p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Aminohippuric Acids: A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.Renal Plasma Flow: The amount of PLASMA that perfuses the KIDNEYS per unit time, approximately 10% greater than effective renal plasma flow (RENAL PLASMA FLOW, EFFECTIVE). It should be differentiated from the RENAL BLOOD FLOW; (RBF), which refers to the total volume of BLOOD flowing through the renal vasculature, while the renal plasma flow refers to the rate of plasma flow (RPF).Organic Anion Transport Protein 1: A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Abbreviations: Works consisting of lists of shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity. Acronyms are included here.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries, ChemicalAnimals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.4-Aminobenzoic Acid: An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.Renal Plasma Flow, Effective: The amount of PLASMA flowing to the parts of the KIDNEY that function in the production of urine. It is the amount of plasma perfusing the KIDNEY TUBULES per unit time, generally measured by P-AMINOHIPPURATE clearance. It should be differentiated from RENAL PLASMA FLOW which is approximately 10% greater than the effective renal plasma flow.meta-Aminobenzoates: Aminobenzoate derivatives that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 3 or 5 of the benzene ring structure.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Dihydroorotate Oxidase: An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.para-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure Monitors: Devices for continuously measuring and displaying the arterial blood pressure.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Rabeprazole: A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Esomeprazole: The S-isomer of omeprazole.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Unithiol: A chelating agent used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Changes in renal haemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during acute hyperkalemia in conscious adrenalectomized sheep. (1/75)

The p-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance, inulin clearance and the excretion of electrolytes by 10 adrenalectomized sheep were measured before, during and after the infusion of 0-43 M-KCl at 2 ml./min for 2 hr. The PAH clearance increased as the plasma potassium concentration increased up to approximately 6-0 m-mole/l. Further increases in plasma potassium were associated with a progressive return of the PAH clearance to or below the pre-infusion levels. At its maximum the PAH clearance was 1-228 +/- 0-032 (S.E. of mean) times the pre-infusion levels. The inulin clearance increased to reach a mazimum coincident with or subsequent to the maximum PAH clearance. The maximum level of inulin clearance during the hyperkalaemia was 1-158 +/- 0-020 times the pre-infusion clearance. The increments in the clearance of potassium and of bicarbonate rose rapidly to exceed the increment in inulin clearance during the hyperkalaemia in all experiments. The increments in the clearance of sodium and of chloride exceeded the increment in inulin clearance in more than half the experiments. It was concluded that although hyperkalaemia was associated with increased glomerular filtration much of the increased excretion of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate was derived from depressed tubular reabsorption of the ions. When the infusion experiments were repeated on the same animals the sheep demonstrated an improved ability to control the rise in plasma potassium concentration which was similar to potassium adaptation described in other species. There were no apparent differences between sheep maintained on 1-5 mg and 5 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate daily in their adaptation to potassium loading and the effect was tentatively attributed to the level of steroid maintenance being chronically high. The toxicity of hyperkalaemia was not lessened by this adaptation to potassium loading.  (+info)

Renal excretion of monovalent cations during functional adrenalectomy in conscious sheep. (2/75)

In sheep with both adrenals removed and one re-implanted in the neck, functional adrenalectomy was produced in conscious undisturbed animals by occluding the blood supply to the transplanted gland. Functional adrenalectomy caused a fall in potassium excretion and a very large increase in sodium excretion and was reversed by aldosterone. Hydrocortisone infusions slightly increased potassium excretion and reduced solute-free water reabsorption. Preliminary evidence suggests that potassium secretion into urine was still occurring during the 8 hr period of adrenal occlusion and functional adrenalectomy.  (+info)

The transport of para-aminohippuric acid by the ciliary body and by the iris of the primate eye. (3/75)

Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) accumulates against a concentration gradient in the ciliary body and independently in the iris of the rhesus monkey eye. This accumulation is inhibited by incubation of 0 degrees C and shows saturation kinetics in both tissues. Cyanide, ouabain, dinitrophenol, iodopyracet, and probenecid effectively depress PAH uptake in both tissues, but anaerobic incubation conditions have little effect on uptake in either tissue. The washout of preaccumulated PAH occurs 2.5 times faster from the iris than from the ciliary body. The effects on washout of 10(-4)M PAH, 0 degrees C, and 10(-5)M dinitrophenol are consistent with washout occurring by a diffusional mechanism in both tissues, with some reaccumulation occurring in the ciliary body only. In addition, nonsaturable uptake of PAH, studied in both tissues under high PAH concentrations, also occurs significantly faster in the iris than in the ciliary body. The kinetic analysis of active PAH uptake in both tissues is discussed in terms of initial uptake and in terms of a steady-state model. This steady-state model compensates for some technical problems in applying in vitro incubation techniques to primate tissues and also includes a correction for the additional exchange processes that affect the two tissues differently. Results of the kinetic analysis suggest that, at least to an order of magnitude, iris uptake is significant with respect to ciliary body uptake.  (+info)

Inhibition of renal tubular transport of methotrexate by probenecid. (4/75)

The mechanism of excretion of methotrexate (MTX) has been investigated in the monkey. Under steady-state conditions of varied plasma levels of MTX, it was determined that MTX was excreted by renal tubular transport as well as by glomerular filtration. The maximum rate of renal tubular transport of MTX (81 mug/min) was attained at plasma levels of MTX from 6 to 8 mug/ml. Correspondingly, the rate of clearance of MTX from plasma was shown to diminish from a value that was 3-fold greater than the glomerular filtration rate at plasma levels of MTX from 6 to 32 mug/ml. Pretreatment of animals with probenecid (700 mg/sq m) totally inhibited renal tubular transport of MTX when MTX was administered in doses from 1.8 to 621 mg/sq m. Following inhibition of renal tubular transport of MTX by probenecid, steady-state plasma levels of MTX in animals pretreated with probenecid (700 mg/sq m) was reduced by a factor of 2.6 from values determined in non-probenecid-pretreated control animals receiving similar varied doses of MTX (1.8 P to greater than 600 mg/sq m). The mode of i.v. injection of MTX was seen to effect the concentration of MTX in plasma. Initial loading followed by continuous sustaining infusion of MTX provided stable and higher levels of MTX in plasma than was determined in controls or in experimental animals pretreated with probenecid and receiving identical doses of MTX by single bolus injection.  (+info)

Characterization of tubular functional capacity in humans using para-aminohippurate and famotidine. (5/75)

BACKGROUND: Renal drug excretion by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion may be altered by factors such as acute and chronic renal disease, nephrotoxins, and drug interactions. Thus, accurate and reproducible methods for quantitation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular functional capacity are critical. METHODS: We utilized a four-step sequential infusion method to characterize anionic [para-aminohippurate (PAH)] and cationic (famotidine) tubular functional capacity in healthy volunteers. Filtration and secretion rates were quantitated from renal clearance and iothalamate-derived GFR determinations. RESULTS: Concentration-dependent renal clearance of PAH was observed at plasma concentrations> 100 mg/L; renal clearances were 442 +/- 131 (mean +/- SD), 423 +/- 94, 233 +/- 45, and 152 +/- 18 mL/min/1.73 m2 at plasma concentrations of 18 +/- 2, 92 +/- 5, 291 +/- 47 and 789 +/- 28 mg/L, respectively. The apparent affinity (Km) and maximum secretory capacity (TmPAH) were 141 +/- 70 mg/L and 71 +/- 16 mg/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The unbound renal clearance and tubular secretory clearance of famotidine were 384 +/- 70 and 329 +/- 78 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, and were not significantly correlated with the unbound plasma concentrations, which ranged from 126 to 2659 ng/mL. The rate of tubular secretion was linear at unbound plasma concentrations up to 2659 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that a sequential infusion method using PAH may be used to characterize the anionic secretory component of proximal tubular function. The tubular clearance of famotidine may be a suitable index of the cationic secretory capacity of the proximal tubule in humans. Saturation of the cationic secretory pathway was not observed, and further investigation into parallel pathways of cationic secretion, such as p-glycoprotein, may be warranted.  (+info)

Renal intracortical blood flow distribution, function, and sodium excretion in unanesthetized dogs following vena caval ligation. (6/75)

We studied the renal function and the intrarenal blood flow of nine dogs whose thoracic inferior vena cava had been previously ligated (caval dogs) and nine other dogs. Following preparative surgery which included placement of a left atrial catheter, a femoral artery catheter, and bilateral ureteral catheters, the caval dogs gained an average of 2.1 kg of fluid weight, whereas the normal dogs gained no weight. Although neither the caval dogs' blood pressure (114 plus or minus 7 vs 120 plus or minus 4 mm Hg) nor their inulin clearance (0.64 plus or minus 0.06 vs. 0.79 plus or minus 0.06 ml/min g-1 kidney weight) was significantly reduced, their estimated renal blood flow (Cpah/[1-hematocrit]) was considerably lower (2.30 plus or minus 0.24 vs. 3.25 plus or minus 0.15 ml/min g-1). During the clearance study, the caval dogs' excretion of sodium (79 plus or minus 18 vs. 158 plus or minus 17 muEq/min) and their fractional clearance of sodium (2.0 plus or minus 0.4 vs. 3.4 plus or minus 0.5%) were reduced. Studies with microspheres failed to demonstrate a selective decrease in blood flow. However, comparison studies of nine other dogs (five caval and four normal) demonstrated that microsphere results were less reproducible in caval dogs than they were in normal dogs. We have concluded taht reduced blood flow is the only consistent alteration of renal function in this edematous animal model and that previous suggestions of altered distribution are not supported by these studies.  (+info)

The effect of insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in man. (7/75)

The effects of insulin on the renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate were studied in man while maintaining the blood glucose concentration at the fasting level by negative feedback servocontrol of a variable glucose infusion. In studies on six water-loaded normal subjects in a steady state of water diuresis, insulin was administered i.v. to raise the plasma insulin concentration to between 98 and 193 muU/ml and infused at a constant rate of 2 mU/kg body weight per min over a total period of 120 min. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly altered, and there was no change in the filtered load of glucose; glomerular filtration rate (CIN) and renal plasma flow (CPAH) were unchanged. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased from 401 plus or minus 46 (SEM) to 213 plus or minus 18 mueq/min during insulin administration, the change becoming significant (P smaller than 0.02) within the 30-60 min collection period. Free water clearance (CH2O) increased from 10.6 plus or minus 0.6 to 13 plus or minus 0.5 ml/min (P smaller than 0.025); osmolar clearance decreased and urine flow was unchanged. There was no change in plasma aldosterone concentration, which was low throughout the studies, and a slight reduction was observed in plasma glucagon concentration. Urinary potassium (UKV) and phosphate (UPV) excretion were also both decreased during insulin administration; UKV decreased from 66 plus or minus 9 to 21 plus or minus 1 mueq/min (P smaller than 0.005), and tupv decreased from 504 plus or minus 93 to 230 plus or minus 43 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). The change in UKV was associated with a significant reduction in plasma potassium concentration. There was also a statistically significant but small reduction in plasma phosphate concentration which was not considered sufficient alone to account for the large reduction in UPV. Urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) increased from 126 plus or minus 24 to 200 plus or minus 17 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). These studies demonstrate a reduction in UNaV associated with insulin administration that occurs in the absence of changes in the filtered load of glucose, glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The effect of insulin on CH2O suggests that insulin's effect on sodium excretion is due to enhancement of sodium reabsorption in the diluting segment of the distal nephron.  (+info)

Dependence of p-aminohippurate transport on calcium in canine renal cortical slices. (8/75)

1. Experiments were conducted on renal cortical slices from sixty-one adult mongrel dogs in order to evaluate the relationship between p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport and calcium. Tissues were found to be viable for at least 180 min.2. PAH uptake and the slice/medium (S/M) concentration ratio increased in normal tissues from 3 to 90 min whether data were expressed on a tissue weight or protein content basis. PAH uptake increased with time in calcium-depleted tissues, but all values were lower than normal. At 90 min, PAH S/M in calcium-depleted tissues (4.20 +/- 0.18) was reduced 40% compared to normal tissues (6.90 +/- 0.23).3. Over the time period of 3-90 min incubation, protein concentration ranged from 89.4 to 99.4 mg/g cortex in calcium-depleted tissues. During the same time period in normal tissues, protein concentration ranged from 105 to 117.6 mg/g cortex. No change was observed in medium protein concentration of calcium-depleted tissues.4. Lineweaver-Burke analysis showed similar values for K(m) in normal and calcium-depleted tissues (0.45-0.50 mumole ml.(-1)) although V(max) fell from control values of 0.082 to 0.052 mumole g(-1) min(-1) during calcium depletion.5. After 90 min incubation, addition of EGTA (7, 14 or 21 x 10(-3)M) to media containing calcium was associated with decreased S/M and uptake rates compared to control values from the same animals. The decreases observed were similar to those seen in tissues incubated in calcium-free media.6. Increased cell volume in the presence of calcium was not associated with decreased PAH uptake. Removal of calcium in association with constant cell volume was associated with reduced PAH uptake. Replacement of calcium, but not magnesium, is associated with a return of uptake to normal rates.7. It is concluded that (a) calcium removal causes increased water uptake into cells, (b) calcium removal causes a reduced V(max), (c) calcium is required for maintenance of intracellular PAH, (d) the effect of calcium on PAH is specific and reversible, and (e) the effect of calcium is not mediated by volume changes.  (+info)

*Aminohippuric acid

... or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical ... Aminohippuric acid is often used as the sodium salt sodium para-aminohippurate. During World War II, para-aminohippurate was ... It is an amide derivative of the amino acid glycine and para-aminobenzoic acid that is not naturally found in humans; it needs ... Naidoo V, Swan GE (August 2008). "Diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vulture is associated with decreased uric acid excretion and not ...

*Balsalazide

Starting material is 4-aminohippuric acid, obtained by coupling para-aminobenzoic acid and glycine. That product is then ... Reaction of this species with salicylic acid proceeds at the position para to the phenol to give balsalazide. Kruis, W.; ... Balsalazide releases mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, or 5-ASA, in the large intestine. Its advantage over that ... treated with nitrous acid to give the diazonium salt. ...

*Inulin

It is informative to contrast the properties of inulin with those of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). PAH is partially filtered ...

*SLC17A1

2000). "p-aminohippuric acid transport at renal apical membrane mediated by human inorganic phosphate transporter NPT1". ...

*Ortho-iodohippurate

... is an analogue of p-aminohippuric acid for the determination of effective renal plasma flow. Labelled OIH ... "Compound Summary for CID 8614: 2-Iodohippuric acid". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of ...

*Extraction ratio

For instance, para aminohippuric acid (PAH) is almost completely excreted in the final urine, and thus almost none is found in ...

*Procainamide

N-acetylprocainamide-N-oxide and N-acetyl-4-aminohippuric acid are also metabolites of procainamide. 4-amino-N-2-(diethylamino) ... These are aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives consisting of an amide with a benzamide moiety and a triethylamine attached to ... Other metabolites of procainamide include desethyl-N-acetylprocainamide, desethylprocainamide, p-aminobenzoic acid, which are ... N-acetyl-4-aminobenzoic acid as well as N-acetyl-3-hydroxyprocainamide, ...

*Hippuric acid

Aminohippuric acid Ortho-iodohippurate Pero, RW (2010). "Health consequences of catabolic synthesis of hippuric acid in humans ... Hippuric acid is readily hydrolysed by hot caustic alkalis to benzoic acid and glycine. Nitrous acid converts it into benzoyl ... they are converted to hippuric acid by reaction with the amino acid, glycine. A modern synthesis of hippuric acid involves the ... Hippuric acid (Gr. hippos, horse, ouron, urine) is a carboxylic acid found in the urine of horses and other herbivores. ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: A: Aminohippurate

p-Aminohippuric acid Chemical sturcture from the National Cancer Institute. Last update: March 11, 2015 at 12:15:05 UTC ...

*Transport maximum

... and others that secrete para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). However, its ability to do so is proportionate to the channel proteins ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... aminohippuric acids MeSH D02.065.277.431.192.100 --- p-aminohippuric acid MeSH D02.065.277.431.579 --- iodohippuric acid MeSH ... aminohippuric acids MeSH D02.241.607.360.192.100 --- p-aminohippuric acid MeSH D02.241.607.360.579 --- iodohippuric acid MeSH ... aminohippuric acids MeSH D02.241.223.100.120.067.100 --- p-aminohippuric acid MeSH D02.241.223.100.120.135 --- cisapride MeSH ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ...

*Paha (disambiguation)

Paha or PAHA may also refer to: PAHA or para-aminohippuric acid Paha (landform), a hill or ridge, typically formed of sand and ...

*PAH

... para-aminohippuric acid clearance as a measurement of renal plasma flow Para-aminohippurate, a substance used in the ...

*ATC code V04

... and other polyfructosans V04CH02 Indigo carmine V04CH03 Phenolsulfonphthalein V04CH04 Alsactide V04CH30 Aminohippuric acid ...
Post your questions about 10% Dextrose Infusion - in the Forum. 10% Dextrose Infusion drug information describes its compostion, interactions, working methods, uses, side effects, precautions to be taken before taking.. ...
Aminohippurate (p-aminohippuric acid, PAH, PAHA) is the glycine amide of p-aminobenzoic acid. It is filtered by the glomeruli and is actively secreted by the proximal tubules. At low plasma concentrations (1.0 to 2.0 mg/100 mL), an average of 90 percent of aminohippurate is cleared by the kidneys from the renal blood stream in a single circulation. It is ideally suited for measurement of ERPF since it has a high clearance, is essentially nontoxic at the plasma concentrations reached with recommended doses, and its analytical determination is relatively simple and accurate. Aminohippurate is also used to measure the functional capacity of the renal tubular secretory mechanism or transport maximum (TmPAH). This is accomplished by elevating the plasma concentration to levels (40-60 mg/100 mL) sufficient to saturate the maximal capacity of the tubular cells to secrete aminohippurate. Inulin clearance is generally measured during TmPAH determinations since glomerular filtration rate (GFR) must be ...
Kikuchi, Ryota et al "Contribution of organic anion transporter 3 (Slc22a8) to the elimination of p- aminohippuric acid and benzylpenicillin across the blood- brain barrier." Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (2003): . Web. 17 Feb. 2018. ...
Looking for online definition of p-aminohippurate clearance in the Medical Dictionary? p-aminohippurate clearance explanation free. What is p-aminohippurate clearance? Meaning of p-aminohippurate clearance medical term. What does p-aminohippurate clearance mean?
P-aminohippuric acid clearance definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Looking for the definition of p-aminohippuric acid? Find out what is the full meaning of p-aminohippuric acid on Abbreviations.com! Nucleic Acid is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Background. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a growth factor whose synthesis mainly takes place in the kidney. Epo has been shown to support the growth not only of erythroid progenitor cells but also of certain other cell types. We attempted to establish whether Epo enhances the recovery from acute renal failure induced by cisplatin.. Methods. Sprague‐Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. In the cisplatin group, animals received one intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg) and a daily injection of placebo for 9 days. In the cisplatin+Epo group, animals received intrapertoneal cisplatin and a daily injection of Epo (100 IU/kg) for 9 days. In the control group, animals received both placebo preparations alone. Para‐aminohippuric acid and inulin clearances were determined after 4 and 9 days to evaluate renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. In addition, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry examinations were performed, and in situ proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ...
Aminohippurate (p-aminohippuric acid, PAH, PAHA) is the glycine amide of p-aminobenzoic acid. It is filtered by the glomeruli and is actively secreted by the proximal tubules. At low plasma concentrations (1.0 to 2.0 mg/100 mL), an average of 90 percent of aminohippurate is cleared by the kidneys from the renal blood stream in a single circulation. It is ideally suited for measurement of ERPF since it has a high clearance, is essentially nontoxic at the plasma concentrations reached with recommended doses, and its analytical determination is relatively simple and accurate. Aminohippurate is also used to measure the functional capacity of the renal tubular secretory mechanism or transport maximum (TmPAH). This is accomplished by elevating the plasma concentration to levels (40-60 mg/100 mL) sufficient to saturate the maximal capacity of the tubular cells to secrete aminohippurate. Inulin clearance is generally measured during TmPAH determinations since glomerular filtration rate (GFR) must be ...
View Notes - Tubular secretion from PT 101 at Texas State. Tubular secretion In contrast to tubular reabsorption, which returns substances to the blood, tubular secretion removes substances from the
Transport systems for organic compounds are immature in the kidney of most newborn animals. Measured in vitro, uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) into renal cortical slices is low in tissue from 2-week-old rabbits, peaks at 4 weeks and declines to adult levels. To minimize limitations encountered with the slice technique, a separated tubule preparation was employed to estimate transport. Segments of proximal tubules were prepared by incubating renal cortex in 0.375% collagenase-Ringer solution. The tubules were washed, filtered, suspended in a Ringer-acetate solution containing dilute PAH, oxygenated and incubated at 25°C. The tubules from young animals consumed oxygen to the same extent as those from adult. Intracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium were similar at each age tested. Maximal PAH uptake (T/M ratio) was Obtained after approximately 30 minutes of incubation in tissue from animals of all ages. Adult T/M ratios were significantly higher in the presence of acetate. The ...
Home » Extraction coefficient. Extraction coefficient The percentage of a substance removed from the blood or plasma in a single passage through a tissue; e.g., the extraction coefficient for p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in the kidney is the difference between arterial and renal venous plasma PAH concentrations, divided by the arterial plasma PAH concentration. ...
1.Arginine can be produced in the kidney from citrulline. An important source of circulating citrulline is the intestinal breakdown of glutamine. Consequently, partial enterectomy leads to decreased plasma citrulline levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diminished arterial citrulline levels on renal arginine production and total-body free arginine pools.. 2.Renal amino acid metabolism was studied 24 ;h after 75% small bowel resection in rats fasted overnight (16 ;h) (n = 12; total fast 40 ;h). Sham-operated (n = 9) and non-operated 16-h and 40-h fasted controls were studied in parallel (n = 8/n = 7). During anaesthesia, l-(2,3-3H)-arginine and para-aminohippuric acid were infused until steady state. Subsequently, arterial and renal venous blood samples were taken. Concentrations of para-aminohippurate and amino acids and specific activity of arginine and citrulline were measured to calculate renal plasma flow, net renal uptake or release, and unidirectional ...
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity ...
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To test the significance of the purine nucleotide cycle in renal ammoniagenesis, studies were conducted with rat kidney cortical slices using glutamate or glutamine labelled in the alpha-amino group with 15N. Glucose production by normal kidney slices with 2 mM-glutamine was equal to that with 3 mM-glutamate. With L-[15N]glutamate as sole substrate, one-third of the total ammonia produced by kidney slices was labelled, indicating significant deamination of glutamate or other amino acids from the cellular pool. Ammonia produced from the amino group of L-[alpha-15N]glutamine was 4-fold higher than from glutamate at similar glucose production rates. Glucose and ammonia formation from glutamine by kidney slices obtained from rats with chronic metabolic acidosis was found to be 70% higher than by normal kidney slices. The contribution of the amino group of glutamine to total ammonia production was similar in both types of kidneys. No 15N was found in the amino group of adenine nucleotides after ...
Inborn Errors Renal Tubular Transport: Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
... Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive to acidity, hence one reason for using an indicator is to make sure that the pH is in the right region. The other reason is that nitrification is, itself, an acidifying process so that the generation of acidity is a fair indication that nitrification is taking place. i.e. the phenol red can be seen as an indicator of the process. Peter Harris, Soil Science department, University of Reading, U.K. AKA ,P.J.Harris at reading.ac.uk ...
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Alendronate (4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate), an antiosteolytic agent, is currently under investigation in the treatment of a variety of bone diseases. Earlier studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that systemically administered alendronate is rapidly either taken up by bone tissues or excreted by the kidney, and that renal excretion is the only route of elimination. The purpose of this study is to characterize the renal handling of alendronate in rats by standard clearance procedures with inulin as a marker of glomerular filtration rate. Alendronate is highly bound to rat serum protein. The excretion of alendronate by the kidney is concentration-and dose-dependent, and saturable, indicating that it is secreted by an active transport mechanism. The secretory mechanism exhibits limitation of transport, with an apparent Tm of approximately 25 micrograms/min/kg. However, high doses of cimetidine, quinine, probenecid, and p-aminohippuric acid had no effect on the renal ...
Tubular reabsorption allows the body to reclaim any needed materials from the kidneys after glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the process of forcing water, salts, urea and glucose from...
Phenol red is frequently used in cell culture media as a pH indicator. It is provided as an optional media component when preparing complete media as part of a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions ™ system.
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۞:... ۞.From the SLC22A6 ,in vivo and renal slice excretion of para-aminohippurate (PAH) is significantly reduced Drug Relationships also demonstrated PAH uptake in Xenopus oocytes. That the promoter region contains TATA and CCAAT boxes. The promoter region contains TATA and CCAAT boxes inhibited by I-kappa-B proteins this gene may result in increased thymus weight or impaired renal organic anion excretion for a subset of organic anions, shares an operon encoded as some (GABA) neurotransmitter (untranscribed (~TATA)gatAs. The 5 (also called intA)) derivatives (PBT) and the protein sequence of cystatin C isolated from human urine and human saliva CST3 gene _found to be proximal to the breakpoint_ V-alpha-14+ subset of regulatory natural killer T (NKT) cells born from interbred Y+LAT/V+alpha 14/ A-/-, mice born from the interbred species. Using mice doubly deficient in either A20 and Tnf or A20 and Tnfr1, participate in mediating most of the therapeutic interventions that removes ...
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A direct examination with the method of perfusion of the excretion by the frogs kidney of phenol red and neutral red has shown that the dyes are eliminated in different manners as a result of different mechanisms. The former is excreted in much the greater part by the glomeruli; the latter by the tubules. Urea is excreted in a manner similar to phenol red.. The indirect examination of the function of the mammalian kidney by means of excretion ratios has shown a like contrast between the manner of elimination of the two dyes, and here again was found a similarity in the manner of excretion of phenol red and urea.. This would seem to be as close an examination as can be made with our present methods of experimentation of the question of the mechanism of the excretion of these substances by mammals. As the facts stand they constitute strong presumptive evidence that in mammals and amphibia the like results have arisen from like causes, phenol red and urea being eliminated chiefly through the ...
... (PRT-TEST) is developed based on the Schirmer Tear Test. It is a special cotton thread impregnated with phenol red dye. Phenol red is pH sensitive and changes from yellow to red when wetted by tears. This test can indicate the function of the tear secretion easily with its stable colour and water-absorbing ability. The PRT-Test is sometimes also called the “Colour Bar Schirmer Tear Test” and is a useful tool to diagnose dry eyes.
Phenol red is frequently used in cell culture media as a pH indicator. It is provided as an optional media component when preparing complete media as part of a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions system.
Package of 10 tubes. Desired Date of Arrival can be entered during checkout. If you are ordering living organisms and want more than one delivery date, you will need to make …
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The methods for the Phenol Red Thread Test are based on a clinical exam called the Color Bar Schirmer Tear Test that is used in the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye in humans.
Renal clearance of creatinine (Ccr), total protein excterion, urinary protein composition and renal clearance of albumin (Calb) were measured and calculated in male premature and mature infants of...

What does p-aminohippuric acid stand for?What does p-aminohippuric acid stand for?

Find out what is the full meaning of p-aminohippuric acid on Abbreviations.com! Nucleic Acid is one option -- get in to view ... Looking for the definition of p-aminohippuric acid? ... What does p-aminohippuric acid mean?. p-Aminohippuric Acid. The ... Weve got 698 shorthands for p-aminohippuric acid ». Acronyms that contain the term p-aminohippuric acid. What does p- ... Know what is p-aminohippuric acid? Got another good explanation for p-aminohippuric acid? Dont keep it to yourself!. ...
more infohttp://www.abbreviations.com/serp.php?st=p-aminohippuric%20acid&qtype=3

P-aminohippuric acid clearance | Define P-aminohippuric acid clearance at Dictionary.comP-aminohippuric acid clearance | Define P-aminohippuric acid clearance at Dictionary.com

P-aminohippuric acid clearance definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... p-aminohippuric acid clearance in Medicine Expand. p-aminohippuric acid clearance p-a·mi·no·hip·pu·ric acid clearance (-ə-mēnō ... A test to determine renal plasma flow using p-aminohippuric acid which, if injected intravenously to achieve low plasma ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/p-aminohippuric-acid-clearance?qsrc=2446

Aminohippuric acid - WikipediaAminohippuric acid - Wikipedia

Aminohippuric acid or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical ... Aminohippuric acid is often used as the sodium salt sodium para-aminohippurate. During World War II, para-aminohippurate was ... It is an amide derivative of the amino acid glycine and para-aminobenzoic acid that is not naturally found in humans; it needs ... Naidoo V, Swan GE (August 2008). "Diclofenac toxicity in Gyps vulture is associated with decreased uric acid excretion and not ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminohippuric_acid

Pharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin
in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid NephropathyPharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy

Table 1: Effects of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium (AANa) treatment on p-aminohippuric acid in rabbits . ... Figure 1: Plasma concentrations of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) after iv administration of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium ( ... Pharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy. Chiao-Shih Tseng, Shih-Ming ... p-aminobenzoic acid potassium salt (≥99%), and p-aminohippuric acid sodium salt were obtained from Sigma. Inulin was obtained ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2011/204501/

Pharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin
in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid NephropathyPharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy

Pharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy. Chiao-Shih Tseng, Shih-Ming ... To investigate the effects of AA on renal functions and the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and inulin, ... After a single intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium (AANa), rabbits exhibited mild to moderate ... The characteristics of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) are interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the proximal tubules, but ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2011/204501/abs/

ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS | Journal of Pharmacology and...ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS | Journal of Pharmacology and...

ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS. J. L. Ecker and J. B. Hook ... ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS. J. L. Ecker and J. B. Hook ... ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS. J. L. Ecker and J. B. Hook ... Measured in vitro, uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) into renal cortical slices is low in tissue from 2-week-old rabbits, ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/190/2/352

Development and validation of a liquid chromatographyâ€tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of p...Development and validation of a liquid chromatographyâ€"tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of p...

The selected transitions were m/ z 195.2 ↠120.2, 127.1 ↠109.1, and 152.1 ↠110.0 for p-aminohippuric acid, inulin [ ... formic acid in water (solvent A) and 2 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B) (30:70, v/v). ... "tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of p-aminohippuric acid and inulin in rat plasma for renal ... "tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of p-aminohippuric acid and inulin in rat plasma for renal ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/53556264/development-validation-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-simultaneous-quantification-p-aminohippuric-acid-inulin-rat-plasma-renal-function-study

p-Aminohippuric Acid | CTDp-Aminohippuric Acid | CTD

p-Aminohippuric Acid 4.. Chemicals ← Organic Chemicals ← Carboxylic Acids ← Keto Acids ← Hippurates ← Aminohippuric Acids ← p- ... Aminohippuric Acids ← p-Aminohippuric Acid 2.. Chemicals ← Organic Chemicals ← Carboxylic AcidsAcids, Carbocyclic ← ... 4 Aminohippuric Acid , 4-Aminohippuric Acid , Aminohippurate Sodium , Aminohippuric Acid , Nephrotest , p Aminohippurate , p- ... p-Aminohippuric Acid 3.. Chemicals ← Organic Chemicals ← Carboxylic AcidsAcids, Carbocyclic ← Benzoates ← Benzamides ← ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D010130

Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt
        -
        Diagnostic aidsAminohippuric acid Sodium salt - Diagnostic aids

Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt fda sheet Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt msds (material safety sheet) Aminohippuric_acid_Sodium_ ... Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt LogP -0.052 Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Dosage Forms Solution for injection (1g drug per 5mL ... Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Absorption No information avaliable Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt side effects and Toxicity No ... Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Synthesis Reference No information avaliable Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Molecular Weight ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Aminohippuric_acid_Sodium_salt.html

lecture 16 (T3)- Tubular reabsorption and secretion Flashcards by Anna Woods | Brainscapelecture 16 (T3)- Tubular reabsorption and secretion Flashcards by Anna Woods | Brainscape

what splits carbonic acid into CO2 and water in the proximal tubule ... all filtered glucose and amino acids. 65% of filtered sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and potassium ... reabsorption is via co-transport along with glucose, amino acids, and other solutes ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/lecture-16-t3-tubular-reabsorption-and-se-4474580/packs/6084489

The Anti-Influenza Drug Oseltamivir Exhibits Low Potential to Induce Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions via Renal Secretion...The Anti-Influenza Drug Oseltamivir Exhibits Low Potential to Induce Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions via Renal Secretion...

p-aminohippuric acid. AUC. area under the curve. CHOhOAT. Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected to express functional hOAT1. ... 3H]p-aminohippuric acid (4.08 Ci/mmol) was obtained from PerkinElmer Life Sciences (Boston, MA). [3H]Amoxicillin (11 Ci/mmol ... Inhibition of hOAT1-Mediated Transport ofp-Aminohippuric Acid.. Under steady-state kinetic conditions, the uptake of PAH into ... Lineweaver-Burke plots showing the inhibition of the hOAT1-mediated transport of p-aminohippuric acid (5-40 μM) in CHOhOAT ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/30/1/13.long

SLC22A4 - Solute carrier family 22 member 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC22A4 gene & proteinSLC22A4 - Solute carrier family 22 member 4 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC22A4 gene & protein

DB00345. Aminohippuric acid. DB01053. Benzylpenicillin. DB00122. Choline. DB00501. Cimetidine. DB00575. Clonidine. DB01151. ... DB00345. Aminohippuric acid. DB01053. Benzylpenicillin. DB00122. Choline. DB00501. Cimetidine. DB00575. Clonidine. DB01151. ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9H015

Caveolin-1 and Vascular Dysfunction - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govCaveolin-1 and Vascular Dysfunction - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Drug: Para-aminohippuric Acid Aminohippurate sodium is an agent to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). It is the sodium ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01426529?show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

SLC22A1 - Solute carrier family 22 member 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC22A1 gene & proteinSLC22A1 - Solute carrier family 22 member 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC22A1 gene & protein

DB00345 Aminohippuric acid. DB04830 Buformin. DB00520 Caspofungin. DB01114 Chlorphenamine. DB00477 Chlorpromazine. DB00122 ... DB00345 Aminohippuric acid. DB04830 Buformin. DB00520 Caspofungin. DB01114 Chlorphenamine. DB00477 Chlorpromazine. DB00122 ... DB04348 Taurocholic Acid. DB00624 Testosterone. DB08837 Tetraethylammonium. DB00152 Thiamine. DB01622 Thioproperazine. DB01623 ... DB04348 Taurocholic Acid. DB00624 Testosterone. DB08837 Tetraethylammonium. DB00152 Thiamine. DB01622 Thioproperazine. DB01623 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O15245

Solute carrier family 22 member 5 - DrugBankSolute carrier family 22 member 5 - DrugBank

Aminohippuric acid. approved, investigational. unknown. inhibitor. Details. DB01165. Ofloxacin. approved. unknown. inhibitor. ... Valproic Acid. approved, investigational. unknown. inhibitor. Details. DB01208. Sparfloxacin. approved, investigational. ... Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0000212,Solute carrier family 22 member 5 ... modified amino acid transport / positive regulation of intestinal epithelial structure maintenance ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/biodb/polypeptides/O76082

Choline - DrugBankCholine - DrugBank

Aminohippuric acid. The serum concentration of Choline can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid. ... Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Folic Acid (.2 mg) + Inositol ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00122

Pahing | definition of Pahing by Medical dictionaryPahing | definition of Pahing by Medical dictionary

Abbreviation for p-aminohippuric acid.. PAH. , PAHA. aminohippuric acid.. pulmonary hypertension, primary, type 1. A rare ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Pahing

Drug Development and Drug Interactions:  Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and InducersDrug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers

p-aminohippuric acid (PAH)(b), probenecid, teriflunomide. MATE1, MATE2-K. SLC47A1, SLC47A2. cimetidine, dolutegravir, ... g) Acid form is an OATP1B1 substrate. Abbreviations:. AUC: area under the concentration-time curve; CYP: cytochrome P450; DDI: ...
more infohttps://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/DrugInteractionsLabeling/ucm093664.htm

Organic anion transporter family: current knowledge.  - PubMed - NCBIOrganic anion transporter family: current knowledge. - PubMed - NCBI

p-Aminohippuric Acid. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. *J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16799257?dopt=Abstract

Plus itPlus it

dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid. NAC. N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Oat. organic anion transporter. PAH. p-aminohippuric acid. ... Inhibitory effects of endogenous linoleic acid and glutaric acid on the renal glucuronidation of berberrubine in mice and on ... in the presence of 100 μM amino acids and thiols. DMSA, dimercaptosuccinic acid. Values are means ± S.E.,n = 3 independent ... 2001) Mercapturic acids (N-acetylcysteine S-conjugates) as endogenous substrates for the renal organic anion transporter-1, ...
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Plus itPlus it

para-aminohippuric acid. PCR. polymerase chain reaction. PYR. pyrimethamine. SLC. solute carrier. ... para-aminohippuric acid (PAH; 4.3 Ci/mmol), [3H]estrone-3-sulfate (E3S; 45.6 Ci/mmol), and [3H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP ... HEK293 cells were cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium, containing 10% fetal calf serum, nonessential amino acids ( ... nonessential amino acids, and L-glutamine were purchased from Mediatech (Herndon, VA). Biocoat poly-D-lysine-coated 24-well ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/41/12/2095

Oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension.Oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in salt-sensitive hypertension.

... via inulin and p-aminohippuric acid clearances). Moreover, in this time-dependent study, the measurements have been taken under ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Oxidative-stress-renal-dysfunction-in/11435744.html
  • The characteristics of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) are interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the proximal tubules, but with no change in glomeruli. (hindawi.com)
  • Aristolochic acids (AAs), the main compounds of species of Aristolochia [ 3 ], have been shown to cause tumor induction and renal toxicity in experimental and clinical studies [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reaction of this species with salicylic acid proceeds at the position para to the phenol to give balsalazide. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a single intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium (AANa), rabbits exhibited mild to moderate nephrotoxicity on the 7th day. (hindawi.com)
  • In vultures, the NSAID diclofenac, which is extraordinarily toxic to vultures, interferes with the renal transport of uric acid via the PAH channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ro 64-0802 was found to be a low-efficiency substrate for hOAT1 and a very weak inhibitor of hOAT1-mediated transport of p -aminohippuric acid (PAH). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the information for tolfenamic acid, it is stated that this drug, being an NSAID, is effective in treating the pain associated with the acute attack of migraines in adults. (drugbank.ca)
  • Chromatography separation was performed on a Symmetry C column and a mobile phase composed of 2 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid in water (solvent A) and 2 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B) (30:70, v/v). Detection was performed with a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using positive ion mode electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. (ebscohost.com)
  • Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure. (drugbank.ca)