Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Dimercaprol: An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Dizziness: An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Dictionaries, ChemicalAnti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.

Selective inhibition of the bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis by the new types of liposidomycins. (1/2111)

We examined the inhibitory activity against bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis and growth of BALB/3T3 cells of four different types of liposidomycins which have the structure with or without sulfate and/or 3-methylglutaric acid moieties. Liposidomycins inhibited peptidoglycan biosynthesis about 30 to 500 times more effectively than tunicamycin, whereas liposidomycins inhibited mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis about 30 to 300 times less effectively than tunicamycin. When the cytotoxic effect of liposidomycins and tunicamycin on the growth of mammalian cells were compared, liposidomycins did not show toxicity against BALB/3T3 cell at 25 microg/ml, though tunicamycin inhibited cell growth by 50% at 0.05 microg/ml. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that liposidomycins are selective antibiotics showing highly specific inhibition toward bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis.  (+info)

RecA-Mediated gene conversion and aminoglycoside resistance in strains heterozygous for rRNA. (2/2111)

Clinical resistance to aminoglycosides in general is due to enzymatic drug modification. Mutational alterations of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA have recently been found to mediate acquired resistance in bacterial pathogens in vivo. In this study we investigated the effect of 16S rRNA heterozygosity (wild-type [wt] and mutant [mut] operons at position 1408 [1408wt/1408mut]) on aminoglycoside resistance. Using an integrative vector, we introduced a single copy of a mutated rRNA operon (1408 A-->G) into Mycobacterium smegmatis, which carries two chromosomal wild-type rRNA operons; the resultant transformants exhibited an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. In contrast, introduction of the mutated rRNA operon into an M. smegmatis rrnB knockout strain carrying a single functional chromosomal wild-type rRNA operon resulted in aminoglycoside-resistant transformants. Subsequent analysis by DNA sequencing and RNase protection assays unexpectedly demonstrated a homozygous mutant genotype, rRNAmut/rRNAmut, in the resistant transformants. To investigate whether RecA-mediated gene conversion was responsible for the aminoglycoside-resistant phenotype in the rRNAwt/rRNAmut strains, recA mutant strains were generated by allelic exchange techniques. Transformation of the recA rrnB M. smegmatis mutant strains with an integrative vector expressing a mutated rRNA operon (Escherichia coli position 1408 A-->G) resulted in transformants with an aminoglycoside-sensitive phenotype. Subsequent analysis showed stable heterozygosity at 16S rRNA position 1408 with a single wild-type allele and a single resistant allele. These results demonstrate that rRNA-mediated mutational resistance to aminoglycosides is recessive.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (3/2111)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

Efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone in treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis strains highly resistant to aminoglycosides. (4/2111)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the in vitro possibilities of ampicillin-ceftriaxone combinations for 10 Enterococcus faecalis strains with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides (HLRAg) and to assess the efficacy of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone, both administered with humanlike pharmacokinetics, for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to HLRAg E. faecalis. A reduction of 1 to 4 dilutions in MICs of ampicillin was obtained when ampicillin was combined with a fixed subinhibitory ceftriaxone concentration of 4 micrograms/ml. This potentiating effect was also observed by the double disk method with all 10 strains. Time-kill studies performed with 1 and 2 micrograms of ampicillin alone per ml or in combination with 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml showed a > or = 2 log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter with respect to ampicillin alone and to the initial inoculum for all 10 E. faecalis strains studied. This effect was obtained for seven strains with the combination of 2 micrograms of ampicillin per ml plus 10 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml and for six strains with 5 micrograms of ceftriaxone per ml. Animals with catheter-induced endocarditis were infected intravenously with 10(8) CFU of E. faecalis V48 or 10(5) CFU of E. faecalis V45 and were treated for 3 days with humanlike pharmacokinetics of 2 g of ampicillin every 4 h, alone or combined with 2 g of ceftriaxone every 12 h. The levels in serum and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the humanlike pharmacokinetics of ampicillin or ceftriaxone in rabbits were similar to those found in humans treated with 2 g of ampicillin or ceftriaxone intravenously. Results of the therapy for experimental endocarditis caused by E. faecalis V48 or V45 showed that the residual bacterial titers in aortic valve vegetations were significantly lower in the animals treated with the combinations of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone than in those treated with ampicillin alone (P < 0.001). The combination of ampicillin and ceftriaxone showed in vitro and in vivo synergism against HLRAg E. faecalis.  (+info)

Arginine-aminoglycoside conjugates that bind to HIV transactivation responsive element RNA in vitro. (5/2111)

HIV gene expression is crucially dependent on binding of the viral Tat protein to the transactivation RNA response element. A number of synthetic Tat-transactivation responsive element interaction inhibitors of peptide/peptoid nature were described as potential antiviral drug prototypes. We present a new class of peptidomimetic inhibitors, conjugates of L-arginine with aminoglycosides. Using a gel-shift assay and affinity chromatography on an L-arginine column we found that these compounds bind specifically to the transactivation responsive element RNA in vitro with Kd values in the range of 20-400 nM, which is comparable to the Kd of native Tat bound to the transactivation responsive element (10-12 nM). Confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that fluorescein-labelled conjugate penetrates into live cells. High affinity to the transactivation responsive element, low toxicity, and relative simplicity of synthesis make these compounds attractive candidates for antiviral drug design.  (+info)

The therapeutic monitoring of antimicrobial agents. (6/2111)

AIMS: To review the basis and optimal use of therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobial agents. METHODS: Antimicrobial agents for which a reasonable case exists for therapeutic drug monitoring were reviewed under the following headings: pharmacokinetics, why monitor, therapeutic range, individualisation of therapy, sampling times, methods of analysis, interpretative problems and cost-effectiveness of monitoring. RESULTS: There is a strong historical case for monitoring aminoglycosides. The recent move to once-daily dosing means that criteria for therapeutic drug monitoring need to be redefined. Vancomycin has been monitored routinely but many questions remain about the most appropriate approach to this. A case can be made for monitoring teicoplanin, flucytosine and itraconazole in certain circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: The approach to monitoring aminoglycosides needs to be redefined in the light of once-daily dosing. It is premature to suggest that less stringent monitoring is necessary as toxicity remains a problem with these drugs. The ideal method of monitoring vancomycin remains to be defined although a reasonable case exists for measuring trough concentrations, mainly to ensure efficacy. Teicoplanin is monitored occasionally to ensure efficacy while flucytosine is monitored occasionally to avoid high concentrations associated with toxicity. Itraconazole has various pharmacokinetic problems and monitoring has been suggested to ensure that adequate concentrations are achieved.  (+info)

Recovery of the vestibulocolic reflex after aminoglycoside ototoxicity in domestic chickens. (7/2111)

Avian auditory and vestibular hair cells regenerate after damage by ototoxic drugs, but until recently there was little evidence that regenerated vestibular hair cells function normally. In an earlier study we showed that the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) is eliminated with aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment and recovers as hair cells regenerate. The VOR, which stabilizes the eye in the head, is an open-loop system that is thought to depend largely on regularly firing afferents. Recovery of the VOR is highly correlated with the regeneration of type I hair cells. In contrast, the vestibulocolic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space, is a closed-loop, negative-feedback system that seems to depend more on irregularly firing afferent input and is thought to be subserved by different circuitry than the VOR. We examined whether this different reflex also of vestibular origin would show similar recovery after hair cell regeneration. Lesions of the vestibular hair cells of 10-day-old chicks were created by a 5-day course of streptomycin sulfate. One day after completion of streptomycin treatment there was no measurable VCR gain, and total hair cell density was approximately 35% of that in untreated, age-matched controls. At 2 wk postlesion there was significant recovery of the VCR; at this time two subjects showed VCR gains within the range of control chicks. At 3 wk postlesion all subjects showed VCR gains and phase shifts within the normal range. These data show that the VCR recovers before the VOR. Unlike VOR gain, recovering VCR gain correlates equally well with the density of regenerating type I and type II vestibular hair cells, except at high frequencies. Several factors other than hair cell regeneration, such as length of stereocilia, reafferentation of hair cells, and compensation involving central neural pathways, may be involved in behavioral recovery. Our data suggest that one or more of these factors differentially affect the recovery of these two vestibular reflexes.  (+info)

Antibiotic penetrance of ascitic fluid in dogs. (8/2111)

Antibiotic concentrations in ascitic fluid after parenteral therapy may be important in the treatment of peritonitis. We have created ascites in dogs by partial ligation of the inferior vena cava. Ascitic fluid volume was measured at the time each antibiotic was administered. Nine antibiotics were studied in the same three dogs. Antibiotic concentration in ascitic fluid was found to vary inversely with ascites volume. Percentage of penetration (ratio of ascites peak to serum peak x100) ranged from 5.8 to 65% among the drugs studied. Only metronidazole showed a statistically significant higher percentage of penetration than other antimicrobials. Concentrations in ascitic fluid after single doses of cephalothin (15 mg/kg) and the aminoglycosides (2 mg/kg, gentamicin and tobramycin; 7.5 mg/kg, amikacin and kanamycin) did not exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of many gram-negative rods and may justify the use of higher than usual initial parenteral doses, or possibly initial intraperitoneal administration in seriously ill patients.  (+info)

*Streptomyces isolates

Streptomycetes isolates (including various aminoglycosides) would go on to comprise over two-thirds of all marketed antibiotics ...

*Tobramycin

Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity is generally irreversible. As with all amino glycosides, tobramycin is also nephrotoxic, it ... Like all aminoglycosides, tobramycin does not pass the gastro-intestinal tract, so for systemic use it can only be given ... Like other aminoglycosides, tobramycin is ototoxic: it can cause hearing loss, or a loss of equilibrioception, or both in ... Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces tenebrarius and used to treat various types of bacterial ...

*Aminoglycoside

The aminoglycoside gentamicin has been used to treat cystic fibrosis (CF) cells in the laboratory to induce them to grow full- ... Aminoglycosides are in pregnancy category D, that is, there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction ... This revived interest in the use of aminoglycosides has brought back to light the debate on the two major issues related to ... Aminoglycosides can exacerbate weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis, and use is therefore avoided in these patients. ...

*Aminoglycoside N6'-acetyltransferase

Other names in common use include aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase, aminoglycoside-6'-acetyltransferase, aminoglycoside-6- ... In enzymology, an aminoglycoside N6'-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.82) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... Benveniste R, Davies J (1971). "Enzymatic acetylation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by Escherichia coli carrying an R factor". ...

*Aminoglycoside N3'-acetyltransferase

Other names in common use include 3'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase, and 3-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Davies J, ... In enzymology, an aminoglycoside N3'-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.81) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ... 3-N-acetyltransferase with broad specificity that determines resistance to the novel aminoglycoside apramycin". Antimicrob. ... O'Connor S (1978). "Enzymatic modification of aminoglycoside antibiotics: ...

*Amikacin

Variations of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC) and aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase (AAD) also confer resistance: ... an allergy to one aminoglycoside also confers hypersensitivity to other aminoglycosides). It should also be avoided in those ... Amikacin, like other aminoglycoside antibiotics, can cause hearing loss, balance problems, and kidney problems. Other side ... Though amikacin can be inactivated by other beta-lactams, though not to the extent as other aminoglycosides, and is still often ...

*Streptomyces mashuensis

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 3-642-68579-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors ...

*Streptomyces kasugaensis

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 3-642-68579-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors ... "Mechanism of multiple aminoglycoside resistance of kasugamycin-producing Streptomyces kasugaensis MB273: involvement of two ...

*Kanamycin kinase

Aminoglycoside-3'-phosphotransferase (APH(3')), also known as aminoglycoside kinase, is an enzyme that primarily catalyzes the ... Aminoglycoside resistance genes are commonly used in the realm of genetic engineering in order to select for correctly ... Antibiotics, such as the aminoglycosides kanamycin or neomycin, are added to the cultures during growth phases in order to ... However, APH(3') has also been found to phosphorylate at the 5'-hydroxyl group in 4,5-disubstituted aminoglycosides, which lack ...

*Kingella kingae

Options include aminoglycosides, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. K.Kingae can also cause infectious endocarditis, in children ...

*Anaerobic infection

Aminoglycosides or colistin may be required. Antimicrobial regimens for children include an aminoglycoside-based regimen, a ... The routine use of an aminoglycoside or another second agent effective against gram-negative facultative and aerobic bacilli is ... aminoglycosides, and the earlier quinolones. Some infections are more likely to be caused by anaerobic bacteria, and they ... aminoglycoside) or an anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin (i.e. cefepime ) are generally added to metronidazole, and occasionally ...

*Gentamicin

Kidney damage is a problem in 10-25% of people who receive aminoglycosides, and gentamicin is one of the most nephrotoxic of ... Gentamicin is a type of aminoglycoside. It works by stopping the bacteria from making protein, which typically kills the ... 11% of the population who receives aminoglycosides experience damage to their inner ear. The common symptoms of inner ear ... This mechanism of action is similar to other aminoglycosides. Gentamicin is composed of a number of related gentamicin ...

*Dizocilpine

NMDA antagonists like dizocilpine have been shown in animal models to attenuate the hearing loss caused by aminoglycosides It ... Ernfors P, Canlon B (December 1996). "Aminoglycoside excitement silences hearing". Nat. Med. 2 (12): 1313-4. doi:10.1038/nm1296 ... "N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists limit aminoglycoside antibiotic-induced hearing loss". Nat. Med. 2 (12): 1338-43. doi:10.1038/ ... is thought that aminoglycosides mimic endogenous polyamines at NMDA receptors and produce excitotoxic damage, leading to hair ...

*Multidrug tolerance

... "the generation of a proton-motive force which facilitates aminoglycoside uptake". Phage therapy, where applicable, entirely ... "Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides". Nature. 473 (7346): 216-220. doi:10.1038/ ...

*Micromonospora sagamiensis

It produces sagamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, as well as several mutational variants. Its cell wall contains only D- ... Kase, Hiroshi; Odakura, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Kiyoshi (1982). "Sagamicin and the related aminoglycosides: Fermentation and ...

*Burkholderia vietnamiensis

It differs from most Burkholderia species in that it is often susceptible to aminoglycosides, but not polymyxin B. Many ... "In vitro susceptibility of Burkholderia vietnamiensis to aminoglycosides". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55 (5): 2256-64. doi: ...

*Beta-lactamase

Some patients have responded to aminoglycoside or quinolone therapy, but, in a recent comparison of ciprofloxacin and imipenem ... Resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides is especially high. For infections caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli ... Associated resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, as well as high frequency of co-existence of ... aminoglycosides). Therefore, antibiotic options in the treatment of ESBL-producing organisms are extremely limited. Carbapenems ...

*Protein synthesis inhibitor

Macrolides, clindamycin and aminoglycosides (with all these three having other potential mechanisms of action as well), have ... Aminoglycosides, among other potential mechanisms of action, interfere with the proofreading process, causing increased rate of ... Retapamulin Mupirocin Fusidic acid The following antibiotics bind to the 30S subunit of the ribosome: Aminoglycosides ... Flavio Guzmán (12/08/2008). "Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of ...

*Mequitazine

Can mask signs of ototoxicity caused by aminoglycosides. QT prolongation (which can lead to torsades de pointes arrhythmia) ...

*Proofreading (biology)

Pharmamotion --> Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents Posted ...

*Micronomicin

... (INN) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic for use on the eye. Odakura, Y.; Kase, H.; Nakayama, K. (1983). "Sagamicin ... and the related aminoglycosides: Fermentation and biosynthesis. III. Isolation and characterization of Micromonospora ...

*Antibiotics

Allison KR, Brynildsen MP, Collins JJ (2011). "Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides". ...

*Streptoduocin

... is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. It is a mixture of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin. SHUBIN H, HEIKEN CA, ...

*Netilmicin

Nonparallel nephrotoxicity dose-response curves of aminoglycosides: Nephrotoxicity comparisons of aminoglycosides in rats, ... Netilmicin is a member of the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics. These antibiotics have the ability to kill a wide variety ... Daily single-dose aminoglycoside administration. Therapeutic and economic benefits: Animal studies have shown that dosing ... Relative efficacy and toxicity of netilmicin and tobramycin in oncology patients: We conclude that aminoglycoside-associated ...

*Dibekacin

... is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. It has been used in combination with sulbenicillin. Aonuma S, Ariji F, Oizumi K, ...
Occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in environmental isolates to enterococci. Confirmational identification of Escherichia coli, a comparison of genotypic and phenotypic assays for glutamate decarboxylase and beta-D-glucuronidase
Agarwal, J., Kalyan, R. and Singh, M. (2009) High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Beta-Lactamase Production in Enterococci at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 62, 158-159.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To test whether outcomes of patients of age 60 or older with previously untreated non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia treated with azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin are sufficient to warrant phase III investigation.. II. To estimate the frequency and severity of toxicities of this regimen in the good- and poor-risk groups of patients.. III. To investigate in a preliminary manner the disease-free survival of patients who achieve complete remission and receive post-remission therapy on this study.. IV. To investigate in a preliminary manner the cytogenetic response rates of patients treated with this regimen.. V. To investigate in a preliminary manner the effects of cytogenetic abnormalities, promoter and global methylation changes, and multidrug resistance on overall survival and response to azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy.. OUTLINE: Patients are stratified according to risk status (good [60-69 years of age OR Zubrod performance status [PS] 0-1] vs poor [,= ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To test whether outcomes of patients of age 60 or older with previously untreated non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia treated with azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin are sufficient to warrant phase III investigation.. II. To estimate the frequency and severity of toxicities of this regimen in the good- and poor-risk groups of patients.. III. To investigate in a preliminary manner the disease-free survival of patients who achieve complete remission and receive post-remission therapy on this study.. IV. To investigate in a preliminary manner the cytogenetic response rates of patients treated with this regimen.. V. To investigate in a preliminary manner the effects of cytogenetic abnormalities, promoter and global methylation changes, and multidrug resistance on overall survival and response to azacitidine plus gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy.. OUTLINE: Patients are stratified according to risk status (good [60-69 years of age OR Zubrod performance status [PS] 0-1] vs poor [,= ...
2. 19 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 34. Li, X. , L. Zhang, G. A. McKay, and K. Poole. 2003. Role of the acetyltransferase AAC(6p)-Iz modifying enzyme in aminoglycoside resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51:803-811. 35. , M. Tod, Y. Cohen, and O. Petitjean. 1995. Aminoglycosides. Med. Clin. N. Am. 79:761-87. 36. , T. A. Smith, R. J. Zheng, P. Nordmann, and J. S. Blanchard. 2003. Aminoglycoside resistance resulting from tight drug binding to an altered aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. 1999. Semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotics: development and enzymatic modifications. J. Infect. Chemother. 5:1-9. Kotra, L. , J. Haddad, and S. Mobashery. 2000. Aminoglycosides perspectives on mechanisms of action and resistance and strategies to counter resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:3249-3256. 2. 19 Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 34. Li, X. , L. Zhang, G. A. McKay, and K. Poole. 2003. Role of the acetyltransferase AAC(6p)-Iz modifying enzyme in aminoglycoside ...
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses ...
Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. In addition, some mycobacteria, including the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, are susceptible to aminoglycosides. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria can also be treated with aminoglycosides, but other types of antibiotics are more potent and less damaging to the host. In the past the aminoglycosides have been used in conjunction with penicillin-related antibiotics in streptococcal infections for their synergistic effects, particularly in endocarditis. Aminoglycosides are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses ...
Since the introduction into clinical practice of the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics, a number of other antimicrobial agents with improved safety profile have entered the market. Studies have failed to demonstrate the superiority of aminoglycoside-containing regimens in a number of infection settings. This has raised doubts regarding the actual clinical utility of aminoglycosides. However, the recent emergence of infections due to Gram-negative bacterial strains with advanced patterns of antimicrobial resistance has prompted physicians to reconsider these old antibacterial agents. This revived interest in the use of aminoglycosides has brought back to light the debate on the two major issues related to these compounds, namely the spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility and toxicity. Although some of the aminoglycosides retain activity against the majority of Gram-negative clinical bacterial isolates in many parts of the world, the relatively frequent occurrence of nephrotoxicity and ...
Bacterial infections are common in the neonates and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sixty percent of preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units received at least one antibiotic during the first week of life. Penicillins, aminoglycosides and cephalosporins comprised 53, 43 and 16%, respectively. Kinetic parameters such as the half-life (t1/2), clearance (Cl), and volume of distribution (Vd) change with development, so the kinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides need to be studied in order to optimise therapy with these drugs. The aim of this study is to review the pharmacokinetics of penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides in the neonate in a single article in order to provide a critical analysis of the literature and thus provide a useful tool in the hands of physicians. The bibliographic search was performed electronically using PubMed, as the search engine, until February 2nd, 2010. Medline search terms were as follows: pharmacokinetics AND
Compare prices and find information about Aminoglycoside Antibiotic / Corticosteroid Combinations prescription drugs. Aminoglycoside antibiotic /...
The primary objectives are a) to establish the maximum tolerated dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with cytarabine and b) to assess the safet
Prospective, multicenter, uncontrolled cohort study to analyze the efficacy of a risk adapted treatment strategy, including gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) d
Decoding of genetic information occurs upon interaction of an mRNA codon-tRNA anticodon complex with the small subunit of the ribosome. The ribosomal decoding region is associated with highly conserved sequences near the 3 end of 16 S rRNA. The decoding process is perturbed by the aminoglycoside antibiotics, which also interact with this region of rRNA. Mutations of certain nucleotides in rRNA reduce aminoglycoside binding affinity, as previously demonstrated using a model RNA oligonucleotide system. Here, predictions from the oligonucleotide system were tested in the ribosome by mutation of universally conserved nucleotides at 1406 to 1408 and 1494 to 1495 in the decoding region of plasmid-encoded bacterial 16 S rRNA. Phenotypic changes range from the benign effect of U1406--,A or A1408--,G substitutions, to the highly deleterious 1406G and 1495 mutations that assemble into 30 S subunits but are defective in forming functional ribosomes. Changes in the local conformation of the decoding region ...
The effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on cellular functions of the LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cell line were studied as a model system for aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. The treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics for 3 days caused a decrease in the dome number in the confluent LLC-PK1 cells and an increase in the floating cells in the culture medium. The inhibition of dome formation was dose-dependent and the rank-order of the degree of inhibition was compatible with the rank-order of in vivo nephrotoxicity. Aminoglycosides also decreased the intracellular content of cyclic AMP, with a correlation between the alteration of dome formation and cyclic AMP content. The specific activities of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (marker for lysosomes), aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase (marker for apical membranes) and (Na++K+)-adenosine triphosphatase (marker for basolateral membranes) in the homogenate were decreased by gentamicin treatment. Lysosomal and apical membrane enzymes released ...
Aminoglycosides (AG) are often used in combination therapy to produce enhanced bacterial killing for treatment of serious infections. While resistance mechanisms to specific AG are well known, only recently has it become possible to detect plasmid-borne methyltransferase genes which confer high-level resistance to all AG. These enzymes are similar to those found in AG-producing actinomycetes, where they are protective. Thomas R. Fritsche of JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, et al. have identified Enterobacteriaceae with the recently described methyltransferase genes exhibiting high-level AG resistance from samples from Europe, North America, and Latin America. of these, 95% of strains represent novel species or geographic occurrences.
Fish. Experiments were carried out on zebrafish larvae 5-7 days after fertilization in E3 embryo medium (14.97 mM NaCl, 500 μM KCl, 42 μM Na2HPO4, 150 μM KH2PO4, 1 mM CaCl2 dehydrate, 1 mM MgSO4, 0.714 mM NaHCO3, pH 7.2) at 28.5°C, unless otherwise indicated. All animals were of the AB strain. Larvae were used before the stage at which sex is determined in zebrafish.. Transgenesis. The transgenic line Tg(atoh1a:tdTomato) has been described (93), and was provided as a gift from Cecilia Moens (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA). The genetically encoded H2O2 indicator HyPer (34) was cloned using the Gateway system (Invitrogen) to generate constructs under control of the hair cell-specific myosin6b promoter (94). Tg[myo6b:HyPer]w120 was maintained as a transgenic line. The transgenic construct driving hair cell-specific expression of mitochondrial-targeted RGECO (mitoRGECO; [myo6b:mitoRGECO]) has been previously described (36). Supplemental Table 1 further ...
The tirandamycins are a small group of natural products that contain a bicyclic ketal system and a tetramic acid moiety, the latter of which is found in different natural products from a variety of sources and which is characterized by a 2,4-pyrrolidinedione ring system. Members of this structural family have shown a wide range of biological activities like in antiparasitic, antifungal and anti-HIV evaluations, and furthermore, have shown potential usefulness because of their potent antibacterial properties. Streptolydigin, an analogue of the tirandamycins, is known to function as an antibacterial agent through inhibiting the chain initiation and elongation steps RNA polymerase transcription. The structural diversity in the tirandamycin family originates from the different oxidation patterns observed in the bicycic ketal system, and these modifications are determinant features for the bioactivity associated with these molecules. In the first study that looked at the gene cluster for tirandamycin ...
A quick and simple procedure is presented for the extraction of aminoglycoside antibiotics from bovine meat and milk. A single operator can easily analyze 20 samples per day.
Aminoglycosides are highly potent, broad-spectrum antibiotics that exert their bactericidal therapeutic effect by selectively binding to the decoding aminoacyl site (A-site) of the bacterial 16 S rRNA, thereby interfering with translational fidelity during protein synthesis. The appearance of bacterial strai
Drugs acting on bacterial protein biosynthesis  Proteins are very essential for most of the bacterial metabolic functions as well as for cell integrity.  Bacterial cell uses ribosomes to synthesize proteins.  Targeting protein biosynthesis will produce bactericidal agents in most of the cases.  Why targeting the bacterial protein synthesis will be selective:  Different diffusion rates between bacterial and mammalian cells.  Structural differences between bacterial and mammalian ribosomes Aminoglycosides  They have amino sugar linked together with glycosidic     bonds. The first one discovered was streptomycin; obtained from streptomyces bacteria in 1939. Most of them are natural products such as kanamycin, neomycin, gentamicin, netilmicin and tobramycin. Some are semisynthetics such as amikacin which is synthesized from kanamycin A. They are highly polar compounds, because of that they are not orally bioavailable, either given parenterally , topically or for ...
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Learn more about Aminoglycosides at Oak Hill Hospital Ginkgo - Possible Harmful Interaction Minerals: Magnesium and Calcium ...
The report Global Aminoglycosides Market Research Report - Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast by DecisionDatabases.com provides th
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Aminoglycoside antibiotics are inexpensive and highly effective, but they can result in cellular injury and apoptosis specific to sensory hair cells of the audi...
Aminoglycosides are mainly distributed in the extracellular fluid, so when they are given to neonates who have a large amount of extracellular fluid, their distribution is increased. In our data, the volume of distribution (Vd) of Arbekacin in the neonates was twice that of the adults, 0.54 l/kg. Therefore, the dose per weight of aminoglycosides to the neonates should be increased more than to the adults. In the renal function of the neonates, differentiation of the nephron is completed within 36 weeks after conception, but it is functionally immature ...
Specifically dimethylates two adjacent adenosines in the loop of a conserved hairpin near the 3-end of 16S rRNA in the 30S particle. Its inactivation leads to kasugamycin resistance ...
Specifically dimethylates two adjacent adenosines in the loop of a conserved hairpin near the 3-end of 16S rRNA in the 30S particle. Its inactivation leads to kasugamycin resistance ...
Methods for determining proteins and protein-bound compounds comprising enzymatic modification - diagram, schematic, and image 04 ...
4AQY: Dissociation of Antibacterial Activity and Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity in the 4-Monosubstituted 2-Deoxystreptamine Apramycin.
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Bacteria and Antibacterial Drugs from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
3,4-α-Epoxyneamine and its related aminoglycosidic antibiotic derivatives containing 3,4-α-epoxyneamine moiety in the molecule thereof are now provided, which may be in the form of their amino-protected and partially hydroxyl-protected product and which are useful as intermediates for use in the synthetic production of therapeutically valuable 3-deoxy derivatives of aminoglycosidic antibiotics.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Determine the susceptibility of microorganisms using manual AST methods and a full range of high-quality, easy-to-use antimicrobial susceptibility testing disks ...
The Food and Drug Administration said Monday Pfizer Inc. is withdrawing its cancer drug Mylotarg from the U.S. market after a clinical study showed the drug wasnt effective and had...
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Exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics can lead to the generation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear that have been implicated in hearing and balance disorders. Better understanding of the origin of aminoglycoside-induced ROS could focus the development of therapies aimed at preventing this event. In this work, we used the zebrafish lateral line system to monitor the dynamic behavior of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation occurring within the same dying hair cell following exposure to aminoglycosides. The increased oxidation observed in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of dying hair cells was highly correlated with mitochondrial calcium uptake. Application of the mitochondrial uniporter inhibitor Ru360 reduced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation, suggesting that mitochondrial calcium drives ROS generation during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, targeting mitochondria with free radical scavengers conferred ...
Background & objective: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in high-risk populations. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) methylation are two important mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtD), and the AME genes [aac(6′)-Ib, aac(3)-I, ant(3′′)-I, aph(3′)-I and aac(6)-Id], among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Between November 2015 to July 2016, a total of 110 clinical strains of A. baumannii were isolated from patients in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The presence of genes encoding the AMEs and16S rRNA methylases responsible for resis-tance was investigated by
Trade Name: Mylotarg®. For which conditions is this drug approved? Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is FDA-approved for the treatment of patients who are 60 years or older, are not suitable candidates for chemotherapy, and have CD 33-positive acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. It is important for patients to remember that physicians have the ability to prescribe medication for conditions other than those for which the drug has been approved by the FDA. Patients who have received a prescription of this drug for a condition other than which it is approved may wish to discuss this issue with their physician.. What is the mechanism of action? Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is classified as a monoclonal antibody. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is comprised of two separate components, a monoclonal antibody and a toxin from the bacteria Micromonospora echinospora. The monoclonal antibody portion of gemtuzumab ozogamicin binds to a receptor, called the CD 33 receptor, on myeloid cells. Once gemtuzumab ozogamicin is bound, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aminoglycoside Resistance. T2 - The Emergence of Acquired 16S Ribosomal RNA Methyltransferases. AU - Doi, Yohei. AU - Wachino, Jun ichi. AU - Arakawa, Yoshichika. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Aminoglycoside-producing Actinobacteria are known to protect themselves from their own aminoglycoside metabolites by producing 16S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase (16S-RMTase), which prevents them from binding to the 16S rRNA targets. Ten acquired 16S-RMTases have been reported from gram-negative pathogens. Most of them posttranscriptionally methylate residue G1405 of 16S rRNA resulting in high-level resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and plazomicin. Strains that produce 16S-RMTase are frequently multidrug-resistant or even extensively drug-resistant. Although the direct clinical impact of high-level aminoglycoside resistance resulting from production of 16S-RMTase is yet to be determined, ongoing spread of this mechanism will further limit treatment options for ...
Summary The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the aacA-aphD, aphA3 and aadC genes, encoding the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes AAC(6′)-APH(2′), APH(3′)III and ANT(4′ 4
Looking for online definition of fidaxomicin in the Medical Dictionary? fidaxomicin explanation free. What is fidaxomicin? Meaning of fidaxomicin medical term. What does fidaxomicin mean?
Amikacin sulfate, a active ingredient of samu AMIKACIN injection, is a semi-synthetic aminoglycosides antibiotics derived from Kanamycin. Amikacin, like other aminoglycoside antibiotics, is a bactericidal agent that exerts its action at the level of bacterial ribosome. Amikacin has been shown to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and many aminoglycoside-resistant strains due to its ability to resist degradation by aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes known to affect Gentamicin, Tobramycin and Kanamycin. Amikacin is a broad spectrum bactericidal antibiotic agent well absorbed following intravenous, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection and rapidly transmitted to skin and soft tissue, so it maintains a high therapeutic blood level. Amikacin has few side effects such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity ...
The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) for the treatment of patients 60 years of age and older who are in first relapse with CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are not considered 1
Stress stimuli can lead to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and subsequent alteration of cell adhesion and permeation as well as cell functions and cell fate. We investigated redox-dependent Rho GTPase-linked pathways controlling the actin cytoskeleton in the inner ear of the CBA mouse, by using aminoglycoside antibiotics as a noxious stimulus that causes loss of sensory cells via the formation of reactive oxygen species. Kanamycin treatment in vivo interfered with the formation of F-actin, disturbed the arrangement of β-actin in the stereocilia of outer hair cells, and altered the intermittent adherens junction/tight junction complexes between outer hair cells and supporting cells. The drug treatment also activated Rac1 and promoted the formation of the complex of Rac1 and p67phox while decreasing the activity of RhoA and reducing the formation of the RhoA/p140mDia complex. In inner-ear-derived cell lines, expression of mutated Rac1 changed the structural arrangement of F-actin and ...
Aminoglycosides are very important antibiotics in cystic fibrosis patients because of their efficacy against Ps aeruginosa. They are usually combined with a β lactam antibiotic in cases of pulmonary exacerbation caused by chronic colonisation with Ps aeruginosa.2-4 Several studies in severely ill patients have shown that once daily administration of aminoglycosides is as effective and probably less toxic than conventional thrice daily administration. For these antibiotics, efficacy is closely correlated with serum peak concentration and the ratio of serum peak to minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacteria, whereas toxicity depends on the trough serum level.7 16 17 Furthermore, the postantibiotic effect of aminoglycosides on Gram negative bacteria seems to be partly related to the serum peak value.8Administration once daily allows a high peak concentrations to be reached and enables the trough concentration to be as low as possible.. These conditions were clearly demonstrated in our study. ...
There is no established dosing schedule for once-daily aminoglycoside dosing regimens, and accepted guidelines for monitoring therapy are lacking. We derived a simplified schedule from the Hull and Sarubbi (J. H. Hull and F. A. Sarubbi, Ann. Intern. Med. 85:183-189, 1976) nomogram, for which efficacy and safety in a once-daily dosing regimen were previously demonstrated, and prospectively followed serum aminoglycoside levels in patients. The standard treatment was gentamicin or tobramycin at 4 mg/kg of body weight given intravenously once daily. When the renal function was decreased, the daily dose was reduced, as follows: for an estimated creatinine clearance of between 50 and 80 ml/min, the daily dose was 3.25 mg/kg, for an estimated creatinine clearance of between 30 and 50 ml/min, the daily dose was 2.5 mg/kg, and for an estimated creatinine clearance of below 30 ml/min, the daily dose was 2 mg/kg. A total of 221 patients were studied (184 received gentamicin and 37 received tobramycin). First
Sekar, R., Srivani, R., Vignesh, R., Kownhar, H. and Shankar, E.M. (2008) Low Recovery Rates of High-Level Aminoglycoside-Resistant Enterococci Could be Attributable to Restricted Usage of Aminoglycosides in Indian Settings. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57, 397-398.
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. ...
Read about aminoglycosides, a group of antibiotics indicated for the management of acute exacerbations of CF and to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.
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SAN DIEGO -- Oncologists are re-evaluating gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) in acute myeloid leukemia, with new results presented here suggesting its 2010 withdrawal from the market may have been prem
To the editor: Information concerning aminoglycoside penetration into pericardial fluid is limited. Riff and Jackson (1) suggest that gentamicin penetrates into pericardial fluid reaching concentrations approximately one half those found in serum. Accordingly, a patient treated for suppurative pericarditis with an aminoglycoside would be exposed to high drug levels in the serum for an extended period, and nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity could result (2). However, Scherrer and colleagues (3) have shown equal levels of the aminoglycoside tobramycin in serum and exudative pericardial fluid when drawn simultaneously (3). Thus, high serum levels might not be necessary for effective treatment of gram-negative pericarditis. ...
The enzyme attaches the side chain of the aminoglycoside antibiotics of the butirosin family. The side chain confers resistance against several aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes ...
My general research interests include: * Translational research aiming at bridging the gap between laboratory auditory biophysics and genetics research and clinical applications in human patients. * The verification of the clinical usefulness of the continuous advances in auditory rehabilitation and establishing how they could be best utilised to improve patients quality of life. My current specific reseach is related to investigating the auditory effect of aminoglycoside ototoxicity; assessing incidence, identifying the most apprpriate test battery to effectively record their effect on the auditory system, modifying and developing testing instrumentation to allow for early detection of minimal changes in the ear and identifying genetic markers that make certain individuals more susceptible to the ototoxic effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics more than others. This research is aiming to help us better understand this topic and allow for the translation of lab-based research into the clinic ...
... is an indolocarbazole isolated from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes. Rebeccamycin displays selective antitumor activity against several cell lines. Analogues of rebeccamycin have been tested in clinical trials for cancer therapy ...
Read "Properties of lanK-based regulatory circuit involved in landomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces cyanogenus S136, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Any drug with the potential to cause toxic reactions to structures of the inner ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals, and otoliths, is considered ototoxic. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, and dysequilibrium or dizziness.
Asia-Pacific held the largest share of the revenue generated by the global antibacterial drugs market in 2014. This region is also expected to experience the highest growth rate during the forecast period 2015 to 2023.
Diagnosis Code T36.5X1 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Diagnosis Code T36.5X1A information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Doctors give unbiased, trusted information on the benefits and side effects of Gentamicin to treat Anaphylaxis: Dr. Hegab on how common is anaphylaxis shock with aminoglycoside: Its very uncommon, but possible.
Amikacin (a-mi-KAY-sin) Treats infections. Belongs to a class of drugs called aminoglycoside antibiotics. Brand Name(s): amikacin sulfate NovaPlus
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Easy to read patient leaflet for Telavancin. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
DUBLIN, IRELAND--(Marketwired - Oct 5, 2015) - Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (NASDAQ: TBPH) (Theravance Biopharma or the Company) today announced that data from studies of VIBATIV® (telavancin) will be presented at IDWeek™ 2015, being held in San Diego, CA, on October 7 - 11, 2015. New data from multiple retrospective clinical...
Pesticidally active substantially pure nikkomicin fractions obtained from Streptomyces tendae Ettlinger et al Tu 901, the fractions being selected from the group consisting of ##STR1## a mixture of nikkomicin I and J, and a mixture of nikkomicin M and N.
DESCRIPTION WARNINGS Patients treated with parenteral aminoglycosides should be under close clinical observation because of the potential ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity associated with their use. Safety for treatment perio...
Eye surgeons should use intracameral antibiotics only in select situations; they should avoid aminoglycosides, and they should not use vancomycin as prophylaxis. Michael Jumper, MD, offered this perspective as part of an overview of antibiotics used in intraocular surgery during the Glaucoma Symposium at the 2017 Glaucoma 360 meeting.
This is a general term, describing any of numerous classes of antibiotics. Common to all of them is their ability to effectively treat a wide range of bacteria.. These antibiotics would include:. Aminoglycoside. ...
Effects of an Aminoglycoside on Pregnant Mice and on the Postnatal Development of Their Offspring:With Special Reference to Reflex and Equilibrium Funotion (1985 ...
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1 Maccabees 3:3 et dilatavit gloriam populo suo et induit se loricam sicut gigans et succinxit se arma bellica sua in proeliis et protegebat castra gladio suo Read chapter in The Latin Vulgate w/ Apocrypha
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Sisomicin (bactoCeaze or Ensamycin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, isolated from the fermentation broth of a new species of the genus Micromonospora. It is a newer broad-spectrum aminoglycoside most structurally related to gentamicin. Sisomicin is the most predictably active aminoglycoside against gram-positive bacteria. Like most other aminoglycosides, Sisomicin is bactericidal for sensitive clinical isolates. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) have been found to be equivalent or very close to the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Like other aminoglycosides, most clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain susceptible to sisomicin. Resistance to sisomicin may be enzymatically or non-enzymatically mediated. Sisomicin is inactivated by the same enzymes as gentamicin but it is active against many, not all, organisms that resist gentamicin by non-enzymatic mechanisms. Some studies show that sisomicin has been effective in the treatment of infections that either had failed ...
Nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics C-1027, neocarzinostatin (NCS), and kedarcidin (KED) possess enediyne cores to which activity-modulating peripheral moieties are attached via (R)- or (S)-vicinal diols. We have previously shown that this stereochemical difference arises from hydrolysis of epoxide precursors by epoxide hydrolases (EHs) with different regioselectivities. The inverting EHs, such as SgcF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (R)-diol in C-1027 biosynthesis, whereas the retaining EHs, such as NcsF2 and KedF, hydrolyze an (S)-epoxide substrate to yield an (S)-diol in NCS and KED biosynthesis. We now report the characterization of a series of EH mutants and provide a predictive model for EH regioselectivity in the biosynthesis of the nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotics. A W236Y mutation in SgcF increased the retaining activity toward (S)-styrene oxide by 3-fold, and a W236Y/Q237M double mutation in SgcF, mimicking NcsF2 and KedF, resulted in a 20-fold ...
The gene lndI is involved in the pathway-specific positive regulation of biosynthesis of the antitumour polyketide landomycin E in Streptomyces globisporus 1912. LndI was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a protein C-terminally fused to the intein-chitin-binding-domain tag and purified in a one-step column procedure. Results of in vivo LndI titration, DNA gel mobility-shift assays and promoter-probing experiments indicate that LndI is an autoregulatory DNA-binding protein that binds to its own gene promoter and to the promoter of the structural gene lndE. Enhanced green fluorescent protein was used as a reporter to study the temporal and spatial pattern of lndI transcription. Expression of lndI started before cells entered mid-exponential phase and peak expression coincided with maximal accumulation of landomycin E and biomass. In solid-phase analysis, lndI expression was evident in substrate mycelia but was absent from aerial hyphae and spores.
91390PRTStreptomyces kanamyceticus 1Met Gln Val Thr Thr Ile Thr Met Asp Asp Val Gln Tyr Pro Tyr Arg1 5 10 15Leu Gly Thr Asp Cys Leu Asp Gly Ile Val Thr Arg Leu Gly Glu Leu 20 25 30Gly Ala Ser Arg Tyr Leu Ile Val Ser Asp Pro Arg Val Ala Glu Leu 35 40 45Tyr Gly Gln Gly Leu Arg Glu Arg Leu Ala Glu Gln Ala Gly Pro Ala 50 55 60Glu Leu Ile Thr His Ala Ser Gly Glu Gln Asn Lys Gly Leu Pro Ala65 70 75 80Leu His Asp Leu Ala Glu Glu Ala Leu Arg Arg Gly Ala Asp Arg Gln 85 90 95Ser Ile Val Val Ala Leu Gly Gly Gly Val Thr Gly Asn Ile Ala Gly 100 105 110Leu Leu Ala Ala Leu Leu Phe Arg Gly Ile Arg Leu Val His Val Pro 115 120 125Thr Thr Val Val Ala Met Leu Asp Ser Val Leu Ser Leu Lys Gln Ala 130 135 140Val Asn Ala Gly Val Gly Lys Asn Leu Val Gly Thr Phe Tyr Gln Pro145 150 155 160Val Glu Val Leu Ala Asp Thr Ala Met Leu Arg Thr Leu Pro Val Arg 165 170 175Glu Val Arg Ser Gly Met Cys Glu Val Val Lys Asn Ser Leu Ala Ile 180 185 190Arg Pro Ser Met Ile Asp Gln Leu Ser Ala Gly Leu Arg Pro Asp Gly 195 200 205Arg Tyr Pro ...
Looking for online definition of telavancin in the Medical Dictionary? telavancin explanation free. What is telavancin? Meaning of telavancin medical term. What does telavancin mean?
Fifty-seven gentamicin-resistant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, obtained from patients attending hospital, were examined for the production of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.
Bio - Nata is produced from Streptomyces lydicus, a naturally occurring bacterium that is commonly found in soil environment. Bio - Nata is produced f...
This article aims to inform clinicians about the current knowledge on aminoglycoside-induced vestibulotoxicity through a review of the literature. The effects of vestibulotoxicity are irreversible and may be profoundly disabling. It would appear that the sooner vestibular rehabilitation therapy is instituted, the more favourable the prognosis is. Thus, early referral and management are essential. Vestibulotoxicity is a commonly overlooked aetiology when assessing dizzy patients. This could be due to the difficulty that patients have in describing vestibular symptoms in general, as well as the absence of vertigo as a presenting complaint. Discussion includes the clinical presentation of vestibulotoxicity and its sequelae, as well as strategies to assess and monitor patients.
Alnakshbandi, Abdulkadir A. (2015) Aminoglycosides induce fragility of human red cell membrane: An in vitro study. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
streptolydigin: antibiotic isolated from culture filtrates of Streptomyces lydicus; active against gram-postive bacteria except micrococci; minor descriptor (75-87); on line & INDEX MEDICUS search ANTIBIOTICS (75-87)
Dr. Tracy McGregor is a medical geneticist and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. She has recently completed her Master...
To the editor: Amikacin, a semisynthetic derivative of kanamycin A, was approved for unrestricted clinical use in 1976 and is considered the antibiotic of choice for use against infections with gentamicin-resistant, gram-negative bacilli (1, 2). In a recent issue, Betts and colleagues (3) have reported data on the use of amikacin as the primary empiric aminoglycoside in a large university hospital. The authors have concluded that "because it is not possible to identify patients infected with gentamicin-resistant organisms until 48 hours after therapy is initiated, it is rational to use an antibiotic agent that is likely to be effective against ...
Compare prices and find information about Aminoglycoside / Polypeptide Antibiotic Combinations prescription drugs. Aminoglycoside / polypeptide...
Issue Tuberculosis (TB) affects 9 million people and kills 1.4 million annually, mostly in developing countries, and is increasingly resistant to treatment by standard, first-line drugs. Treatment of resistant TB (MDR-TB) costs upwards of $5,000 per patient. Solution The goal of the project was to engineer a yeast organism to make TB drugs from glucose. The process involved applying molecular genetics methodology to transfer all steps of the 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) pathway to S. cerevisiae, thereby constructing new strains of yeast to act as a cell factory for the production of aminoglycosides. The ability of these strains to produce 2-DOS and kanamycin in batch cultures containing either minimal or complex media with 3% glucose was evaluated by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography). Outcome The results of the TLC assay demonstrated the ability of both yeast strains to produce 2-DOS and kanamycin in only complex media, as compared with the control. However, this method is not reproducible or ...
|p||strong|Technical Advantage:|/strong|  Effective against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria|br /| Kanamycin is a member of the aminoglycosides a group of molecules and interacts with the 30S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes.  It induces errors in translation and thus hinders protein synthesis.  The KanR-Tn5 gene product (aminoglycoside phosphotransferase) confers resistance to kanamycin.  Kanamycin Sulfate is effective against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria.|br /| -  Complete Certificate of Analysis available for each production lot, along with full formulation information|br /| -  Produced under the highest industry standards to ensure superior results|/p|
Hereunder, we highlight bacterial membrane anionic lipids as attractive targets in the design of antibacterial drugs which can be effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative resistant bacteria. In this approach, first, molecular foundations and structure-activity relationships are laid out for membrane-targeting drugs and drug candidates from the structure and physicochemical properties of the main membrane targets, describing, as well, the corresponding identified resistances. Second, this approach is illustrated by the history of the emergence of antibacterial and antifungal amphiphilic aminoglycosides (AAGs) which are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative resistant bacteria. AAGs have resulted from intensive medicinal chemistry development of a group of old antibiotic drugs known as aminoglycosides (AGs), which target ribosomal RNA. The aforementioned AAGs are being used towards discovering new antibiotics which are less toxic and less susceptible to resistance. The ...
Accepted name: 16S rRNA (adenine1408-N1)-methyltransferase. Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + adenine1408 in 16S rRNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N1-methyladenine1408 in 16S rRNA Other name(s): kanamycin-apramycin resistance methylase; 16S rRNA:m1A1408 methyltransferase; KamB; NpmA; 16S rRNA m1A1408 methyltransferase. Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:16S rRNA (adenine1408-N1)-methyltransferase. Comments: The enzyme provides a panaminoglycoside-resistant nature through interference with the binding of aminoglycosides toward the A site of 16S rRNA through N1-methylation at position adenine1408 [4]. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Beauclerk, A.A. and Cundliffe, E. Sites of action of two ribosomal RNA methylases responsible for resistance to aminoglycosides. J. Mol. Biol. 193 (1987) 661-671. [PMID: 2441068]. 2. Koscinski, L., Feder, M. and Bujnicki, J.M. Identification of a missing sequence and functionally important ...
Purpose:Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a calicheamicin-conjugated monoclonal antibody against CD33, has been used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated the impact of the addition of GO to standard chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) in patients with FLT3/ITD. Experimental Design:We analyzed children with FLT3/ITD-positive AML (n=183) treated on 2 consecutive Childrens Oncology Group (COG) AML trials (NCT00070174 and NCT00372593). Outcomes were assessed for FLT3/ITD patients receiving standard chemotherapy with or without GO (GO vs. No-GO respectively), and the impact of consolidation HCT for high-risk FLT3/ITD patients (high FLT3/ITD allelic ratio [ITD-AR]). Results:For all FLT3/ITD patients, complete remission (CR) rates for the GO vs. No-GO cohorts were identical (64% vs. 64%; p=0.98). Relapse rate (RR) after initial CR was 37% for GO recipients vs. 59% for No-GO recipients (p=0.02), disease free survival (DFS) was similar (47% vs. 41%; p=0.45), ...
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Generics: Clobetasol Propionate, Form: CREAM, Pack Size: 1, Brand name: CLOBAL GM 10GM CREAM, Manufacturer: ALIVE PHARMA, Contains: Clobetasol propionate 0.05 %W/W+Gentamicin 0.1 %W/W+Miconazole 2 %W/W, ...
Exhibit A: kasugamycin, an antibiotic that inhibits translation initiation in bacteria by interfering with binding of the the initiator tRNA. Amazingly enough, treatment with kasugamycin results in dramatic change in the ribosomal composition which is in turn changing ribosomes functional properties. Several proteins dissociate from the small ribosomal subunit (S1, S2, S6, S12, S18 and S21) which turns the 70S ribosome into a 61S kasugamycin particle. Ribosomal protein S1 is of particular interest here, because it is very important for the mRNA:ribosome interactions and is responsible for A/U rich sequences acting as translational activators ...
Tobramycin belongs to the class of medicines known as aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. However, this medicine will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections. Tobramycin injection is usually used for serious bacterial infections for which other medicines may not work. However, it may also cause some serious side effects, including damage to your hearing, sense of balance, and kidneys. These side effects may be more likely to occur in elderly patients and newborn infants. You and your doctor should talk about the benefits of this medicine as well as the risks. This medicine is to be administered only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
aminoglycoside definition: Any of a team of broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly streptomycin, produced from types of Streptomyces or Micromonospora micro-organisms and used to treat infections brought…
Targeting HIV RNA: High-resolution X-ray structures of the HIV-1 genomic RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS) extended duplex bound to several aminoglycoside antibiotics have been obtained (see ribostamycin complex as an example). They show the feasibility of targeting viral RNA with small drugs, and open up the possibility of structure-based rational drug design aimed against viral replication. ...
Bacterial infections represent a rapidly growing challenge to human health. Aminoglycosides are widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics, but they inflict permanent hearing loss in up to ~50% of patients by causing selective sensory hair cell loss. Here, we hypothesized that reducing aminoglycoside entry into hair cells via mechanotransducer channels would reduce ototoxicity, and therefore we synthesized 9 aminoglycosides with modifications based on biophysical properties of the hair cell mechanotransducer channel and interactions between aminoglycosides and the bacterial ribosome. Compared with the parent aminoglycoside sisomicin, all 9 derivatives displayed no or reduced ototoxicity, with the lead compound N1MS 17 times less ototoxic and with reduced penetration of hair cell mechanotransducer channels in rat cochlear cultures. Both N1MS and sisomicin suppressed growth of ...
Update on the emerging role of telavancin in hospital-acquired infections Obinna N Nnedu,1 George A Pankey2 1Infectious Disease Department, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Infectious Disease Research, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide that has activity against gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and non-Van-A strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. It has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for complicated skin and skin structure infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia. There is a need for more clinical studies to determine the role of telavancin in treating bacteremia and prosthetic device infections. In this review, we discuss the published data on the use of telavancin in treating hospital-acquired infections and provide an update on new research. Keywords: telavancin, vancomycin,
Abstract In Saudi Arabia, there were no nationwide screening studies conducted so far to determine the aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. Therefore, as the first attempt in the country, a retrospective analysis has been conducted on a nationwide collection of 2,956 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates screened with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing to define MDR-TB. Enrolled MDR-TB isolates were subjected to second-line drug susceptibility testing, detection of mutations conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolone, followed by 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping. Overall, 83 isolates were identified as MDR-TB, and 13 (15.7%) isolates showed resistance to second-line drugs. Moxifloxacin (low level) showed higher resistant rates (10.8%) followed by ofloxacin (7.2%), capreomycin (3.6%), kanamycin (3.6%), and amikacin (2.4%). Overall fluoroquinolone
Resistance of gram-negative aerobic bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics differs by region and country. Resistance to aminoglycosides was higher in Southern Europe than in Central and Northern Europe. Reports of the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to gentamicin and tobramycin have ranged from as low as 49.8% and 77.7%, in Greece, to as high as 96.6% and 99.2%, respectively, in the United Kingdom [3]. It was reported that 54% of gram-negative bacilli in Turkey are resistant to gentamicin, 35% to tobramycin, and only 0.9% to amikacin in 1988 [4]. Consistent to this finding, resistance to amikacin (25.4%) of P. aeruginosa was still lower than to gentamicin (57.5%) or tobramycin (58.4%). However, this data suggests that resistance to amikacin increases progressively in Turkey.. Isolates in tracheal aspirates were highly resistant whereas isolates obtained from bronchial lavage fluids were relatively quite susceptible. In our hospital, tracheal aspiration is generally a procedure performed in ...
Abstract:. The dissemination of AAC(6)-I-type acetyltransferases have rendered amikacin and other aminoglycosides all but useless in some parts of the world. Antisense technologies could be an alternative to extend the life of these antibiotics. External guide sequences are short antisense oligoribonucleotides that induce RNase P-mediated cleavage of a target RNA by forming a precursor tRNA-like complex. Thirteen-nucleotide external guide sequences complementary to locations within five regions accessible for interaction with antisense oligonucleotides in the mRNA that encodes AAC(6)-Ib were analyzed. While small variations in the location targeted by different external guide sequences resulted in big changes in efficiency of binding to native aac(6)-Ib mRNA, most of them induced high levels of RNase P-mediated cleavage in vitro. Recombinant plasmids coding for selected external guide sequences were introduced into Escherichia coli harboring aac(6)-Ib, and the transformant strains were ...

Aminoglycosides | Encyclopedia.comAminoglycosides | Encyclopedia.com

Aminoglycosides Definition Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are used to treat certain bacterial infections. This ... Aminoglycosides. Definition. Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are used to treat certain bacterial infections . ... Aminoglycosides Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed. COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Aminoglycosides. Definition. ... Aminoglycosides are also effective against mycobacteria, the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis. The aminoglycosides can be ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/drugs/pharmacology/aminoglycosides

Aminoglycoside AntibioticsAminoglycoside Antibiotics

Intravenous doses of aminoglycosides are given slowly over about 30 minutes.. Other forms of aminoglycosides, such as eye drops ... This test is used to monitor the level of the prescribed aminoglycoside antibiotic in the blood. The most common aminoglycoside ... Its use declined with the introduction of other aminoglycosides.. Aminoglycosides are cleared from the body by the kidneys, ... are often performed at regular intervals during treatment with aminoglycosides. More frequent aminoglycoside monitoring may be ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/aminoglycoside-antibiotics

Ototoxicity: Overview, Aminoglycosides, Other AntibioticsOtotoxicity: Overview, Aminoglycosides, Other Antibiotics

Specific aminoglycosides. See the list below:. * Streptomycin: Streptomycin was the first clinically applied aminoglycoside and ... Aminoglycosides. Since their introduction in 1944, multiple aminoglycoside preparations have become available, including ... In these areas, aminoglycosides cause as many as 66% of cases of deaf mutism. Depending on agent and dosing, up to 33% of adult ... 5] It does appear that aminoglycoside agents must enter hair cells to induce cell death. [6] After entry into hair cells, many ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/857679-overview

DailyMed - Search Results for AminoglycosidesDailyMed - Search Results for Aminoglycosides

SEARCH RESULTS for: Aminoglycosides [Drug Class] (724 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark & Share ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?query=Aminoglycosides&searchdb=class

Aminoglycoside | chemical compound | Britannica.comAminoglycoside | chemical compound | Britannica.com

The term aminoglycoside is derived from the chemical structure of these compounds, which are made up of amino groups (―NH2) ... Aminoglycoside, any of several natural and semisynthetic compounds that are used to treat bacterial diseases. ... In the following decades, natural aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin and tobramycin, and semisynthetic aminoglycosides, such ... The term aminoglycoside is derived from the chemical structure of these compounds, which are made up of amino groups (―NH2) ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/aminoglycoside

Aminoglycosides - MP BiomedicalsAminoglycosides - MP Biomedicals

Ribostamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic complex produced by fermentation of Micromonospora purpurea or M. echinospora. It is ... Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces tenebrarius and used to treat various types of bacteria ... Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram- ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/index.php?cPath=2873_1_6_30_202&country=223

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics | LabCorpAminoglycoside Antibiotics | LabCorp

Intravenous doses of aminoglycosides are given slowly over about 30 minutes.. Other forms of aminoglycosides, such as eye drops ... This test is used to monitor the level of the prescribed aminoglycoside antibiotic in the blood. The most common aminoglycoside ... Its use declined with the introduction of other aminoglycosides.. Aminoglycosides are cleared from the body by the kidneys, ... Why are aminoglycosides used at all if they can cause permanent hearing loss?. There are risks and benefits associated with ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/help/patient-test-info/aminoglycoside-antibiotics

Aminoglycoside - WikipediaAminoglycoside - Wikipedia

a b c d e DVM Boothe, DVM, PhD, 2012, Aminoglycosides (Aminocyclitols), The Merck Veterinary Manual "Archived copy". Archived ... Aminoglycosides that are derived from bacteria of the Streptomyces genus are named with the suffix -mycin, whereas those that ... a b c ME Levison, MD, 2012, Aminoglycosides, The Merck Manual [1], accessed 22 February 2014. ... Aminoglycosides are in pregnancy category D,[15] that is, there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminoglycoside

Aminoglycosides - OpenWetWareAminoglycosides - OpenWetWare

Aminoglycosides are antibiotics effective against some bacteria. Note that aminoglycosides derived from Streptomyces species ... Aminoglycosides. From OpenWetWare. Revision as of 05:55, 4 August 2006 by Jakob Suckale. (talk , contribs) (content for ... Retrieved from "https://openwetware.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Aminoglycosides&oldid=56945" ...
more infohttps://openwetware.org/wiki/?title=Aminoglycosides&direction=prev&oldid=56949

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aminoglycosidesPharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aminoglycosides

The length of the P AE was concentration-dependent for all the aminoglycosides studied. The mean P AE values of the Gram- ... Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aminoglycosides. Isacsson, Barbro Linköping University, Department of Molecular and ... This method simplified the P AE studies and made such studies possible at high aminoglycoside concentrations. ... of the aminoglycosides were studied in this thesis. For1y-five elderly patients with serious infections were treated in a ...
more infohttp://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A249393&

Aminoglycoside Antibacterials - DrugBankAminoglycoside Antibacterials - DrugBank

A category of amino glycoside antibacterials. Must have an amino group attached to a glycoside and have antibacterial effects. ... Structurally, it must be an aminoglycoside. It must have antibacterial properties. It potentially came from a Streptomycin spp. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT000853

Nonpharmacokinetic Clinical Factors Affecting Aminoglycoside Therapeutic Precision | SpringerLinkNonpharmacokinetic Clinical Factors Affecting Aminoglycoside Therapeutic Precision | SpringerLink

... aminoglycosides, procainamide, digoxin, digitoxin, and quinidine, with optimal monitoring strategies and automatic delivery of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03258374

DailyMed - Search Results for Aminoglycoside AntibacterialDailyMed - Search Results for Aminoglycoside Antibacterial

SEARCH RESULTS for: Aminoglycoside Antibacterial [Drug Class] (645 results) * Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/search.cfm?query=Aminoglycoside%20Antibacterial&searchdb=class

Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides - definition of Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides by The Free DictionaryAntimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides - definition of Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides by The Free Dictionary

Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides synonyms, Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides pronunciation, Antimicrobial Drugs- ... Aminoglycosides translation, English dictionary definition of Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides. n. A broad-spectrum ... redirected from Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. gen·ta·mi·cin. (jĕn′tə- ... Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides - definition of Antimicrobial Drugs-Aminoglycosides by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/Antimicrobial+Drugs-Aminoglycosides

Evaluation of Extended Interval Dosing Aminoglycosides in the Morbidly Obese PopulationEvaluation of Extended Interval Dosing Aminoglycosides in the Morbidly Obese Population

Older age did correlate with higher aminoglycoside serum concentrations (. ). There was no significant difference using ... Evaluation of Extended Interval Dosing Aminoglycosides in the Morbidly Obese Population. Ashley L. Ross,1 Jennifer L. Tharp,2 ... Extended interval aminoglycosides are included in various protocols within our hospital, with dosing schemes ranging from 5 to ... Aminoglycoside dosing has been studied in the obese population, typically recommending an adjusted weight utilizing a 40% ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2013/194389/

Clindamycin 2-phosphate aminoglycoside antibiotic | Sigma-AldrichClindamycin 2-phosphate aminoglycoside antibiotic | Sigma-Aldrich

Clindamycin 2-phosphate aminoglycoside antibiotic; CAS Number: 24729-96-2; EC Number: 246-433-0; Synonym: Clindamycin 2- ... Clindamycin 2-phosphate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that has been used to study the cytoxicity of antibiotics on human cell ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/SIGMA/C6427?lang=en®ion=US

Aminoglycoside interactions and impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome.  - PubMed - NCBIAminoglycoside interactions and impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome. - PubMed - NCBI

Aminoglycoside interactions and impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome.. Prokhorova I1, Altman RB2, Djumagulov M1, Shrestha JP3, ... Interactions of the aminoglycoside derivative TC007 with the 80S ribosome. (A, Left) The view from the A-site of the ribosome ... Aminoglycosides target the decoding center of the 80S ribosome in a different ways. (A) Secondary structure of h44 of the small ... Aminoglycoside-induced changes in human 80S PRE complex conformation. (A) Schematic showing classic (C) and hybrid (H2 and H1) ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29208708/

Aminoglycosides : old friend... new foe?  - StrathprintsAminoglycosides : old friend... new foe? - Strathprints

Text (Thomson-Simmonds-JCF2016-aminoglycosides-old-friend-new-foe) Thomson_Simmonds_JCF2016_aminoglycosides_old_friend_new_foe. ... one contributor is the aggressive use of antibiotics including aminoglycosides. However, aminoglycosides have well-recognised ... Simmonds, N.J. and Thomson, A.H. (2016) Aminoglycosides : old friend... new foe? Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, 15 (4). pp. 411- ... cystic fibrosis, tobramycin, aminoglycoside, Medicine, Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health, Pulmonary and Respiratory ...
more infohttps://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/56842/

Parenteral aminoglycoside therapy. Selection, administration and monitoring.  - PubMed - NCBIParenteral aminoglycoside therapy. Selection, administration and monitoring. - PubMed - NCBI

Liposomal aminoglycosides are promising parenteral formulations. After being taken up by phagocytes they reach the liver, ... Parenteral aminoglycoside therapy. Selection, administration and monitoring.. Kumana CR1, Yuen KY. ... Aminoglycosides are potent water-soluble antibiotics, with peak concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against many ... Aminoglycosides exhibit enduring antibacterial activity (especially against Gram-negative bacilli) many hours after tissue ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7521830?dopt=Abstract

Study of the Interference between Plectranthus Species Essential Oils from Brazil and AminoglycosidesStudy of the Interference between Plectranthus Species Essential Oils from Brazil and Aminoglycosides

... Fabíola Fernandes Galvão ... "Phytochemical prospection and modulation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity by Croton campestris A.," Chemotherapy, vol. 57 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/724161/ref/

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Double Stage Activity in Aminoglycoside Antibiotics
 		 		
 		 		
 		 	
 		
 	CiNii 論文 - Double Stage Activity in Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

Molecular genetics of aminoglycoside resistance genes and familial relationships of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. SHAW ... Role of Aminoglycoside 6-Acetyltransferase in a Novel Multiple Aminoglycoside Resisdtance of an Actinomycete Strain #8: ... Enzymatic acetylation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by Escherichia coli carrying an R factor,. BENVENISTE R. ... Classification by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and antibiotics active against MRSA. 近藤信一 ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008468537

Multivariate analysis of aminoglycoside levels in hemodialysis patients.Multivariate analysis of aminoglycoside levels in hemodialysis patients.

... discriminant analysis was performed on data for 50 consecutive hemodialysis patients who had received aminoglycoside treatment ... Aminoglycosides / blood*, pharmacokinetics. Child. Female. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Renal ... as well as aminoglycoside peak (7.5 +/- 2.7 mg/l) and trough levels (3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/l). The 4 of the 10 parameters investigated ... discriminant analysis was performed on data for 50 consecutive hemodialysis patients who had received aminoglycoside treatment ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Multivariate-analysis-aminoglycoside-levels-in/2721288.html

aacC1 - Aminoglycoside-(3)-N-acetyltransferase - Serratia marcescens - aacC1 gene & proteinaacC1 - Aminoglycoside-(3)-N-acetyltransferase - Serratia marcescens - aacC1 gene & protein

Aminoglycoside-(3)-N-acetyltransferaseImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... AAC-3-Ia, aminoglycoside-3-acetyltransferase. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky ... tr,Q53396,Q53396_SERMA Aminoglycoside-(3)-N-acetyltransferase OS=Serratia marcescens OX=615 GN=aacC1 PE=1 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q53396
  • Although most aminoglycosides are only effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the agents streptomycin and gentamicin possess some activity against gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus and Staphylococcus . (britannica.com)
  • Crystal structures of the 80S ribosome in complex with paromomycin, geneticin (G418), gentamicin, and TC007, solved at 3.3- to 3.7-Å resolution, reveal multiple aminoglycoside-binding sites within the large and small subunits, wherein the 6'-hydroxyl substituent in ring I serves as a key determinant of binding to the canonical eukaryotic ribosomal decoding center. (nih.gov)
  • Tests that evaluate kidney function, such as a creatinine test , are often performed at regular intervals during treatment with aminoglycosides. (labcorp.com)
  • In the following gallery, kanamycin A through netilmicin are examples of the 4,6-disubstituted deoxystreptamine sub-class of aminoglycosides, the neomycins are examples of the 4, 5 -disubstituted sub-class, and streptomycin is an example of a non-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of protein synthesis is mediated through aminoglycosides' energy-dependent, sometimes irreversible binding, to the cytosolic , membrane-associated bacterial ribosome (image at right). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoglycoside interactions and impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome. (nih.gov)
  • However, the sites of interaction of aminoglycosides with the eukaryotic ribosome and their modes of action in eukaryotic translation remain largely unexplored. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we use the combination of X-ray crystallography and single-molecule FRET analysis to reveal the interactions of distinct classes of aminoglycosides with the 80S eukaryotic ribosome. (nih.gov)
  • The distinct impacts of the aminoglycosides examined suggest that their chemical composition and distinct modes of interaction with the ribosome influence PTC read-through efficiency. (nih.gov)
  • These findings provide structural and functional insights into aminoglycoside-induced impacts on the eukaryotic ribosome and implicate pleiotropic mechanisms of action beyond decoding. (nih.gov)
  • Aminoglycosides target the decoding center of the 80S ribosome in a different ways. (nih.gov)
  • Aminoglycosides are associated with serious toxic side effects, including damage to hearing and/or balance (ototoxicity) and acute kidney damage (nephrotoxicity). (labtestsonline.org)
  • [ 2 ] These findings, coupled with ototoxicity associated with later development of other aminoglycosides, led to a great deal of clinical and basic scientific research into the etiology and mechanisms of ototoxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Nephrotoxicity (impairment of kidney function) and ototoxicity (impairment of the organs of hearing and balance) are the most common side effects of aminoglycosides. (britannica.com)
  • However, aminoglycosides have well-recognised adverse effects, particularly nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The propensity of aminoglycosides to induce miscoding errors that suppress the termination of protein synthesis supports their potential as therapeutic interventions in human diseases associated with premature termination codons (PTCs). (nih.gov)
  • The toxicities associated with aminoglycosides are severe and are sometimes irreversible, and the margin of safety between a toxic and a therapeutic dose is narrow. (britannica.com)
  • Lege og forsker Dag Torfoss har i sin avhandling Penicillin G plus an aminoglycoside in febrile neutropenia oppsummert studier med penicillin og aminoglykosid ved feber etter cellegiftbehandling. (uio.no)
  • In conclusion, with regard to the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics there is strong support for the once daily dosing regimens of aminoglycosides. (diva-portal.org)
  • The term aminoglycoside is derived from the chemical structure of these compounds, which are made up of amino groups (―NH 2 ) attached to glycosides (derivatives of sugar ). (britannica.com)
  • The aminoglycosides are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and therefore are given parenterally, via intramuscular or intravenous injection, or topically, via application to the skin . (britannica.com)
  • The amount of an aminoglycoside given per dose depends on a variety of factors, including kidney function, other drugs the person may be taking, age, and weight. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Although the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides are well documented, this class of drugs is still widely used today. (medscape.com)
  • Of all ototoxic drugs, the aminoglycosides are the most vestibulotoxic, although they vary greatly in their differential effects on the vestibular and cochlear systems. (medscape.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are selectively active against oxygen-dependent (aerobic), gram-negative bacterial cells, since these cells possess the chemical characteristics that attract aminoglycosides and the specific transport mechanisms that facilitate the uptake of the drugs into the cells. (britannica.com)
  • The emergence of aminoglycoside-resistant organisms has limited the use of these drugs in the treatment of certain infections. (britannica.com)
  • More frequent aminoglycoside monitoring may be performed for people with impaired kidney function (renal insufficiency) and for people who have an increased risk of toxic side effects, such as those taking other drugs known to adversely affect hearing and the kidneys (ototoxic or nephrotoxic). (labcorp.com)
  • Once inside bacterial cells, aminoglycosides exert their effects by binding to ribosomes , organelles that are fundamental to protein synthesis. (britannica.com)
  • ) While specific steps in protein synthesis affected may vary somewhat between specific aminoglycoside agents, as can their affinity and degree of binding, aminoglycoside presence in the cytosol generally disturbs peptide elongation at the 30S ribosomal subunit, giving rise to inaccurate mRNA translation and therefore biosynthesis of proteins that are truncated, or bear altered amino acid compositions at particular points. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoglycosides can be given using dosing intervals (such as every 8-12 hours) or given as a large single dose once every 24 to 48 hours (also called extended-interval or pulse dosing). (labtestsonline.org)
  • These studies included limited numbers of morbidly obese patients and were not done in the era of extended interval aminoglycoside dosing. (hindawi.com)
  • The 4 of the 10 parameters investigated by multivariate analysis significantly contributing to survival of patients were clinical success of aminoglycoside treatment (p = 0.0001), no need for catecholamines (p = 0.0001), duration of dosage (p = 0.003) and aminoglycoside peak levels (p = 0.009). (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is important to monitor the concentration of aminoglycosides because their effectiveness depends on having an adequate level in the blood. (labtestsonline.org)
  • When a dose of one of the aminoglycosides is given, the level typically rises in the blood to a peak concentration and then falls over time to a lower (trough) concentration. (labcorp.com)
  • The length of the P AE was concentration-dependent for all the aminoglycosides studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, this nomenclature system is not specific for aminoglycosides, and so appearance of this set of suffixes does not imply common mechanism of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminoglycosides are not well absorbed by the digestive system so they are typically be administered either through a needle into a vein ( intravenously, IV ) or by injection into a muscle ( intramuscularly, IM ). (labtestsonline.org)
  • For interval dosing, testing is usually ordered after 2 to 4 doses of the aminoglycoside have been given and when the drug is expected to have reached a relatively stable level in the blood (steady state). (labcorp.com)
  • described obese patients having an altered glomerular filtration rate and increased aminoglycoside drug clearance [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although there are multiple studies documenting the use of aminoglycosides in obese patients, there is a lack of data specifically in the morbidly obese population, which has been identified as greater than or equal to 190% of IBW or a body mass index (BMI) of greater than or equal to 40 kg/m 2 [ 20 , 21 ]. (hindawi.com)