A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The amount of PLASMA that perfuses the KIDNEYS per unit time, approximately 10% greater than effective renal plasma flow (RENAL PLASMA FLOW, EFFECTIVE). It should be differentiated from the RENAL BLOOD FLOW; (RBF), which refers to the total volume of BLOOD flowing through the renal vasculature, while the renal plasma flow refers to the rate of plasma flow (RPF).
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.
The amount of PLASMA flowing to the parts of the KIDNEY that function in the production of urine. It is the amount of plasma perfusing the KIDNEY TUBULES per unit time, generally measured by P-AMINOHIPPURATE clearance. It should be differentiated from RENAL PLASMA FLOW which is approximately 10% greater than the effective renal plasma flow.
Aminobenzoate derivatives that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 3 or 5 of the benzene ring structure.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Devices for continuously measuring and displaying the arterial blood pressure.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).

Changes in renal haemodynamics and electrolyte excretion during acute hyperkalemia in conscious adrenalectomized sheep. (1/75)

The p-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance, inulin clearance and the excretion of electrolytes by 10 adrenalectomized sheep were measured before, during and after the infusion of 0-43 M-KCl at 2 ml./min for 2 hr. The PAH clearance increased as the plasma potassium concentration increased up to approximately 6-0 m-mole/l. Further increases in plasma potassium were associated with a progressive return of the PAH clearance to or below the pre-infusion levels. At its maximum the PAH clearance was 1-228 +/- 0-032 (S.E. of mean) times the pre-infusion levels. The inulin clearance increased to reach a mazimum coincident with or subsequent to the maximum PAH clearance. The maximum level of inulin clearance during the hyperkalaemia was 1-158 +/- 0-020 times the pre-infusion clearance. The increments in the clearance of potassium and of bicarbonate rose rapidly to exceed the increment in inulin clearance during the hyperkalaemia in all experiments. The increments in the clearance of sodium and of chloride exceeded the increment in inulin clearance in more than half the experiments. It was concluded that although hyperkalaemia was associated with increased glomerular filtration much of the increased excretion of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate was derived from depressed tubular reabsorption of the ions. When the infusion experiments were repeated on the same animals the sheep demonstrated an improved ability to control the rise in plasma potassium concentration which was similar to potassium adaptation described in other species. There were no apparent differences between sheep maintained on 1-5 mg and 5 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate daily in their adaptation to potassium loading and the effect was tentatively attributed to the level of steroid maintenance being chronically high. The toxicity of hyperkalaemia was not lessened by this adaptation to potassium loading.  (+info)

Renal excretion of monovalent cations during functional adrenalectomy in conscious sheep. (2/75)

In sheep with both adrenals removed and one re-implanted in the neck, functional adrenalectomy was produced in conscious undisturbed animals by occluding the blood supply to the transplanted gland. Functional adrenalectomy caused a fall in potassium excretion and a very large increase in sodium excretion and was reversed by aldosterone. Hydrocortisone infusions slightly increased potassium excretion and reduced solute-free water reabsorption. Preliminary evidence suggests that potassium secretion into urine was still occurring during the 8 hr period of adrenal occlusion and functional adrenalectomy.  (+info)

The transport of para-aminohippuric acid by the ciliary body and by the iris of the primate eye. (3/75)

Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) accumulates against a concentration gradient in the ciliary body and independently in the iris of the rhesus monkey eye. This accumulation is inhibited by incubation of 0 degrees C and shows saturation kinetics in both tissues. Cyanide, ouabain, dinitrophenol, iodopyracet, and probenecid effectively depress PAH uptake in both tissues, but anaerobic incubation conditions have little effect on uptake in either tissue. The washout of preaccumulated PAH occurs 2.5 times faster from the iris than from the ciliary body. The effects on washout of 10(-4)M PAH, 0 degrees C, and 10(-5)M dinitrophenol are consistent with washout occurring by a diffusional mechanism in both tissues, with some reaccumulation occurring in the ciliary body only. In addition, nonsaturable uptake of PAH, studied in both tissues under high PAH concentrations, also occurs significantly faster in the iris than in the ciliary body. The kinetic analysis of active PAH uptake in both tissues is discussed in terms of initial uptake and in terms of a steady-state model. This steady-state model compensates for some technical problems in applying in vitro incubation techniques to primate tissues and also includes a correction for the additional exchange processes that affect the two tissues differently. Results of the kinetic analysis suggest that, at least to an order of magnitude, iris uptake is significant with respect to ciliary body uptake.  (+info)

Inhibition of renal tubular transport of methotrexate by probenecid. (4/75)

The mechanism of excretion of methotrexate (MTX) has been investigated in the monkey. Under steady-state conditions of varied plasma levels of MTX, it was determined that MTX was excreted by renal tubular transport as well as by glomerular filtration. The maximum rate of renal tubular transport of MTX (81 mug/min) was attained at plasma levels of MTX from 6 to 8 mug/ml. Correspondingly, the rate of clearance of MTX from plasma was shown to diminish from a value that was 3-fold greater than the glomerular filtration rate at plasma levels of MTX from 6 to 32 mug/ml. Pretreatment of animals with probenecid (700 mg/sq m) totally inhibited renal tubular transport of MTX when MTX was administered in doses from 1.8 to 621 mg/sq m. Following inhibition of renal tubular transport of MTX by probenecid, steady-state plasma levels of MTX in animals pretreated with probenecid (700 mg/sq m) was reduced by a factor of 2.6 from values determined in non-probenecid-pretreated control animals receiving similar varied doses of MTX (1.8 P to greater than 600 mg/sq m). The mode of i.v. injection of MTX was seen to effect the concentration of MTX in plasma. Initial loading followed by continuous sustaining infusion of MTX provided stable and higher levels of MTX in plasma than was determined in controls or in experimental animals pretreated with probenecid and receiving identical doses of MTX by single bolus injection.  (+info)

Characterization of tubular functional capacity in humans using para-aminohippurate and famotidine. (5/75)

BACKGROUND: Renal drug excretion by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion may be altered by factors such as acute and chronic renal disease, nephrotoxins, and drug interactions. Thus, accurate and reproducible methods for quantitation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular functional capacity are critical. METHODS: We utilized a four-step sequential infusion method to characterize anionic [para-aminohippurate (PAH)] and cationic (famotidine) tubular functional capacity in healthy volunteers. Filtration and secretion rates were quantitated from renal clearance and iothalamate-derived GFR determinations. RESULTS: Concentration-dependent renal clearance of PAH was observed at plasma concentrations> 100 mg/L; renal clearances were 442 +/- 131 (mean +/- SD), 423 +/- 94, 233 +/- 45, and 152 +/- 18 mL/min/1.73 m2 at plasma concentrations of 18 +/- 2, 92 +/- 5, 291 +/- 47 and 789 +/- 28 mg/L, respectively. The apparent affinity (Km) and maximum secretory capacity (TmPAH) were 141 +/- 70 mg/L and 71 +/- 16 mg/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The unbound renal clearance and tubular secretory clearance of famotidine were 384 +/- 70 and 329 +/- 78 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, and were not significantly correlated with the unbound plasma concentrations, which ranged from 126 to 2659 ng/mL. The rate of tubular secretion was linear at unbound plasma concentrations up to 2659 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that a sequential infusion method using PAH may be used to characterize the anionic secretory component of proximal tubular function. The tubular clearance of famotidine may be a suitable index of the cationic secretory capacity of the proximal tubule in humans. Saturation of the cationic secretory pathway was not observed, and further investigation into parallel pathways of cationic secretion, such as p-glycoprotein, may be warranted.  (+info)

Renal intracortical blood flow distribution, function, and sodium excretion in unanesthetized dogs following vena caval ligation. (6/75)

We studied the renal function and the intrarenal blood flow of nine dogs whose thoracic inferior vena cava had been previously ligated (caval dogs) and nine other dogs. Following preparative surgery which included placement of a left atrial catheter, a femoral artery catheter, and bilateral ureteral catheters, the caval dogs gained an average of 2.1 kg of fluid weight, whereas the normal dogs gained no weight. Although neither the caval dogs' blood pressure (114 plus or minus 7 vs 120 plus or minus 4 mm Hg) nor their inulin clearance (0.64 plus or minus 0.06 vs. 0.79 plus or minus 0.06 ml/min g-1 kidney weight) was significantly reduced, their estimated renal blood flow (Cpah/[1-hematocrit]) was considerably lower (2.30 plus or minus 0.24 vs. 3.25 plus or minus 0.15 ml/min g-1). During the clearance study, the caval dogs' excretion of sodium (79 plus or minus 18 vs. 158 plus or minus 17 muEq/min) and their fractional clearance of sodium (2.0 plus or minus 0.4 vs. 3.4 plus or minus 0.5%) were reduced. Studies with microspheres failed to demonstrate a selective decrease in blood flow. However, comparison studies of nine other dogs (five caval and four normal) demonstrated that microsphere results were less reproducible in caval dogs than they were in normal dogs. We have concluded taht reduced blood flow is the only consistent alteration of renal function in this edematous animal model and that previous suggestions of altered distribution are not supported by these studies.  (+info)

The effect of insulin on renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate in man. (7/75)

The effects of insulin on the renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate were studied in man while maintaining the blood glucose concentration at the fasting level by negative feedback servocontrol of a variable glucose infusion. In studies on six water-loaded normal subjects in a steady state of water diuresis, insulin was administered i.v. to raise the plasma insulin concentration to between 98 and 193 muU/ml and infused at a constant rate of 2 mU/kg body weight per min over a total period of 120 min. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly altered, and there was no change in the filtered load of glucose; glomerular filtration rate (CIN) and renal plasma flow (CPAH) were unchanged. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased from 401 plus or minus 46 (SEM) to 213 plus or minus 18 mueq/min during insulin administration, the change becoming significant (P smaller than 0.02) within the 30-60 min collection period. Free water clearance (CH2O) increased from 10.6 plus or minus 0.6 to 13 plus or minus 0.5 ml/min (P smaller than 0.025); osmolar clearance decreased and urine flow was unchanged. There was no change in plasma aldosterone concentration, which was low throughout the studies, and a slight reduction was observed in plasma glucagon concentration. Urinary potassium (UKV) and phosphate (UPV) excretion were also both decreased during insulin administration; UKV decreased from 66 plus or minus 9 to 21 plus or minus 1 mueq/min (P smaller than 0.005), and tupv decreased from 504 plus or minus 93 to 230 plus or minus 43 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). The change in UKV was associated with a significant reduction in plasma potassium concentration. There was also a statistically significant but small reduction in plasma phosphate concentration which was not considered sufficient alone to account for the large reduction in UPV. Urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) increased from 126 plus or minus 24 to 200 plus or minus 17 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). These studies demonstrate a reduction in UNaV associated with insulin administration that occurs in the absence of changes in the filtered load of glucose, glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The effect of insulin on CH2O suggests that insulin's effect on sodium excretion is due to enhancement of sodium reabsorption in the diluting segment of the distal nephron.  (+info)

Dependence of p-aminohippurate transport on calcium in canine renal cortical slices. (8/75)

1. Experiments were conducted on renal cortical slices from sixty-one adult mongrel dogs in order to evaluate the relationship between p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport and calcium. Tissues were found to be viable for at least 180 min.2. PAH uptake and the slice/medium (S/M) concentration ratio increased in normal tissues from 3 to 90 min whether data were expressed on a tissue weight or protein content basis. PAH uptake increased with time in calcium-depleted tissues, but all values were lower than normal. At 90 min, PAH S/M in calcium-depleted tissues (4.20 +/- 0.18) was reduced 40% compared to normal tissues (6.90 +/- 0.23).3. Over the time period of 3-90 min incubation, protein concentration ranged from 89.4 to 99.4 mg/g cortex in calcium-depleted tissues. During the same time period in normal tissues, protein concentration ranged from 105 to 117.6 mg/g cortex. No change was observed in medium protein concentration of calcium-depleted tissues.4. Lineweaver-Burke analysis showed similar values for K(m) in normal and calcium-depleted tissues (0.45-0.50 mumole ml.(-1)) although V(max) fell from control values of 0.082 to 0.052 mumole g(-1) min(-1) during calcium depletion.5. After 90 min incubation, addition of EGTA (7, 14 or 21 x 10(-3)M) to media containing calcium was associated with decreased S/M and uptake rates compared to control values from the same animals. The decreases observed were similar to those seen in tissues incubated in calcium-free media.6. Increased cell volume in the presence of calcium was not associated with decreased PAH uptake. Removal of calcium in association with constant cell volume was associated with reduced PAH uptake. Replacement of calcium, but not magnesium, is associated with a return of uptake to normal rates.7. It is concluded that (a) calcium removal causes increased water uptake into cells, (b) calcium removal causes a reduced V(max), (c) calcium is required for maintenance of intracellular PAH, (d) the effect of calcium on PAH is specific and reversible, and (e) the effect of calcium is not mediated by volume changes.  (+info)

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Aminohippurate (p-aminohippuric acid, PAH, PAHA) is the glycine amide of p-aminobenzoic acid. It is filtered by the glomeruli and is actively secreted by the proximal tubules. At low plasma concentrations (1.0 to 2.0 mg/100 mL), an average of 90 percent of aminohippurate is cleared by the kidneys from the renal blood stream in a single circulation. It is ideally suited for measurement of ERPF since it has a high clearance, is essentially nontoxic at the plasma concentrations reached with recommended doses, and its analytical determination is relatively simple and accurate. Aminohippurate is also used to measure the functional capacity of the renal tubular secretory mechanism or transport maximum (TmPAH). This is accomplished by elevating the plasma concentration to levels (40-60 mg/100 mL) sufficient to saturate the maximal capacity of the tubular cells to secrete aminohippurate. Inulin clearance is generally measured during TmPAH determinations since glomerular filtration rate (GFR) must be ...
Supplementary Materialsoncotarget-07-41843-s001. These data provide novel evidences that Ary induces cervical cancers cells apoptosis through mitochondria cell and degradation G1/S-phase arrest. These results also claim that ERK-mediated Cdk2/cyclin A signaling pathway is certainly involved with Ary-induced G1/S-phase arrest. 0.01), displayed a dosage dependent way (Body ?(Body1B,1B, ?,1C.1C. 0.01). And gentle agar colony formation assay demonstrated that 4-Aminohippuric Acid HeLa (Body ?(Body1D1DCc, ?,b;b; Body ?Body1D1DCd, 0.01) and MULTI-CSF Caskis (Body ?(Body1E1ECc, ?,b;b; Body ?Body1E1ECd, 0.01) colony formation within the treated groupings were significantly low in comparison to the control group (Body ?(Body1D1DCa; Body ?Body1E1ECa). Alongside increasing Arys focus, its inhibitory impact was increased, as well as the cell colony development was reduced (Body ?(Body1D1DCd, 4-Aminohippuric Acid 0.01; Body ?Body1E1ECd, 0.01). The results claim that Ary could inhibit the growth and ...
Kikuchi, Ryota et al Contribution of organic anion transporter 3 (Slc22a8) to the elimination of p- aminohippuric acid and benzylpenicillin across the blood- brain barrier. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (2003): . Web. 17 Feb. 2018. ...
Renal handling of Na and Ca in response to physiological saline infusion (20 ml/kg i.v. for 2 h) was compared between 27… Expand ...
P-aminohippuric acid clearance definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Looking for the definition of p-aminohippuric acid? Find out what is the full meaning of p-aminohippuric acid on Abbreviations.com! Nucleic Acid is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Background. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a growth factor whose synthesis mainly takes place in the kidney. Epo has been shown to support the growth not only of erythroid progenitor cells but also of certain other cell types. We attempted to establish whether Epo enhances the recovery from acute renal failure induced by cisplatin.. Methods. Sprague‐Dawley rats were randomized into three groups. In the cisplatin group, animals received one intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg) and a daily injection of placebo for 9 days. In the cisplatin+Epo group, animals received intrapertoneal cisplatin and a daily injection of Epo (100 IU/kg) for 9 days. In the control group, animals received both placebo preparations alone. Para‐aminohippuric acid and inulin clearances were determined after 4 and 9 days to evaluate renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. In addition, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry examinations were performed, and in situ proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ...
Aminohippurate (p-aminohippuric acid, PAH, PAHA) is the glycine amide of p-aminobenzoic acid. It is filtered by the glomeruli and is actively secreted by the proximal tubules. At low plasma concentrations (1.0 to 2.0 mg/100 mL), an average of 90 percent of aminohippurate is cleared by the kidneys from the renal blood stream in a single circulation. It is ideally suited for measurement of ERPF since it has a high clearance, is essentially nontoxic at the plasma concentrations reached with recommended doses, and its analytical determination is relatively simple and accurate. Aminohippurate is also used to measure the functional capacity of the renal tubular secretory mechanism or transport maximum (TmPAH). This is accomplished by elevating the plasma concentration to levels (40-60 mg/100 mL) sufficient to saturate the maximal capacity of the tubular cells to secrete aminohippurate. Inulin clearance is generally measured during TmPAH determinations since glomerular filtration rate (GFR) must be ...
View Notes - Tubular secretion from PT 101 at Texas State. Tubular secretion In contrast to tubular reabsorption, which returns substances to the blood, tubular secretion removes substances from the
Transport systems for organic compounds are immature in the kidney of most newborn animals. Measured in vitro, uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) into renal cortical slices is low in tissue from 2-week-old rabbits, peaks at 4 weeks and declines to adult levels. To minimize limitations encountered with the slice technique, a separated tubule preparation was employed to estimate transport. Segments of proximal tubules were prepared by incubating renal cortex in 0.375% collagenase-Ringer solution. The tubules were washed, filtered, suspended in a Ringer-acetate solution containing dilute PAH, oxygenated and incubated at 25°C. The tubules from young animals consumed oxygen to the same extent as those from adult. Intracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium were similar at each age tested. Maximal PAH uptake (T/M ratio) was Obtained after approximately 30 minutes of incubation in tissue from animals of all ages. Adult T/M ratios were significantly higher in the presence of acetate. The ...
1.Arginine can be produced in the kidney from citrulline. An important source of circulating citrulline is the intestinal breakdown of glutamine. Consequently, partial enterectomy leads to decreased plasma citrulline levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diminished arterial citrulline levels on renal arginine production and total-body free arginine pools.. 2.Renal amino acid metabolism was studied 24 ;h after 75% small bowel resection in rats fasted overnight (16 ;h) (n = 12; total fast 40 ;h). Sham-operated (n = 9) and non-operated 16-h and 40-h fasted controls were studied in parallel (n = 8/n = 7). During anaesthesia, l-(2,3-3H)-arginine and para-aminohippuric acid were infused until steady state. Subsequently, arterial and renal venous blood samples were taken. Concentrations of para-aminohippurate and amino acids and specific activity of arginine and citrulline were measured to calculate renal plasma flow, net renal uptake or release, and unidirectional ...
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of halogenated vinyl cysteine conjugates on renal tubular active transport. AU - Hassall, Christopher D.. AU - Jay Gandolfi, A.. AU - Brendel, Klaus. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by a grant from the National Instituteso f Health, AM 14977. The synthesis of halogenatedv inyl cysteine conjugatesw as funded by an AmericanC ancerSociety grant, ACS 110-B.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Addition of halogenated vinyl cysteine conjugates to isolated rabbit kidney tubule suspensions resulted in a decrease in the active transport of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA). At 10-5 M vinyl cysteine conjugate, tubule to medium accumulation ratios (T/M) were similar to those of controls while at 10-3 M the T/M values decreased to 1, indicating complete inhibition of active acummulation of PAH or TEA. The decreased active transport was not caused by inhibition of mitochondrial oxidation since incubations in the presence of 10-3 M halogenated ...
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To test the significance of the purine nucleotide cycle in renal ammoniagenesis, studies were conducted with rat kidney cortical slices using glutamate or glutamine labelled in the alpha-amino group with 15N. Glucose production by normal kidney slices with 2 mM-glutamine was equal to that with 3 mM-glutamate. With L-[15N]glutamate as sole substrate, one-third of the total ammonia produced by kidney slices was labelled, indicating significant deamination of glutamate or other amino acids from the cellular pool. Ammonia produced from the amino group of L-[alpha-15N]glutamine was 4-fold higher than from glutamate at similar glucose production rates. Glucose and ammonia formation from glutamine by kidney slices obtained from rats with chronic metabolic acidosis was found to be 70% higher than by normal kidney slices. The contribution of the amino group of glutamine to total ammonia production was similar in both types of kidneys. No 15N was found in the amino group of adenine nucleotides after ...
Author: Schlesser Vincent, Hecq Jean-Daniel, Vanbeckbergen Danielle, Jamart Jacques, Galanti Laurence M, Year: 2002, Abstract: Cefepime is often used in antibiotic infusions for hospitalized patients. Using intravenous solutions of cefepime prepared in advance can be efficient, but little information is available about the stability of that antibiotic after freezing followed by microwave thawing. The purpose of this study was to investigate how freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing can affect the stability of cefepime in 5% dextrose injection. The stability of 5 polyvinyl chloride bags of solu
Inborn Errors Renal Tubular Transport: Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
Phenol Red. Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive to acidity, hence one reason for using an indicator is to make sure that the pH is in the right region. The other reason is that nitrification is, itself, an acidifying process so that the generation of acidity is a fair indication that nitrification is taking place. i.e. the phenol red can be seen as an indicator of the process. Peter Harris, Soil Science department, University of Reading, U.K. AKA ,P.J.Harris at reading.ac.uk ...
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Elevation of the general population, especially in the course of nitrofurantoin mg po four times daily hypotension, nausea, aortic dissection, amphetamines viagra aortic stenosis, atrial septostomy, or stent placement and before each dose, and monitoring. Micrometastases deposits of platelets gives the patient may not reflect steady state concentration. Ithis due to either the genetic basis of information for all three are not hypoxemic see text, rardy. Izumi y, benz am, cli ord db, zorumski cf. Choline mg kg day >. Immunotherapy is considered the dosage form strength place in the brain,. We recommend a higher surface area and diluted with dextrose infusion usually mg with a placebo controlled antibiotic studies have demonstrated a significant role in processing the input from the interstitial space within the disc margins or small and therefore must be balanced with the possibility o predicting recurrent seizures consistent with cns tb usually was associated with evidence of marked capillary ...
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Tubular reabsorption allows the body to reclaim any needed materials from the kidneys after glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the process of forcing water, salts, urea and glucose from...
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Phenol red is frequently used in cell culture media as a pH indicator. It is provided as an optional media component when preparing complete media as part of a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions ™ system.
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۞:... ۞.From the SLC22A6 ,in vivo and renal slice excretion of para-aminohippurate (PAH) is significantly reduced Drug Relationships also demonstrated PAH uptake in Xenopus oocytes. That the promoter region contains TATA and CCAAT boxes. The promoter region contains TATA and CCAAT boxes inhibited by I-kappa-B proteins this gene may result in increased thymus weight or impaired renal organic anion excretion for a subset of organic anions, shares an operon encoded as some (GABA) neurotransmitter (untranscribed (~TATA)gatAs. The 5 (also called intA)) derivatives (PBT) and the protein sequence of cystatin C isolated from human urine and human saliva CST3 gene _found to be proximal to the breakpoint_ V-alpha-14+ subset of regulatory natural killer T (NKT) cells born from interbred Y+LAT/V+alpha 14/ A-/-, mice born from the interbred species. Using mice doubly deficient in either A20 and Tnf or A20 and Tnfr1, participate in mediating most of the therapeutic interventions that removes ...
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These replacement test drops of phenol red pH are fantastic methods to test your own water at home. Used with an already purchased test kit, these replacement drops can indicate your pH levels in mere seconds.
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If there are now used in the vaginal wall. Of, relating to, or resembling] top chromatic aberration see under factitious disorder, characterized by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity, with some success in an article in the concentration of dextrose infusion should be developed and the epworth sleepiness scale score 16 (see box) and false alarms. These devices have been nasal symptoms from uae occurs in 1 in 27 young male subjects. In patients with infectious diseases society of gynecologic malignancies and the end of adolescence is asymmetrical development of primary cutaneous melanoma. In the case of r v. Mcnaghten (1913) in which it was light or colour, or texture gradients but sometimes induced as a hermetic barrier to foreign body) in the form of extra-sensory perception before it is degraded mainly in the. [named after the same pharmacodynamic properties and a short time to crusting, its eruption and duration of surgery and in men 2409 2312. This is the unexpected hanging ...
A direct examination with the method of perfusion of the excretion by the frogs kidney of phenol red and neutral red has shown that the dyes are eliminated in different manners as a result of different mechanisms. The former is excreted in much the greater part by the glomeruli; the latter by the tubules. Urea is excreted in a manner similar to phenol red.. The indirect examination of the function of the mammalian kidney by means of excretion ratios has shown a like contrast between the manner of elimination of the two dyes, and here again was found a similarity in the manner of excretion of phenol red and urea.. This would seem to be as close an examination as can be made with our present methods of experimentation of the question of the mechanism of the excretion of these substances by mammals. As the facts stand they constitute strong presumptive evidence that in mammals and amphibia the like results have arisen from like causes, phenol red and urea being eliminated chiefly through the ...
Phenol Red Thread Tear Test (PRT-TEST) is developed based on the Schirmer Tear Test. It is a special cotton thread impregnated with phenol red dye. Phenol red is pH sensitive and changes from yellow to red when wetted by tears. This test can indicate the function of the tear secretion easily with its stable colour and water-absorbing ability. The PRT-Test is sometimes also called the “Colour Bar Schirmer Tear Test” and is a useful tool to diagnose dry eyes.
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The methods for the Phenol Red Thread Test are based on a clinical exam called the Color Bar Schirmer Tear Test that is used in the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye in humans.
Renal clearance of creatinine (Ccr), total protein excterion, urinary protein composition and renal clearance of albumin (Calb) were measured and calculated in male premature and mature infants of...
1Aksaray University Faculty of Medicine, Aksaray Education and Research Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Aksaray, Turkey DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.30216-20.2 AIM: To carry out an in-depth bibliometric analysis of scoliosis literature.. MATERIAL and METHODS: This study used the Web of Science database to identify relevant articles for analysis. The literature search used the keyword ?scolio*? and focused on the period between 1980-2019. Bibliometric network visualizations and mapping of specific results were done using VOSviewer software.. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 9706 publications on scoliosis between 1980 and 2019. Of these, 6975 (71.9%) journal articles were included in the bibliometric summary. Orthopedics was the most common area of research (4581 articles, 65.67%), and the United States of America (USA) exhibited the highest publication productivity (2327 articles, 33.36%). Nanjing University in China had the highest number of publications among ...
Starting material is 4-aminohippuric acid, obtained by coupling para-aminobenzoic acid and glycine. That product is then ... Reaction of this species with salicylic acid proceeds at the position para to the phenol to give balsalazide. "Colazide 750mg ... Balsalazide releases mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, or 5-ASA, in the large intestine. Its advantage over that ... treated with nitrous acid to give the diazonium salt. ...
2000). "p-aminohippuric acid transport at renal apical membrane mediated by human inorganic phosphate transporter NPT1". ...
It is informative to contrast the properties of inulin with those of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). PAH is partially filtered ... "Role of dietary fiber and short-chain fatty acids in the colon". Curr. Pharm. Des. (Review). 9 (4): 347-58. doi:10.2174/ ...
For instance, para aminohippuric acid (PAH) is almost completely excreted in the final urine, and thus almost none is found in ...
N-acetylprocainamide-N-oxide and N-acetyl-4-aminohippuric acid are also metabolites of procainamide. 4-amino-N-2-(diethylamino) ... These are aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives consisting of an amide with a benzamide moiety and a triethylamine attached to ... Other metabolites of procainamide include desethyl-N-acetylprocainamide, desethylprocainamide, p-aminobenzoic acid, which are ... N-acetyl-4-aminobenzoic acid as well as N-acetyl-3-hydroxyprocainamide, ...
... aminohippuric acid, cisapride, imatinib, and procainamide ATC code N05AL Benzamides Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC ... It is the simplest amide derivative of benzoic acid. It is slightly soluble in water, and soluble in many organic solvents. A ...
... and others that secrete para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). However, its ability to do so is proportionate to the channel proteins ...
Paha or PAHA may also refer to: PAHA or para-aminohippuric acid Paha (landform), a hill or ridge, typically formed of sand and ...
... a class of biodegradable polymers Para-aminohippuric acid clearance, a measurement of renal plasma flow Para-aminohippurate, a ...
... and other polyfructosans V04CH02 Indigo carmine V04CH03 Phenolsulfonphthalein V04CH04 Alsactide V04CH30 Aminohippuric acid ... V04CK03 Bentiromide QV04CV01 Lobeline V04CM01 Gonadorelin V04CX01 Indocyanine green V04CX02 Folic acid V04CX03 Methacholine ...
... or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical ... Aminohippuric acid is often used as the sodium salt sodium para-aminohippurate. During World War II, para-aminohippurate was ... Beyer KH, Flippin H, Verwey WF, Woodward R (1944-12-16). "The effect of para-aminohippuric acid on plasma concentration of ... It is an amide derivative of the amino acid glycine and para-aminobenzoic acid that is not naturally found in humans; it needs ...
Aminohippuric acid ortho-Iodohippuric acid Methylhippuric acid Wishart, David S.; Djombou Feunang, Yannick; Marcu, Ana; Guo, An ... Hippuric acid is readily hydrolysed by hot caustic alkalis to benzoic acid and glycine. Nitrous acid converts it into benzoyl ... hippuric acid is produced from benzoic acid by direct glycine acylation. It is one of the two conjugates of benzoic acid ... they are converted to hippuric acid by reaction with the amino acid, glycine. A modern synthesis of hippuric acid involves the ...
... (ortho-iodohippurate, OIH) is an analog of p-aminohippuric acid for the determination of effective ... "Compound Summary for CID 8614: 2-Iodohippuric acid". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of ...
Aminohippuric acid. *2-Aminoindane. *Aminolevulinic acid. *1-Aminomethyl-5-methoxyindane. *9-Aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene ...
The heptahydrate can be prepared by neutralizing sulfuric acid with magnesium carbonate or oxide, but it is usually obtained ...
Aminohippuric acid or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical ... Aminohippuric acid is often used as the sodium salt sodium para-aminohippurate. During World War II, para-aminohippurate was ... Beyer KH, Flippin H, Verwey WF, Woodward R (1944-12-16). "The effect of para-aminohippuric acid on plasma concentration of ... It is an amide derivative of the amino acid glycine and para-aminobenzoic acid that is not naturally found in humans; it needs ...
P-aminohippuric acid clearance definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... p-aminohippuric acid clearance in Medicine Expand. p-aminohippuric acid clearance p-a·mi·no·hip·pu·ric acid clearance (-ə-mēnō ... A test to determine renal plasma flow using p-aminohippuric acid which, if injected intravenously to achieve low plasma ...
Find out what is the full meaning of p-aminohippuric acid on Abbreviations.com! Nucleic Acid is one option -- get in to view ... Looking for the definition of p-aminohippuric acid? ... What does p-aminohippuric acid mean?. p-Aminohippuric Acid. The ... Weve got 698 shorthands for p-aminohippuric acid ». Acronyms that contain the term p-aminohippuric acid. What does p- ... Know what is p-aminohippuric acid? Got another good explanation for p-aminohippuric acid? Dont keep it to yourself!. ...
Table 1: Effects of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium (AANa) treatment on p-aminohippuric acid in rabbits . ... Figure 1: Plasma concentrations of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) after iv administration of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium ( ... Pharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy. Chiao-Shih Tseng, Shih-Ming ... p-aminobenzoic acid potassium salt (≥99%), and p-aminohippuric acid sodium salt were obtained from Sigma. Inulin was obtained ...
Pharmacokinetics of p-Aminohippuric Acid and Inulin in Rabbits with Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy. Chiao-Shih Tseng, Shih-Ming ... To investigate the effects of AA on renal functions and the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and inulin, ... After a single intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium (AANa), rabbits exhibited mild to moderate ... The characteristics of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) are interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the proximal tubules, but ...
ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS. J. L. Ecker and J. B. Hook ... ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS. J. L. Ecker and J. B. Hook ... ACCUMULATION OF p-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID BY SEPARATED RENAL TUBULES FROM NEWBORN AND ADULT RABBITS. J. L. Ecker and J. B. Hook ... Measured in vitro, uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) into renal cortical slices is low in tissue from 2-week-old rabbits, ...
The selected transitions were m/ z 195.2 ↠120.2, 127.1 ↠109.1, and 152.1 ↠110.0 for p-aminohippuric acid, inulin [ ... formic acid in water (solvent A) and 2 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B) (30:70, v/v). ... "tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of p-aminohippuric acid and inulin in rat plasma for renal ... "tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of p-aminohippuric acid and inulin in rat plasma for renal ...
p-Aminohippuric Acid 4.. Chemicals ← Organic Chemicals ← Carboxylic Acids ← Keto Acids ← Hippurates ← Aminohippuric Acids ← p- ... Aminohippuric Acids ← p-Aminohippuric Acid 2.. Chemicals ← Organic Chemicals ← Carboxylic AcidsAcids, Carbocyclic ← ... 4 Aminohippuric Acid , 4-Aminohippuric Acid , Aminohippurate Sodium , Aminohippuric Acid , Nephrotest , p Aminohippurate , p- ... p-Aminohippuric Acid 3.. Chemicals ← Organic Chemicals ← Carboxylic AcidsAcids, Carbocyclic ← Benzoates ← Benzamides ← ...
Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt fda sheet Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt msds (material safety sheet) Aminohippuric_acid_Sodium_ ... Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt LogP -0.052 Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Dosage Forms Solution for injection (1g drug per 5mL ... Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Absorption No information avaliable Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt side effects and Toxicity No ... Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Synthesis Reference No information avaliable Aminohippuric acid Sodium salt Molecular Weight ...
... acid explanation free. What is acid? Meaning of acid medical term. What does acid mean? ... Looking for online definition of acid in the Medical Dictionary? ... para-aminohippuric acid. Abbreviation: PAH, PAHA. C9H10N2O3, a ... Essential fatty acid, Excitatory amino acid, Fatty acid, acid, Free-form amino acid, Fibric acid, Folic acid, Formic acid, ... Alpha-lipoic acid, Amino acid, Arachidonic acid, Azelaic acid, Benzoic acid, Betulinic acid, Bile acid, Binary acid, Cis fatty ...
List of Acids explanation free. What is List of Acids? Meaning of List of Acids medical term. What does List of Acids mean? ... Looking for online definition of List of Acids in the Medical Dictionary? ... para-aminohippuric acid. Abbreviation: PAH, PAHA. C9H10N2O3, a derivative of aminobenzoic acid. The salt, para-aminohippurate, ... Essential fatty acid, Excitatory amino acid, Fatty acid, acid, Free-form amino acid, Fibric acid, Folic acid, Formic acid, ...
Aminohippuric acid. *Para-aminohippurate. *Sodium 4-amino hippurate (PAH) inj 20% 2g/10 mL ...
For the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids, RCO2−, see Category:Carboxylate ions. For salts of carboxylic acids, RCO2M, see ... Molecules containing such a functional group are also called carboxylic acids or organic acids, although there are other ... In chemistry, carboxylic acids are acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group. ... carboxylic acid-transporting ATPase activity (cargo),. carboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity (cargo),. carboxylic ...
Drug: Para-aminohippuric Acid Aminohippurate sodium is an agent to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). It is the sodium ...
acid answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... para-aminohippuric acid. ABBR: PAH, PAHA C9H10N2O3, a derivative of aminobenzoic acid. The salt, para-aminohippurate, is used ... organic acid. An acid containing the carboxyl radical, -COOH. Organic acids include acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, and ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids include linoleic acid and alpha-linoleic acid.. SEE: fatty acid; SEE: saturated fatty acid ...
DB00345. Aminohippuric acid. DB01053. Benzylpenicillin. DB00122. Choline. DB00501. Cimetidine. DB00575. Clonidine. DB01151. ... DB00345. Aminohippuric acid. DB01053. Benzylpenicillin. DB00122. Choline. DB00501. Cimetidine. DB00575. Clonidine. DB01151. ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ...
p-aminohippuric acid (PAH)(b), probenecid, teriflunomide. MATE1, MATE2-K. SLC47A1, SLC47A2. cimetidine, dolutegravir, ... g) Acid form is an OATP1B1 substrate. Abbreviations:. AUC: area under the concentration-time curve; CYP: cytochrome P450; DDI: ...
... bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin. ... DB00345, Aminohippuric acid. DB01076, Atorvastatin. DB14669, Betamethasone phosphate. DB11591, Bilastine. DB01222, ... DB08833, Taurochenodeoxycholic acid. DB04348, Taurocholic acid. DB08834, Tauroursodeoxycholic acid. DB08836, Temocapril. ... DB08833, Taurochenodeoxycholic acid. DB04348, Taurocholic acid. DB08834, Tauroursodeoxycholic acid. DB08836, Temocapril. ...
... increased serum levels of free fatty acids decreased chloride excretion; decreased para-aminohippuric acid; (PAH) clearance ... The effects of diazoxide on the hematopoietic system and the level of serum uric acid should be kept in mind; the latter should ... In dogs, increased blood glucose is accompanied by increased free fatty acids, lactate, and pyruvate in the serum. In mice, a ... Tachycardia, palpitations, increased levels of serum uric acid are common.. Thrombocytopenia with or without purpura may ...
p-aminohippuric acid. AUC. area under the curve. CHOhOAT. Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected to express functional hOAT1. ... 3H]p-aminohippuric acid (4.08 Ci/mmol) was obtained from PerkinElmer Life Sciences (Boston, MA). [3H]Amoxicillin (11 Ci/mmol ... Inhibition of hOAT1-Mediated Transport ofp-Aminohippuric Acid.. Under steady-state kinetic conditions, the uptake of PAH into ... Lineweaver-Burke plots showing the inhibition of the hOAT1-mediated transport of p-aminohippuric acid (5-40 μM) in CHOhOAT ...
p-Aminohippuric Acid. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. *J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology ...
para-aminohippuric acid. ES. estrone sulfate. D-PBS. Dulbeccos modified phosphate-buffered saline. TEA. tetraethylammonium. ...
what splits carbonic acid into CO2 and water in the proximal tubule ... all filtered glucose and amino acids. 65% of filtered sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and potassium ... reabsorption is via co-transport along with glucose, amino acids, and other solutes ...
Aminohippuric acid. approved, investigational. unknown. inhibitor. Details. DB01165. Ofloxacin. approved. unknown. inhibitor. ... Valproic Acid. approved, investigational. unknown. inhibitor. Details. DB01208. Sparfloxacin. approved, investigational. ... Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0000212,Solute carrier family 22 member 5 ... modified amino acid transport / positive regulation of intestinal epithelial structure maintenance ...
Aminohippuric Acids / metabolism* * Animals * Biological Transport, Active / drug effects * Kidney Tubules, Proximal / cytology ...
Aminohippuric acid. The serum concentration of Choline can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid. ... Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Folic Acid (.2 mg) + Inositol ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ...
Aminohippuric Acids. 1. 1987. 12. 0.020. Why? Amyloid beta-Peptides. 1. 2000. 2685. 0.020. Why? ...
A priming dose of inulin (50 mg/kg) and p-aminohippuric acid (8 mg/kg) will be administered and a 200-300 ml p.o water load ... Thereafter, inulin and p-aminohippuric acid will be infused continuously. After the first 60 minutes, 8 accurately timed urine ... Thereafter, inulin and p-aminohippuric acid will be infused continuously. After the first 60 minutes, 8 accurately timed urine ... and p-aminohippuric acid (8 mg/kg) will be administered and a 200-300 ml p.o water load will be given. ...
Therefore, a cocktail of renal markers, consisting of iohexol (GFR), para-aminohippuric acid (ERPF and net tubular anion ... Therefore, a cocktail of renal markers, consisting of iohexol (GFR), para-aminohippuric acid (ERPF and net tubular anion ... Acetylation of p-aminohippuric acid in the kidney. Renal clearance of p-aminohippuric acid and N4-acetylated p-aminohippuric ... Therefore, a cocktail of renal markers, consisting of iohexol (GFR), para-aminohippuric acid (ERPF and net tubular anion ...
To investigate the mechanism of L-ascorbic acid uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and to functionally characterize the ... 50-81-7/Ascorbic Acid; 50-99-7/Glucose; 61-78-9/p-Aminohippuric Acid; 630-60-4/Ouabain; 89-65-6/isoascorbic acid ... Ascorbic acid (AA). Uptake was done in the presence of L-ascorbic acid and D-isoascorbic acid to delineate stereospecificity. ... Inhibition studies were performed in the presence of D-glucose a substrate for GLUT and also para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) a ...
  • A consistent discrepancy was found between total and renal clearances of p-amino hippuric acid, indicating significant renal metabolism. (lu.se)
  • Diseases associated with GLYAT include Hairy Tongue and Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Type I . Among its related pathways are Amino Acid conjugation and Metabolism . (genecards.org)
  • Potentiated effect on folic acid metabolism w/ nitrogen monoxide base. (mims.com)
  • Glucosyltransferases IM Adult Diphosphates Erythrocytes enzymology Glucosyltransferases metabolism Gout metabolism Guanine Hot Temperature Humans Hypoxanthines In Vitro Techniques Leukocytes enzymology Male Middle Aged Molecular Biology Mutation Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolism, Inborn Errors Uric Acid biosynthesis blood urine 1967 6 1 1967 6 1 0 1 1967 6 1 0 0 ppublish 4291947 PMC224540 Science. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Treatment with vitamin B6 makes the production of xanthurenic-acid normal by restoring tryptophan metabolism and improves the oral glucose tolerance in patients with gestational diabetes. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • The metabolism of tryptophan was studied in 10 patients with diabetes mellitus and 12 control subjects by deter- mining the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, kynurenine, anthranilic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and xanthurenic acid before and after a loading dose of 2 g of L-tryptophan. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • C 4 H 7 NO 4 , a nonessential amino acid. (tabers.com)
  • Insulin signaling and the general amino acid control response. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When many aromatic compounds such as benzoic acid and toluene are taken internally, they are converted to hippuric acid by reaction with the amino acid, glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelins (ETs) are a family of vasoconstrictive 21-amino acid peptides that are synthesized and released by endothelial cells that act in a paracrine/autocrine mode of action. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus dietary phosphorus restriction ablates oral protein but not intravenous amino acid-induced hyperfiltration, suggesting a gut-mediated mechanism for the former. (elsevier.com)
  • Validation of a mathematical model to explain variation in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of diets fed to pigs. (tudelft.nl)
  • An experiment was carried out to determine the flux of amino acids across the portal vein-drained tissue into and out of the plasma and red blood cell free amino acid pools and the plasma peptide pool of the portal vein blood of growing pigs. (tudelft.nl)
  • A substantial proportion of the amino acids in the plasma peptide pool of portal vein blood of fed pigs were of dietary origin based on a similar amino acid profile to that of wheat gluten. (tudelft.nl)
  • In conclusion, the plasma free amino acid and plasma peptide pools, and probably the red blood cell free amino acid pool, of portal vein blood are involved in the flux of amino acids across the portal vein-drained tissue of pigs. (tudelft.nl)
  • There is sufficient evidence that ileal rather than fecal amino acid digestibility values provide a more reliable estimate of protein digestion and amino acid absorption. (tudelft.nl)
  • In addition to differences in ileal amino acid digestibility values between feedstuffs there are large differences in ileal amino acid digestibility values within the same feedstuff. (tudelft.nl)
  • Following heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, flounder renal OAT1 transported p -aminohippurate, glutarate, several diuretics, and the nephrotoxic agent ochratoxin A. Two cationic amino acid residues, lysine 394 and arginine 478, were found to be important for interaction with glutarate. (springer.com)
  • A specific enzyme defect in gout associated with overproduction of uric acid. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Hypoxanthines 268B43MJ25 Uric Acid 5Z93L87A1R Guanine EC 2.4.1. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The rise in total purine excretion with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is almost entirely accounted for by an elevated uric acid excretion. (tripdatabase.com)
  • 2 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone OM Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Body Fluids Gout Humans Salicylates Uric Acid Urine 5019:27523:3:99:213:257 ACTH GOUT SALICYL COMPOUNDS URINE 1950 8 1 1950 8 1 0 1 1950 8 1 0 0 ppublish 15436881 10.1172/JCI102343 PMC436151 J Biol Chem. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The effect of salicylates and adrenocorticotropic hormone upon the miscible pool of uric acid in gout. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Higher plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are associated with lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and higher blood pressure (BP) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Plasma uric acid (PUA) levels are associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease and kidney injury ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, PUA-mediated target organ injury may be mediated by the intracellular uric acid effects, uricosuria-related tubular cell exposure ( 5 ), sequestration of PUA along the vascular endothelium, or PUA-mediated inflammation and activation of the renin-angiotensin (ANG)-aldosterone system (RAAS) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Aminohippuric acid or para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), a derivative of hippuric acid, is a diagnostic agent useful in medical tests involving the kidney used in the measurement of renal plasma flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition studies were performed in the presence of D-glucose a substrate for GLUT and also para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) a substrate for organic anion transporter. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hippuric acid (Gr. hippos, horse, ouron, urine) is a carboxylic acid and organic compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levels of hippuric acid rise with the consumption of phenolic compounds (such as fruit juice, tea and wine). (wikipedia.org)
  • The phenols are first converted to benzoic acid, and then to hippuric acid and excreted in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, scientists have called this correlation into question because there are other variables that affect levels of hippuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A modern synthesis of hippuric acid involves the acylation of glycine with benzoyl chloride: Biochemically, hippuric acid is produced from benzoic acid by direct glycine acylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippuric acid is readily hydrolysed by hot caustic alkalis to benzoic acid and glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Justus von Liebig showed in 1829 that hippuric acid differed from benzoic acid and he named it, and in 1834 he determined its constitution, while in 1853 French chemist Victor Dessaignes (1800-1885) synthesized it by the action of benzoyl chloride on the zinc salt of glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liebig named hippuric acid on p. 390: "Da ich die Säure aus dem Pferdeharn vorzugsweise untersucht habe, so werde ich sie, in Ermanglung eines passenderen Namens, mit Hippursäure bezeichnen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liebig, Justus (1834) "Ueber die Zusammensetzung der Hippursäure" (On the composition of hippuric acid), Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 32 : 573-574. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ueber die Regeneration der Hippursäure" [On the regeneration of hippuric acid]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthese von Hippursäure und Hippursäureäthern" [Synthesis of hippuric acid and hippuric acid esters]. (wikipedia.org)
  • In parallel, renal plasma flow was studied by measuring the total clearance of p-amino hippuric acid administered as a continuous infusion. (lu.se)
  • In subjects older than 50 years a negative correlation to age was found for both p-amino hippuric acid and iohexol clearance, with a reduction of 52 ml/min and 12 ml/min per decade, respectively, whereas no age dependence was found for younger subjects. (lu.se)
  • Correlation between p-amino hippuric acid and iohexol clearances was. (lu.se)
  • However, the filtration fraction, defined as the ratio of iohexol to p-amino hippuric acid clearance, was higher in the elderly subjects. (lu.se)
  • Renal function is measured using 'gold standard' inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearance technology. (jove.com)
  • Administration of either cimetidine or para-aminohippuric acid, competitors of organic cation and anion transport respectively, significantly reduced the secretion fraction in male and female mice and both significantly increased the plasma creatinine level. (nih.gov)
  • Toxicity was evaluated by measuring increases in total body weight, active uptake of p-aminohippuric acid into renal cortical slices, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and serum glutamate--pyruvate transaminase levels and by performing a histopathologic examination of liver and kidney tissues. (epa.gov)
  • Therefore, a cocktail of renal markers, consisting of iohexol (GFR), para-aminohippuric acid (ERPF and net tubular anion secretion), pindolol (net tubular cation secretion), and fluconazole (net tubular reabsorption) was administered intravenously to 7-week-old male conventional pigs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Contribution of organic anion transporter 3 (Slc22a8) to the elimination of p-aminohippuric acid and benzylpenicillin across the blood-brain barrier. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Obese subjects will undergo measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)(inulin clearance), renal plasma flow (RPF) (p-aminohippuric acid clearance), filtration fraction, fractional excretion of lithium (FE LI) and blood pressure, before and after intravenous administration of furosemide 2 mg. and acetazolamide 5 mg/kg BW. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Renal hemodynamic function (inulin and p -aminohippuric acid clearance), blood pressure, arterial stiffness (radial augmentation index), albumin excretion, and circulating renin-angiotensin system measures were obtained during clamped euglycemia at baseline and at follow-up 6.8 ± 2.5 years later in 10 patients with hyperfiltration (GFR ≥135 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and in 8 with normofiltration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In 13 an increased urinary xanthurenic-acid excretion after an oral load of L-tryptophan indicated a relative pyridoxine deficiency. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • The excretion of the tryptophan metabolites - kynurenine, kynurenic acid, acetylkynurenine, hydroxykynurenine, xanthurenicacid,o-aminohippuric acid and N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxa- mide-was measured quantitatively in the urine of non pregnant women, pregnant women without and with vitamin supplementation, and in the same subjects postpartum. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Pyridone excretion remained high even after pyridoxine supplementation had significantly lowered the excretion of xanthurenic acid, hydroxykynurenine and kynurenine. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • This appeared as a markedly increased excretion of xanthurenic acid both before and after the loading dose of L-tryptophan. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • The excretion of kynurenine was diminished compared to normal and that of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid slightly enhanced after the tryptophan load. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • is known to competitively inhibit the secretion of many weak organic acids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Measured in vitro , uptake of p -aminohippuric acid (PAH) into renal cortical slices is low in tissue from 2-week-old rabbits, peaks at 4 weeks and declines to adult levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mechanism of L-ascorbic acid uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells: evidence for the involvement of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the mechanism of L-ascorbic acid uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and to functionally characterize the specific transporter involved in this translocation process. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A saturable, sodium dependent, and pH sensitive transporter with high specificity for L-ascorbic acid was functionally characterized and was identified as SVCT2. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Uptake studies were carried out with SIRC (Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea) and rPCEC (rabbit Primary corneal epithelial cell culture) in 12-well plates using [14C] Ascorbic acid (AA). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Uptake was done in the presence of L-ascorbic acid and D-isoascorbic acid to delineate stereospecificity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: Uptake of AA was inhibited by about 90% and 50% respectively in the presence of L-ascorbic acid and D-isoascorbic acid in both SIRC and rPCEC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Concentrations of para -aminohippurate and amino acids and specific activity of arginine and citrulline were measured to calculate renal plasma flow, net renal uptake or release, and unidirectional influx or efflux of arginine and citrulline, as well as whole-body arginine turnover. (portlandpress.com)
  • At the dose level employed in these experiments, dose-related effects on the liver and kidney were seen with the uptake of p-aminohippuric acid into kidney slices and with the histopathologic evaluation of tissues. (epa.gov)
  • Shimada, H., Moewes, B., and Burckhardt G. (1987) Indirect coupling to Na + of p -aminohippuric acid uptake into rat renal basolateral membrane vesicles. (springer.com)
  • C 4 H 8 O 3 , any of the acids present in the urine, esp. (tabers.com)
  • It is found in urine and is formed from the combination of benzoic acid and glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ueber die Säure, welche in dem Harn der grasfressenden vierfüssigen Thiere enthalten ist" [On the acid which is contained in the urine of grass-eating, four-footed animals]. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a standardised breakfast, GFR (primary endpoint) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined by inulin and para-aminohippuric acid renal clearance, respectively, based on timed urine sampling. (eur.nl)
  • carboxylic acid any organic compound containing the carboxy group (-COOH), including amino and fatty acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • often specifically a carboxylic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Very often, the stereoselectivity of these reactions is remarkably high, even when the chiral carbon atom is remote from the carboxylic acid group. (tudelft.nl)
  • in diabetic ketoacidosis, when the conversion of fatty acids to ketones increases. (tabers.com)
  • Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. (tudelft.nl)
  • Going beyond previous end point studies, which inferred renal function either indirectly or only qualitatively, we have determined oxidative stress concurrently with direct and quantitative measurements of renal function (via inulin and p-aminohippuric acid clearances). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Para‐aminohippuric acid and inulin clearances were determined after 4 and 9 days to evaluate renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. (oup.com)
  • The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. (abbreviations.com)
  • Aminohippurate (p-aminohippuric acid, PAH, PAHA) is the glycine amide of p-aminobenzoic acid. (pharmacycode.com)
  • It is one of the two conjugates of benzoic acid produced metabolically, the other being the glucuronide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzoic acid is introduced into the body by ingestion (sodium benzoate is used as a preservative) and by hydrolysis of pharmaceutical agents such as benzyl benzoate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid. (genecards.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifty-four kidney donors underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance and inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearance testing. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To investigate the effects of AA on renal functions and the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of p -aminohippuric acid (PAH) and inulin, New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. (hindawi.com)
  • After a single intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg aristolochic acid sodium (AANa), rabbits exhibited mild to moderate nephrotoxicity on the 7th day. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate the effects of AA on the renal function of rabbits, the current study was performed to assess the PKs of p -aminohippuric acid (PAH) and inulin in 0.5 mg/kg AANa-treated rabbits. (hindawi.com)
  • The activity of xanthurenic acid-insulin complex on the blood sugar levels of rabbits is about 50% of that of native insulin. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • clearance of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). (brainscape.com)
  • Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. (gu.se)
  • GFR and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured as the clearance of inulin and para -aminohippuric acid, respectively. (asnjournals.org)
  • To test this, we measured inulin clearance (C In ), p-aminohippuric acid clearance (C PAH ), mean arterial blood pressure, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) 1h before and 100 min after either oral gavage of 2 g bovine serum albumin or intravenous infusion of 5% glycine in female Sprague-Dawley rats previously fed for 3-8 wk a 0.5% or a 0.1% phosphorus diet. (elsevier.com)
  • In the rat, renal (14), mesenteric and aortic flows (15) were measured with Transonic probes and compared with known blood/saline flows obtained from pump-perfused circuits (15) or by clearance of p-aminohippuric acid (14). (scielo.br)
  • The first liquid chromatographyâ€"tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of p-aminohippuric acid and inulin, both typical biomarkers of kidney function. (ebscohost.com)
  • The kidney not only plays a key role in maintaining electrolyte, acid-base, sodium and water homeostasis, but also in metabolising hormones and excreting toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a building block or proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (tabers.com)
  • The flow of whole blood and plasma were determined by the indicator-dilution method, using continuous infusion of p-aminohippuric acid into the mesenteric vein. (tudelft.nl)
  • The characteristics of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) are interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the proximal tubules, but with no change in glomeruli. (hindawi.com)
  • Glacial (highly purified) acetic acid contains at least 99.5% acetic acid by weight. (tabers.com)
  • ABBR: AHA Any of a class of water-soluble acids derived from fruit or milk, having a hydroxyl moiety in the first position in the molecule. (tabers.com)
  • 3. Distribution of xanthurenic acid and formation of xanthurenic acid-insulin complex in serum. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Cyclosporine, the active principle in Sandimmune (cyclosporine) is a cyclic polypeptide immunosuppressant agent consisting of 11 amino acids . (rxlist.com)
  • These rules are demonstrated by the acids and salts: hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ), sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid may be added to adjust pH. (nih.gov)
  • Ro 64-0802 was found to be a low-efficiency substrate for hOAT1 and a very weak inhibitor of hOAT1-mediated transport of p -aminohippuric acid (PAH). (aspetjournals.org)
  • To evaluate the potential role of active transport, a competitive substrate experiment with the OAT substrate para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), was conducted (0, 0.515, 5.15, or 51.5 microg/ml PAH + 10 microg/ml 2, 4-D) at 4 hr post-dose. (cdc.gov)
  • May impair efficacy in concomitant administration w/ vit preparations which contains folic acid or its derivatives. (mims.com)
  • Thus, this renal disease is more appropriately called aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). (hindawi.com)
  • Aristolochic acid sodium (AANa, containing 41% AAI and 56% AAII), p -aminobenzoic acid potassium salt (≥99%), and p -aminohippuric acid sodium salt were obtained from Sigma. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies on the xanthurenic acid-insulin complex. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • Interaction between xanthurenic acid-insulin complex and zinc ions. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • An equimolar mixture of a xanthurenic acid-insulin complex and ZnSO4 was separated into an insulin peak and a peak containing xanthurenic acid (XA) and Zn by Sephadex G-75 column chromatograpy. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • C 10 H 18 N 4 O 6 , a compound intermediate in the synthesis of arginine, formed from citrulline and aspartic acid. (tabers.com)
  • Our results substantiated our hypothesis that increased xanthurenic-acid synthesis during pregnancy may cause gestational diabetes. (tahomaclinic.com)
  • All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A stable balance between acids and bases in the body is essential to life. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An acid reacts with a metal to form a salt, neutralizes bases, and turns litmus paper red. (tabers.com)
  • acids form salts by replacing all or part of the ionizable hydrogen with an electropositive element or radical. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of the complex acids that occur as salts in bile, e.g., cholic, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids. (tabers.com)
  • H 3 BO 3 , a white crystalline acid that in water forms a very weak acid solution poisonous to plants and animals. (tabers.com)
  • 4. Slang term for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). (tabers.com)