COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.

Novobiocin and related coumarins and depletion of heat shock protein 90-dependent signaling proteins. (1/101)

BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) interacts with and stabilizes several oncogenic protein kinases (e.g., p185(erbB2), p60(v-src), and Raf-1) and is required for the stability and dominant-negative function of mutated p53 protein. Two unrelated antibiotics, geldanamycin and radicicol, bind specifically to an atypical nucleotide-binding pocket of Hsp90, a site that shares homology with the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding domain of bacterial DNA gyrase B. This interaction leads to destabilization of proteins that interact with Hsp90. Since the nucleotide-binding site of gyrase B is targeted by coumarin antibiotics (e.g., novobiocin), we investigated whether these drugs can also interact with Hsp90 and affect its activity. METHODS: We used immobilized novobiocin, geldanamycin, or radicicol to isolate either endogenous Hsp90 from cell lysates or Hsp90 deletion fragments translated in vitro. Effects of the coumarin antibiotics novobiocin, chlorobiocin, and coumermycin A1 on several proteins interacting with Hsp90 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Hsp90 binding to immobilized novobiocin was competed by soluble coumarins and ATP but not by geldanamycin or radicicol. A carboxy-terminal Hsp90 fragment bound immobilized novobiocin but not immobilized geldanamycin, while a geldanamycin-binding amino-terminal fragment did not bind novobiocin. All three coumarins markedly reduced cellular levels of p185(erbB2), p60(v-src), Raf-1, and mutated p53. Furthermore, novobiocin reduced Raf-1 levels in the spleens of mice treated with the drug. CONCLUSIONS: These coumarin antibiotics, particularly novobiocin, represent a first-generation alternative to other Hsp90-targeting drugs that are not as well tolerated. Novobiocin's unique interaction with Hsp90 identifies an additional site on this protein amenable to pharmacologic interference with small molecules.  (+info)

Suppression of chromosome segregation defects of Escherichia coli muk mutants by mutations in topoisomerase I. (2/101)

Escherichia coli muk mutants are temperature-sensitive and produce anucleate cells. A spontaneously occurring mutation was found in a DeltamukBkan mutant strain that suppressed the temperature-sensitive phenotype and mapped in or near topA, the gene that encodes topoisomerase I. Previously characterized topA mutations, topA10 and topA66, were found to be general suppressors of muk mutants: they suppressed temperature sensitivity and anucleate cell production of cells containing null or point mutations in mukB and null mutations in mukE or mukF. The suppression correlated with excess negative supercoiling by DNA gyrase, and the gyrase inhibitor, coumermycin, reversed it. Defects in topA allow 99% of cell division events in muk null mutants to proceed without chromosome loss or loss of cell viability. This observation imposes important limitations on models for Muk activity and is consistent with a role for MukBEF in chromosome folding and DNA condensation.  (+info)

Membrane localization of Raf assists engagement of downstream effectors. (3/101)

We have previously described a small molecule-directed protein dimerization strategy, using coumermycin to juxtapose Raf fusion proteins containing the coumermycin-binding domain GyrB. Oligomerization of cytoplasmically localized Raf-GyrB fusion proteins leads to an increase in the kinase activity of both Raf and its substrate Mek. Surprisingly, more distal targets, such as Erk1 and Erk2, are not activated using this approach. Here we report that coumermycin-induced oligomerization of a membrane-localized Raf-GyrB fusion protein potently activated Erk1 and Erk2, up-regulated Fos protein levels, and induced expression of many immediate-early response genes. Thus, both membrane localization and oligomerization of Raf-GyrB are required to target Raf signals to downstream effectors. The ability to activate the entire Raf signal transduction cascade conditionally, using coumermycin-induced oligomerization, should prove useful for dissecting Raf-mediated effects on gene expression and cellular differentiation.  (+info)

Identification of the coumermycin A(1) biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces rishiriensis DSM 40489. (4/101)

The biosynthetic gene cluster of the aminocoumarin antibiotic coumermycin A(1) was cloned by screening of a cosmid library of Streptomyces rishiriensis DSM 40489 with heterologous probes from a dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase gene, involved in deoxysugar biosynthesis, and from the aminocoumarin resistance gyrase gene gyrB(r). Sequence analysis of a 30.8-kb region upstream of gyrB(r) revealed the presence of 28 complete open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the identified ORFs showed, on average, 84% identity to corresponding ORFs in the biosynthetic gene cluster of novobiocin, another aminocoumarin antibiotic. Possible functions of 17 ORFs in the biosynthesis of coumermycin A(1) could be assigned by comparison with sequences in GenBank. Experimental proof for the function of the identified gene cluster was provided by an insertional gene inactivation experiment, which resulted in an abolishment of coumermycin A(1) production.  (+info)

Chimeric VEGFRs are activated by a small-molecule dimerizer and mediate downstream signalling cascades in endothelial cells. (5/101)

Despite much interest in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFRs -1 and -2), VEGF-induced signalling cascades remain incompletely defined. Attempts to assign individual responses to a particular receptor have used either transfected cell lines, receptor-specific growth factors or antisense oligonucleotides. Such studies have attributed the majority of VEGF-induced responses to activation of VEGFR-2. As a consequence of poor growth factor-induced VEGFR-1 autophosphorylation however, observations from these studies may instead reflect the relative activation of the two receptors. We have generated novel chimeric VEGF receptors in which the dimerization domain of the B subunit of DNA gyrase is fused to the cytoplasmic domain of VEGFRs -1 and -2. When expressed in porcine aortic endothelial cells, both chimeric VEGFR-1 and -2 autophosphorylate in response to addition of the small-molecule dimerizing agent, coumermycin. Once activated, both receptors induce downstream signalling cascades, exemplified here by the activation of MAPK, PLCgamma and PKB/Akt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Y1175 residue of VEGFR-2 is essential for the activation of PLCgamma mediated by this chimeric receptor. In contrast to previous reports which show a limited ability of VEGFR-1 to mediate signalling cascades, we show that once sufficiently activated, VEGFR-1 signals in a similar manner to VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae gyrB mutants and interstrain transfer of coumermycin A(1) resistance. (6/101)

To further develop genetic techniques for the enteropathogen Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the gyrB gene of this spirochete was isolated from a lambdaZAPII library of strain B204 genomic DNA and sequenced. The putative protein encoded by this gene exhibited up to 55% amino acid sequence identity with GyrB proteins of various bacterial species, including other spirochetes. B. hyodysenteriae coumermycin A(1)-resistant (Cn(r)) mutant strains, both spontaneous and UV induced, were isolated by plating B204 cells onto Trypticase soy blood agar plates containing 0.5 microg of coumermycin A(1)/ml. The coumermycin A(1) MICs were 25 to 100 microg/ml for the resistant strains and 0.1 to 0.25 microg/ml for strain B204. Four Cn(r) strains had single nucleotide changes in their gyrB genes, corresponding to GyrB amino acid changes of Gly(78) to Ser (two strains), Gly(78) to Cys, and Thr(166) to Ala. When Cn(r) strain 435A (Gly(78) to Ser) and Cm(r) Km(r) strain SH (DeltaflaA1::cat Deltanox::kan) were cultured together in brain heart infusion broth containing 10% (vol/vol) heat-treated (56 degrees C, 30 min) calf serum, cells resistant to chloramphenicol, coumermycin A(1), and kanamycin could be isolated from the cocultures after overnight incubation, but such cells could not be isolated from monocultures of either strain. Seven Cn(r) Km(r) Cm(r) strains were tested and were determined to have resistance genotypes of both strain 435A and strain SH. Cn(r) Km(r) Cm(r) cells could not be isolated when antiserum to the bacteriophage-like agent VSH-1 was added to cocultures, and the numbers of resistant cells increased fivefold when mitomycin C, an inducer of VSH-1 production, was added. These results indicate that coumermycin resistance associated with a gyrB mutation is a useful selection marker for monitoring gene exchange between B. hyodysenteriae cells. Gene transfer readily occurs between B. hyodysenteriae cells in broth culture, a finding with practical importance. VSH-1 is the likely mechanism for gene transfer.  (+info)

Complementation of a Treponema denticola flgE mutant with a novel coumermycin A1-resistant T. denticola shuttle vector system. (7/101)

By using the mutated gyrB gene from a spontaneous coumermycin A1-resistant Treponema denticola, an Escherichia coli-T. denticola shuttle vector that renders T. denticola resistant to coumermycin was constructed. The complete T. denticola flgE gene was cloned into the shuttle vector pKMCou, and the vector was transformed into the T. denticola ATCC 33520 flgE erythromycin-resistant knockout mutant HL210. The coumermycin-resistant transformants were motile and restored FlgE activity. This complementation system should prove useful in studying the virulence factors of T. denticola and uncultivatible pathogenic spirochetes.  (+info)

Promoter protection by a transcription factor acting as a local topological homeostat. (8/101)

Binding of the Escherichia coli global transcription factor FIS to the upstream activating sequence (UAS) of stable RNA promoters activates transcription on the outgrowth of cells from stationary phase. Paradoxically, while these promoters require negative supercoiling of DNA for optimal activity, FIS counteracts the increase of negative superhelical density by DNA gyrase. We demonstrate that binding of FIS at the UAS protects the rrnA P1 promoter from inactivation at suboptimal superhelical densities. This effect is correlated with FIS-dependent constraint of writhe and facilitated untwisting of promoter DNA. We infer that FIS maintains stable RNA transcription by stabilizing local writhe in the UAS. These results suggest a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation by a transcription factor acting as a local topological homeostat.  (+info)

Aminocoumarins are a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme necessary for DNA replication and transcription. These antibiotics have a coumarin nucleus with an attached amino group. The most well-known aminocoumarin is novobiocin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. However, the use of aminocoumarins has become limited due to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the availability of other more effective antibiotics.

"Genetic engineering of antibiotic biosynthesis for the generation of new aminocoumarins". Biotechnology Advances. 27 (6): 1006- ...
Heide L (2009). "Genetic engineering of antibiotic biosynthesis for the generation of new aminocoumarins". Biotechnology ...
Aminocoumarins (coumarins and simocyclinones) and quinolones are the two main classes of TopII inhibitors that function as ... Simocyclinones are another class of TopII antibiotics but differ from aminocoumarins in that they are composed of both ... aminocoumarins and a polyketide element. They also inhibit DNA gyrase's ability to bind to DNA instead of inhibiting ATPase ...
Aminocoumarins are very potent inhibitors of bacterial DNA gyrase and work by targeting the GyrB subunit of the enzyme involved ... The overlap of the coumarin and ATP-binding sites is consistent with aminocoumarins being competitive inhibitors of the ATPase ...
Aminocoumarins (Fig. 6), such as novobiocin, clorobiocin and coumermycin A1, are natural products from Streptomyces that ...
... aminocoumarins MeSH D03.438.150.446.139.500 - novobiocin MeSH D03.438.150.446.280 - chromonar MeSH D03.438.150.446.350 - ... aminocoumarins MeSH D03.830.219.446.139.500 - novobiocin MeSH D03.830.219.446.280 - chromonar MeSH D03.830.219.446.350 - ...
Two classes of antibiotics that inhibit gyrase are: The aminocoumarins (including novobiocin and Coumermycin A1), which work by ...
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"Genetic engineering of antibiotic biosynthesis for the generation of new aminocoumarins". Biotechnology Advances. 27 (6): 1006- ...
The animal antibiotics and antimicrobials market segmentation, based on product type, is aminocoumarins, aminoglycosides, ... Aminocoumarins, Aminoglycosides, Bicyclomycin, Cephalosporins, Fluoroquinolones, Fusidic Acid, Macrolides, Penicillin, ...
5,696,157 Sulfonated Derivatives of 7-Aminocoumarins U.S. Pat. No. 5,719,031 Dye Labeled Polymers as Reagents for Measuring ...
Atypical antioxidant activity of non-phenolic amino-coumarins Zúñiga-Núñez, Daniel; Barrías, Pablo; Cárdenas-Jirón, Gloria; ...
Van Gompel, J. A. and G. B. Schuster (1989) Photophysical behavior of ester-substituted aminocoumarins: A new twist. J. Phys. ...
2004; In vitro and in vivo production of new aminocoumarins by a combined biochemical, genetic and synthetic approach. Chem ... 2004; Functional analysis of biosynthetic genes of aminocoumarins and production of hybrid antibiotics. Curr Med Chem Anti- ... 2005; Metabolic engineering of aminocoumarins: inactivation of the methyltransferase gene cloP and generation of new ...
Antioxidant activity and protective role on protein glycation of synthetic aminocoumarins. Abstract Reprint PDF ...
Antioxidant activity and protective role on protein glycation of synthetic aminocoumarins Aminjafari, Akram; Miroliaei, Mehran ... Background: Synthesized aminocoumarins are heterocyclic compounds possessing potential for the treatment of insulin-dependent ...
Aminocoumarins D3.830.219.446.139 D3.383.663.283.446.139 Aminophylline D26.310.48 Ammonium Hydroxide D1.455.212 D1.45.250.225 ...
Aminocoumarins D3.438.150.446.139 D3.633.100.150.446.139 Aminophylline D3.438.759.758.824.751.75 D3.633.100.759.758.824.751.75 ...
Aminocoumarins [D03.383.663.283.446.139] * Chromonar [D03.383.663.283.446.280] * Coumestrol [D03.383.663.283.446.350] ...
... the aminocoumarins, did not lead to resistance to the compounds under scrutiny here. ...
Aminocoumarins D3.438.150.446.139 D3.633.100.150.446.139 Aminophylline D3.438.759.758.824.751.75 D3.633.100.759.758.824.751.75 ...
Aminocoumarins Preferred Term Term UI T604672. Date08/19/2004. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ... Aminocoumarins Preferred Concept UI. M0471140. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by ... Amino-Coumarins Term UI T604673. Date08/19/2004. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ... Aminocoumarins. Tree Number(s). D03.383.663.283.446.139. D03.633.100.150.446.139. Unique ID. D049933. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
Aminocoumarins Preferred Term Term UI T604672. Date08/19/2004. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ... Aminocoumarins Preferred Concept UI. M0471140. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by ... Amino-Coumarins Term UI T604673. Date08/19/2004. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2006). ... Aminocoumarins. Tree Number(s). D03.383.663.283.446.139. D03.633.100.150.446.139. Unique ID. D049933. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
... and increases over time for aminocoumarins (3.8, 95% CI: 0.0 to 11.4, P = 0.043), fluoroquinolones (6.8, 95% CI: 0.0 to 20.5, P ...
Of these, unique genes of five antimicrobial classes (aminocoumarins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, nitroimidazoles, and ...
N0000166406 Aminobiphenyl Compounds N0000008211 Aminobutyric Acids N0000005700 Aminocaproic Acids N0000167017 Aminocoumarins ...
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HN - 2006(1980); use ACETYLTRANSFERASES, ACETYL COENZYME A & GLUTAMATES 1973-1979 MH - Aminocoumarins UI - D049933 MN - D3.438. ...
Aminocoumarins Aminoethylphosphonic Acid Aminoglutethimide Aminoglycosides Aminohippuric Acids Aminohydrolases Aminoimidazole ...
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