmol), [14C]uric acid (1.85 GBq/mmol), ...
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Para-Aminohippuric Acid. *Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide. *Partial Pressure of Oxygen ...
... increased serum levels of free fatty acids decreased chloride excretion; decreased para-aminohippuric acid; (PAH) clearance ... increased serum levels of free fatty acids decreased chloride excretion; decreased para-aminohippuric acid; (PAH) clearance ... The effects of diazoxide on the hematopoietic system and the level of serum uric acid should be kept in mind; the latter should ... Tachycardia, palpitations, increased levels of serum uric acid are common.. *Thrombocytopenia with or without purpura may ...
p-aminohippuric acid multiple interactions. ISO. RGD:1551797. 6480464. p-Aminohippuric Acid inhibits the reaction [SLC22A20 ... cholic acid increases expression. ISO. RGD:1551797. 6480464. Cholic Acid results in increased expression of SLC22A20 mRNA. CTD ... aristolochic acid A increases expression. ISO. RGD:1602395. 6480464. aristolochic acid I results in increased expression of ... valproic acid increases methylation. ISO. RGD:1602395. 6480464. Valproic Acid results in increased methylation of SLC22A20 gene ...
Synonym: 4-Aminohippuric acid sodium salt hydrate Molecular Formula: C9H9N2NaO3•xH2O Molecular Weight: 216.17 ...
p-Aminohippuric Acid. *Parathyroid Glands. *Parathyroid Hormone. *Perfusion. *Phenotype. *Physical Examination. *Pituitary ...
... mGFR and eRPF will be measured by the clearance of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), respectively. The primary endpoint ... Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq), real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), metabolic function, small interfering ribonucleic ... The CANA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis and lipid accumulation of free fatty acid-treated AML12 cells, accompanied by ... acid (siRNA) knockdown, and protein expression assays were used in mechanistic analyses. We found that canagliflozin inhibited ...
However, there are always a plethora of factors involved with this process which 4-Aminohippuric Acid have to become reassessed ... The last mentioned has become specifically essential in the framework of illnesses like tumor where common 4-Aminohippuric Acid ... Translation of the latter two genes is mediated by internal ribosome 4-Aminohippuric Acid entry sites (IRES; open boxes) from ... youll be able to distinguish between situations of cell loss of life able to stimulate immunogenicity 4-Aminohippuric Acid ( ...
This renal plasma flow calculator determines RPF by the clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) which is a measure of renal ... Determines RPF by the clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) which is a measure of renal function. ... methods because of the complexity of the determination with the involvement of renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH ... methods because of the complexity of the determination with the involvement of renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH ...
... p-aminohippuric acid (5 mM), did not. The neutral compounds, corticosterone (Ki, 7.0 microM) and midazolam (Ki, 3.7 microM) ...
In 4-Aminohippuric Acid the entire case from the IB assay, excellent results dominated in the IgG course. Excellent results ... The next symptoms of LD had 4-Aminohippuric Acid been observed: one EM (= 57), borrelial lymphocytoma (= 3), Lyme joint disease ... 4-Aminohippuric Acid p41, and p83 antigens. The IB assay can be an important element of LD serodiagnosis and really should be ... a 4-Aminohippuric Acid serological medical diagnosis was conducted. non-e from the LD sufferers had been treated with anti- ...
... particularly branched-chain amino acids, keto acids, and other catabolism metabolites. ... The LR diet increased concentrations of fecal and plasma total short-chain fatty acids, primarily acetate, and there was a ... Plasma and fecal short-chain fatty acids were targeted and quantified. Fecal microbiota was analyzed using genomic sequencing. ... hippuric acid, aminohippuric acid, hydroxyhippuric acid, hippuric acid glucuronide, cinnamoylglycine (Figure 9). Generally, it ...
Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate were measured using infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and a ... Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate were measured using infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and a ... GFR was measured using infusion-clearance technique of chromium-ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) or iohexol, and ...
"A condition in which the main influencing factor is an organic sodium salt that is the monosodium salt of p-aminohippuric acid ... Bile acids are steroid acids derived from cholesterol in the liver (primary) or produced from primary bile acids by intestinal ... ω-dicarboxylic acid that is hexadecanedioic acid carrying methyl groups at positions 3 and 14. It is a free fatty acid 1 (FFA1/ ... alpha-lipoic acid def: "Any condition in which the main influencing factor is alpha-lipoic acid, a heterocyclic thia fatty acid ...
  • It inhibits the tubular reabsorption of urate, thus increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid and decreasing serum urate levels. (nih.gov)
  • Probenecid also has been reported to inhibit the renal transport of many other compounds including aminohippuric acid (PAH), aminosalicylic acid (PAS), indomethacin, sodium iodomethamate and related iodinated organic acids, 17 -ketosteroids, pantothenic acid, phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), sulfonamides, and sulfonylureas. (nih.gov)
  • Aminohippuric acid is often used as the sodium salt sodium para-aminohippurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As shown in Table 1 , thiazide and loop diuretics, which carry as a common chemical characteristic a sulfamoyl group (sulfonamide diuretics), are weak organic acids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Pombrio JM, Giangreco A, Li L, Wempe MF, Anders MW, Sweet DH, Pritchard JB, Ballatori N. Mercapturic acids (N-acetylcysteine S-conjugates) as endogenous substrates for the renal organic anion transporter-1. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Amoxicillin and cefaclor inhibited hOAT1-mediated [ 3 H] para -aminohippuric acid uptake ( K i = 11.0 and 1.15 mM, respectively). (aspetjournals.org)
  • C 4 H 7 NO 4 , a nonessential amino acid. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The hOAT3 cDNA consisted of 2179 base pairs that encoded a 543-amino-acid residue protein with 12 putative transmembrane domains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of hOAT3 showed 36 to 51% identity to those of other members of the OAT family. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Glacial (highly purified) acetic acid contains at least 99.5% acetic acid by weight. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The chemical name for probenecid is 4-[(dipropylamino) sulfony1] benzoic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Probenecid is the generic name for 4-[(dipropyl-amino)sulfonyl] benzoic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Probenecid is uricosuric and renal tubular transport blocking agent.Probenecid is the generic name for 4-[(dipropyl-amino)sulfonyl] benzoic acid. (drugcentral.org)
  • Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate were measured using infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and a filtration marker, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatosplanchnic perfusion was assessed by using a primed continuous infusion of para-aminohippuric acid and jejunal intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide and was related to systemic hemodynamics. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • It is a building block of proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The excretion of Stavudine can be decreased when combined with Acetylsalicylic acid. (drugbank.com)
  • The acid is a known carcinogen, and its use has been associated with and may cause end-stage renal disease and cancers of the urinary tract that may occur many years after usage has stopped. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Any of the complex acids that occur as salts in bile, e.g., cholic, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Measurable changes in proximal tubule function, such as decreased clearance of para-aminohippuric acid also occur over a period of years and precede overt kidney failure. (testcatalog.org)
  • Aminohippuric acid or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical tests involving the kidney used in the measurement of renal plasma flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that unlike inulin and creatinine, which are filtered in the glomerulus and ignored by the rest of the kidney, aminohippuric acid is both filtered and secreted, being almost entirely removed from the bloodstream in a normal kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of anions on net accumulation of (ρ-aminohippuric acid)(PAH) were studied in rabbit kidney cortical slices. (kyobobook.co.kr)
  • Not recommended in persons with known blood dyscrasias or uric acid kidney stones. (nih.gov)
  • Hypersensitivity to probenecid.Children under years of age.Not recommended in persons with known blood dyscrasias or uric acid kidney stones.Therapy with probenecid should not be started until an acute gouty attack has subsided. (drugcentral.org)
  • In these cases when alkali is administered, the acid-base balance of the patient should be watched. (nih.gov)
  • Corticosteroids inhibit formation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids when cell membranes are damaged. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Renal cortical microvascular blood flow was compared with simultaneously measured effective renal plasma flow in humans, derived from para-aminohippuric acid-clearance methodology. (amsterdamumc.org)
  • Determines RPF by the clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) which is a measure of renal function. (mdapp.co)
  • Renal Plasma Flow (RPF) is a relevant measure of renal function but doesn't belong to the category of routine nephrological investigatory methods because of the complexity of the determination with the involvement of renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) or radionuclide methods. (mdapp.co)
  • H 3 BO 3 , a white crystalline acid that in water forms a very weak acid solution poisonous to plants and animals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • C 10 H 18 N 4 O 6 , a compound intermediate in the synthesis of arginine, formed from citrulline and aspartic acid. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Because the suggestions for drug screening process in antineoplastic remedies need evaluation of individual tumors xenotransplanted into immune-compromised 4-Aminohippuric Acid mice (5), the function from the immune system continues to be neglected (6), producing studies centered on the interplay between disease fighting capability and dying cells required. (treatmentforprostatecancer.info)
  • Evaluation of non-invasive biomonitoring of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in saliva. (cdc.gov)
  • ABBR: AHA Any of a class of water-soluble acids derived from fruit or milk, having a hydroxyl moiety in the first position in the molecule. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • it is practically insoluble in water and in dilute acids. (nih.gov)
  • However, there are always a plethora of factors involved with this process which 4-Aminohippuric Acid have to become reassessed and revisited carefully. (treatmentforprostatecancer.info)