Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.PrintingInfrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.InkLaser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Phosphorous Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Blood Buffy Coat: The fraction of a blood sample, following CENTRIFUGATION, that is distinguished as a thin light-colored layer between the RED BLOOD CELLS, underneath it, and the PLASMA, above it. It is composed mostly of WHITE BLOOD CELLS and PLATELETS.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.IndiaQualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.AcrylatesMonocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dicarboxylic AcidsMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.

A new bile acid conjugate, ciliatocholic acid, from bovine gall bladder bile. (1/26)

This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of ciliatocholic acid in bovine gall bladder bile. Ciliatocholic acid was synthesized according to the method described by Bergstrom and Norman for the synthesis of taurocholic acid. Elemental analysis, melting point, and the infrared spectrum of this substance were determined. An isolation procedure for ciliatocholic acid was established by stepwise elution with an HCl-ethanol solvent system using a Dowex-1 anion exchange resin column chromatographic technique. Ciliatocholic acid amounting to 158 mug (as ciliatine) per 100 ml of gall bladder bile was found in the fraction eluted with 0.01 N HCl in 50% ethanol. This coumpound was purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography and confirmed to be ciliatocholic acid from the hydrolytic stability, phosphorus determination, and chromatographic behavior. Thus, bovine gall bladder bile contains a small amount of ciliatocholic acid.  (+info)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: conformational change in the flexible region around Arg334 is required during the transaldimination process. (2/26)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalytic mechanism has been proposed to proceed through two consecutive intermediates (i.e., Michaelis complex and the external aldimine). Limited proteolysis of AADC that preferentially digested at the C-terminal side of Arg334 was slightly retarded in the presence of dihydroxyphenyl acetate that formed a stable Michaelis complex. On the contrary, AADC was scarcely digested in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester that formed a stable external aldimine. Similar protection by the substrate analogs was observed in the chemical modification experiment. From these results, we concluded that the region around Arg334 must be exposed and flexible in the unliganded state, and forming the Michaelis complex generated a subtle conformational change, then underwent marked conformational change during the subsequent transaldimination process prerequisite to forming the external aldimine. For further analyses, we constructed a mutant gene encoding in tandem the two peptides of AADC cleaved at the Asn327-Met328 bond inside the putative flexible region. The gene product, fragmentary AADC, was still active with L-dopa as substrate, but its k(cat) value was decreased 57-fold, and the Km value was increased 9-fold compared with those of the wild-type AADC. The absorption spectra of the fragmentary AADC in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester showed shift in the equilibrium of the transaldimination from the external aldimine to the Michaelis complex. Tryptic digestion of the fragmentary AADC removed seven amino acid residues, Met328-Arg334, and resulted in complete inactivation. Susceptibility of the fragmentary enzyme to trypsin was not changed by L-dopa methyl ester revealing the loss of appropriate conformational change in the flexible region induced by substrate binding. From these results we propose that the conformational change in the flexible region is required during the transaldimination process.  (+info)

Structural determinants for ligand binding and catalysis of triosephosphate isomerase. (3/26)

The crystal structure of leishmania triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) complexed with 2-(N-formyl-N-hydroxy)-aminoethyl phosphonate (IPP) highlights the importance of Asn11 for binding and catalysis. IPP is an analogue of the substrate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and it is observed to bind with its aldehyde oxygen in an oxyanion hole formed by ND2 of Asn11 and NE2 of His95. Comparison of the mode of binding of IPP and the transition state analogue phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) suggests that the Glu167 side chain, as well as the triose part of the substrate, adopt different conformations as the catalysed reaction proceeds. Comparison of the TIM-IPP and the TIM-PGH structures with other liganded and unliganded structures also highlights the conformational flexibility of the ligand and the active site, as well as the conserved mode of ligand binding.  (+info)

The 2-aminoethylphosphonate-specific transaminase of the 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation pathway. (4/26)

The 2-aminoethylphosphonate transaminase (AEPT; the phnW gene product) of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) degradation pathway catalyzes the reversible reaction of AEP and pyruvate to form phosphonoacetaldehyde (P-Ald) and L-alanine (L-Ala). Here, we describe the purification and characterization of recombinant AEPT. pH rate profiles (log V(m) and log V(m)/K(m) versus pH) revealed a pH optimum of 8.5. At pH 8.5, K(eq) is equal to 0.5 and the k(cat) values of the forward and reverse reactions are 7 and 9 s(-1), respectively. The K(m) for AEP is 1.11 +/- 0.03 mM; for pyruvate it is 0.15 +/- 0.02 mM, for P-Ald it is 0.09 +/- 0.01 mM, and for L-Ala it is 1.4 +/- 0.03 mM. Substrate specificity tests revealed a high degree of discrimination, indicating a singular physiological role for the transaminase in AEP degradation. The 40-kDa subunit of the homodimeric enzyme is homologous to other members of the pyridoxalphosphate-dependent amino acid transaminase superfamily. Catalytic residues conserved within well-characterized members are also conserved within the seven known AEPT sequences. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of three selected residues (Asp168, Lys194, and Arg340) in AEPT catalysis.  (+info)

Properties of phosphoenolpyruvate mutase, the first enzyme in the aminoethylphosphonate biosynthetic pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi. (5/26)

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) mutase catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate, the initial step in the formation of many naturally occurring phosphonate compounds. The phosphonate compound 2-aminoethylphosphonate is present as a component of complex carbohydrates on the surface membrane of many trypanosomatids including glycosylinositolphospholipids of Trypanosoma cruzi. Using partial sequence information from the T. cruzi genome project we have isolated a full-length gene with significant homology to PEP mutase from the free-living protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis and the edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli confirms that it encodes a functional PEP mutase with a Km apparent of 8 microM for phosphonopyruvate and a kcat of 12 s-1. The native enzyme is a homotetramer with an absolute requirement for divalent metal ions and displays negative cooperativity for Mg2+ (S0.5 0.4 microM; n = 0.46). Immunofluorescence and sub-cellular fractionation indicates that PEP mutase has a dual localization in the cell. Further evidence to support this was obtained by Western analysis of a partial sub-cellular fractionation of T. cruzi cells. Southern and Western analysis suggests that PEP mutase is unique to T. cruzi and is not present in the other medically important parasites, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania spp.  (+info)

Phosphorus limitation enhances biofilm formation of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens through the PhoR-PhoB regulatory system. (6/26)

The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens forms architecturally complex biofilms on inert surfaces. Adherence of A. tumefaciens C58 was significantly enhanced under phosphate limitation compared to phosphate-replete conditions, despite slower overall growth under low-phosphate conditions. Replacement of Pi with sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and 2-aminoethylphosphonate yielded similar results. The increase in surface interactions under phosphate limitation was observed in both static culture and continuous-culture flow cells. Statistical analysis of confocal micrographs obtained from the flow cell biofilms revealed that phosphate limitation increased both the overall attached biomass and the surface coverage, whereas the maximum thickness of the biofilm was not affected. Functions encoded on the two large plasmids of A. tumefaciens C58, pTiC58 and pAtC58, were not required for the observed phosphate effect. The phosphate concentration at which increased attachment was observed triggered the phosphate limitation response, controlled in many bacteria by the two-component regulatory system PhoR-PhoB. The A. tumefaciens phoB and phoR orthologues could only be disrupted in the presence of plasmid-borne copies of the genes, suggesting that this regulatory system might be essential. Expression of the A. tumefaciens phoB gene from a tightly regulated inducible promoter, however, correlated with the amount of biofilm under both phosphate-limiting and nonlimiting conditions, demonstrating that components of the Pho regulon influence A. tumefaciens surface interactions.  (+info)

Utilization of 2-aminoethylarsonic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (7/26)

This paper describes the metabolism, transport and growth inhibition effects of 2-aminoethylarsonic acid (AEA) and 3-aminopropylarsonic acid (APrA). The former compound supported growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as sole nitrogen source. The two arsonates inhibited the growth of this bacterium when 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEP) but not alanine or NH4Cl, was supplied as the only other nitrogen source. The analogy between AEA and the natural compound AEP led us to examine the in vitro and in vivo interaction of AEA with the enzymes of AEP metabolism. The uptake system for AEP (Km 6 microM) was found to be competitively inhibited by AEA and APrA (Ki 18 microM for each). AEP-aminotransferase was found to act on AEA with a Km of 4 mM (3.85 mM for AEP). Alanine and 2-arsonoacetaldehyde was generated concomitantly, in a stoichiometric reaction. In vivo, AEA was catabolized by the AEP-aminotransferase since it was able to first induce this enzyme, then to be an efficient substrate. The lower growth observed may have been due to the slowness with which the permease and the aminotransferase were induced, and hence to a poor supply of alanine by transamination.  (+info)

Reversible phase variation in the phnE gene, which is required for phosphonate metabolism in Escherichia coli K-12. (8/26)

It is known that Escherichia coli K-12 is cryptic (Phn-) for utilization of methyl phosphonate (MePn) and that Phn+ variants can be selected for growth on MePn as the sole P source. Variants arise from deletion via a possible slip strand mechanism of one of three direct 8-bp repeat sequences in phnE, which restores function to a component of a putative ABC type transporter. Here we show that Phn+ variants are present at the surprisingly high frequency of >10(-2) in K-12 strains. Amplified-fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to monitor instability in phnE in various strains growing under different conditions. This revealed that, once selection for growth on MePn is removed, Phn+ revertants reappear and accumulate at high levels through reinsertion of the 8-bp repeat element sequence. It appears that, in K-12, phnE contains a high-frequency reversible gene switch, producing phase variation which either allows ("on" form) or blocks ("off" form) MePn utilization. The switch can also block usage of other metabolizable alkyl phosphonates, including the naturally occurring 2-aminoethylphosphonate. All K-12 strains, obtained from collections, appear in the "off" form even when bearing mutations in mutS, mutD, or dnaQ which are known to enhance slip strand events between repetitive sequences. The ability to inactivate the phnE gene appears to be unique to K-12 strains since the B strain is naturally Phn+ and lacks the inactivating 8-bp insertion in phnE, as do important pathogenic strains for which genome sequences are known and also strains isolated recently from environmental sources.  (+info)

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Phosphonic and phosphinic acid are similar to phosphate ester and anhydrides with instead of carbon oxygen bond have the C-P-C bond. They are stable and can stand against harsh chemical treatments. In many cases, phosphorus is a limiting reagent so the discover of about 20-30% of phosphorus in the ocean was an important discovery.. The first naturally produced "phosphonate" compound was 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP). AEP was found in phosphonolipids. Phosphonolipids are present in many protozoa, plants, bacteria and even humans. It was found they are formed through ingestion and not made by the body. These phosphonolipids have a fatty acid chain and different phosphonate headgroups. Observation show that phosphonates affect the metabolism. More studies need to be performed on the function of the macromolecules of phosphonate containing molecules because it is still not understood every well. The synthesis of AEP from phosphonoenolpyruvate PEP, is the shortest known pathway to produce natural ...
Natural products containing carbon-phosphorous bonds, so-called C-P compounds, are derivatives of phosphonate and phosphinate with substitution of alkyl group for hydrogen of phosphorus-hydrogen bonds. C-P compounds have been found in many organisms, but only protists and bacteria, mostly Actinobacteria, have biosynthetic capacity. A common reaction in the biosynthetic pathway is C-P bond forming reaction from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) catalyzed by PEP phosphomutase. 2-Aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) is the most abundant C-P compound in the natural world. AEP derivatives include phosphonoprotein, phosphonoglycan, and phosphonolipid. Other known C-P compounds are bioactive substances used in medicine (antibiotics) and agriculture (herbicide) such as fosfomycin, FR-33289, rhizocticin, and bialaphos ...
Natural products containing carbon-phosphorous bonds, so-called C-P compounds, are derivatives of phosphonate and phosphinate with substitution of alkyl group for hydrogen of phosphorus-hydrogen bonds. C-P compounds have been found in many organisms, but only protists and bacteria, mostly Actinobacteria, have biosynthetic capacity. A common reaction in the biosynthetic pathway is C-P bond forming reaction from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) catalyzed by PEP phosphomutase. 2-Aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) is the most abundant C-P compound in the natural world. AEP derivatives include phosphonoprotein, phosphonoglycan, and phosphonolipid. Other known C-P compounds are bioactive substances used in medicine (antibiotics) and agriculture (herbicide) such as fosfomycin, FR-33289, rhizocticin, and bialaphos ...
Natural products containing carbon-phosphorous bonds, so-called C-P compounds, are derivatives of phosphonate and phosphinate with substitution of alkyl group for hydrogen of phosphorus-hydrogen bonds. C-P compounds have been found in many organisms, but only protists and bacteria, mostly Actinobacteria, have biosynthetic capacity. A common reaction in the biosynthetic pathway is C-P bond forming reaction from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) catalyzed by PEP phosphomutase. 2-Aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) is the most abundant C-P compound in the natural world. AEP derivatives include phosphonoprotein, phosphonoglycan, and phosphonolipid. Other known C-P compounds are bioactive substances used in medicine (antibiotics) and agriculture (herbicide) such as fosfomycin, FR-33289, rhizocticin, and bialaphos ...
Natural products containing carbon-phosphorous bonds, so-called C-P compounds, are derivatives of phosphonate and phosphinate with substitution of alkyl group for hydrogen of phosphorus-hydrogen bonds. C-P compounds have been found in many organisms, but only protists and bacteria, mostly Actinobacteria, have biosynthetic capacity. A common reaction in the biosynthetic pathway is C-P bond forming reaction from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) catalyzed by PEP phosphomutase. 2-Aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) is the most abundant C-P compound in the natural world. AEP derivatives include phosphonoprotein, phosphonoglycan, and phosphonolipid. Other known C-P compounds are bioactive substances used in medicine (antibiotics) and agriculture (herbicide) such as fosfomycin, FR-33289, rhizocticin, and bialaphos ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesputative 2-aminoethylphosphonate ABC transporter, periplasmic 2-aminoethylphosphonate-binding protein (TIGR03261; HMM-score: 23.2) ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesputative 2-aminoethylphosphonate ABC transporter, periplasmic 2-aminoethylphosphonate-binding protein (TIGR03261; HMM-score: 23) ...
1. A method is presented for identifying and estimating the aminoethylphosphonate (ciliatine)-containing phospholipids in a complex mixture. 2. Evidence was obtained that the phospholipids of a pure culture of Entodinium caudatum and a mixed rumen protozoa sample contain diglyceride ciliatine, and a plasmalogen ciliatine was detected in the latter. 3. A ninhydrin-positive sphingolipid was isolated from rumen protozoa. Although chromatographically homogeneous on silica gel it contains two components, which were provisionally identified as ceramide ciliatine and ceramide phosphorylethanolamine. 4. A detailed phospholipid analysis of E. caudatum and rumen protozoa is presented. They contain no phosphatidylserine or cardiolipin, but an unidentified phosphoglyceride containing a zwitterionic amino acid is present.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of agrobacterium tumefaciens unipolar polysaccharide production reveals complex integrated control of the motile-to-sessile switch. AU - Xu, Jing. AU - Kim, Jinwoo. AU - Koestler, Benjamin J.. AU - Choi, Jeong-Hyeon. AU - Waters, Christopher M.. AU - Fuqua, Clay. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Many bacteria colonize surfaces and transition to a sessile mode of growth. The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin at single cell poles that contact surfaces. Here we report that elevated levels of the intracellular signal cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) lead to surface-contact-independent UPP production and a red colony phenotype due to production of UPP and the exopolysaccharide cellulose, when A.tumefaciens is incubated with the polysaccharide stain Congo Red. Transposon mutations with elevated Congo Red staining identified presumptive UPP-negative regulators, mutants for which were hyperadherent, ...
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Spirostomum is a large Ciliate Protozoan, up to 3 mm long and visible even without a microscope. Note that the cilia are arranged in spiral bands, with one thicker band near the center of the protist. SEM X335. - Stock Image C005/7915
View Stock Photo of The Ciliate Protozoan Oxytrichia Reproducing By Fission Sem. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
The ciliate Diploplastron affine is known as a common species of the rumen fauna in cattle and sheep. This protozoon is able to digest cellulose, whereas its amylolytic activity is not well known. The objective of the reported studies was to examine
Endogenous thymidylate synthases, isolated from tissues or cultured cells of the same specific origin, have been reported to show differing slow-binding inhibition patterns. These were reflected by biphasic or linear dependence of the inactivation rate on time and accompanied by differing inhibition parameters. Considering its importance for chemotherapeutic drug resistance, the possible effect of thymidylate synthase inhibition by post-translational modification was tested, e.g. phosphorylation, by comparing sensitivities to inhibition by two slow-binding inhibitors, 5-fluoro-dUMP and N4-hydroxy-dCMP, of two fractions of purified recombinant mouse enzyme preparations, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated, separated by metal oxide/hydroxide affinity chromatography on Al(OH)3 beads. The modification, found to concern histidine residues and influence kinetic properties by lowering Vmax, altered both the pattern of dependence of the inactivation rate on time from linear to biphasic, as well as ...
Plays a role in the regulation of phosphate uptake. In this role, it may bind, possibly as a chaperone, to PhoR, PhoB or a PhoR-PhoB complex to promote dephosphorylation of phospho-PhoB, or inhibit formation of the PhoR-PhoB transitory complex (Probable).
All rumen ciliates whether grown in vivo or in vitro contain bacteria in vesicles in their endoplasm and attached to the outside of the pellicle. However studies in the electron microscope show that...
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The importance of the enzyme AEP as a key regulatory of the immune system has been discovered in new research from Newcastle University.
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As a microbiologist and cell biologist, Dr. Heindls research focuses on the prokaryotic development and bacterial interactions within the environment. He uses the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciensand related bacteria to understand regulatory principles and molecular mechanisms governing bacterial developmental stages from growth and remodeling, to the morphogenesis, division, and biofilm formation. His work has been published in several renowned scientific journals, such as Journal of Bacteriology, Infection and Immunity, and PLOS ONE-a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science. In his new role, Dr. Heindls responsibilities include teaching a variety of undergraduate microbiology courses and developing new courses for the program. He is also charged with establishing an active research program with undergraduate and graduate students in the Department of Biological Sciences. Dr. Heindl, a native of Indian Harbour Beach, Florida, received his ...
The anterior aorta of Aplysia is innervated by nerves arising from the abdominal ganglion (Sawada et al., 1981a). The vulvar nerve is one of the nerves innervating the anterior aorta, in which axons of some identifiable motoneurons or modulatory neurons for the anterior aorta are contained (Sawada et al., 1981a, 1984c). The phasic contraction evoked by the vulvar nerve stimulation was inhibited by the enterins. At least, one of the mechanisms for the inhibition seems to be activation of K+ conductance of the muscle membrane. We found that the enterins hyperpolarize the membrane potential of the muscle fibers via the activation of 4-AP-sensitive K+ channels. Sensitivity of the K+ channels to 4-AP is quite high, and EC50 of 4-AP was,10-6 mol l-1. The value is comparable to another highly 4-AP-sensitive K+ channel described in the accessory radula closer muscle of Aplysia (Brezina et al., 1994). The enterin-induced hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane should, in principle, reduce the ...
Microbial biofilm formation is thought of as a developmental pathway, whereby cells progress through environmentally regulated and temporally distinct stages during transition from free-swimming lifestyles to members of a structured surface-attached consortium. The focus of my doctoral studies has been to understand how environmental cues are sensed by P. fluorescens and integrated with mechanisms to regulate an important step in biofilm formation, the transition to committed association with the surface. Low levels of extracellular inorganic phosphate (P i ) were shown to inhibit stable surface attachment by P. fluorescens. Activation of the Pho regulon in P i -limiting conditions was shown to be both necessary and sufficient for inhibition of biofilm formation. The protein product of the Pho regulon gene rapA cleaves the intracellular signaling molecule c-di-GMP. Reductions in the levels of c-di-GMP were shown to inhibit both secretion and localization of LapA to the outer membrane. LapA is a ...
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(1-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phosphonic acid Catalog Id: MM125078151 IUPAC:(1-Amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phosphonicacidhydrate CAS Number: 125078-15-1 Formula: C5H14NO3P SMILES: CC(C)(C)C(N)P(O)(O)=O Molecular Weight: 167.145 Preferred IUPAC Name: (1-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl)phosphonic acid InChIKey: InChIKey=OZTDKZBAEQVCEE-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Scavenger ciliates. Light microscopy footage of several species of ciliate protozoa feeding on dead tissue from a larger organism.
The ciliate protozoa, Stentor and Paramecium, have been reported to escape from the bottom end of narrow capillary tubes into a larger volume of medium with increasing rapidity over the course of trials. This change in behavior has been considered an apparent example of associative learning. This decrease in escape time is not due to a change in the protozoas environment, their swimming speed, frequency of ciliary reversals, or the proportion of time spent forward or backward swimming. Instead, most of the decrease results from a decrease in the proportion of time spent in upward swimming. However, a similar decrease in upward swimming occurs when the task is altered to require escape from the upper end of the capillary tubes. Because the protozoa exhibit the same change in behavior regardless of the reinforcing stimulus, tube-escape learning is not associative learning ...
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Phosphonates and phosphonic acids are organophosphorus compounds containing C−PO(OH)2 or C−PO(OR)2 groups (where R = alkyl, aryl). Phosphonic acids, typically handled as salts, are generally nonvolatile solids that are poorly soluble in organic solvents, but soluble in water and common alcohols. Many commercially important compounds are phosphonates, including glyphosate, the herbicide "Roundup", and ethephon, a widely used plant growth regulator. Bisphosphonates are popular drugs for treatment of osteoporosis. In biology and medicinal chemistry, phosphonate groups are used as stable bioisoteres for phosphate, such as in the antiviral nucleotide analogue, Tenofovir, one of the cornerstones of anti-HIV therapy. Phosphonates feature tetrahedral phosphorus centers. They are structurally closely related to (and often prepared from) phosphorous acid. Phosphonate salts are the result of deprotonation of phosphonic acids, which are diprotic acids: RPO(OH)2 + NaOH → H2O + RPO(OH)(ONa) (monosodium ...
Summary Scale-inhibitor (SI) squeeze treatments are applied extensively for controlling scale formation during oil and gas production. The current research involves phosphonate/metal precipitate studies in the context of precipitation-squeeze treatm
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [E V Efimtseva, S N Mikhaĭlov, M V Fomicheva, S V Meshkov, M S Rodionov, A R Khomutov, E De Clercq].
Improves the LUNG function by having a regulatory effect on the bronchial mucosa so normalising their metabolism and enhancing their functional performance.
Details AEP.626 Its a harmless memory resident parasitic virus. It hooks INT 21h and writes itself at the beginning of .COM-files that are executed. It contains the internal text string: (C) 1993 American Eagle Publications, Inc., All rights reserved! ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule [[[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-2-propylsulfanyl-purine-1,3,7-triium-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl]oxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl]-dichloro-methyl]phosphonic acid (C14H22Cl2N5O12P3S) from the PQR.
Paul has been around a while and from my understanding he has been in contact with one of the few doctors doing real research into BCFS/BFS/PNHE. I dont think he ever said that anxiety never cause and twitch or cramp. It is just that once you go through the level of medical testing BCFS/BFS/PHNE patients do then most of the time it is not stress related since a medication like Klonopin will take all your worries away even if you are under anesthesia. But that is not the case for many here. I am sure there are many here who could attribute their twitching to stress. I also fall into that camp in a small way. But I am not naturally a big reactor to stress. I also want to make sure that I do not come across as dismissing your views by any means since we really dont know what causes this illness. Everything is still a theory. Just look at CFS and how it has evolved from a virus to being triggered by all sorts of things from stress to the flu. Technically anything that is an assult on the body is a ...
Phosphonates represent an important class of organophosphorus compounds. Their use as reagents in organic synthesis is prevalent, and there is a plethora of examples of biologically active compounds possessing the phosphonate moiety. To further our exploration of phosphonates as both reagents and biologically active compounds we have developed a one-flask protocol for the direct synthesis of phosphonates from benzylic and allylic alcohols. This transformation is unprecedented and is applicable to a range of substrates. Both electron rich and electron deficient benzylic alcohols react under the conditions developed. Furthermore, good yields are achieved when converting allylic alcohols to the corresponding allylic phosphonates. In at least one case, the one-flask protocol allows for phosphonate formation that was not achievable under the standard conditions. Bisphosphonates represent a significant subclass of phosphonates. Several nitrogenous bisphosphonates have found use in the clinic as treatments for
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 1445-75-6(Phosphonic acid,P-methyl-, bis(1-methylethyl) ester) for price inquiry. where to buy 1445-75-6(Phosphonic acid,P-methyl-, bis(1-methylethyl) ester).Also offer free database of 1445-75-6(Phosphonic acid,P-methyl-, bis(1-methylethyl) ester) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
(1-amino-2-methylpropyl)phosphonic acid Catalog Id: MM18108242 IUPAC:(1-Amino-2-methylpropyl)phosphonicacid CAS Number: 18108-24-2 Formula: C4H12NO3P SMILES: CC(C)C(N)P(O)(O)=O Molecular Weight: 153.118 Preferred IUPAC Name: (1-amino-2-methylpropyl)phosphonic acid InChIKey: InChIKey=DGSLPJDIFKVSIB-UHFFFAOYNA-N
CHEMVON BIOTECHNOLOGY: We are leading Manufacturer,Supplier & Exporter of [5-(3-fluorophenyl)-pyridin-2-ylMethyl]-phosphonic acid diethyl ester,
Denville, NJ, USA, April 21, 2017 - TRI-K Industries, unveiled new product innovation at in-cosmetics Global in April. Launched at the show, TRI-K introduced NaturePep™ Sacha Inchi, a new botanical based, natural peptide, the next of their NaturePep™ platform, which significantly reduces facial sagginess and restructures skin to create a more sculpted jawline.. TRI-K developed NaturePep™ Sacha Inchi in response to growing consumer demands in the market. This multi-functional anti-aging peptide is clinically proven to decrease facial sagginess for a more contoured jawline, restructure skin by increasing dermis density, smooth skin and reduce wrinkles. In clinical studies, NaturePep™ Sacha Inchi was shown to reduce skin sagging by 45% after only 28 days and decrease skin roughness by more than 20% in three different parameters after 21 days.. Anti-aging is still the leading skin care need, yet consumer focus is less on traditional anti-wrinkle benefits and more on all encompassing beauty ...
Cofactors, Vitamins, Prosthetic Groups, Pigments,Biotin,Biotin biosynthesis,Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.62 ...
68133-57-3 - XANFTJNZNYVTRE-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 1,2-Ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:?) - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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Crown gall is a widespread disease of cultivated culture all over the world. The bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium tumefacience colonize the xylem vessels of the plants.The tumors form in stems and roots of fruits culture. Large tumoursmay death of new plants in the nursery and in the plantation. Tumouregenesis causing root decay may be factor involved in the complex syndrome. Development of measures to controle crown-gall is carried out in direction for obtaining tumorless plants at the expens of preventive treatment of woundings so as to deteriorate the interaction of pathogen with the cell of host plant. Utilization the strain of soil inhibiting Pseudomonas fluorescens CR- 330 D which synthesize the substances (bacteriocins) with preventing activity to nopaline and octopine strains of pathogenic agrobacteria. Liquid concentrate suspension of this bacteria - biological preparat , Paurin, -were applicated for preplanting treatment of rooted saplings. Using to treat apple MM-106 wilding prior to ...
Phosphonic acid definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
1-aminoethyl)phosphonic acid and (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 29 (1): 29-40. doi:10.1021/ ...
The naturally occurring phosphonate 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid was first identified in 1959 in plants and many animals, where ... Most processes begin with phosphorous acid (aka phosphonic acid, H3PO3), exploiting its reactive P−H bond. Phosphonic acid can ... 3 H2O Phosphonic acid also can be alkylated with acrylic acid derivatives to afford carboxyl functionalized phosphonic acids. ... 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid HPAA: 2-Hydroxyphosphonocarboxylic acid AMP: Aminotris(methylenephosphonic acid) BPMG: N,N-Bis( ...
2-aminoethyl)phosphonic acid aminotransferase, 2-aminoethylphosphonate-pyruvate aminotransferase, 2-aminoethylphosphonate ... Lacoste AM, Dumora C, Ali BR, Neuzil E, Dixon HB (1992). "Utilization of 2-aminoethylarsonic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa". J ...
View information & documentation regarding (S)-(+)-1-Aminoethylphosphonic acid, including CAS, ...
L-Alanyl-L-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid, >=98.0% (T) MilliporeSigma. … ( S )-Alanyl-( R )-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid; ... ALDRICH trans-Cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, >=97.0% (T) MilliporeSigma. Empirical Formula: C6H8O4 Linear Formula: C6H8O4 ... ALDRICH trans-Cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, >=97.0% (T) MilliporeSigma. Empirical Formula: C6H8O4 Linear Formula: C6H8O4 ... ALDRICH cis-Cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, >=97.0% (T) MilliporeSigma. Empirical Formula: C6H8O4 Linear Formula: C6H8O4 ...
2-aminoethyl)phosphonic acid + (2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate (2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (2-trans,6-cis)-dodeca-2,6-dienoyl-CoA ... 4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoic acid + ... 13E)-octadecenoic acid (13R)-S-cysteinyl-(14S)-hydroxy-(4Z,7Z, ... 5(S),6(S)-epoxy-18(S)-hydroxy-(7E,9E,11Z,14Z,16E)-icosapentaenoic acid ... 13R)-S-cysteinylglycinyl-(14S)-hydroxy-(4Z,7Z,9E,11E,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoic acid ...
Natural-product phosphonates such as 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP; ciliatine) or 2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid ( ... Ternan, N. G., and Quinn, J. P. (1998a). Phosphate starvation-independent 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid biodegradation in a newly ... it is encoded within a degradative operon for the mineralization of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP, ciliatine). 2-AEP ... 2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid) as sole C, N, and P source. Phosphonoalanine, the phosphonate analog of aspartic acid, is ...
2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP). First, a published CaP coating protocol was revised and investigated in terms of etching ... On the one hand the electrostatic interaction of charged AuNPs with hydrogels based on hyaluronic acid was applied to tune the ...
At least 87% of the total phosphorus originally present was comprised of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid. During 11 days of ... in the accumulation and metabolic fate of the released amino acids, or in the toxicity of the amino acid or alcohol released ... The Basis of Antimalarial Action: Non-Weak Base Effects of Chloroquine on Acid Vesicle pH Donald J. Krogstad and Paul H. ... Leishmania mexicana: Destruction of Isolated Amastigotes by Amino Acid Esters Michel Rabinovitch, Vladimir Zilberfarb and ...
1-aminoethyl)phosphonic acid and (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 29 (1): 29-40. doi:10.1021/ ...
C] Glycosphingolipids contain phosphorus and amine as 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid or phosphoethanolamine and are zwitterionic. ... except for the following amino acids: phosphoethanolamine (PTEN), aspartic acid (Asp), hydroxyproline (Hyp), citrulline (Cit ... All amino acids detected in the urine control were also quantified in urine samples from patients to establish adequate ... Effects of anticoagulants in amino acid analysis: comparisons of heparin, EDTA, and sodium citrate in vacutainer tubes for ...
2-[2-(6-oxidanylidene-1~{H}-purin-9-yl)ethyl-(4-phosphonobutyl)amino]ethylphosphonic acid; MAGNESIUM ION. Polypeptides. ... 2-[2-(6-oxidanylidene-1~{H}-purin-9-yl)ethyl-(4-phosphonobutyl)amino]ethylphosphonic acid; MAGNESIUM ION. Polypeptides. ...
A stock solution of 500 mM 2-aminoethyl phosphonic acid (2-AEP, Sigma-Aldrich) was prepared in 1× PBS and adjusted to pH 7.5 ... 1: Phosphonic acid labeling of biomolecules and enrichment strategy.. a Scheme of CuAAC and SPAAC bioorthogonal reactions used ... Hormoz, S. Amino acid composition of proteins reduces deleterious impact of mutations. Sci. Rep. 3, 2919 (2013). ... Peptides were trapped on a 2 cm × 100 μm Reprosil C18 precolumn (3 μm) for 10 min in solvent A (0.1 % v/v formic acid in water ...
High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid and 2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid in ...
... aminomethylphosphonic acid, and 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid on three typical Baltic Sea sediments. Mar. Chem. 198: 1-9, doi: ... aminomethylphosphonic acid and 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in water. J . Chromatogr. 1475: 64-73, doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2016.11 ... Bacteriogenically induced sulfuric acid attack on concrete in a sewer system. In: Proceedings : XIII International Conference ... Concrete deterioration by bacteriogenically induced sulfuric acid attack. keine Angaben ...
... activity was detected in cell-extracts of the marine bacterium Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM grown on 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid ...
... followed by a residue which is 1-amino-ethylphosphonic acid (the phosphonic acid analog of alanine) followed by an additional ... Lactam-containing hydroxamic acids. US5677282. Jun 7, 1995. Oct 14, 1997. Proscript, Inc.. Amino acid amides of 1,3,4- ... In the compounds of the library, X and Z represent any of 16 different amino acids and Y represents any of five α-hydroxy acids ... followed by an amino acid residue (X) which can represent any of 16 different amino acids, ...
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Organophosphorus compounds containing a phosphorus-carbon bond, for example, β-aminoethylphosphonic acid (ciliatin), were ... such as phosphonous acid (RPO2H2), phosphinous acid (R2POH), phosphonic acid (RPO3H2), and phosphinic acid (R2PO2H) and their ... of hypophosphorous acid (H3PO2), phosphorous acid (H3PO3), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and other acids. In addition, there are ... Esters and other acid derivatives of phosphorus are usually obtained by the action of chloranhydrides of these acids on ...
Stamper GF, Morollo AA, Ringe D. Reaction of alanine racemase with 1-aminoethylphosphonic acid forms a stable external aldimine ... formic acid. Samples were then de-salted using C4 ZipTip, eluted into 15 µl 60% acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid, and directly ... These belong to different chemical classes, including hydrazide, hydroxamic acid, thiopyridine, pyrimidine carboxamide, ... one each of hydroxamic acid (L2-3), thiopyridine (L2-4), pyridine ester (L2-10), oxadiazole N-oxide (L2-18), carbamodithioate ( ...
This led to the discovery of the first compound in animals of a substance with a C-P bond (aminoethyl phosphonic acid), and the ... In 1949, Roberts discovered the presence of unusually large quantities of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Within a ... Particularly, unique epigenetic and genetic roles of amino acid, glutamine, are receiving much attention. ... neural systems at the light and electron microscopic levels using antisera to the synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase ...
2-aminoethylphosphonic acid)-GlcNp(α1→6)-myo-Ins-1-PO4. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2005, 70(18), 7196-7207. Web of Science® ... Resin-acid derivatives as potent electrostatic openers of voltage-gated K channels and suppressors of neuronal excitability. ... Synthesis and Monolayer Characterization of Phosphorylated Amino Acid Analogs. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2002, ... Electrochemical Evaluation of the Interfacial Capacitance upon Phosphorylation of Amino Acid Analogue Molecular Films. ...
REACTION OF ALANINE RACEMASE WITH 1-AMINOETHYLPHOSPHONIC REMARK 1 TITL 2 ACID FORMS A STABLE EXTERNAL ALDIMINE INTERMEDIATE ... MODRES 2SFP KCX A 129 LYS LYSINE NZ-CARBOXYLIC ACID MODRES 2SFP KCX B 129 LYS LYSINE NZ-CARBOXYLIC ACID HET KCX A 129 12 HET ... REMARK 3 PROTEIN ATOMS : 6032 REMARK 3 NUCLEIC ACID ATOMS : 0 REMARK 3 HETEROGEN ATOMS : 40 REMARK 3 SOLVENT ATOMS : 207 REMARK ... PPI PROPANOIC ACID HETSYN PLP VITAMIN B6 PHOSPHATE FORMUL 1 KCX 2(C7 H14 N2 O4) FORMUL 3 PLP 2(C8 H10 N O6 P) FORMUL 4 PPI 2(C3 ...
2-aminoethyl phosphonic acid 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid See all names (2) Type Single Compound ...
... phosphonolipids such as ceramide-2-aminoethylphosphonic acid, phosphonoglycerides and the like and sterols such as cholesterol ... Examples of such materials are chloranilic acid, 2-methyl-8-quinolinol and oxalic acid for calcium; 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2 ... 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) pH 6.8, which had ... nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid (CyDTA) and ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) ...
... such as 2-aminoethyl phosphonic acid, optionally substituted organic phosphonic acids such as phenyl phosphonic acid, naphthyl ... benzoic acid, isophthalic acid, adipic acid, p-toluic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, phthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 4- ... acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, crotonic acid, isocrotonic acid, maleic acid etc.) and esters and amides thereof ... 2-96755, such as sulfonic acids, sulfinic acids, alkyl sulfuric acids, phosphonic acids, phosphates and carboxylic acids, and ...
Column Chromatography of 2-Aminoethylphosphonic Acid. Mackie, R. I., Jan 1 1973, In : Journal of Dairy Science. 56, 7, p. 939- ... An estimate of the minimum amount of unsaturated fatty acid required for growth of Escherichia coli.. Cronan, J. E. & Gelmann, ... Decarboxylation of malate by isolated bundle-sheath cells of certain plants having the C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle of ...
... ethanesulfonic acid, Piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid), 3-(N-Morpholino)-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid, N,N-Bis(2- ... acid, 2 -(N-Cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid, 3 -(Cyclohexylamino)- 2 -hydroxy-l-propanesulfonic acid, 2 -Amino- 2 -methyl-l ... 2-ethanesulfonic acid), N-Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, 3-[N,N-Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-2- ... 3-propanesulfonic acid), N-Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid, 3-[(1,1-Dimethy 1-2-hydroxyethyl)amino]- 2 - ...
  • Particularly, unique epigenetic and genetic roles of amino acid, glutamine, are receiving much attention. (legacy.com)
  • The aim was to provide a chemical linkage between PCL and CaP using a star-shaped polymer (sPEG) and a phosphonate, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Phosphonate salts are the result of deprotonation of phosphonic acids, which are diprotic acids: RPO(OH)2 + NaOH → H2O + RPO(OH)(ONa) (monosodium phosphonate) RPO(OH)(ONa) + NaOH → H2O + RPO(ONa)2 (disodium phosphonate) Phosphonate esters are the result of condensation of phosphonic acids with alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methyl iodide catalyses the conversion of trimethylphosphite to the phosphonate ester dimethyl methylphosphonate: P(OMe)3 → MePO(OMe)2 These esters can be hydrolysed to the acid (Me = methyl): MePO(OMe)2 + H2O → MePO(OH)2 + 2 MeOH In the Michaelis-Becker reaction, a hydrogen phosphonate diester is first deprotonated and the resulting anion is alkylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The naturally occurring phosphonate 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid was first identified in 1959 in plants and many animals, where it is localized in membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumpound 2 was been shown to be 2-aminoethylphosphonic acidity (2AEP) a common intermediate in various phosphonate biosynthetic pathways.1 This assignment was initially suggested predicated on the 31P NMR chemical substance change of 2 and additional backed by its retention on AG 50W-X8 cation exchange resin presumably because of the major amine. (experiencefla.com)
  • Vinylphosphonic acid can be prepared by the reaction of PCl3 and acetaldehyde: PCl3 + CH3CHO → CH3CH(O−)PCl+ 3 This adduct reacts with acetic acid: CH3CH(O−)PCl+ 3 + 2 CH3CO2H → CH3CH(Cl)PO(OH)2 + 2 CH3COCl This chloride undergoes dehydrochlorination to afford the target: CH3CH(Cl)PO(OH)2 → CH2=CHPO(OH)2 + HCl Bisphosphonates were first synthesized in 1897 by Von Baeyer and Hofmann. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-Fluoro-2-methyl benzonitrile 147754-12-9 C8H6NF Indole-2-carboxylic acid 1477-50-5 C9H7NO2 4-Methyl-3-nitro benzaldehyde 14753-51-6 C8H7NO3 3-Amino picolinic acid 1462-86-8. (twfta.com)
  • Full List of ' 2-fluoro-4-methyl-1-nitro- 2-nitro-5-fluoro toluene 4-amino-2-fluorobenzoic acid 4-chloro-2-fluorobenzoic acid 3- 2 ' Manufacturers& 2-fluoro-4-methyl-1-nitro- 2-nitro-5-fluoro toluene 4-amino-2-fluorobenzoic acid 4-chloro-2-fluorobenzoic acid 3- 2 Suppliers in European Global & USA Asian. (twfta.com)
  • chloromethyl)- N , N'-Carbonyldiimidazole 3 , 5-Dimethoxy-4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid 4-Amino-6-Chloropyrimidine 4 , 6-Dichloro-5-Pyrimidine Carboxaldehyde 4-Fluoro-4'-Methylbenzophenone 3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde , 6-methyl- 7alpha-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone Isoquinoline , 6-methoxy- DL-Tropic Acid 1H-Indazole , 1-[(3-fluorophenyl)methyl]-5-nitro- Benzeneacetic acid , 2-chloro-.alpha. (twfta.com)
  • Structures of an alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (BA0252) in the presence and absence of (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (L-Ala-P). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Proteases, also known as peptidases or proteolytic enzymes, consists of a large number of enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds and subsequently resulting in the degradation of protein substrates into amino acids. (glpbio.com)
  • They are structurally closely related to (and often prepared from) phosphorous acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most processes begin with phosphorous acid (aka phosphonic acid, H3PO3), exploiting its reactive P−H bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of such a bisphosphonate is HEDP (etidronic acid or Didronel), that is 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, which is prepared from phosphorous acid and acetic anhydride: 2 H3PO3 + (CH3CO)2O → CH3C(OH)(PO3H2)2 + CH3CO2H Phosphonates are one of the three sources of phosphate intake in biological cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • An estimate of the minimum amount of unsaturated fatty acid required for growth of Escherichia coli. (illinois.edu)
  • The changes in the composition of biomembrane PL were accompanied by an increase in the total cholesterol content in red cell biomembranes and by an increase in the total and free non-esterified fatty acids in blood plasma (P less than 0.05). (faintpower.cf)
  • Using this media C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was shown to be able to utilise mucin, L- serine, L-proline, L-glutamic acid, L-valine, L-glutamine, L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-aspartate, L-asparagine and L-glycine as sole carbon sources. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • With the exception of aminoethanoic acid (glycine), the industrially produced amino acids are chiral and the two isomers (D and L) have different properties in biologically induced reactions. (hyeyunpark.com)
  • In 1949, Roberts discovered the presence of unusually large quantities of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. (legacy.com)
  • All amino acids detected in the urine control were also quantified in urine samples from patients to establish adequate reference intervals, regardless of the fact that some of them either were not useful for diagnosis or required special sampling for clinical management (1methylhistidine, carnosine, tryptophan, phosphoethanolamine , ethanolamine). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This led to the discovery of the first compound in animals of a substance with a C-P bond (aminoethyl phosphonic acid), and the phosphodiester of L-serine and ethanolamine, both substances being found sub-sequentially in primordial living creature as well as a number of the interesting substances of interest. (legacy.com)
  • Roberts and colleagues pioneered the immunohistochemical localization of neurotransmitter-specific neural systems at the light and electron microscopic levels using antisera to the synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. (legacy.com)
  • amino-4-methoxy- 2 , 5-Dimethyl Benzoxazole Benzenamine , 3-fluoro-2-nitro- 1 , 12-Dodecanediol (R)-2-chloro-1-phenylethanol 2-Amino-4-Hydroxy-6-Phenylpyrimidine 5-Amino-2-Fluorobenzoic acid Z-Glu-OMe 4-(2-Methoxyethyl)Phenol Tryptophan , 5-hydroxy- Benzenepropanoic acid , .alpha. (twfta.com)
  • In addition, factors, like DTPA, EDTA (chelating agents' diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) in detergents, such as soaps, powders, and the like, increase the heavy-metal solubility and accumulation in soil . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C. jejuni was shown to be able to acquire iron from DL- neorepinephrine, epinephrine, caffeic acid, rutin and quercetin but not catechin. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Another chelating agent used to treat certain types of internal radiation poisoning is diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Full List of Hyluronic Acid Suppliers & Hyluronic Acid manufacturers in European Global & USA Asian. (twfta.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 3 wherein said visible dye is gallocyanine, ethyl red, or carminic acid. (google.com)
  • Compared with measured GFR using the 99m Tc-DTPA (technetium=99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) renal clearance method, precision and accuracy in 393 healthy Korean men and women were greater for the MDRD equation than for 100/serum creatinine, 24-hr urine creatinine clearance, the Cockcroft-Gault equation, or the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension equation (Kang et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The increase in acid vesicle pH caused by these non-weak base effects of nanomolar chloroquine in susceptible parasites suggests that chloroquine acts by interfering with acid vesicle functions in the parasite such as the endocytosis and proteolysis of hemoglobin, and the intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes. (ajtmh.org)
  • In chloroquine-susceptible parasites, but not resistant parasites or mammalian cells, chloroquine increases the pH of acid vesicles 700- to 800-fold more than can be accounted for by its properties as a weak base. (ajtmh.org)