Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.
An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Analog of KANAMYCIN with antitubercular as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial isolated from Streptomyces ribosifidicus.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
A complex of antibiotic substances produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used in the treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.
Semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin. It has been proposed for infections with certain anaerobes and may be useful in inner ear, bile, and CNS infections.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A water-soluble aminoglycosidic antibiotic complex isolated from fermentation filtrates of Bacillus circulans. Two components (A and B) have been separated from the complex. Both are active against many gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.
A strongly basic peptide, antibiotic complex from several strains of Streptomyces. It is allergenic and toxic to kidneys and the labyrinth. Viomycin is used in tuberculosis as several different salts and in combination with other agents.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)
An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A plant species of the Salvia genus known as a spice and medicinal plant.
The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
QUINOLONES containing a 4-oxo (a carbonyl in the para position to the nitrogen). They inhibit the A subunit of DNA GYRASE and are used as antimicrobials. Second generation 4-quinolones are also substituted with a 1-piperazinyl group at the 7-position and a fluorine at the 6-position.
A broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent that is structurally related to NALIDIXIC ACID.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.

Selective inhibition of the bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis by the new types of liposidomycins. (1/2111)

We examined the inhibitory activity against bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis and growth of BALB/3T3 cells of four different types of liposidomycins which have the structure with or without sulfate and/or 3-methylglutaric acid moieties. Liposidomycins inhibited peptidoglycan biosynthesis about 30 to 500 times more effectively than tunicamycin, whereas liposidomycins inhibited mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis about 30 to 300 times less effectively than tunicamycin. When the cytotoxic effect of liposidomycins and tunicamycin on the growth of mammalian cells were compared, liposidomycins did not show toxicity against BALB/3T3 cell at 25 microg/ml, though tunicamycin inhibited cell growth by 50% at 0.05 microg/ml. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that liposidomycins are selective antibiotics showing highly specific inhibition toward bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis.  (+info)

RecA-Mediated gene conversion and aminoglycoside resistance in strains heterozygous for rRNA. (2/2111)

Clinical resistance to aminoglycosides in general is due to enzymatic drug modification. Mutational alterations of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA have recently been found to mediate acquired resistance in bacterial pathogens in vivo. In this study we investigated the effect of 16S rRNA heterozygosity (wild-type [wt] and mutant [mut] operons at position 1408 [1408wt/1408mut]) on aminoglycoside resistance. Using an integrative vector, we introduced a single copy of a mutated rRNA operon (1408 A-->G) into Mycobacterium smegmatis, which carries two chromosomal wild-type rRNA operons; the resultant transformants exhibited an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. In contrast, introduction of the mutated rRNA operon into an M. smegmatis rrnB knockout strain carrying a single functional chromosomal wild-type rRNA operon resulted in aminoglycoside-resistant transformants. Subsequent analysis by DNA sequencing and RNase protection assays unexpectedly demonstrated a homozygous mutant genotype, rRNAmut/rRNAmut, in the resistant transformants. To investigate whether RecA-mediated gene conversion was responsible for the aminoglycoside-resistant phenotype in the rRNAwt/rRNAmut strains, recA mutant strains were generated by allelic exchange techniques. Transformation of the recA rrnB M. smegmatis mutant strains with an integrative vector expressing a mutated rRNA operon (Escherichia coli position 1408 A-->G) resulted in transformants with an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. Subsequent analysis showed stable heterozygosity at 16S rRNA position 1408 with a single wild-type allele and a single resistant allele. These results demonstrate that rRNA-mediated mutational resistance to aminoglycosides is recessive.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (3/2111)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

Efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis strains highly resistant to aminoglycosides. (4/2111)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the in vitro possibilities of ampicillin-ceftriaxone combinations for 10 Enterococcus faecalis strains with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides (HLRAg) and to assess the efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone, both administered with humanlike pharmacokinetics, for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to HLRAg E. faecalis. A reduction of 1 to 4 dilutions in MICs of ampicillin was obtained when ampicillin was combined with a fixed subinhibitory ceftriaxone concentration of 4 micrograms/ml. This potentiating effect was also observed by the double disk method with all 10 strains. Time-kill studies performed with 1 and 2 micrograms of ampicillin alone per ml or in combination with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml showed a > or = 2 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter with respect to ampicillin alone and to the initial inoculum for all 10 E. faecalis strains studied. This effect was obtained for seven strains with the combination of 2 micrograms of ampicillin per ml plus 10 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml and for six strains with 5 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 10(8) CFU of E. faecalis V48 or 10(5) CFU of E. faecalis V45 and were treated for 3 days with humanlike pharmacokinetics of 2 g of ampicillin every 4 h, alone or combined with 2 g of ceftriaxone every 12 h. The levels in serum and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the humanlike pharmacokinetics of ampicillin or ceftriaxone in rabbits were similar to those found in humans treated with 2 g of ampicillin or ceftriaxone intravenously. Results of the therapy for experimental endocarditis caused by E. faecalis V48 or V45 showed that the residual bacterial titers in aortic valve vegetations were significantly lower in the animals treated with the combinations of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone than in those treated with ampicillin alone (P < 0.001). The combination of ampicillin and ceftriaxone showed in vitro and in vivo synergism against HLRAg E. faecalis.  (+info)

Arginine-aminoglycoside conjugates that bind to HIV transactivation responsive element RNA in vitro. (5/2111)

HIV gene expression is crucially dependent on binding of the viral Tat protein to the transactivation RNA response element. A number of synthetic Tat-transactivation responsive element interaction inhibitors of peptide/peptoid nature were described as potential antiviral drug prototypes. We present a new class of peptidomimetic inhibitors, conjugates of L-arginine with aminoglycosides. Using a gel-shift assay and affinity chromatography on an L-arginine column we found that these compounds bind specifically to the transactivation responsive element RNA in vitro with Kd values in the range of 20-400 nM, which is comparable to the Kd of native Tat bound to the transactivation responsive element (10-12 nM). Confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that fluorescein-labelled conjugate penetrates into live cells. High affinity to the transactivation responsive element, low toxicity, and relative simplicity of synthesis make these compounds attractive candidates for antiviral drug design.  (+info)

The therapeutic monitoring of antimicrobial agents. (6/2111)

AIMS: To review the basis and optimal use of therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobial agents. METHODS: Antimicrobial agents for which a reasonable case exists for therapeutic drug monitoring were reviewed under the following headings: pharmacokinetics, why monitor, therapeutic range, individualisation of therapy, sampling times, methods of analysis, interpretative problems and cost-effectiveness of monitoring. RESULTS: There is a strong historical case for monitoring aminoglycosides. The recent move to once-daily dosing means that criteria for therapeutic drug monitoring need to be redefined. Vancomycin has been monitored routinely but many questions remain about the most appropriate approach to this. A case can be made for monitoring teicoplanin, flucytosine and itraconazole in certain circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: The approach to monitoring aminoglycosides needs to be redefined in the light of once-daily dosing. It is premature to suggest that less stringent monitoring is necessary as toxicity remains a problem with these drugs. The ideal method of monitoring vancomycin remains to be defined although a reasonable case exists for measuring trough concentrations, mainly to ensure efficacy. Teicoplanin is monitored occasionally to ensure efficacy while flucytosine is monitored occasionally to avoid high concentrations associated with toxicity. Itraconazole has various pharmacokinetic problems and monitoring has been suggested to ensure that adequate concentrations are achieved.  (+info)

Recovery of the vestibulocolic reflex after aminoglycoside ototoxicity in domestic chickens. (7/2111)

Avian auditory and vestibular hair cells regenerate after damage by ototoxic drugs, but until recently there was little evidence that regenerated vestibular hair cells function normally. In an earlier study we showed that the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) is eliminated with aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment and recovers as hair cells regenerate. The VOR, which stabilizes the eye in the head, is an open-loop system that is thought to depend largely on regularly firing afferents. Recovery of the VOR is highly correlated with the regeneration of type I hair cells. In contrast, the vestibulocolic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space, is a closed-loop, negative-feedback system that seems to depend more on irregularly firing afferent input and is thought to be subserved by different circuitry than the VOR. We examined whether this different reflex also of vestibular origin would show similar recovery after hair cell regeneration. Lesions of the vestibular hair cells of 10-day-old chicks were created by a 5-day course of streptomycin sulfate. One day after completion of streptomycin treatment there was no measurable VCR gain, and total hair cell density was approximately 35% of that in untreated, age-matched controls. At 2 wk postlesion there was significant recovery of the VCR; at this time two subjects showed VCR gains within the range of control chicks. At 3 wk postlesion all subjects showed VCR gains and phase shifts within the normal range. These data show that the VCR recovers before the VOR. Unlike VOR gain, recovering VCR gain correlates equally well with the density of regenerating type I and type II vestibular hair cells, except at high frequencies. Several factors other than hair cell regeneration, such as length of stereocilia, reafferentation of hair cells, and compensation involving central neural pathways, may be involved in behavioral recovery. Our data suggest that one or more of these factors differentially affect the recovery of these two vestibular reflexes.  (+info)

Antibiotic penetrance of ascitic fluid in dogs. (8/2111)

Antibiotic concentrations in ascitic fluid after parenteral therapy may be important in the treatment of peritonitis. We have created ascites in dogs by partial ligation of the inferior vena cava. Ascitic fluid volume was measured at the time each antibiotic was administered. Nine antibiotics were studied in the same three dogs. Antibiotic concentration in ascitic fluid was found to vary inversely with ascites volume. Percentage of penetration (ratio of ascites peak to serum peak x100) ranged from 5.8 to 65% among the drugs studied. Only metronidazole showed a statistically significant higher percentage of penetration than other antimicrobials. Concentrations in ascitic fluid after single doses of cephalothin (15 mg/kg) and the aminoglycosides (2 mg/kg, gentamicin and tobramycin; 7.5 mg/kg, amikacin and kanamycin) did not exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of many gram-negative rods and may justify the use of higher than usual initial parenteral doses, or possibly initial intraperitoneal administration in seriously ill patients.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Aminoglycoside-Induced Hair Cell Death of Inner Ear Organs Causes Functional Deficits in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio). AU - Uribe, Phillip M.. AU - Sun, Huifang. AU - Wang, Kevin. AU - Asuncion, James D.. AU - Wang, Qi. AU - Chen, Chien Wei. AU - Steyger, Peter S.. AU - Smith, Michael E.. AU - Matsui, Jonathan I.. PY - 2013/3/22. Y1 - 2013/3/22. N2 - Aminoglycoside antibiotics, like gentamicin, kill inner ear sensory hair cells in a variety of species including chickens, mice, and humans. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used to study hair cell cytotoxicity in the lateral line organs of larval and adult animals. Little is known about whether aminoglycosides kill the hair cells within the inner ear of adult zebrafish. We report here the ototoxic effects of gentamicin on hair cells in the saccule, the putative hearing organ, and utricle of zebrafish. First, adult zebrafish received a single 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of fluorescently-tagged gentamicin (GTTR) to ...
The three classes of enzymes which inactivate aminoglycosides and lead to bacterial resistance are reviewed. DNA hybridization studies have shown that different genes can encode aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes with identical resistance profiles. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of 49 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes have revealed new insights into the evolution and relatedness of these proteins. A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from these data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Recent studies have demonstrated that aminoglycoside resistance can emerge as a result of alterations in the regulation of normally quiescent cellular genes or as a result of acquiring genes which may have originated from aminoglycoside-producing organisms or from other resistant organisms. Dissemination of these genes is aided by a variety of genetic elements ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acquisition of 16S rRNA methylase gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. AU - Yokoyama, Keiko. AU - Doi, Yohei. AU - Yamane, Kunikazu. AU - Kurokawa, Hiroshi. AU - Shibata, Naohiro. AU - Shibayama, Keigo. AU - Yagi, Tetsuya. AU - Kato, Haru. AU - Arakawa, Yoshichika. PY - 2003/12/6. Y1 - 2003/12/6. N2 - Background: Bacteria develop resistance to aminoglycosides by producing aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes such as acetyltransferase, phosphorylase, and adenyltransferase. These enzymes, however, cannot confer consistent resistance to various aminoglycosides because of their substrate specificity. Notwithstanding, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AR-2 showing high-level resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration ,1024 mg/L) to various aminoglycosides was isolated clinically. We aimed to clone and characterise the genetic determinant of this resistance. Methods: We used conventional methods for DNA manipulation, susceptibility testing, and gene analyses to clone and characterise the ...
TY - CONF. T1 - The Role of Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Elderly AML Patients in Complete Remission. AU - Siragusa, Sergio. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - The majority of patients (pts) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are diagnosed in their 6th and 7th decade of life. AML in elderly pts is associated with poor response to conventional chemotherapy and limited long-term survival, reflecting a higher incidence multidrug resistance mechanisms, a low bone marrow reserve which may prevent/delay the recovery of hematopoiesis after treatment, and the occurrence of co-morbidities. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is an immunoconjugate with a humanized anti-CD33 that after internalization, releases a cytotoxic drug, calicheamicin; ≥80% of AML pts have myeloid blast cells that express the CD33 surface antigen. GO as a single agent has low antileukemic activity (Sievers et al, J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3244-54). However, GO is being used at lower doses in combined chemotherapy regimens as induction or postremission ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diversity of high-level aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms among Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens in Brazil. AU - Ballaben, Anelise S.. AU - Andrade, Leonardo N.. AU - Galetti, Renata. AU - Ferreira, Joseane C.. AU - McElheny, Christi L.. AU - Mettus, Roberta T.. AU - da Silva, Paulo. AU - de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti. AU - Darini, Ana Lucia C.. AU - Doib, Yohei. PY - 2018/11. Y1 - 2018/11. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85055604011&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85055604011&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1128/AAC.01550-18. DO - 10.1128/AAC.01550-18. M3 - Letter. C2 - 30150471. AN - SCOPUS:85055604011. VL - 62. JO - Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. JF - Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. SN - 0066-4804. IS - 11. M1 - e01550-18. ER - ...
Agarwal, J., Kalyan, R. and Singh, M. (2009) High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Beta-Lactamase Production in Enterococci at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 62, 158-159.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To test whether outcomes of patients of age 60 or older with previously untreated non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia treated with azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin are sufficient to warrant phase III investigation.. II. To estimate the frequency and severity of toxicities of this regimen in the good- and poor-risk groups of patients.. III. To investigate in a preliminary manner the disease-free survival of patients who achieve complete remission and receive post-remission therapy on this study.. IV. To investigate in a preliminary manner the cytogenetic response rates of patients treated with this regimen.. V. To investigate in a preliminary manner the effects of cytogenetic abnormalities, promoter and global methylation changes, and multidrug resistance on overall survival and response to azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy.. OUTLINE: Patients are stratified according to risk status (good [60-69 years of age OR Zubrod performance status [PS] 0-1] vs poor [,= ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To test whether outcomes of patients of age 60 or older with previously untreated non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia treated with azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin are sufficient to warrant phase III investigation.. II. To estimate the frequency and severity of toxicities of this regimen in the good- and poor-risk groups of patients.. III. To investigate in a preliminary manner the disease-free survival of patients who achieve complete remission and receive post-remission therapy on this study.. IV. To investigate in a preliminary manner the cytogenetic response rates of patients treated with this regimen.. V. To investigate in a preliminary manner the effects of cytogenetic abnormalities, promoter and global methylation changes, and multidrug resistance on overall survival and response to azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy.. OUTLINE: Patients are stratified according to risk status (good [60-69 years of age OR Zubrod performance status [PS] 0-1] vs poor [,= ...
2. 19 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 34. Li, X. , L. Zhang, G. A. McKay, and K. Poole. 2003. Role of the acetyltransferase AAC(6p)-Iz modifying enzyme in aminoglycoside resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51:803-811. 35. , M. Tod, Y. Cohen, and O. Petitjean. 1995. Aminoglycosides. Med. Clin. N. Am. 79:761-87. 36. , T. A. Smith, R. J. Zheng, P. Nordmann, and J. S. Blanchard. 2003. Aminoglycoside resistance resulting from tight drug binding to an altered aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. 1999. Semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotics: development and enzymatic modifications. J. Infect. Chemother. 5:1-9. Kotra, L. , J. Haddad, and S. Mobashery. 2000. Aminoglycosides perspectives on mechanisms of action and resistance and strategies to counter resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:3249-3256. 2. 19 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 34. Li, X. , L. Zhang, G. A. McKay, and K. Poole. 2003. Role of the acetyltransferase AAC(6p)-Iz modifying enzyme in aminoglycoside ...
National guidelines are needed for the management of paediatric febrile neutropenia (FN), according to the Australian Predicting Infectious ComplicatioNs in Children with Cancer (PICNICC) study group. The call follows a study of aminoglycoside use in children with febrile neutropenia which challenges the empiric use of this class of antibiotics and the variation in hospital-and state-based .... ...
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Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses ...
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of pharmacokinetic indices with therapeutic outcome in patients receiving aminoglycosides. AU - Deziel-Evans, L. M.. AU - Murphy, J. E.. AU - Job, M. L.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - The influence of five pharmacokinetic indices on therapeutic response was retrospectively studied in 45 adult patients treated with aminoglycosides for bacterial infections. Subjects were treated for a minimum of five days, had culture and sensitivity reports, and had at least one set of steady-state peak and trough serum aminoglycoside concentrations. Serum drug concentrations were determined by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay or by fluorescence polarization assay. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the drugs were determined by microdilution assays. Cure was determined by negative cultures or absence of clinical evidence of infection. Values for five pharmacokinetic indices were determined for each patient: (1) ratio of steady-state peak serum concentration to MIC ...
Gemtuzumab ozogamicin was withdrawn from the market after being evaluated in combination with chemotherapy in the frontline treatment of patients aged 18 to 60 years with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). More-recent randomised trials demonstrate that low doses of gemtuzumab added to cytarabine and anthracycline-based chemotherapy benefit patients with better-risk AML. This article was first published [more]
Since the introduction into clinical practice of the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics, a number of other antimicrobial agents with improved safety profile have entered the market. Studies have failed to demonstrate the superiority of aminoglycoside-containing regimens in a number of infection settings. This has raised doubts regarding the actual clinical utility of aminoglycosides. However, the recent emergence of infections due to Gram-negative bacterial strains with advanced patterns of antimicrobial resistance has prompted physicians to reconsider these old antibacterial agents. This revived interest in the use of aminoglycosides has brought back to light the debate on the two major issues related to these compounds, namely the spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility and toxicity. Although some of the aminoglycosides retain activity against the majority of Gram-negative clinical bacterial isolates in many parts of the world, the relatively frequent occurrence of nephrotoxicity and ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen which often causes nosocomial and community attained infections. These infections steadily increased after evolving the resistance due to indecorous practice of antibiotics and now become a serious health issue. Ouabain is a Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor that leads to increase the heart contraction in patients with congestive heart failure. In the present study, in vitro antimicrobial effect of ouabain together with aminoglycosides was determined against clinical and non-clinical S. aureus strains. Using checkerboard, Gentamycin uptake and biofilm assays, we analysed he interactions of ouabain with aminoglycosides. Ouabain induced the staphylocidal potency of aminoglycosides by remarkably reducing the MIC of gentamycin (GEN) by 16 (0.25 μg/mL), 8 folds (0.5 μg/mL) amikacin (AMK); and 16 folds (1.0 μg/mL) with kanamycin (KAN), compared to their individual doses. OBN severely reduced cell viability within 60 min with GEN (1 μg/mL), KAN (2 μg/mL) and 90 min with
Bacterial infections are common in the neonates and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sixty percent of preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units received at least one antibiotic during the first week of life. Penicillins, aminoglycosides and cephalosporins comprised 53, 43 and 16%, respectively. Kinetic parameters such as the half-life (t1/2), clearance (Cl), and volume of distribution (Vd) change with development, so the kinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides need to be studied in order to optimise therapy with these drugs. The aim of this study is to review the pharmacokinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides in the neonate in a single article in order to provide a critical analysis of the literature and thus provide a useful tool in the hands of physicians. The bibliographic search was performed electronically using PubMed, as the search engine, until February 2nd, 2010. Medline search terms were as follows: pharmacokinetics AND
The primary objectives are a) to establish the maximum tolerated dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with cytarabine and b) to assess the safet
Prospective, multicenter, uncontrolled cohort study to analyze the efficacy of a risk adapted treatment strategy, including gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) d
The effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on cellular functions of the LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cell line were studied as a model system for aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. The treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics for 3 days caused a decrease in the dome number in the confluent LLC-PK1 cells and an increase in the floating cells in the culture medium. The inhibition of dome formation was dose-dependent and the rank-order of the degree of inhibition was compatible with the rank-order of in vivo nephrotoxicity. Aminoglycosides also decreased the intracellular content of cyclic AMP, with a correlation between the alteration of dome formation and cyclic AMP content. The specific activities of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (marker for lysosomes), aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase (marker for apical membranes) and (Na++K+)-adenosine triphosphatase (marker for basolateral membranes) in the homogenate were decreased by gentamicin treatment. Lysosomal and apical membrane enzymes released ...
Aminoglycosides are highly potent, antibiotics with several properties for the treatment of life-threatening infections. Aminoglycosides have concentration
The tirandamycins are a small group of natural products that contain a bicyclic ketal system and a tetramic acid moiety, the latter of which is found in different natural products from a variety of sources and which is characterized by a 2,4-pyrrolidinedione ring system. Members of this structural family have shown a wide range of biological activities like in antiparasitic, antifungal and anti-HIV evaluations, and furthermore, have shown potential usefulness because of their potent antibacterial properties. Streptolydigin, an analogue of the tirandamycins, is known to function as an antibacterial agent through inhibiting the chain initiation and elongation steps RNA polymerase transcription. The structural diversity in the tirandamycin family originates from the different oxidation patterns observed in the bicycic ketal system, and these modifications are determinant features for the bioactivity associated with these molecules. In the first study that looked at the gene cluster for tirandamycin ...
Aminoglycoside Antibiotic Joel Jimenez Ms. R. Bolton October 30 2014 Aminoglycosides Antibiotic In my research paper I will be talking about the important of...
Hepatotoxicity, Including Veno-occlusive Liver Disease (VOD). Inform patients that liver problems, including severe, life-threatening, or fatal VOD may develop during MYLOTARG treatment. Prior to receiving MYLOTARG, inform patients who previously received, or will receive an HSCT that they may be at increased risk for developing VOD. Inform patients that the risk of developing VOD after an allogeneic HSCT is increased after receiving treatment with MYLOTARG. Inform patients that signs or symptoms of liver toxicity, including rapid weight gain, right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, hepatomegaly, and ascites should be monitored regularly during treatment, but these symptoms may not identify all patients at risk or prevent the complications of liver toxicity. Inform patients that liver problems may require dosing interruption or permanent discontinuation of MYLOTARG [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].. ...
A quick and simple procedure is presented for the extraction of aminoglycoside antibiotics from bovine meat and milk. A single operator can easily analyze 20 samples per day.
DISCUSSION. Although the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides were first described in the 1940s, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Hearing damage associated with aminoglycoside use can include permanent hearing loss and tinnitus secondary to the degradation of sensorineural hair cells of the cochlea and/or vestibule. Damage to cochlear hair cells is thought to be mediated by oxidative stress, starting at the base where high-frequency sounds are decoded and advancing to the apex6,8,13,14,15. In the present study, we identified hearing complaints after aminoglycoside use in 27% of medical records analyzed, similar to what has been described in the literature (27.8%)11. Higher frequencies of TB and hearing complaints among male subjects in our study were also consistent with previous reports. This finding may be related to the increased tendency for ototoxicity risk factor exposure in men compared to women4,11,13.. In this study, we examined the relationship between hearing complaints and ...
A clinical isolate of (SP#5) that showed decreased susceptibility to evernimicin (MIC, 1. The incorporation of isoleucine demonstrated a linear response towards the dose degree of evernimicin. The incorporation of various other classes of tagged substrates was very much or unaffected postponed, indicating these had been secondary results. Everninomicins certainly are a course of oligosaccharide antibiotics isolated from (31). One particular substance, evernimicin (SCH 27899) (10, 11, 12) happens to be undergoing evaluation being a healing agent. Its been shown to possess powerful activity against many gram-positive bacterias, including emerging issue organisms such as for example vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and penicillin-resistant pneumococci (16). Actually, there have been no staphylococcal, enterococcal, and pneumococcal isolates that shown level of resistance to evernimicin in either the analysis by Jones and Barrett (16) or a more-recent ...
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This phase II trial studies the how well fractionated gemtuzumab ozogamicin works in treating measurable residual disease in participants with acute myeloid leukemia. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as gemtuzumab ozogamicin, may help the bodys immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. ...
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a term used to represent a heterogeneous group of diseases resulting from a malignant change in the haematopoietic stem cells. In the USA, the overall incidence rate and the death rate are 3.6 and 2.8 per 100 000 people per year, respectively. The incidence increases with age, with 40% of cases occurring in adults aged below 60 years and more than 50% in patients aged 60 years and above. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for adults is 23.4%.1 Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 35%-40% of adult patients aged 60 years or younger and 5%-15% among patients older than 60 years of age.2 Mortality in patients with AML can result from treatment-related causes, relapse or primary refractoriness. The mortality rate is approximately 50% in patients aged 60 years or younger and about 80% in patients aged 60 years and above.3 4. Prognostic factors can be subdivided into two categories: patient-associated factors and disease-related factors. Patient-associated factors, ...
Creative Proteomics can provide you with aminoglycosides residue testing service in accordance with local laws, regulations and customer requirements.
Aminoglycosides are mainly distributed in the extracellular fluid, so when they are given to neonates who have a large amount of extracellular fluid, their distribution is increased. In our data, the volume of distribution (Vd) of Arbekacin in the neonates was twice that of the adults, 0.54 l/kg. Therefore, the dose per weight of aminoglycosides to the neonates should be increased more than to the adults. In the renal function of the neonates, differentiation of the nephron is completed within 36 weeks after conception, but it is functionally immature ...
Specifically dimethylates two adjacent adenosines in the loop of a conserved hairpin near the 3-end of 16S rRNA in the 30S particle. Its inactivation leads to kasugamycin resistance ...
Specifically dimethylates two adjacent adenosines in the loop of a conserved hairpin near the 3-end of 16S rRNA in the 30S particle. Its inactivation leads to kasugamycin resistance ...
Penicillins and aminoglycosides are frequently employed in combination to enhance bacterial kill. The combination is effective because penicillins disrupt the cell wall and thereby facilitate access of aminoglycosides to their site of action. ...
Telavancins sales have been dismal at about $4.5 million for the 3rd quarter 2011. One could argue that this is not surprising since it is really, just another IV only Gram-positive only antibiotic that failed to study or prove superiority to any of the other drugs out there. The EU approval for HAP also just arrived in mid-2011. Further, the trials compared telavancin to vancomycin whereas many feel that, certainly for HAP, linezolid is a superior drug. Given the risks of telavancin, it is obviously hard to make the argument that physicians should adopt this new therapy. One wonders what Astellas was thinking when they made the deal to begin with. Although, Astellas clearly left themselves an out. They apparently were not responsible for any of the development costs, and only paid $65 million upfront in 2005. Additional milestone payments were also part of the agreement going up to an additional $156 million. Astellas was responsible for ex-US regulatory filings and for all commercialization ...
Methods for determining proteins and protein-bound compounds comprising enzymatic modification - diagram, schematic, and image 04 ...
4AQY: Dissociation of Antibacterial Activity and Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity in the 4-Monosubstituted 2-Deoxystreptamine Apramycin.
3,4-α-Epoxyneamine and its related aminoglycosidic antibiotic derivatives containing 3,4-α-epoxyneamine moiety in the molecule thereof are now provided, which may be in the form of their amino-protected and partially hydroxyl-protected product and which are useful as intermediates for use in the synthetic production of therapeutically valuable 3-deoxy derivatives of aminoglycosidic antibiotics.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The global systemic antibiotics market was respected at $39.6 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $41.2 billion by 2020, at a CAGR of 0.8%. Antibiotics present in the marketplace such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and it covers about 79% of the global demand. Furthermore, the other antibiotics such as penicillin have 8%, tetracycline 4%, erythromycin 7%, streptomycin 1% and chloramphenicol has 1 % market ...
CAS Number: 25389-94-0 , Description: approx. 800 micrograms per mgCell culture testedKanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic and isused as a selective agent for the incorporation of the NPT II (APH3) gene in plant ...
Advances that open new avenues in developing aminoglycosideantibiotics During the last twenty years, there have been numerous advances inthe understanding of the chemistry, biochemistry, and recognitionof aminoglycosides.
The Food and Drug Administration said Monday Pfizer Inc. is withdrawing its cancer drug Mylotarg from the U.S. market after a clinical study showed the drug wasnt effective and had...
Exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics can lead to the generation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear that have been implicated in hearing and balance disorders. Better understanding of the origin of aminoglycoside-induced ROS could focus the development of therapies aimed at preventing this event. In this work, we used the zebrafish lateral line system to monitor the dynamic behavior of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation occurring within the same dying hair cell following exposure to aminoglycosides. The increased oxidation observed in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of dying hair cells was highly correlated with mitochondrial calcium uptake. Application of the mitochondrial uniporter inhibitor Ru360 reduced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation, suggesting that mitochondrial calcium drives ROS generation during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, targeting mitochondria with free radical scavengers conferred ...
Background & objective: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in high-risk populations. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) methylation are two important mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtD), and the AME genes [aac(6′)-Ib, aac(3)-I, ant(3′′)-I, aph(3′)-I and aac(6)-Id], among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Between November 2015 to July 2016, a total of 110 clinical strains of A. baumannii were isolated from patients in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The presence of genes encoding the AMEs and16S rRNA methylases responsible for resis-tance was investigated by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective inactivation of aminoglycosides by newer beta-lactam antibiotics. AU - Jorgensen, J. H.. AU - Crawford, S. A.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Combinations of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics may act synergistically against certain microorganisms. However, aminoglycosides have been shown to interact chemically with certain beta-lactam antibiotics resulting in diminished activity of the aminoglycoside. Two beta-lactam antiotics, moxalactam and cefotaxime, as well as several other beta-lactams in current use, were studied for possible inactivation of gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin. Aqueous mixtures of each of the three aminoglycosides plus a beta-lactam antibiotic (moxalactam, cefotaxime, cephalothin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin or penicillin) were prepared in ratios of 10:1 and 50:1 (beta-lactam: aminoglycoside). Gentamicin and tobramycin were markedly inactivated by carbenicillin and ticarcillin, and to a lesser degree by penicillin (only at the 50:1 ...
Unexpected. If there is a term that sums up life it could very well be: unexpected. Life is full of unexpected moments. Some of these moments can be full of unexpected blessings while others may be full of unexpected obstacles. However, sometimes the unexpected can be both an obstacle and blessing at the same time; you just need someone to help you see both sides. The Greenwood Genetic Center is a place that helps shed some light on the ...
The aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are responsible for the bacterial inactivation of many clinically useful aminoglycoside antibiotics. We report the characterization of an enterococcal enzyme, APH(3)-IIIa, which inactivates a broad spectrum of aminoglycosides by ATP-dependent O-phosphorylation. Overproduction of APH(3)-IIIa has permitted the isolation of 30-40 mg of pure protein/(L of cell culture). Purified APH(3)-IIIa is a mixture of monomer and dimer which is slowly converted to dimer only over time. Dimer could be dissociated into monomer by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol, suggesting that dimerization is mediated by formation of disulfide bond(s). Both monomer and dimer show Km values in the low micromolar range for good substrates such as kanamycin and neomycin, and kcat values of 1-4 s-1. All aminoglycosides show substrate inhibition except amikacin and kanamycin B. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations indicates a positive correlation between antibiotic activity and
Hepatotoxicity, including life-threatening and sometimes fatal hepatic VOD events, have been reported in patients receiving MYLOTARG as a single agent or as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen [see Adverse Reactions (6)].. In ALFA-0701, VOD events were reported in 6/131 (5%) adult patients during or following treatment with MYLOTARG, or following later hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The median time from the MYLOTARG dose to onset of VOD was 9 days (range: 2-298 days), with 5 events occurring within 28 days of any dose of MYLOTARG and 1 event occurring greater than 28 days after the last dose of MYLOTARG. Three of the 6 VOD events were fatal. VOD was also reported in 2 patients in the control arm of ALFA-0701 after receiving MYLOTARG as a therapy for relapsed AML.. In MyloFrance-1 (MYLOTARG 3 mg/m2 on Days 1, 4 and 7), VOD events were reported in none of the 57 patients during or following treatment, or following HSCT after completion of MYLOTARG treatment.. In AAML0531, ...
Summary The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the aacA-aphD, aphA3 and aadC genes, encoding the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes AAC(6′)-APH(2′), APH(3′)III and ANT(4′ 4
Looking for online definition of fidaxomicin in the Medical Dictionary? fidaxomicin explanation free. What is fidaxomicin? Meaning of fidaxomicin medical term. What does fidaxomicin mean?
Amikacin sulfate, a active ingredient of samu AMIKACIN injection, is a semi-synthetic aminoglycosides antibiotics derived from Kanamycin. Amikacin, like other aminoglycoside antibiotics, is a bactericidal agent that exerts its action at the level of bacterial ribosome. Amikacin has been shown to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and many aminoglycoside-resistant strains due to its ability to resist degradation by aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes known to affect Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Kanamycin. Amikacin is a broad spectrum bactericidal antibiotic agent well absorbed following intravenous, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection and rapidly transmitted to skin and soft tissue, so it maintains a high therapeutic blood level. Amikacin has few side effects such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity ...
The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) for the treatment of patients 60 years of age and older who are in first relapse with CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are not considered 1
Stress stimuli can lead to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and subsequent alteration of cell adhesion and permeation as well as cell functions and cell fate. We investigated redox-dependent Rho GTPase-linked pathways controlling the actin cytoskeleton in the inner ear of the CBA mouse, by using aminoglycoside antibiotics as a noxious stimulus that causes loss of sensory cells via the formation of reactive oxygen species. Kanamycin treatment in vivo interfered with the formation of F-actin, disturbed the arrangement of β-actin in the stereocilia of outer hair cells, and altered the intermittent adherens junction/tight junction complexes between outer hair cells and supporting cells. The drug treatment also activated Rac1 and promoted the formation of the complex of Rac1 and p67phox while decreasing the activity of RhoA and reducing the formation of the RhoA/p140mDia complex. In inner-ear-derived cell lines, expression of mutated Rac1 changed the structural arrangement of F-actin and ...
Aminoglycosides are very important antibiotics in cystic fibrosis patients because of their efficacy against Ps aeruginosa. They are usually combined with a β lactam antibiotic in cases of pulmonary exacerbation caused by chronic colonisation with Ps aeruginosa.2-4 Several studies in severely ill patients have shown that once daily administration of aminoglycosides is as effective and probably less toxic than conventional thrice daily administration. For these antibiotics, efficacy is closely correlated with serum peak concentration and the ratio of serum peak to minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacteria, whereas toxicity depends on the trough serum level.7 16 17 Furthermore, the postantibiotic effect of aminoglycosides on Gram negative bacteria seems to be partly related to the serum peak value.8Administration once daily allows a high peak concentrations to be reached and enables the trough concentration to be as low as possible.. These conditions were clearly demonstrated in our study. ...
Penicillins and cephalospororins are the most prescribed group of antibiotics. They belong to half-synthetic beta lactam antibiotics. These antibiotics work by inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the production of peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan is a biopolimer that is a main structural component of the bacterial cell wall. The blockage of peptidoglycan synthesis leads to the lysis of the microorganisms. Another group of preparations are aminoglycosides. However, these antibiotics are prescribed in rare cases. The most of aminoglycosides possesses nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and cab cause neuromuscular blockage. Bactericidal action of aminoglycosides is related to the interfering with the synthesis of proteins on the ribisomes in the microbial cells. When aminoglycosides are used with penicillins and cephalosporins the sinergism against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms is observed. Among all bacteriostatic antibiotics macrolides and tetracyclines are the most indicated groups. ...
Penicillins and cephalospororins are the most prescribed group of antibiotics. They belong to half-synthetic beta lactam antibiotics. These antibiotics work by inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the production of peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan is a biopolimer that is a main structural component of the bacterial cell wall. The blockage of peptidoglycan synthesis leads to the lysis of the microorganisms. Another group of preparations are aminoglycosides. However, these antibiotics are prescribed in rare cases. The most of aminoglycosides possesses nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and cab cause neuromuscular blockage. Bactericidal action of aminoglycosides is related to the interfering with the synthesis of proteins on the ribisomes in the microbial cells. When aminoglycosides are used with penicillins and cephalosporins the sinergism against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms is observed. Among all bacteriostatic antibiotics macrolides and tetracyclines are the most indicated groups. ...
There is no established dosing schedule for once-daily aminoglycoside dosing regimens, and accepted guidelines for monitoring therapy are lacking. We derived a simplified schedule from the Hull and Sarubbi (J. H. Hull and F. A. Sarubbi, Ann. Intern. Med. 85:183-189, 1976) nomogram, for which efficacy and safety in a once-daily dosing regimen were previously demonstrated, and prospectively followed serum aminoglycoside levels in patients. The standard treatment was gentamicin or tobramycin at 4 mg/kg of body weight given intravenously once daily. When the renal function was decreased, the daily dose was reduced, as follows: for an estimated creatinine clearance of between 50 and 80 ml/min, the daily dose was 3.25 mg/kg, for an estimated creatinine clearance of between 30 and 50 ml/min, the daily dose was 2.5 mg/kg, and for an estimated creatinine clearance of below 30 ml/min, the daily dose was 2 mg/kg. A total of 221 patients were studied (184 received gentamicin and 37 received tobramycin). First
Sekar, R., Srivani, R., Vignesh, R., Kownhar, H. and Shankar, E.M. (2008) Low Recovery Rates of High-Level Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterococci Could be Attributable to Restricted Usage of Aminoglycosides in Indian Settings. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57, 397-398.
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. ...
Read about aminoglycosides, a group of antibiotics indicated for the management of acute exacerbations of CF and to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.
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This information from Lexicomp® explains what you need to know about this medication, including what its used for, how to take it, its side effects, and when to call your healthcare provider.
SAN DIEGO -- Oncologists are re-evaluating gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) in acute myeloid leukemia, with new results presented here suggesting its 2010 withdrawal from the market may have been prem
a. Streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin b. Gentamycins c. Neomycin d. Kanamycin e. Amikacin f. Tobramycin g. Netilmicin (1-N-ethylsisomicin)
Rebeccamycin is an indolocarbazole isolated from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes. Rebeccamycin displays selective antitumor activity against several cell lines. Analogues of rebeccamycin have been tested in clinical trials for cancer therapy ...
Read Properties of lanK-based regulatory circuit involved in landomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces cyanogenus S136, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Any drug with the potential to cause toxic reactions to structures of the inner ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals, and otoliths, is considered ototoxic. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, and dysequilibrium or dizziness.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Enzymatic modification of phospholipids. AU - Xu, Xuebing. AU - Vikbjerg, Anders Falk. AU - Guo, Zheng. AU - Zhang, Long. AU - Acharya, Ashishkumar Hitendrakumar. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Book chapter. SP - 41. EP - 82. BT - Phospholipid Science and Technology. A2 - Gunstone, Frank. PB - Oily Press. CY - London. ER - ...
Asia-Pacific held the largest share of the revenue generated by the global antibacterial drugs market in 2014. This region is also expected to experience the highest growth rate during the forecast period 2015 to 2023.
Amikacin (a-mi-KAY-sin) Treats infections. Belongs to a class of drugs called aminoglycoside antibiotics. Brand Name(s): amikacin sulfate NovaPlus
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis. Naturally made by Gram-negative bacteria, this solution inhibits mycoplasma growth.
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Easy to read patient leaflet for Telavancin. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
DUBLIN, IRELAND--(Marketwired - Oct 5, 2015) - Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (NASDAQ: TBPH) (Theravance Biopharma or the Company) today announced that data from studies of VIBATIV® (telavancin) will be presented at IDWeek™ 2015, being held in San Diego, CA, on October 7 - 11, 2015. New data from multiple retrospective clinical...
Pesticidally active substantially pure nikkomicin fractions obtained from Streptomyces tendae Ettlinger et al Tu 901, the fractions being selected from the group consisting of ##STR1## a mixture of nikkomicin I and J, and a mixture of nikkomicin M and N.
DESCRIPTION WARNINGS Patients treated with parenteral aminoglycosides should be under close clinical observation because of the potential ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity associated with their use. Safety for treatment perio...
Eye surgeons should use intracameral antibiotics only in select situations; they should avoid aminoglycosides, and they should not use vancomycin as prophylaxis. Michael Jumper, MD, offered this perspective as part of an overview of antibiotics used in intraocular surgery during the Glaucoma Symposium at the 2017 Glaucoma 360 meeting.
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This is a general term, describing any of numerous classes of antibiotics. Common to all of them is their ability to effectively treat a wide range of bacteria.. These antibiotics would include:. Aminoglycoside. ...
Effects of an Aminoglycoside on Pregnant Mice and on the Postnatal Development of Their Offspring:With Special Reference to Reflex and Equilibrium Funotion (1985 ...
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Variations of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase (AAD) also confer resistance: ... an allergy to one aminoglycoside also confers hypersensitivity to other aminoglycosides). It should also be avoided in those ... Amikacin, like other aminoglycoside antibiotics, can cause hearing loss, balance problems, and kidney problems. Other side ... Amikacin can be inactivated by other beta-lactams, though not to the extent as other aminoglycosides, and is still often used ...
It is usually resistant to a variety of antibiotics including penicillins, ; cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides. ...
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 3-642-68579-X.CS1 maint: extra text: authors ...
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 3-642-68579-X.CS1 maint: extra text: authors ... "Mechanism of multiple aminoglycoside resistance of kasugamycin-producing Streptomyces kasugaensis MB273: involvement of two ...
Aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase (APH(3')), also known as aminoglycoside kinase, is an enzyme that primarily catalyzes the ... Aminoglycoside resistance genes are commonly used in the realm of genetic engineering in order to select for correctly ... Antibiotics, such as the aminoglycosides kanamycin or neomycin, are added to the cultures during growth phases in order to ... However, APH(3') has also been found to phosphorylate at the 5'-hydroxyl group in 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycosides, which lack ...
Options include aminoglycosides, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. K. kingae can also cause infectious endocarditis, in children ...
Antibiotic resistance to aminoglycosides is common. Wen, Aimin; Fegan, Mark; Hayward, Chris; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Sly, Lindsay ...
Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity is generally irreversible. As with all aminoglycosides, tobramycin is also nephrotoxic, it ... Like all aminoglycosides, tobramycin does not pass the gastro-intestinal tract, so for systemic use it can only be given ... Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces tenebrarius that is used to treat various types of ... These individuals carry a normally harmless genetic mutation that allows aminoglycosides such as tobramycin to affect cochlear ...
Aminoglycosides or colistin may be required. Antimicrobial regimens for children include an aminoglycoside-based regimen, a ... The routine use of an aminoglycoside or another second agent effective against gram-negative facultative and aerobic bacilli is ... aminoglycosides, and the earlier quinolones. Some infections are more likely to be caused by anaerobic bacteria, and they ... aminoglycoside) or an anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin (i.e. cefepime ) are generally added to metronidazole, and occasionally ...
Aminoglycoside resistance/diagnostics. As a leader in the field of aminoglycoside resistance Shaw was involved in the cloning ... "The Most Frequent Aminoglycoside Resistance Mechanisms--Changes with Time and Geographic Area: A Reflection of Aminoglycoside ... "Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes". ... She is best known for her work on aminoglycoside resistance in bacteria as well as leading drug discovery research teams. As ...
NMDA antagonists like dizocilpine have been shown in animal models to attenuate the hearing loss caused by aminoglycosides It ... Ernfors P, Canlon B (December 1996). "Aminoglycoside excitement silences hearing". Nat. Med. 2 (12): 1313-4. doi:10.1038/nm1296 ... "N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists limit aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced hearing loss". Nat. Med. 2 (12): 1338-43. doi:10.1038/ ... is thought that aminoglycosides mimic endogenous polyamines at NMDA receptors and produce excitotoxic damage, leading to hair ...
... is an aminoglycoside. It works by blocking the ability of 30S ribosomal subunits to make proteins, which results ... Prayle A, Watson A, Fortnum H, Smyth A (July 2010). "Side effects of aminoglycosides on the kidney, ear and balance in cystic ... as with other aminoglycosides, are kidney toxicity and ear toxicity. Transient or permanent deafness may result. The vestibular ...
Aminoglycosides in laboratory tests showed some bactericidal activity. Bacteriostatic antibiotics are not able to easily get ...
It produces sagamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, as well as several mutational variants. Its cell wall contains only D- ... Kase, Hiroshi; Odakura, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Kiyoshi (1982). "Sagamicin and the related aminoglycosides: Fermentation and ...
It differs from most Burkholderia species in that it is often susceptible to aminoglycosides, but not polymyxin B. Many ... "In vitro susceptibility of Burkholderia vietnamiensis to aminoglycosides". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55 (5): 2256-64. doi: ...
Some patients have responded to aminoglycoside or quinolone therapy, but, in a recent comparison of ciprofloxacin and imipenem ... Resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides is especially high. For infections caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli ... Associated resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, as well as high frequency of co-existence of ... aminoglycosides). Therefore, antibiotic options in the treatment of ESBL-producing organisms are extremely limited. Carbapenems ...
Macrolides, clindamycin and aminoglycosides (with all these three having other potential mechanisms of action as well), have ... Aminoglycosides prevent ribosome assembly by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit. Tetracyclines and Tigecycline (a ... Aminoglycosides, among other potential mechanisms of action, interfere with the proofreading process, causing increased rate of ... Retapamulin Mupirocin Fusidic acid The following antibiotics bind to the 30S subunit of the ribosome: Aminoglycosides ...
Can mask signs of ototoxicity caused by aminoglycosides. QT prolongation (which can lead to torsades de pointes arrhythmia) ...
A study has shown that adding certain metabolites to aminoglycosides could enable bacterial persisters to be eliminated. This ... Allison KR, Brynildsen MP, Collins JJ (2011). "Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides". ...
Pharmamotion --> Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents Archived ...
Antibacterial: antibiotics, topical antibiotics, sulfa drugs, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones. Antiviral drugs. Anti-fungal: ...
Nonparallel nephrotoxicity dose-response curves of aminoglycosides: Nephrotoxicity comparisons of aminoglycosides in rats, ... Netilmicin is a member of the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics. These antibiotics have the ability to kill a wide variety ... Daily single-dose aminoglycoside administration. Therapeutic and economic benefits: Animal studies have shown that dosing ... Relative efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and tobramycin in oncology patients: We conclude that aminoglycoside-associated ...
... is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. It has been used in combination with sulbenicillin. Aonuma S, Ariji F, Oizumi K, ...
... is an aminoglycoside-aminocyclitol antibiotic isolated from a streptomycete, Streptomyces ribosidificus, ... Ribostamycin, along with other aminoglycosides with the DOS subunit, is an important broad-spectrum antibiotic with important ... ISBN 978-92-4-150448-5. Kudo F, Eguchi T (September 2009). "Biosynthetic genes for aminoglycoside antibiotics". The Journal of ... Resistance against aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as ribostamycin, is a growing concern. The resistant bacteria contain ...
... is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Kobayashi F, Yamaguchi M, Mitsuhashi S (January 1972). "Activity of lividomycin ...
Doi, Yohei; Arakawa, Yoshichika (2007). "16S ribosomal RNA methylation: emerging resistance mechanism against aminoglycosides ...
Aminoglycosides: Neomycin. *Gentamicin. *Amikacin. *Quinolones: Nadifloxacin. *Streptogramin: Virginiamycin. *Rifamycin: ...
Hanko, Valoran P.; Rohrer, Jeffrey S. (2012). "Ion Chromatography Analysis of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics". Applications of Ion ...
RATHER, P (1998). "Origins of the aminoglycoside modifying enzymes". Drug Resistance Updates. 1 (5): 285-291. doi:10.1016/s1368 ...
Aminoglycosides Definition Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are used to treat certain bacterial infections. This ... Aminoglycosides. Definition. Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are used to treat certain bacterial infections . ... Aminoglycosides Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed. COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Aminoglycosides. Definition. ... Aminoglycosides are also effective against mycobacteria, the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis. The aminoglycosides can be ...
Specific aminoglycosides. See the list below:. * Streptomycin: Streptomycin was the first clinically applied aminoglycoside and ... Aminoglycosides. Since their introduction in 1944, multiple aminoglycoside preparations have become available, including ... In these areas, aminoglycosides cause as many as 66% of cases of deaf mutism. Depending on agent and dosing, up to 33% of adult ... 5] It does appear that aminoglycoside agents must enter hair cells to induce cell death. [6] After entry into hair cells, many ...
Intravenous doses of aminoglycosides are given slowly over about 30 minutes.. Other forms of aminoglycosides, such as eye drops ... This test is used to monitor the level of the prescribed aminoglycoside antibiotic in the blood. The most common aminoglycoside ... Its use declined with the introduction of other aminoglycosides.. Aminoglycosides are cleared from the body by the kidneys, ... are often performed at regular intervals during treatment with aminoglycosides. More frequent aminoglycoside monitoring may be ...
The aminoglycoside gentamicin has been used to treat cystic fibrosis (CF) cells in the laboratory to induce them to grow full- ... Aminoglycosides are in pregnancy category D, that is, there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction ... Aminoglycoside can cause inner ear toxicity which can result in sensorineural hearing loss. The incidence of inner ear toxicity ... This revived interest in the use of aminoglycosides has brought back to light the debate on the two major issues related to ...
aminoglycoside,. antibiotic. Part of. aminoglycoside antibiotic metabolic process (participant),. aminoglycoside antibiotic ... aminoglycoside antibiotic (en); アミノグリコシド系抗生物質 (ja); aminoglykosidantibiotikum (nn) group of substances (en) aminoglycoside drug ... Media in category "Aminoglycoside antibiotics". The following 51 files are in this category, out of 51 total. ... aminoglycoside (en); アミノグリコシド系抗菌薬, アミノグリコシド系, アミノグリコシド (ja); aminoglykosidantibiotika, aminoglykosid (nn) ...
The term aminoglycoside is derived from the chemical structure of these compounds, which are made up of amino groups (―NH2) ... Aminoglycoside, any of several natural and semisynthetic compounds that are used to treat bacterial diseases. ... In the following decades, natural aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin and tobramycin, and semisynthetic aminoglycosides, such ... The term aminoglycoside is derived from the chemical structure of these compounds, which are made up of amino groups (―NH2) ...
Other names in common use include aminoglycoside 6-N-acetyltransferase, aminoglycoside-6-acetyltransferase, aminoglycoside-6- ... In enzymology, an aminoglycoside N6-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.82) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... Benveniste R, Davies J (1971). "Enzymatic acetylation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by Escherichia coli carrying an R factor". ...
Intravenous doses of aminoglycosides are given slowly over about 30 minutes.. Other forms of aminoglycosides, such as eye drops ... This test is used to monitor the level of the prescribed aminoglycoside antibiotic in the blood. The most common aminoglycoside ... Its use declined with the introduction of other aminoglycosides.. Aminoglycosides are cleared from the body by the kidneys, ... Why are aminoglycosides used at all if they can cause permanent hearing loss?. There are risks and benefits associated with ...
Antibiotics, Aminoglycoside, aminoglycosides, aminoglycosides (medication), aminoglycoside antibiotics, aminoglycosides ... Aminoglycoside -class of antibiotic-, Aminoglycoside, NOS, Aminoglycosides, Aminoglycoside Agents, Aminoglycoside Antibiotic, ... Aminoglycoside. Aka: Aminoglycoside, Gentamicin, Garamycin *Pharmacokinetics. *Maintain Trough ,2 ug/ml. *Drawn immediately ... antibiotics, AMINOGLYCOSIDE ANTIBACTERIALS, aminoglycoside antibiotic, Aminoglycoside -class of antibiotic- (substance), ...
Aminoglycosides. Class Summary. Aminoglycosides are bactericidal antibiotics used to primarily treat gram-negative infections. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with activity against gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species. It is ... Metronidazole is often used in combination with an aminoglycoside, such as gentamycin. It provides broad gram-negative and ...
... aminoglycosides, procainamide, digoxin, digitoxin, and quinidine, with optimal monitoring strategies and automatic delivery of ...
Aminoglycosides are used in the treatment of severe infections of the abdomen and urinary tract, as well as bacteremia and ... Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides appears to be safe, efficacious and cost effective. In certain clinical situations, such ... Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides is possible because of their rapid concentration-dependent killing and post-antibiotic ... Gentamicin is the most commonly used aminoglycoside, but amikacin may be particularly effective against resistant organisms. ...
a b c d e DVM Boothe, DVM, PhD, 2012, Aminoglycosides (Aminocyclitols), The Merck Veterinary Manual "Archived copy". Archived ... Aminoglycosides that are derived from bacteria of the Streptomyces genus are named with the suffix -mycin, whereas those that ... a b c ME Levison, MD, 2012, Aminoglycosides, The Merck Manual [1], accessed 22 February 2014. ... Aminoglycosides are in pregnancy category D,[15] that is, there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse ...
Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides synonyms, Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides pronunciation, Antimicrobial Drugs- ... Aminoglycosides translation, English dictionary definition of Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides. n. A broad-spectrum ... redirected from Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. gen·ta·mi·cin. (jĕn′tə- ... Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides - definition of Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
Ribostamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic complex produced by fermentation of Micromonospora purpurea or M. echinospora. It is ... Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces tenebrarius and used to treat various types of bacteria ... Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram- ...
Aminoglycoside-induced proteinuria may result from general renal damage or may reflect alterations in specific steps in the ... Each aminoglycoside was administered IP to male Wistar rats (15 or 30 mg/kg/day) for 5 or 7 days. Scanning and transmission ... Renal ultrastructural and biochemical injuries induced by aminoglycosides Environ Health Perspect. 1984 Aug;57:293-9. doi: ... Aminoglycoside-induced proteinuria may result from general renal damage or may reflect alterations in specific steps in the ...
Older age did correlate with higher aminoglycoside serum concentrations (. ). There was no significant difference using ... Evaluation of Extended Interval Dosing Aminoglycosides in the Morbidly Obese Population. Ashley L. Ross,1 Jennifer L. Tharp,2 ... Extended interval aminoglycosides are included in various protocols within our hospital, with dosing schemes ranging from 5 to ... Aminoglycoside dosing has been studied in the obese population, typically recommending an adjusted weight utilizing a 40% ...
Aminoglycoside antibiotics traffic to the Golgi complex in LLC-PK1 cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9(2):167-174.. View this ... Designer aminoglycosides prevent cochlear hair cell loss and hearing loss. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(2):583-592.. View this ... Fluorescent aminoglycosides reveal intracellular trafficking routes in mechanosensory hair cells. Dale W. Hailey,1,2,3 Robert ... Mechanisms of aminoglycoside ototoxicity and targets of hair cell protection. Int J Otolaryngol. 2011;2011:937861. View this ...
Aminoglycoside interactions and impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome.. Prokhorova I1, Altman RB2, Djumagulov M1, Shrestha JP3, ... Interactions of the aminoglycoside derivative TC007 with the 80S ribosome. (A, Left) The view from the A-site of the ribosome ... Aminoglycosides target the decoding center of the 80S ribosome in a different ways. (A) Secondary structure of h44 of the small ... Aminoglycoside-induced changes in human 80S PRE complex conformation. (A) Schematic showing classic (C) and hybrid (H2 and H1) ...
Aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides primarily act by binding to 16S ribosomal RNA within the 30S ribosomal subunit. They have ... Aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. In meningitis or gram-negative ... Which medications in the drug class Aminoglycosides are used in the treatment of Meningitis?. Updated: Jul 16, 2019 ... encoded search term (Which medications in the drug class Aminoglycosides are used in the treatment of Meningitis?) and Which ...
The length of the P AE was concentration-dependent for all the aminoglycosides studied. The mean P AE values of the Gram- ... Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aminoglycosides. Isacsson, Barbro Linköping University, Department of Molecular and ... This method simplified the P AE studies and made such studies possible at high aminoglycoside concentrations. ... of the aminoglycosides were studied in this thesis. For1y-five elderly patients with serious infections were treated in a ...
Clindamycin 2-phosphate aminoglycoside antibiotic; CAS Number: 24729-96-2; EC Number: 246-433-0; Synonym: Clindamycin 2- ... Clindamycin 2-phosphate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that has been used to study the cytoxicity of antibiotics on human cell ...
The most common Aminoglycosides used as alternatives to Penicillin are Erythromycin (lit. Red fungus) and Clarithromycin (lit. ... Aminoglycosides are antibiotics used for gram negative infections. Gram-negative means that the bacteria which cause the ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aminoglycoside&oldid=7043207" ...
... Fabíola Fernandes Galvão ... "Phytochemical prospection and modulation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity by Croton campestris A.," Chemotherapy, vol. 57 ...
Aminoglycoside resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms modulated by extracellular polysaccharide.. Khan W1, Bernier SP, ... Aminoglycoside resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms modulated by extracellular polysaccharide. Int Microbiol. ;13(4): ... work forms a basis for future studies revealing the mechanisms of biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance to aminoglycoside ...
A category of amino glycoside antibacterials. Must have an amino group attached to a glycoside and have antibacterial effects. ... Structurally, it must be an aminoglycoside. It must have antibacterial properties. It potentially came from a Streptomycin spp. ...
Aminoglycosides - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - Medical ... If an aminoglycoside is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking an aminoglycoside, she should be ... Aminoglycosides are usually given IV but may be given IM if IV access is unavailable. Aminoglycosides are distributed well into ... Aminoglycosides (see table Aminoglycosides) have concentration-dependent bactericidal activity. These antibiotics bind to the ...
... Table 16 Nov 2015. ... Percentage (%) of invasive isolates resistant to aminoglycosides, by country, EU/EEA, 2014 ...
Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. SHAW ... Role of Aminoglycoside 6-Acetyltransferase in a Novel Multiple Aminoglycoside Resisdtance of an Actinomycete Strain #8: ... Enzymatic acetylation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by Escherichia coli carrying an R factor,. BENVENISTE R. ... Classification by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and antibiotics active against MRSA. 近藤信一 ...
  • Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are used to treat certain bacterial infections. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The aminoglycosides can be used against certain Gram-positive bacteria, but are not typically employed because other antibiotics are more effective and have fewer side effects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Like all other antibiotics, aminoglycosides are not effective against influenza, the common cold , or other viral infections. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vestibular injury is also a notable adverse effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and may appear early on with positional nystagmus. (medscape.com)
  • The aminoglycosides are bactericidal antibiotics that bind to the 30S ribosome and inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • Gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin are aminoglycosides, a group of antimicrobials (antibiotics) that are used to treat serious bacterial infections. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics display bactericidal activity against Gram-negative aerobes and some anaerobic bacilli where resistance has not yet arisen but generally not against Gram-positive and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common aminoglycoside antibiotics in the United States are amikacin, gentamicin or tobramycin. (labcorp.com)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics bind to the 16S RNA of the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting translation and protein synthesis. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are bactericidal antibiotics used to primarily treat gram-negative infections. (medscape.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are potent bactericidal antibiotics that act by creating fissures in the outer membrane of the bacterial cell. (aafp.org)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics can damage the hair cells of the inner ear, leading to hearing loss and balance disorders. (jci.org)
  • Aminoglycosides (AGs) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that are associated with kidney damage, balance disorders, and permanent hearing loss. (jci.org)
  • Aminoglycosides are chemically diverse, broad-spectrum antibiotics that target functional centers within the bacterial ribosome to impact all four principle stages (initiation, elongation, termination, and recycling) of the translation mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Although newer antibiotics are available, aminoglycosides such as gentamicin remain significant in treating severe infections. (medscape.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are antibiotics used for gram negative infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work forms a basis for future studies revealing the mechanisms of biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics by P. aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • Classification by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and antibiotics active against MRSA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Aminoglycosides are antibiotics effective against some bacteria. (openwetware.org)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, and are often dispensed only in severe cases due to their adverse side effects. (rsc.org)
  • The number and position of the amino groups of aminoglycoside antibiotics controlled the aggregation process. (rsc.org)
  • We investigated the complementary techniques of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) for dual detection of these aminoglycoside antibiotics and performed an in-depth study of the feasibility of carrying out TDM of tobramycin using a platform amenable to high throughput analysis. (rsc.org)
  • Exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics can lead to the generation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear that have been implicated in hearing and balance disorders. (jci.org)
  • Adverse Reactions Contraindications &/or Precautions Patient Management Issues Dose Range Generic Name: Gentamicin Brand Names: Garamycin, Gentak Belongs to a class of drugs called antibiotics Aminoglycoside antibiotic Treats eye infections. (majortests.com)
  • Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: From Chemical Biology to Drug Discoveryis a great resource for academic and industrial researchers in drugdesign and mechanism studies and for researchers studyingantibiotic resistance, antibiotic design and synthesis, and thediscovery of novel pharmaceuticals. (buecher.de)
  • Aminoglycosides are highly potent, broad-spectrum antibiotics with many desirable properties for the treatment of life-threatening infections ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Enzymatic phosphorylation through a family of enzymes called aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases (APHs) is a major mechanism by which bacteria confer resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. (rcsb.org)
  • Although the reasons for improved survival are complex, one contributor is the aggressive use of antibiotics including aminoglycosides. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Aminoglycosides are antibiotics which are especially effective against some types of bacteria. (avivadirectory.com)
  • The MDR/XDR-TB strains necessitate prolonged chemotherapy for up to 2 years or more, and the use of more toxic second-line drugs including the aminoglycoside (streptomycin, kanamycin and amikacin) and polypeptide (capreomycin) antibiotics. (scielo.org.za)
  • 3 Despite their adverse effects, aminoglycosides are commonly used as short-course antibiotics in developing countries such as South Africa and are, together with capreomycin, important components of the MDR-/XDR-TB drug regimens for 6 months or longer. (scielo.org.za)
  • No direct relationships emerged between the effect of an aminoglycoside at a specific NMDA receptor subtype and the ototoxicity of these antibiotics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics (Fig. 1 ) are effective against many strains of aerobic Gram-negative and some aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics are composed of one or two aminosugars glycosidically linked to an aminocyclitol nucleus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics that bind to 30 S ribosomal A-site RNA cause misreading of the genetic code and inhibit translocation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Traditional aminoglycoside antibiotics are problematic given their high toxicity and the potential for resistance development. (researchsea.com)
  • The research at Tohoku University focused on bacterial A-site binding small ligands whose structures are distinct from the aminoglycoside family, which offer potential for the development of novel drugs that treat bacterial infections with a reduction in the problems associated with traditional antibiotics. (researchsea.com)
  • The beta lactam antibiotics (e.g. penicillins, cephalosporins) and the aminoglycosides (e.g. gentamicin) kill bacteria by different means. (cochrane.org)
  • Combining a beta lactam with an aminoglycoside could, therefore, result in more effective treatment of patients with severe infection but with the side effects of both antibiotics. (cochrane.org)
  • Our objectives were to compare beta lactam monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy in patients with sepsis and to estimate the rate of adverse effects with each treatment regimen , including the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. (cochrane.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that aminoglycoside antibiotics and lead via their effects on phosphoinositide pathway and calcium channels may influence ototoxicity mechanisms as tested on the auditory brainstem response. (scialert.net)
  • Obtained data suggest the interactions between chronic lead acetate and aminoglycoside antibiotics in alterations of auditory functions which could be accounted for, at least partially, by perturbations of the phosphoinositide and calcium cascades within the inner ear. (scialert.net)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics are clinically important drugs and frequently used worldwide ( Forge and Schacht, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • The Thermo Scientific Acclaim AmG C18 HPLC column is a high performance, reversed-phase column designed for ion-pairing chromatographic separations and optimized for various aminoglycoside antibiotics analyses, including drug purity and impurity characterization and quantification, therapeutic drug monitoring, and residual control testing in different matrices. (technologynetworks.com)
  • aminoglycoside antibiotics Therapeutics: aminoglycosides , particularly gentamicin Gentamicin - an important group of drugs for the treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections in the horse. (vetstream.com)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics most commonly used in equine practice includes gentamicin Gentamicin , amikacin Amikacin . (vetstream.com)
  • Almost exclusive renal excretion of aminoglycoside antibiotics → larger clearance times → increased risk of nephrotoxicity. (vetstream.com)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics are not metabolized - are cleared almost exclusively by renal excretion. (vetstream.com)
  • Aminoglycoside antibiotics and renal function: changes in urinary gamma-glutamyltransferase excretion. (bmj.com)
  • Aminoglycosides is a known class of antibiotics that can cause sensorineural hearing loss that is often permanent. (healthtap.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are a class of clinically important antibiotics used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of the first groups of antibiotics to encounter the challenge of resistance was the aminoglycoside -aminocyclitol family. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin are the most commonly prescribed aminoglycosides, and they are used to treat infections caused by certain types of Gram-negative bacteria as well as a few Gram-positive bacteria. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In the following decades, natural aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin and tobramycin, and semisynthetic aminoglycosides, such as netilmicin and amikacin, were identified and developed. (britannica.com)
  • Although most aminoglycosides are only effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the agents streptomycin and gentamicin possess some activity against gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus and Staphylococcus . (britannica.com)
  • Other examples of aminoglycosides include the deoxystreptamine-containing agents kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, and neomycin (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kanamycin A Amikacin Tobramycin Dibekacin Gentamicin Sisomicin Netilmicin Neomycins B, C Neomycin E (paromomycin) Streptomycin Plazomicin Aminoglycosides display concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against "most gram-negative aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacilli" but not against gram-negative anaerobes and most gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with activity against gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species. (medscape.com)
  • Gentamicin is the most commonly used aminoglycoside, but amikacin may be particularly effective against resistant organisms. (aafp.org)
  • Crystal structures of the 80S ribosome in complex with paromomycin, geneticin (G418), gentamicin, and TC007, solved at 3.3- to 3.7-Å resolution, reveal multiple aminoglycoside-binding sites within the large and small subunits, wherein the 6'-hydroxyl substituent in ring I serves as a key determinant of binding to the canonical eukaryotic ribosomal decoding center. (nih.gov)
  • Aminoglycosides carries more than one antibiotic, I will explain each detail of antibiotic and what can help an individual to feel better and what can harm to individual, The first antibiotic is Gentamicin, Gentamicin is a generic brand, the name brand for this antibiotic is called Garamycin, now your asking your self what is Garamycin, well let me tell you Garamycin is Antibiotic that fight bacteria in the body. (majortests.com)
  • Paromomycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin are all aminoglycosides. (avivadirectory.com)
  • The isolate was also resistant to other aminoglycosides (streptomycin, gentamicin, and neomycin, but not apramycin), as well as to members of other classes (sulfonamides, trimethoprim, quinolones). (cdc.gov)
  • Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from a Brazilian university hospital were characterized in relation to resistance to gentamicin and related aminoglycosides. (ovid.com)
  • The resistance to gentamicin (and related aminoglycosides: kanamycin and tobramycin) must be due to AAC(6′)-APH(2″) activity. (ovid.com)
  • The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was performed with a reference susceptible isolate (S) in the second column and with a reference 16S rRNA methylase isolate (ArmA) (R) in the third column in a reaction medium without (upper) and with (lower) the AG mix (amikacin plus gentamicin). (asm.org)
  • However, aminoglycosides - which include streptomycin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin and neomycin - can lead to the death of cochlear hair cells and result in permanent hearing impairment in about 20% of treated patients tested using conventional audiometry, and in nearly half of patients whose higher frequency hearing was examined. (pharmaceutical-journal.com)
  • Aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, suppress disease-causing premature stop mutations, thus partially restoring the functional protein. (arvojournals.org)
  • Other aminoglycosides were subsequently developed, including amikacin (Amikin), netilmicin (Netromycin) and tobramycin (Nebcin), which are all currently available for systemic use in the United States. (aafp.org)
  • The pharmacokinetics of amikacin in humans and the pharmacodynamic effects, i.e. initial killing and postantibiotic effect (P AE), of the aminoglycosides were studied in this thesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • In a recent issue, Betts and colleagues (3) have reported data on the use of amikacin as the primary empiric aminoglycoside in a large university hospital. (annals.org)
  • Aminoglycosides (AG) such as amikacin are commonly used in cystic fibrosis patients with opportunistic pulmonary infections including multi-drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacterium. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the 1970s, the semisynthetic aminoglycosides dibekacin, amikacin, and netilmicin demonstrated the possibility of obtaining compounds which were active against strains that had developed resistance mechanisms towards earlier aminoglycosides as well as displaying distinct toxicological profiles ( 65 ). (asm.org)
  • Waksman later isolated a second aminoglycoside, neomycin , from another species of soil bacteria, Streptomyces fradiae . (britannica.com)
  • The DNA sequence of an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene (aph) from Streptomyces fradiae ATCC 10745 (a neomycin producer) was determined. (pnas.org)
  • To explore this hypothesis, we compared the effects of several aminoglycosides (neomycin B, kanamycin A, streptomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin) with spermine on recombinant NMDA receptors of defined composition expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In our work, we studied the action of transient perfusion (5 to 15 s) of aminoglycosides (AGs) (streptomycin and neomycin) on the proton-gated ionic currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) of the rat and in HEK-293 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study aimed to determine the role of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides in the maintenance of sensory hair cell population exposed to ototoxic aminoglycosides (e.g. neomycin) which cause hair cell death and hearing loss. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • This was followed by exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin for 3 hours and incubation in normal or nucleotide-supplemented culture medium for a further 19.5 hours. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • Herein, we also demonstrate dual detection of tobramycin using both LSPR and SERS in a single platform and within the clinically relevant concentration range needed for TDM of this particular aminoglycoside. (rsc.org)
  • The next antibiotic that connected with Aminoglycosides is called Tobramycin (Injection) the brand name Tobranycin Sulfate ADD-Vantage. (majortests.com)
  • To confirm that armA was responsible for aminoglycoside resistance in this strain, 2 oligonucleotides, armF (5´-GGTGCGAAAACAGTCGTAGT-3´) and armR (5´-TCCTCAAAATATCCTCTATGT-3´), were used to amplify armA , which was purified, ligated into pUC18, and transformed into E. coli INVαF´ with selection on ampicillin and tobramycin. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 2 ] These findings, coupled with ototoxicity associated with later development of other aminoglycosides, led to a great deal of clinical and basic scientific research into the etiology and mechanisms of ototoxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are associated with serious toxic side effects, including damage to hearing and/or balance (ototoxicity) and acute kidney damage (nephrotoxicity). (labtestsonline.org)
  • Nephrotoxicity (impairment of kidney function) and ototoxicity (impairment of the organs of hearing and balance) are the most common side effects of aminoglycosides. (britannica.com)
  • Aminoglycoside use is associated with ototoxicity, neurotxicity and nephrotoxicity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • However, aminoglycosides have well-recognised adverse effects, particularly nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Although effective for treating MDR-TB, the aminoglycosides and capreomycin have known dose-related adverse effects, mainly nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity (defined as damage to the hearing or balance functions of the ear). (scielo.org.za)
  • All TB patients should ideally be tested before they start aminoglycoside therapy to determine whether they harbour any of the known aminoglycoside ototoxicity-associated mutations. (scielo.org.za)
  • Recent pharmacological studies have led to the hypothesis that aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity is an excitotoxic process mediated, at least in part, by a polyamine-like modulation of N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite both a rapid onset of bactericidal action and low treatment cost, the use of aminoglycosides is limited by ototoxicity that can result in permanent damage to both the cochlear and vestibular apparatus ( Wersall, 1995 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recent pharmacological evidence suggests that aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity is, in part, an excitotoxic process mediated by an activation of N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings led to the proposal that a polyamine-like activation of NMDA receptors is a pivotal step in the ototoxicity produced by these aminoglycosides ( Skolnick, 1997 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since it is difficult to inhibit the variety of cell-death mechanisms that might be induced by aminoglycosides, another strategy to prevent aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity is to block the entry of the drug into cells. (biologists.org)
  • Aminoglycosides are well known causes of ototoxicity (deafness) and ataxia. (vetstream.com)
  • The high incidence of ototoxicity from aminoglycosides or chemotherapeutic drugs, and its potential impact on a patients' subsequent quality of life, justifies the investment required to establish clinically effective monitoring methods [2,3]. (va.gov)
  • The results presented in this thesis indicate that misreading of the genetic code is an important molecular mechanism in both mitochondrial rRNA polymorphism-associated deafness and in aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. (uzh.ch)
  • Bacteria that can successfully be combated with aminoglycosides include Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter , and Enterobacter species, among others. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An aminoglycoside is often added to a beta-lactam antibiotic when serious Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are treated. (medscape.com)
  • Aminoglycoside resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms modulated by extracellular polysaccharide. (nih.gov)
  • The antagonistic effects of physiological levels of Ca++ and Mg++ on the in-vitro activity of aminoglycosides and quinolones against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied at both pH 7.4 and 5.5. (uzh.ch)
  • In the following gallery, kanamycin A through netilmicin are examples of the 4,6-disubstituted deoxystreptamine sub-class of aminoglycosides, the neomycins are examples of the 4,5-disubstituted sub-class, and streptomycin is an example of a non-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an aminoglycoside N6'-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.82) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + kanamycin-B ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + N6'-acetylkanamycin-B Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and kanamycin B, whereas its two products are CoA and N6'-acetylkanamycin-B. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase, aminoglycoside-6'-acetyltransferase, aminoglycoside-6-N-acetyltransferase, and kanamycin acetyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative promoter strengths can be determined by gradient plate assays of kanamycin resistance, by measuring the amount of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase produced or by estimating neo mRNA synthesised. (springer.com)
  • Asia Pacific accounted for the largest share of revenue in 2014 that is due to higher incidence rate of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis that needs second line drugs for treatment is attributive towards a larger considerably larger share of kanamycin and capreomycin in the Asia Pacific region along with the significant availability of other aminoglycosides as well. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Streptomycin, the first aminoglycoside, was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in the mid-1940s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The first aminoglycoside, the antibiotic streptomycin , was discovered in 1943 by American biochemists Selman Waksman , Albert Schatz , and Elizabeth Bugie, who isolated the compound from Streptomyces griseus , a strain of soil bacteria . (britannica.com)
  • Streptomycin is the first-in-class aminoglycoside antibiotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptomycin (images at right) is the first-in-class aminoglycoside antibiotic . (wikipedia.org)
  • In most clinically used aminoglycosides the latter is 2-deoxystreptamine, and it is streptidine in streptomycin and derivatives and fortamine in the fortimicin series (Fig. 1 and 2 ). (asm.org)
  • This mutation has also been found in a South African family in which 11 family members were diagnosed with aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss following streptomycin treatment for TB. (scielo.org.za)
  • Here we demonstrate that increased resistance to the aminoglycosides streptomycin and spectinomycin in Salmonella enterica can be conferred by increased expression of an aminoglycoside adenyl transferase encoded by the cryptic, chromo-somally located aadA gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • Aminoglycosides are primarily used to combat infections due to aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are ineffective against anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen), viruses, and fungi. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Aminoglycosides that are derived from bacteria of the Streptomyces genus are named with the suffix -mycin, whereas those that are derived from Micromonospora are named with the suffix -micin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoglycosides first cross bacterial cell walls-lipopolysaccharide in gram-negative bacteria-and cell membranes, where they are actively transported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoglycosides display concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against "most gram-negative aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacilli" but not against gram-negative anaerobes and most gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoglycoside resistance in bacteria can be acquired by several mechanisms, including drug modification, target alteration, reduced uptake and increased efflux. (diva-portal.org)
  • Bacteria take up aminoglycosides by oxygen-dependent process → inactive against anaerobes. (vetstream.com)
  • Active export of cations out of the cytosol hyperpolarizes bacteria, and induces an electrophoretic driving force that promotes the entry of cationic aminoglycosides. (biologists.org)
  • Our data establish the hybrid ribosome approach as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of mutation- and aminoglycoside- mediated dysfunction of the mitochondrial ribosome and to address issues of species-specific drug action in bacteria. (uzh.ch)
  • Various species of Streptomyces possess aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. (pnas.org)
  • Although the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides are well documented, this class of drugs is still widely used today. (medscape.com)
  • Of all ototoxic drugs, the aminoglycosides are the most vestibulotoxic, although they vary greatly in their differential effects on the vestibular and cochlear systems. (medscape.com)
  • More frequent aminoglycoside monitoring may be performed for people with impaired kidney function (renal insufficiency) and for people who have an increased risk of toxic side effects, such as those taking other drugs known to adversely affect hearing and the kidneys (ototoxic or nephrotoxic). (labcorp.com)
  • Because treatment of enterococcal endocarditis requires prolonged use of a potentially nephrotoxic and ototoxic aminoglycoside plus a bacterial cell wall-active drug (eg, penicillin, vancomycin ) to achieve bactericidal synergy, the choice of aminoglycoside must be based on special in vitro susceptibility testing. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Therapeutic use of aminoglycosides is problematic, because these drugs are also nephrotoxic and ototoxic. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AME) genes [ aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia, aph(2")-Ib, aph(2")-Ic, aph(2")-Id, aph(3')-IIIa ]. (dovepress.com)
  • Characterization of Aminoglycoside Resistance and Virulence Genes among Enterococcus spp. (mdpi.com)
  • This study investigated the aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes and genotypes, as well as the prevalence of virulence genes, in Enterococcus species isolated from clinical patients in China. (mdpi.com)
  • PCR-based assays were used to detect the aminoglycoside resistance and virulence genes in all enterococcal isolates. (mdpi.com)
  • The most prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes were aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'') , aph(2')-Id , aph(3')-IIIa , and ant(6')-Ia , present in 49.4%, 1.3%, 48.8% and 31.3% of strains, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • All aminoglycoside resistance genes, except aph ( 2'' ) -Id , were significantly more prevalent in HLAR strains than amongst high level aminoglycoside susceptible (HLAS) strains, while there was no significant difference between HLAR and HLAS strains in regard to the prevalence of virulence genes, apart from esp , therefore, measures should be taken to manage infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus species. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study real-time PCR assays, based on the LUX-technique, were developed for quantification of genes mediating resistance to aminoglycosides [aac(6 ')-Ie + aph(2 ' ')], beta-lactams (mecA), and tetracyclines (tetA and tetB), for use in wastewater environments. (diva-portal.org)
  • DNA hybridization studies have shown that different genes can encode aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes with identical resistance profiles. (asm.org)
  • A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from these data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that aminoglycoside resistance can emerge as a result of alterations in the regulation of normally quiescent cellular genes or as a result of acquiring genes which may have originated from aminoglycoside-producing organisms or from other resistant organisms. (asm.org)
  • We investigated aminoglycoside resistance genes in clinical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from the Chinese population. (minervamedica.it)
  • 16S rRNA methylase genes and eight aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes were tested via polymerase chain reaction. (minervamedica.it)
  • The level of the prescribed aminoglycoside in the blood is measured in order to adjust doses as necessary and ensure effective treatment while avoiding toxic side effects. (labtestsonline.org)
  • This test is used to monitor the level of the prescribed aminoglycoside antibiotic in the blood. (labcorp.com)
  • The aberrant proteins may be inserted into the cell membrane, leading to altered permeability and further stimulation of aminoglycoside transport ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The bacterial cell-killing effect of aminoglycosides is concentration-dependent, with high concentrations of drug having high rates of bacterial killing. (britannica.com)
  • Following parenteral administration of an aminoglycoside, subtherapeutic concentrations are usually found in the cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous fluid, prostate and brain. (aafp.org)
  • Our institution utilizes 16-hour postdose concentrations to monitor extended interval aminoglycosides. (hindawi.com)
  • This method simplified the P AE studies and made such studies possible at high aminoglycoside concentrations. (diva-portal.org)
  • The mean P AE values of the Gram-negative strains and of the Staphylococcus aureus strains ranged between 3 to 7 h at the aminoglycoside concentrations normally reached in serum during standard dosing. (diva-portal.org)
  • Clear relationships between these effects and aminoglycoside concentrations or exposure have yet to be defined. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Like spermine, aminoglycosides potentiate agonist-induced responses in the presence of both saturating glycine ("glycine-independent") and subsaturating glycine ("glycine-dependent") concentrations on NR1A/2B receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Two-dimensional MIC analyses of one representative strain, Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, at increasing concentrations of ox gall (0 to 30.3 mg/ml) displayed corresponding decreases in resistance to all of the aminoglycosides tested and ethidium bromide. (asm.org)
  • And only one aminoglycoside, paromomycin, is used against parasitic infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin binds specifically to an RNA oligonucleotide that contains the 30 S subunit A site, and the solution structure of the RNA-paromomycin complex was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Currently, enterococcal infections are treated using combination therapy of an aminoglycoside with cell-wall active agents, which led to high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) and vancomycin resistance (VRE) among enterococci. (dovepress.com)
  • Agarwal, J., Kalyan, R. and Singh, M. (2009) High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Beta-Lactamase Production in Enterococci at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. (scirp.org)
  • The cochlea and kidney are susceptible to aminoglycoside-induced toxicity. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to congenital deafness, the A1555G and C1494U mutations render affected individuals highly susceptible to aminoglycoside induced deafness. (uzh.ch)
  • Aminoglycosides are selectively active against oxygen-dependent (aerobic), gram-negative bacterial cells, since these cells possess the chemical characteristics that attract aminoglycosides and the specific transport mechanisms that facilitate the uptake of the drugs into the cells. (britannica.com)
  • 2 Energy is needed for aminoglycoside uptake into the bacterial cell. (aafp.org)
  • Anaerobes have less energy available for this uptake, so aminoglycosides are less active against anaerobes. (aafp.org)
  • Within 20 minutes, the diffuse signal decreases as aminoglycosides merge into puncta, indicating their uptake into lysosomes. (jci.org)
  • We propose that TRPV4 has a role in aminoglycoside uptake and retention in the cochlea. (biologists.org)
  • Aminoglycosides are used for a variety of infections. (britannica.com)
  • The emergence of aminoglycoside-resistant organisms has limited the use of these drugs in the treatment of certain infections. (britannica.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are used to treat bacterial infections. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are used in the treatment of severe infections of the abdomen and urinary tract, as well as bacteremia and endocarditis. (aafp.org)
  • Despite the introduction of newer, less toxic antimicrobial agents, aminoglycosides continue to serve a useful role in the treatment of serious enterococcal and gram-negative bacillary infections. (aafp.org)
  • Multivariate discriminant analysis was performed on data for 50 consecutive hemodialysis patients who had received aminoglycoside treatment because of severe bacterial infections. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are used to treat a broad range of life-threatening infections in humans and animals ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Serious enterococcal infections are often difficult to treat since the organisms have a tremendous capacity to acquire resistance to penicillin, high concentration of aminoglycoside & vancomycin. (scirp.org)
  • In the inhaled form, for pulmonary infections as in cystic fibrosis patients, aminoglycosides do not cause hearing loss because they are not absorbed into the blood stream. (healthtap.com)
  • In conclusion, with regard to the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics there is strong support for the once daily dosing regimens of aminoglycosides. (diva-portal.org)
  • The aim of this study is to review the pharmacokinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides in the neonate in a single article in order to provide a critical analysis of the literature and thus provide a useful tool in the hands of physicians. (mdpi.com)
  • Medline search terms were as follows: pharmacokinetics AND (penicillins OR cephalosporins OR aminoglycosides) AND infant, newborn, limiting to humans. (mdpi.com)
  • The maturation of the kidneys governs the pharmacokinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides in the neonate. (mdpi.com)
  • To better understand the mechanisms that contribute to aminoglycoside toxicity, David Raible's lab at the University of Washington imaged fluorescently-labeled aminoglycosides in the hair cells of live zebrafish. (jci.org)
  • These findings provide structural and functional insights into aminoglycoside-induced impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome and implicate pleiotropic mechanisms of action beyond decoding. (nih.gov)
  • According to recent studies, these cells have a repertoire of molecular responses to aminoglycoside exposure that engages multiple neuroprotective mechanisms. (ed.gov)
  • The structure explains binding of diverse aminoglycosides to the ribosome, their specific activity against prokaryotic organisms, and various resistance mechanisms, and provides insight into ribosome function. (sciencemag.org)
  • While specific steps in protein synthesis affected may vary somewhat between specific aminoglycoside agents, as can their affinity and degree of binding, aminoglycoside presence in the cytosol generally disturbs peptide elongation at the 30S ribosomal subunit, giving rise to inaccurate mRNA translation and therefore biosynthesis of proteins that are truncated, or bear altered amino acid compositions at particular points. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoglycosides primarily act by binding to 16S ribosomal RNA within the 30S ribosomal subunit. (medscape.com)
  • Aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis by irreversibly binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. (medscape.com)
  • 3) Mitochondrial rRNA sequence polymorphisms A1555G and C1494U significantly increased drug binding and ribosomal susceptibility to aminoglycoside-induced inhibition of protein synthesis and aminoglycoside-induced mistranslation. (uzh.ch)
  • The inhibition of protein synthesis is mediated through aminoglycosides' energy-dependent, sometimes irreversible binding, to the cytosolic, membrane-associated bacterial ribosome (image at right). (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the antibacterial properties of aminoglycosides were believed to result from inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis through irreversible binding to the 30S bacterial ribosome. (aafp.org)
  • Aminoglycoside interactions and impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome. (nih.gov)
  • However, the sites of interaction of aminoglycosides with the eukaryotic ribosome and their modes of action in eukaryotic translation remain largely unexplored. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we use the combination of X-ray crystallography and single-molecule FRET analysis to reveal the interactions of distinct classes of aminoglycosides with the 80S eukaryotic ribosome. (nih.gov)
  • The distinct impacts of the aminoglycosides examined suggest that their chemical composition and distinct modes of interaction with the ribosome influence PTC read-through efficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Aminoglycosides target the decoding center of the 80S ribosome in a different ways. (nih.gov)
  • In Saudi Arabia, there were no nationwide screening studies conducted so far to determine the aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. (ajtmh.org)
  • Enrolled MDR-TB isolates were subjected to second-line drug susceptibility testing, detection of mutations conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolone, followed by 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping. (ajtmh.org)
  • ZEMDRI was engineered to overcome aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, the most common aminoglycoside-resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae, and has in vitro activity against ESBL- producing, aminoglycoside- resistant, and carbapenem- resistant isolates. (ptcommunity.com)
  • The most common Aminoglycosides used as alternatives to Penicillin are Erythromycin (lit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lege og forsker Dag Torfoss har i sin avhandling Penicillin G plus an aminoglycoside in febrile neutropenia oppsummert studier med penicillin og aminoglykosid ved feber etter cellegiftbehandling. (uio.no)
  • 3 , 4 Aminoglycosides are rapidly excreted by glomerular filtration, resulting in a plasma half-life varying from two hours in a patient with "normal"renal function to 30 to 60 hours in patients who are functionally anephric. (aafp.org)
  • 5 The half-life of aminoglycosides in the renal cortex is approximately 100 hours, so repetitive dosing may result in renal accumulation and toxicity. (aafp.org)
  • Aminoglycoside-induced proteinuria may result from general renal damage or may reflect alterations in specific steps in the renal handling of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Acute renal toxicity is largely reversible because kidney tubule cells can proliferate and replace cells lost to aminoglycoside toxicity ( Mingeot-Leclercq and Tulkens, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • Prematurity/immaturity Reproduction: prematurity / dysmaturity - premature or young neonatal foals particularly with hypoxia, azotemia and septicemia, have larger aminoglycoside clearance times due to renal hypoperfusion and decreased GFR. (vetstream.com)
  • Aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity results in increased morbidity during and after treatment, and can cause kidney failure. (biologists.org)
  • However, because of increasing aminoglycoside resistance, a fluoroquinolone can be substituted for the aminoglycoside in initial empiric regimens. (merckmanuals.com)
  • However, in primary fibroblasts from a Cercopithecidae species, aminoglycosides do not impair cell growth, respiratory complex IV activity and quantity or the mitochondrial protein synthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The amount of an aminoglycoside given per dose depends on a variety of factors, including kidney function, other drugs the person may be taking, age, and weight. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Recent single-molecule tracking experiments in live E. coli showed an ongoing but slower protein synthesis upon treatment with different aminoglycoside drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetic parameters such as the half-life (t 1/2 ), clearance (Cl), and volume of distribution (Vd) change with development, so the kinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides need to be studied in order to optimise therapy with these drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • These key structural features are also found in the rev -binding site of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) ( 10 , 110 ), but aminoglycosides are unlikely to become anti-HIV drugs, as was originally hoped ( 116 ), without thorough chemical optimization and/or screening ( 51 , 78 ) because of their lack of specificity. (asm.org)
  • This clinical pharmacology article takes on the task of discussing how aminoglycosides work, the pharmacoogy, clinical uses, and drug resistance. (avivadirectory.com)
  • Once inside bacterial cells, aminoglycosides exert their effects by binding to ribosomes , organelles that are fundamental to protein synthesis. (britannica.com)
  • Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial medications that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar). (wikipedia.org)
  • The propensity of aminoglycosides to induce miscoding errors that suppress the termination of protein synthesis supports their potential as therapeutic interventions in human diseases associated with premature termination codons (PTCs). (nih.gov)
  • Aminoglycosides act primarily by impairing bacterial protein synthesis through binding to prokaryotic ribosomes. (asm.org)
  • In this work, we used the zebrafish lateral line system to monitor the dynamic behavior of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation occurring within the same dying hair cell following exposure to aminoglycosides. (jci.org)
  • 7 days, prior exposure to aminoglycosides, high daily doses, elevated serum levels, noise exposure, use in the very young or very elderly, and the presence of specific mitochondrial DNA mutations. (scielo.org.za)
  • The properties of aminoglycosides suggest that they could be given in higher doses less often. (cochrane.org)
  • Aminoglycosides display bactericidal, concentration-dependent killing action and are active against a wide range of aerobic gram-negative bacilli. (aafp.org)
  • A murine thigh-infection model was used to determine the effect of certain host- and drug-related factors on the duration of the in-vivo postantibiotic effect (PAE) observed with aminoglycosides against Gram-negative bacilli. (nih.gov)
  • Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides is possible because of their rapid concentration-dependent killing and post-antibiotic effect and has the potential for decreased toxicity. (aafp.org)
  • The length of the P AE was concentration-dependent for all the aminoglycosides studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • Aminoglycosides (see table Aminoglycosides ) have concentration-dependent bactericidal activity. (merckmanuals.com)
  • To identify pharmacological blockers of aminoglycoside entry, it is important to understand how cells take up aminoglycosides. (biologists.org)
  • Biochemical mechanism of aminoglycoside included inhibition of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by lysosomal phospholipases. (scialert.net)
  • There is another mechanism of aminoglycoside entry, which is ion channel permeation into cells. (biologists.org)
  • Plasmid DNA purified from MUR050 (Qiagen, Inc., Chatworth, California, USA) was used to transform E. coli INVαF´ (Invitrogen, Paisley, United Kingdom) ( 8 ) to yield strain INVαF´ (pMUR050), which was highly resistant to aminoglycosides and sulfonamides. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is highly resistant to aminoglycosides. (minervamedica.it)
  • further supporting the hypothesis that aminoglycoside permeates through non-selective cation channels. (biologists.org)
  • The nucleotides responsible for aminoglycoside binding form an asymmetrical internal loop caused by noncanonical base pairs ( 23 , 67 ). (asm.org)
  • In humans the m.1494T allele increases the susceptibility to aminoglycosides. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that the expression of this variant in a human m.1494T cell line reduces its susceptibility to aminoglycosides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Does genetic play a role hearing loss susceptibility to aminoglycosides in children or adults? (healthtap.com)
  • During growth in rich medium the wild-type strain was susceptible but mutations that impaired electron transport and conferred a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype or growth in glucose/glycerol minimal media resulted in activation of the aadA gene and aminoglycoside resistance. (diva-portal.org)
  • Predominant mutations conferring resistance to fluoroquinolone were found in gyrA A90V and D94G, whereas aminoglycoside resistance was observed only with rrs gene A1401G mutation. (ajtmh.org)
  • In vitro read-through of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) nonsense mutations using aminoglycosides: a potential therapy for phenylketonuria. (edu.au)
  • A large proportion of choroideraemia patients harbour stop mutations in the REP1 gene, hence aminoglycoside therapy may provide a new treatment. (arvojournals.org)
  • The aminoglycosides also have a post-antibiotic effect, in which bacterial cell killing continues for a brief period of time after the blood plasma concentration of the antibiotic has fallen below the so-called minimal inhibitory concentration (the smallest amount of drug necessary to induce cell-killing effects). (britannica.com)
  • functional integrity of the bacterial cell membrane" can be lost, later in time courses of aminoglycoside exposure and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • For interval dosing, testing is usually ordered after 2 to 4 doses of the aminoglycoside have been given and when the drug is expected to have reached a relatively stable level in the blood (steady state). (labcorp.com)
  • Roland: Therapeutic doses of aspirin might protect patients from aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss , but the data implicating high-dose salicylates in hearing loss are pretty solid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • APH(2″) enzymes display differential preferences between ATP or GTP as the phosphate donor, with aminoglycoside 2″-phosphotransferase IVa (APH(2″)-IVa) being a member that utilizes both nucleotides at comparable efficiencies. (rcsb.org)
  • Steady state kinetic studies, as well as sequence and structural comparisons with members of the APH(2″) subfamily and other aminoglycoside kinases, rationalize the different substrate preferences for these enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • The three classes of enzymes which inactivate aminoglycosides and lead to bacterial resistance are reviewed. (asm.org)
  • Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of 49 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes have revealed new insights into the evolution and relatedness of these proteins. (asm.org)
  • As knowledge of the molecular structure of these enzymes increases, progress can be made in our understanding of how resistance to new aminoglycosides emerges. (asm.org)
  • Tests that evaluate kidney function, such as a creatinine test , are often performed at regular intervals during treatment with aminoglycosides. (labcorp.com)
  • All randomised controlled trials, whether published or unpublished, in which once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides has been compared with multiple-daily dosing in terms of efficacy or toxicity or both, in people with cystic fibrosis. (cochrane.org)
  • Enterococcal resistance to aminoglycosides has become a common problem. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The report then estimates 2017-2022 market development trends of Aminoglycoside industry. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The worldwide market for Aminoglycosides is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly xx% over the next five years, will reach xx million US$ in 2023, from xx million US$ in 2017, according to a new GIR (Global Info Research) study. (reportsnreports.com)
  • In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that polycationic aminoglycosides alter ultrastructure and glomerular permeability, tubular reabsorption and intracellular digestion of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • described obese patients having an altered glomerular filtration rate and increased aminoglycoside drug clearance [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • They found that the degree of aminoglycoside-induced toxicity was linked to how rapidly the antibiotic was distributed into lysosomes, suggesting that monitoring the kinetics of lysosomal delivery may be an effective way to evaluate different aminoglycoside treatment paradigms. (jci.org)
  • MANU P. Empiric Use of Aminoglycosides in Hospitals. (annals.org)
  • Researchers have diminished the toxicity of the aminoglycoside sisomicin - which can cause hearing damage or loss - by altering its molecular structure [1] . (pharmaceutical-journal.com)
  • Molecular targets for design of novel inhibitors to circumvent aminoglycoside resistance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The basic chemical structure required for both potency and the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of aminoglycosides is that of one or several aminated sugars joined in glycosidic linkages to a dibasic cyclitol. (asm.org)
  • Penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides are fairly water soluble and are mainly eliminated by the kidneys. (mdpi.com)
  • Gestational and postnatal ages are important factors in the maturation of the neonate and, as these ages proceed, Cl of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides increases. (mdpi.com)