Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)VietnamBiomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Farber Lipogranulomatosis: A sphingolipidosis subtype that is characterized by the histological appearance of granulomatous deposits in tissues. It results from the accumulation of CERAMIDES in various tissues due to an inherited deficiency of ACID CERAMIDASE.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Tankyrases: A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.BooksMEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.De Lange Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Abdominal Wound Closure Techniques: Methods to repair breaks in abdominal tissues caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions during abdominal surgery.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.Receptors, Cannabinoid: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.CanavanineArginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Arginine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates arginine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.19.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Rauscher Virus: A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.

A correlation between changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism and seizures induced by antivitamin B6. (1/617)

The effects of DL-penicillamine (DL-PeA), hydrazine and toxopyrimidine (TXP, 2-methyl-6-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in mouse brain were studied. All these compounds inhibited the activity of glutamate decarboxylase [EC 4.1.1.15] (GAD) and slightly inhibited that of 4-aminobutyrate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase [EC 2.6.1.19] (GABA-T). In contrast, very different effects were observed on GABA levels; hydrazine caused a marked increase, DL-PeA had no effect, and TXP caused a slight decrease in the content of the amino acid. These results could be described by an equation which related the excitable state to changes in the flux of the GABA bypass. Since the values obtained from the equation clearly reflect the seizure activity, it is suggested that the decreased GABA flux might be a cause of convulsions induced by these drugs.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (2/617)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

An inhibitor of exported Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase selectively blocks the growth of pathogenic mycobacteria in axenic culture and in human monocytes: extracellular proteins as potential novel drug targets. (3/617)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacteria export abundant quantities of proteins into their extracellular milieu when growing either axenically or within phagosomes of host cells. One major extracellular protein, the enzyme glutamine synthetase, is of particular interest because of its link to pathogenicity. Pathogenic mycobacteria, but not nonpathogenic mycobacteria, export large amounts of this protein. Interestingly, export of the enzyme is associated with the presence of a poly-L-glutamate/glutamine structure in the mycobacterial cell wall. In this study, we investigated the influence of glutamine synthetase inhibitors on the growth of pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria and on the poly-L-glutamate/glutamine cell wall structure. The inhibitor L-methionine-S-sulfoximine rapidly inactivated purified M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase, which was 100-fold more sensitive to this inhibitor than a representative mammalian glutamine synthetase. Added to cultures of pathogenic mycobacteria, L-methionine- S-sulfoximine rapidly inhibited extracellular glutamine synthetase in a concentration-dependent manner but had only a minimal effect on cellular glutamine synthetase, a finding consistent with failure of the drug to cross the mycobacterial cell wall. Remarkably, the inhibitor selectively blocked the growth of pathogenic mycobacteria, all of which release glutamine synthetase extracellularly, but had no effect on nonpathogenic mycobacteria or nonmycobacterial microorganisms, none of which release glutamine synthetase extracellularly. The inhibitor was also bacteriostatic for M. tuberculosis in human mononuclear phagocytes (THP-1 cells), the pathogen's primary host cells. Paralleling and perhaps underlying its bacteriostatic effect, the inhibitor markedly reduced the amount of poly-L-glutamate/glutamine cell wall structure in M. tuberculosis. Although it is possible that glutamine synthetase inhibitors interact with additional extracellular proteins or structures, our findings support the concept that extracellular proteins of M. tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacteria are worthy targets for new antibiotics. Such proteins constitute readily accessible targets of these relatively impermeable organisms, which are rapidly developing resistance to conventional antibiotics.  (+info)

Retinal ganglion cell response properties in the transcorneal electrically evoked response of the visual system. (4/617)

To identify the retinal origin of a cortical evoked potential elicited by transcorneal electrical stimulation of the visual system (EER), the response properties of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of cats to transcorneal electrical stimuli were studied. The discharge latency of RGCs to transcorneal stimulation had two peaks with a high temporal resolution. The latency of early components of the EER is associated with the discharge latency of RGCs. Some RGCs showed prominent oscillatory discharges after transcorneal stimulation. Discharges of ON-bipolar cells responding to transcorneal stimulation were significantly inhibited by intravitreal injection of DL-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB), which blocks the ON-pathway. These findings indicate that the EER has far-field potentials that might relate to oscillatory discharges of RGCs, and that ON bipolar cells and their related synaptic sites are involved in transcorneal electrical stimuli. The far-field potentials of the EER may have clinical applications, similar to those of somatosensoric evoked potentials and auditory brain stem potentials.  (+info)

Analysis of pharmacologically isolated components of the ERG. (5/617)

An harmonic analysis was applied to the electroretinogram (ERG) measured in intact cat eyes in control conditions and after pharmacological isolation of the components attributed to photoreceptors (PIII) and bipolar neurons (PII). The frequency response curves obtained in various conditions showed that the bandwidth of the PII component extends over a range of stimulus frequencies higher than the bandwidth of PIII. The enhancement of the PII response to stimuli of high temporal frequency suggests the presence of a frequency dependent gain control located either pre- and/or post-synaptically in the transmission line between the phototransductive cascade and bipolar neurons. A possible role of these processes is to enhance relevant visual information whilst selectively attenuating low frequency signals originating in the transductive cascade.  (+info)

NPY inhibits glutamatergic excitation in the epileptic human dentate gyrus. (6/617)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to depress hyperexcitable activity that has been acutely induced in the normal rat brain. To test the hypothesis that NPY can also reduce excitability in the chronically epileptic human brain, we recorded intracellularly from dentate granule cells in hippocampal slices from patients with hippocampal seizure onset. NPY had a potent and long-lasting inhibitory action on perforant path-evoked excitatory responses. In comparison, the group 3 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) evoked a mild and transient decrease. NPY-containing axons were found throughout the hippocampus, and in many epileptic patients were reorganized, particularly in the dentate molecular layer. NPY may therefore play a beneficial role in reducing granule cell excitability in chronically epileptic human tissue, and subsequently limit seizure severity.  (+info)

A novel domain of the inhibitory glycine receptor determining antagonist efficacies: further evidence for partial agonism resulting from self-inhibition. (7/617)

Different amino side chains in the N-terminal extracellular region of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) have been shown to be crucial for ligand recognition. Here we describe a novel domain of the GlyRalpha1 subunit that constitutes an important determinant of antagonist activity. The antagonists strychnine, nipecotic acid, and isobutyric acid displayed reduced potencies at recombinant GlyRs formed from alpha1 subunits, in which lysine 104, phenylalanine 108, or threonine 112 were replaced by alanine. Agonist affinities, in contrast, were slightly increased at these mutant receptors. Taurine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, which are partial agonists at the wild-type GlyR, behaved as full agonists at the mutant GlyRs and failed to inhibit glycine-induced currents. This is consistent with apolar residues at positions 104, 108, and 112 of the alpha1 subunit reducing the antagonistic, but not the agonistic, binding of beta-amino acids. Our data support a model in which the partial agonism of beta-amino acids results from their self-inhibitory activity.  (+info)

Role of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate as an enzyme stabilizer and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydroxyectoine. (8/617)

Strain CHR63 is a salt-sensitive mutant of the moderately halophilic wild-type strain Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 that is affected in the ectoine synthase gene (ectC). This strain accumulates large amounts of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate (NADA), the precursor of ectoine (D. Canovas, C. Vargas, F. Iglesias-Guerra, L. N. Csonka, D. Rhodes, A. Ventosa, and J. J. Nieto, J. Biol. Chem. 272:25794-25801, 1997). Hydroxyectoine, ectoine, and glucosylglycerate were also identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as cytoplasmic organic solutes in this mutant. Accumulation of NADA, hydroxyectoine, and ectoine was osmoregulated, whereas the levels of glucosylglycerate decreased at higher salinities. The effect of the growth stage on the accumulation of solutes was also investigated. NADA was purified from strain CHR63 and was shown to protect the thermolabile enzyme rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase against thermal inactivation. The stabilizing effect of NADA was greater than the stabilizing effect of ectoine or potassium diaminobutyrate. A (1)H NMR analysis of the solutes accumulated by the wild-type strain and mutants CHR62 (ectA::Tn1732) and CHR63 (ectC::Tn1732) indicated that H. elongata can synthesize hydroxyectoine by two different pathways-directly from ectoine or via an alternative pathway that converts NADA into hydroxyectoine without the involvement of ectoine.  (+info)

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Abstract Plants treated with the nonprotein amino acid beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) develop an enhanced capacity to resist biotic and abiotic stresses. This BABA-induced resistanc..
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Hori, S.; Kanemitsu, K.; Shimada, J., 1992: Inhibitory activity of am 1155 a newly synthesized quinolone on gamma aminobutyric acid receptor binding a comparative study on convulsant activity of new quinolones
The canola line T45 was genetically engineered to express tolerance to glufosinate ammonium, the active ingredient in phosphinothricin herbicides (Basta®, Rely®, Finale®, and Liberty®). Glufosinate chemically resembles the amino acid glutamate and acts to inhibit an enzyme, called glutamine synthetase, which is involved in the synthesis of glutamine. Essentially, glufosinate acts enough like glutamate, the molecule used by glutamine synthetase to make glutamine, that it blocks the enzymes usual activity. Glutamine synthetase is also involved in ammonia detoxification. The action of glufosinate results in reduced glutamine levels and a corresponding increase in concentrations of ammonia in plant tissues, leading to cell membrane disruption and cessation of photosynthesis resulting in plant withering and death ...
Aminobutyric Acids: Aliphatic four carbon acids substituted in any position(s) with amino group(s). They are found in most living things. The best known is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
1. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity is demonstrated by the indirect immunofluorescence technique in a small population of retinal neurons cultured from human fetuses. 2. Positive staining was restricted to a few cells and could be observed as soon as the cells became attached to the substrate (within 5 hr). It is therefore concluded that the GABA-positive cells are determined prenatally. 3. The GABA-positive cells grow processes during development in culture and remain constant in numbers. These cells have a different morphology from either GFAP-positive cells or serotinin-accumulating cells. 4. It is suggested that the GABA-positive cells in culture are probably amacrine neurones. 5. Cultures of human retinal dissociates may therefore provide an alternative means of studying specific cell types should a constant supply of living human retinas be difficult to obtain. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity is demonstrated by the indirect immunofluorescence technique in a small
A bacterial pat gene which codes for phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, an enzyme that inactivates glufosinate ammonium through acetylation, was introduced into the HCR-1 line by an interspecific cross with the genetically modified B. napus event T45 (ACS-BNØØ8-2). The inactivation of glufosinate ammonium by the bacterial enzyme confers the herbicide tolerance onto this LMO ...
This Decision Document has been prepared to explain the regulatory decision reached under the regulatory directive Dir95-03 Guidelines for the Assessment of Novel Feeds: Plant Sources and regulatory directive Dir94-08 Assessment Criteria for Determining Environmental Safety of Plants with Novel Traits.
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Koerner and Cotman (1981) initially described that the diacidic amino acid analog l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (l-AP4) selectively suppressed glutamate excitations by a presynaptic mechanism in the lateral perforant pathway of the hippocampus. This inhibitory activity of l-AP4 on glutamate excitations was also observed in other preparations, including the mossy fiber synapse, lateral olfactory tract, and spinal cord (seeThomsen, 1997). Until the 1990s, presynaptic inhibition induced by l-AP4 was ascribed to a relatively nebulous "l-AP4" receptor. However, with the cloning of the group III mGlu receptors, which Nakanishi (1992) defined by their sensitivity to l-AP4, it was recognized that certain group III mGlu subtypes might be responsible forl-AP4-induced suppression of glutamate release. Current data suggest a role for mGlu7, mGlu8, and possibly mGlu4 as candidates for these presynaptic effects of l-AP4 in the brain (seeThomsen, 1997).. In general, when compared with mGlu7 or mGlu2/3 ...
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This study is a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study. All groups will receive standard intensive diabetes treatment with insulin and life style management. 60 subjects will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive placebo or different dosage of GABA.. GABA is an amino acid produced from glutamate by glutamic acid decarboxylase. It was approved for the treatment of hepatic coma, fibromyalgia, ataxia in China and is widely used as supplement for the treatment of epilepsy, insomnia, stress and tobacco dependence. It has been recently shown that GABA can prevent and reverse the development of diabetes in type 1 mice models. Participants will receive placebo or GABA for 52 weeks.. The study will consist of 4 weeks screening period, 2 weeks run-in period, 52 weeks treatment period and 4 weeks follow-up period. Enrollment is expected to occur over 2 years.. To assess the efficacy and safety of GABA for the treatment of juvenile type 1 diabetes in new onset ...
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250 µCi quantities of Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), ?-[2,3-3H(N)]- , Specific Activity: 70-100Ci/mMole are available for your research. Application of [3H] GABA can be found in: effects of diazepam in pharmacology biochemistry/behavior, in vivo release in cat caudate nucleus in brain research, electrically evoked release from rat cerebral cortex in pharmacology, uptake by oligodendrocytes in autoradiographic and immunocytochemical studies, etc. ...
Known for quality and proven performance, Dymatize GABA is the choice of athletes and serious trainers worldwide. Dymatize GABA mixes easily and can be used by itself or blended into shakes or other beverages.. ...
We show that expression of B. subtilis threonine deaminase, combined with expression of a mutated form of E. coli glutamate dehydrogenase leads to the production of 0.40 ± 0.02 mg/L of (S)-2-aminobutyric acid in shake flask-grown S. cerevisiae cells. The higher production in E. coli achieved by Zhang and co-workers [26] is perhaps due to the special properties of the E. coli strain employed, which can produce 8 g/L l-threonine from 30 g/L glucose. Nevertheless, we rationalize that yeast is indeed a superior production host for (S)-2-aminobutanol production, as it displays higher robustness and considerable tolerance against harsh fermentation conditions. Yeast is also more resistant towards exposure to (S)-2-aminobutanol (Additional file 1: Figure S4). Moreover, the fermentation of yeasts is easily implemented into existing ethanol productions plants, and there are no issues with phage contamination. S. cerevisiae is classified as GRAS ("generally regarded as safe") organism; thereby further ...
A single voxel proton point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS)-localized double quantum filter was introduced at 1.5T clinical scanner for the detection of Brain γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). This method...
Creative Peptides offers L-2-Aminobutyric acid for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
Creative Peptides offers D-3-Aminobutyric acid for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
The substrate phosphinothricin is used as a nonselective herbicide and is a potent inhibitor of EC 6.3.1.2, glutamate-ammonia ligase, a key enzyme of nitrogen metabolism
One hundred and seventeen green tall fescue plants and 37 albino plants were regenerated from a glufosinate ammonium resistant callus clone co-transformed with the bar gene and the gusgene, both driven by the rice actin 1 ...
Singular Free Form Amino Acid - Pharmaceutical Grade. GABA supplements are recommended for helping to: Calm the nervous system, reduce stress, reduce anxiety, help with sleep disturbances, as well as boosting the immune system and stimulating natural Human Growth Factor (HGH).*. GABA is an amino acid that occurs naturally in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter that helps induce relaxation and sleep.. In addition to the GABA supplements anxiety reducing effects, GABA supplements enhance the bodys immune system, as well as helping to improve mood and stimulate the anterior pituitary, leading to increased levels of Human Growth Hormone (HGH). Some individuals may experience a minor tingling of the skin and/or slight shortness of breath shortly after taking a GABA supplement. This is a characteristic of this amino acid and quickly subsides.. One GABA supplement Capsule Contains:. GABA (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid).......500 mg. Our GABA supplement contains no: Starch, corn, milk, wheat, yeast, ...
MRS exams were performed on the addicted teenagers both prior to and following behavioral therapy, while for control patients, a single MRS study was carried out in order to measure the levels of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter in the brain that slows and inhibits signals, and glutamate-glutamine (Glx), a neurotransmitter that causes increases electrical excitement in neurons.. Prior researches had indicated GABA to be involved in motor and vision control as well as the regulation of numerous brain functions, like anxiety.. The findings of the MRS suggested that, prior to therapy, the ratio of GABA to Glx was considerably increased in the anterior cingulate cortex of smartphone- and Internet-addicted youth, when compared with the healthy controls.. According to Dr. Seo, the ratios of GABA to creatine and GABA to glutamate correspond highly to clinical scales of internet and smartphone addictions, anxiety and depression.. High levels of GABA can lead to several side effects, ...
Glutamine is one of 20 amino acids that help form all internal proteins and perform various other jobs inside your body. Gamma aminobutyric acid, or GABA,...
Ivermectin acts directly on neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) system and exterminate the parasite with anesthetizing nervous system. It exterminates both of internal and external parasites simultaneously with only low volume dose ...
Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS). Jika terjadi kelainan pada kedua sistem ini, baik yang melibatkan sistem anatomi maupun fungsional akan mengakibatkan terjadinya penurunan kesadaran dengan berbagai tingkatan. Ascending Reticular Activating System merupakan suatu rangkaian atau network system yang dari kaudal berasal dari medulla spinalis menuju rostral yaitu diensefalon melalui brain stem sehingga kelainan yang mengenai lintasan ARAS tersebut berada diantara medulla, pons, mesencephalon menuju ke subthalamus, hipothalamus, thalamus dan akan menimbulkan penurunan derajat kesadaran. Neurotransmiter yang berperan pada ARAS antara lain neurotransmiter kolinergik, monoaminergik dan gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Kesadaran ditentukan oleh interaksi kontinu antara fungsi korteks serebri termasuk ingatan, berbahasa dan kepintaran (kualitas), dengan ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) (kuantitas) yang terletak mulai dari pertengahan bagian atas pons. ARAS menerima serabut-serabut ...
Using the above system, an OGD dose-response curve was generated first. The culture medium was changed to an exposure medium (glucose-free 37°C Hanks balanced salt solution; Invitrogen Corp.). Culture plates were then placed in a thermoregulated chamber (37°C). The gas phase was altered to 95% N2-5% CO2flowing into the incubated chamber at 10 l/min. Pilot studies were performed which determined that this flow rate caused a reduction of the oxygen concentration to less than 5% within 8 min, after which flow was reduced to 1 l/min for the balance of the exposure interval. Oxygen concentration in the effluent gas was continuously monitored with a medical gas analyzer to assure it remained under 5% for the balance of the exposure interval. Timing of OGD duration was started after the chamber reached 5% O2concentration. OGD was terminated by exchange of the exposure medium to normal oxygenated culture medium and restitution of the ambient atmosphere to 5% CO2-room air at 37°C after return to the ...
Name: 4-Aminobutyric acid. Synonyms:Piperidic acid; Piperidinic acid; GABA; gamma-Aminobutyric acid. Molecular Formula: C4H9NO2. Molecular Weight: 103.12. CAS Registry Number: 56-12-2. EINECS: 200-258-6. Water solubility: Soluble. ...
γ‐Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, signals through ionotropic (GABAA/C) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptor systems
Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by the transition of amyloid-β (Aβ) monomers into toxic oligomers and plaques. Given that Aβ abnormality typically precedes the development of clinical symptoms, an agent capable of disaggregating existing Aβ aggregates may be advantageous. Here we report that a small molecule, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinepropanesulphonic acid (EPPS), binds to Aβ aggregates and converts them into monomers. The oral administration of EPPS substantially reduces hippocampus-dependent behavioural deficits, brain Aβ oligomer and plaque deposits, glial γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release and brain inflammation in an Aβ-overexpressing, APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model when initiated after the development of severe AD-like phenotypes ...
GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and interacts with three different receptors:…
We previously reported that oroxylin A, a γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, ameliorates drugs-induced memory impairments. We synthesized several oroxylin A derivatives in efforts to find a substance that has pro-cognitive effects as well as improves sensorimotor gating. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of a novel oroxylin A derivative, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-meth ...
Rapid Analysis of Drugs in Forensic Specimens Using the DPiMSTM-8060,Direct Analysis of Glyphosate, Glufosinate and AMPA in Beverages Using a Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS
Pioneer is the leader in developing soybeans with the LibertyLink® gene. Gain proven control of major grass and broadleaf weeds with glufosinate. Learn how today.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bidirectional shift of group III metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic depression in the epileptic hippocampus. AU - Dammann, Fabian. AU - Kirschstein, Timo. AU - Guli, Xiati. AU - Müller, Steffen. AU - Porath, Katrin. AU - Rohde, Marco. AU - Tokay, Tursonjan. AU - Köhling, Rüdiger. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - A common function of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) located at the presynaptic site of a glutamatergic synapse is synaptic depression. Here, we studied synaptic depression mediated by group III mGluR activation at Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapses and associational-commissural-CA3 (AC-CA3) synapses by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the in vitro brain slice preparation. In order to gauge the impact of synaptic depression in chronically epileptic tissue, we compared rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (post-SE) with control animals. We observed that synaptic transmission at control AC-CA3 ...
Current therapies for Parkinsons disease are able to ameliorate the symptoms in the early stages, however as the disease progresses, they become less effective and patients often develop debilitating side effects. There is currently a significant unmet need for disease modifying or neuroprotective drugs to slow the rate of disease progression and provide long-term symptomatic relief. Novel therapeutics that can provide symptomatic relief whilst attenuating the ongoing neurodegeneration are therefore sought. The targeting of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors has become a therapeutic focus in recent years. The group III mGlu receptors are the focus of this thesis as they currently hold the most therapeutic promise, with evidence suggesting activation of these receptors not only modulates aberrant neurotransmission in the basal ganglia to provide symptom relief, but also provides neuroprotective effects in the nigrostriatal system through a variety of mechanisms. Recent advances in the ...
Acosta-Cabronero J, Betts MJ, Cardenas-Blanco A, Yang S, Nestor PJ (2015). In vivo MRI mapping of brain iron deposition across the adult lifespan. J.Neurosci. (in press). Betts MJ, ONeill M, Duty S (2012). Allosteric modulation of the group III mGlu receptor 4 provides functional neuroprotection in the rodent 6-OHDA model of Parkinsons disease. Br J Pharmacol. Aug;166(8):2317-30. Broadstock M, Austin P, Betts MJ, Duty S (2012). Antiparkinsonian potential of targeting group III metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes in the rodent substantia nigra pars reticulata. Br J Pharmacol. Feb;165(4b):1034-45. Austin P, *Betts MJ, Broadstock M, ONeill M, Mitchell S, Duty S (2010). Symptomatic and neuroprotective effects following activation of nigral group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in rodent models of Parkinsons disease. Br J Pharmacol. Aug;160(7):1741-5. * Denotes co-first author. Book chapters. Düzel E, Guitart-Masip M, Maaß A, Haemmerer D, Betts M, Speck O, Weiskopf N, Kanowski M ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of A-type γ-aminobutyric acid receptors excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. AU - DeFazio, R. Anthony. AU - Heger, Sabine. AU - Ojeda, Sergio R.. AU - Moenter, Suzanne M.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - γ,-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABAA receptors (GABAAR), is hypothesized to suppress reproduction by inhibiting GnRH secretion, but GABA actions directly on GnRH neurons are not well established. In green fluorescent protein-identified adult mouse GnRH neurons in brain slices, gramicidin-perforated-patch-clamp experiments revealed the reversal potential (EGABA) for current through GABAARs was depolarized relative to the resting potential. Furthermore, rapid GABA application elicited action potentials in GnRH neurons but not controls. The consequence of GABAAR activation depends on intracellular chloride levels, which are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms. Membrane proteins that typically extrude chloride (KCC-2 cotransporter, CLC-2 ...
Glufosinate is the active ingredient that inhibits plant growth in herbicides that LibertyLink plants are resistant to. These herbicides can come in a variety of forms, including bialaphos, a tripeptide containing two alanine residues and glufosinate. In the case of bialaphos, the peptide is cleaved to produce the active glufosinate.. Glufosinate is very similar in chemical structure to the amino acid glutamate. Because of this structural similarity, glufosinate is able to act as an inhibitor for the enzyme glutamine synthetase, for which glutamate is a substrate. The inhibition of glutamine synthase (GS) results in disruption of the glycolate pathway. Metabolic flux through the pathway is reduced and intracellular levels of pathway intermediates accumulate. One of these intermediates, glyoxylate, is a a strong inhibitor of the key photosynthetic enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Without the activity of this enzyme, plants are unable to fix carbon and rapidly die.. Glufosinate is an ...
Liberty herbicide (glufosinate ammonium) does not kill Pioneer Hi-Breds genetically engineered (GE) Liberty Link corn, even though it is taken up and translocated throughout the plant, because the corn inactivates the herbicide. Genes engineered into the corn produce enzymes in every cell of the corn plant that change glufosinate ammonium into N-acetyl-L-glufosinate, or NAG. When you eat the corn, though, you are also eating NAG that accumulated in the crop with each herbicide application. Some of that NAG may be transformed back into the toxic herbicide in your gut, possibly by bacteria. Two studies with rats showed conversion rates of 1% and 10% respectively, while a study with goats showed conversion of more than one-third. The revived herbicide may travel to kidneys, liver, muscle, fat and milk, where it may be toxic ...
Martin LJ, Oh GH, Orser BA. (2009) Anesthesiology. 111(5):1025-35.. Abstract. BACKGROUND: The memory-blocking properties of general anesthetics have recently received considerable attention because of concerns related to intraoperative awareness and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The goal of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptors that contain the α5 subunit (α5GABAARs) induce memory-blockade by etomidate and a pharmacologic strategy to reverse this impairment.. METHODS: The effects of etomidate and the α5GABAAR-preferring inverse agonist L-655,708 on the plasticity of glutamatergic excitatory transmission in hippocampal slices and behavioral memory for spatial navigational and fear-associated memory tasks were studied in wild-type and null mutant mice for the gene that encodes the α5 subunit (Gabra5-/- mice). Long-term potentiation of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials was induced in CA1 pyramidal neurons following ...
Delirium occurs in 60-80% of ventilated Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and is independently associated with prolonged hospital stay, higher cost, a 3-fold increased risk of dying by six months and ongoing neuropsychological dysfunction. Hypothesis: Based on our preliminary work, we hypothesize that standard use of GABA agonist sedatives such as lorazepam and propofol may contribute to ICU delirium and its attendant untoward clinical outcomes. An alternative sedation strategy targeting alpha2 receptors and sparing GABA receptors (dexmedetomidine) might reduce delirium, provide adequate sedation, reduce analgesic requirement, and concurrently improve cognitive performance.. Long-term objective: To standardize and compare different strategies of sedation and analgesia for ventilated ICU patients in order to optimize their clinical outcomes focusing on delirium and the long-term neuropsychological dysfunction of ICU survivors.. Specific Aims:. ...
There is abundant evidence that dysfunction from the -aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic signaling system is implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia and disposition disorders. possess led the writers to summarize Atipamezole HCl manufacture that GABAergic inhibition performing through receptors that are the 2-subunit includes a potential antidepressant-like impact.59 The gene for GABR? clusters at Xq28 (Desk 5) with genes for the 3- and -subunits.60 Atipamezole HCl manufacture mRNA for the ?-subunit continues to be identified in the septum, thalamus, hypothalamus and amygdala Atipamezole HCl manufacture in rat human brain and was coexpressed with mRNA for the -subunit often;61 however, it had been not within the cerebellum.62 GABAA receptors including GABR? have already been been shown to be insensitive to benzodiazepines63, 64 and overexpression of GABR? shows to bring about insensitivity to anesthetics.65 Our finding of elevated expression of GABR? in the lateral cerebella of topics with ...
cyclo-N(gamma)-diNH-butyryl- enkephalin-Leu: synthesized by cyclization of the COOH-terminal carboxyl group of leucine from leucine enkephalin to the gamma amino moiety of alpha,gamma-diaminobutyric acid substituted in position 2 of the peptide; structure in first source
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), CAS No.56-12-2, manufactured through chemical synthesis or fermentation, white powder.Gamma-Aminobutyric is used in the food and beverage industry as a food additive and nutritional enhancer. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is a natural ingredient that can be directly added into a variety of beverages and milk products, specifically in coffee, chocolate, apple juice ...
RESULTS: The GABA signalling system was compromised in islets from type 2 diabetic individuals, where the expression of the genes encoding the α1, α2, β2 and β3 GABA(A) channel subunits was downregulated. GABA originating within the islets evoked tonic currents in the cells. The currents were enhanced by pentobarbital and inhibited by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, SR95531. The effects of SR95531 on hormone release revealed that activation of GABA(A) channels (GABA(A) receptors) decreased both insulin and glucagon secretion. The GABA(B) receptor antagonist, CPG55845, increased insulin release in islets (16.7 mmol/l glucose) from normoglycaemic and type 2 diabetic individuals ...
|Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise.Powers ME, Yarrow JF, McCoy SC, Borst SE.Division of Athletic Training, Shenendoah University, Winchester, VA 22601, USA. [email protected] administration of the amino acid/inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) reportedly elevates resting serum growth hormone (GH) concentrations. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that GABA ingestion…
GABA is referred to as the brains natural calming agent, and as such, GABA may help promote relaxation. GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) is a non-essential amino acid found mai...
Fosforibozilaminoimidazolna karboksilaza (EC 4.1.1.21, 5-fosforibozil-5-aminoimidazolna karboksilaza, 5-amino-1-ribozilimidazol 5-fosfatna karboksilaza, AIR karboksilaza, 1-(5-fosforibozil)-5-amino-4-imidazolkarboksilatna karboksi-lijaza, ADE2, klasa II PurE, 5-amino-1-(5-fosfo-D-ribozil)imidazol-4-karboksilatna karboksi-lijaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom 5-amino-1-(5-fosfo-D-ribozil)imidazol-4-karboksilat karboksi-lijaza (formira 5-amino-1-(5-fosfo-D-ribozil)imidazol).[1][2][3] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju ...
The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association. It covers research in experimental psychology, specifically pertaining to all aspects of animal behavior processes. It was established in 1975 as the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, an independent section of the Journal of Experimental Psychology. In 2014, the journal subtitle was changed to Animal Learning and Cognition. The editor-in-chief is Ralph R. Miller (Binghamton University). The journal is abstracted and indexed by MEDLINE/PubMed and the Social Science Citation Index. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 1.949, ranking it 8th out of 14 journals in the category "Psychology, Biological". Miller, R. (January 2014). "Editorial Explaining the Change in Name of This Journal to Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition". Journal of ...
... is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Psychonomic Society. The journal was established in 1973 as Animal Learning and Behavior, obtaining its current title in 2003. The founding editor-in-chief was Abram Amsel, the current editor is Geoffrey Hall (University of York). The journal covers research into fundamental processes underlying learning and behavior in animals (including humans). The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Science Citation Index Social Science Citation Index Index medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed Scopus PsycINFO Astrophysics Data System Embase CAB International Academic OneFile Academic Search Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews CAB Abstracts CSA Environmental Sciences Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents/Life Sciences Elsevier BIOBASE FRANCIS Global Health The Zoological Record According to the Journal Citation Reports, the ...
The Journal of the History of Sexuality is indexed and/or abstracted in America: History and Life, Bibliography of the History of Art, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences, Historical Abstracts, International Bibliography of Periodical Literature, MLA Directory of Periodicals, MLA International Bibliography, and Social Sciences Citation Index.[1] According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2013 impact factor of 0.487, ranking it 10th out of 72 journals in the category "History"[2] and 102nd out of 138 journals in the category "Sociology".[3] ...
... is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering cognitive science. It is published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Psychonomic Society and was established in 1973. The editor-in-chief is Neil Mulligan (University of North Carolina). The journal is abstracted and indexed in: CINAHL Current Contents/Social & Behavioral Sciences EBSCO databases Embase EMCare FRANCIS Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed International Bibliography of Periodical Literature MLA International Bibliography PASCAL ProQuest databases PsychInfo Scopus Social Science Citation Index According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 2.457. "CINAHL Complete Database Coverage List". CINAHL. EBSCO Information Services. Retrieved 2016-06-04. "Master Journal List". Intellectual Property & Science. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 2016-06-04. "Embase Coverage". Embase. Elsevier. Retrieved 2016-06-04. "Memory & Cognition". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology ...
... is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of medicinal chemistry, including drug discovery, pharmacology, in silico drug design, structural characterization techniques, ADME-Tox investigations, and science policy, economic and intellectual property issues. It was established in 2009 and is published by Future Science. The editors-in-chief are Iwao Ojima (The State University of New York at Stony Brook) and Jonathan Baell (Monash University). The journal is abstracted and indexed by BIOSIS Previews, Chemical Abstracts, Chemistry Citation Index, Embase/Excerpta Medica, Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Scopus. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 3.556, ranking it 11th out of 60 journals in the category "Chemistry, Medicinal". "Journals Ranked by Impact: Chemistry, Medicinal". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2017. Official ...
Neuroscience portal Behavioural Brain Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier. The journal publishes articles in the field of behavioural neuroscience. Volume 1 appeared in 1980 and issues appeared 6 times per year; as submissions increased it switched to a higher frequency and currently 20 issues per year are published. Behavioural Brain Research is abstracted and indexed in Animal Behavior Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Life Sciences, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, and Scopus. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2013 impact factor is 3.391. "Indexing Information". Behavioural Brain Research. Retrieved 2009-05-10. "Behavioural Brain Research". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. Official ...
The Journal of Aerosol Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of aerosols in multiple disciplines, including physics, chemistry, and engineering. It was established in 1970 and is published thirteen times per year. It is published by Elsevier in association with the European Aerosol Assembly. The editors-in-chief are Pratim Biswas (Washington University in St. Louis), Mansoo Choi (Seoul National University), and Alfred Weber (Clausthal University of Technology). According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2016 impact factor of 2.042. "Journal of Aerosol Science". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2017. Official ...
... è il secondo album dal vivo del gruppo rock statunitense Aerosmith pubblicato nel 1986, dopo Live! Bootleg. Contiene registrazioni dal vivo comprese tra il 1978 e il 1984. In alcune registrazioni suonano anche Jimmy Crespo e Rick Dufay che avevano sostituito i due chitarristi Joe Perry e Brad Whitford. Non è però specificato dove suonano i primi due e ove suonano gli altri due. Altre versioni live di molte di queste canzoni erano anche presenti in Live! Bootleg. Tutte le tracce sono suonate all'Orpheum Theatre di Boston, il 14 febbraio del 1984 eccetto Kings and Queens (Music Hall di Boston il 28 marzo 1978), Dream On (Capital Center a Largo il 9 novembre del 1978) e Major Barbara che doveva originariamente essere compresa in Get Your Wings, ma era rimasta inedita. Un'altra versione è reperibile nel box set Pandora's Box. Nel 1998 questo album e il successivo Classics Live! Vol. 2 furono uniti in un unico cofanetto intitolato Classics Live! Complete. ...
Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science (WoS) and Elsevier's Scopus databases are synonymous with data on international research, and considered as the two most trusted or authoritative sources of bibliometric data for peer-reviewed global research knowledge across disciplines.[262][263][264][265][266][267][268] They are both also used widely for the purposes of researcher evaluation and promotion, institutional impact (for example the role of WoS in the UK Research Excellence Framework 2021[note 31]), and international league tables (Bibliographic data from Scopus represents more than 36% of assessment criteria in the THE rankings[note 32]). But while these databases are generally agreed to contain rigorously-assessed, high quality research, they do not represent the sum of current global research knowledge.[65]. It is often mentioned in popular science articles that the research outputs of researchers in South America, Asia, and Africa is disappointingly low. Sub-Saharan Africa is often singled ...
a b At various times, Bobinski and Jones disagree on these numbers. In these cases, Jones' numbers have been used due to both a more recent publication date and a more detailed gazetteer of branch libraries, which are often where the discrepancies occur. ...
On 3 March 2012, Fazer was featured on BBC1's show Urban Classics where he performed his version of Englishman in New York originally by Sting and he also performed a tribute to Whitney Houston with Skepta. About two weeks later, Fazer remixed Somebody That I Used to Know by Gotye[citation needed] Fazer shot a video for his debut single "Killer" on 29 May 2012, released on 26 August 2012. In 2013, Fazer and his production partner, Peter Ibsen, both announced the opening of their production company, Sky's The Limit Entertainment (STL). Fazer released a track '6 foot 8 (freestyle)' under the new company's name. The pair produced songs for Fazer himself and other artists such as Tulisa , Rihanna , Rita Ora and Jessie J . On 12 July 2013, Fazer headlined the Yahoo! stage at the Yahoo! Wireless Festival, and performed songs such as Killer, Fireflies, Planetary and an N-Dubz medley. On 10 August 2013, Fazer performed at the BBC Urban Classics Prom alongside Wretch 32. He performed Fireflies and Movie. ...
Pelzer C، Kassner I، Matentzoglu K، Singh RK، Wollscheid HP، Scheffner M، Schmidtke G، Groettrup M (Aug 2007). "UBE1L2, a novel E1 enzyme specific for ubiquitin". J Biol Chem. 282 (32): 23010-4. PMID 17580310. doi:10.1074/jbc.C700111200. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription ...
Aminobutyrates. Accession Number. DBCAT000424. Description. Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups ...
Aminobutyrates * Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists * Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists * Nitric Oxide Donors ...
0 (Aminobutyrates); 0 (Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists); 0 (LCZ 696); 0 (Peptide Fragments); 0 (Tetrazoles); 0 (pro-brain ...
Aminobutyrates / metabolism * Bunyaviridae / enzymology* * Bunyaviridae / genetics * Bunyaviridae Infections / genetics * ...
Halogenated aminohexanoates and aminobutyrates antimicrobial agents US5370865A (en) 1992-05-15. 1994-12-06. Kao Corporation. ... Halogenated aminohexanoates and aminobutyrates antimicrobial agents US5286480A (en) 1992-06-29. 1994-02-15. The Procter & ...
Agakishiev, G., Aggarwal, M. M., Ahammed, Z., Alakhverdyants, A. V., Alekseev, I., Alford, J., Anderson, B. D., Anson, C. D., Arkhipkin, D., Averichev, G. S., Balewski, J., Beavis, D. R., Behera, N. K., Bellwied, R., Betancourt, M. J., Betts, R. R., Bhasin, A., Bhati, A. K., Bichsel, H., Bielcik, J. & 350 others, Bielcikova, J., Bland, L. C., Bordyuzhin, I. G., Borowski, W., Bouchet, J., Braidot, E., Brandin, A. V., Bridgeman, A., Brovko, S. G., Bruna, E., Bueltmann, S., Bunzarov, I., Burton, T. P., Cai, X. Z., Caines, H., De La Barca Sánchez, M. C., Cebra, D., Cendejas, R., Cervantes, M. C., Chaloupka, P., Chattopadhyay, S., Chen, H. F., Chen, J. H., Chen, J. Y., Chen, L., Cheng, J., Cherney, M., Chikanian, A., Choi, K. E., Christie, W., Chung, P., Codrington, M. J. M., Corliss, R., Cramer, J. G., Crawford, H. J., Davila Leyva, A., De Silva, L. C., Debbe, R. R., Dedovich, T. G., Deng, J., Derevschikov, A. A., Derradi De Souza, R., Didenko, L., Djawotho, P., Dogra, S. M., Dong, X., Drachenberg, ...
Fuller, F. D., Gul, S., Chatterjee, R., Sethe Burgie, E., Young, I. D., Lebrette, H., Srinivas, V., Brewster, A. S., Michels-Clark, T., Clinger, J. A., Andi, B., Ibrahim, M., Pastor, E., De Lichtenberg, C., Hussein, R., Pollock, C. J., Zhang, M., Stan, C. A., Kroll, T., Fransson, T. & 36 others, Weninger, C., Kubin, M., Aller, P., Lassalle, L., Bräuer, P., Miller, M. D., Amin, M., Koroidov, S., Roessler, C. G., Allaire, M., Sierra, R. G., Docker, P. T., Glownia, J. M., Nelson, S., Koglin, J. E., Zhu, D., Chollet, M., Song, S., Lemke, H., Liang, M., Sokaras, D., Alonso-Mori, R., Zouni, A., Messinger, J., Bergmann, U., Boal, A. K., Martin Bollinger, J., Krebs, C., Högbom, M., Phillips, G. N., Vierstra, R. D., Sauter, N. K., Orville, A. M., Kern, J., Yachandra, V. K. & Yano, J., Feb 27 2017, In : Nature methods. 14, 4, p. 443-449 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Aminobutyrates Visual defects in patients with pituitary adenomas: The myth of bitemporal hemianopsia. Lee, I. H., Miller, N. R ...
Adamescu, G. S., Plumptre, A. J., Abernethy, K. A., Polansky, L., Bush, E. R., Chapman, C. A., Shoo, L. P., Fayolle, A., Janmaat, K. R. L., Robbins, M. M., Ndangalasi, H. J., Cordeiro, N. J., Gilby, I., Wittig, R. M., Breuer, T., Hockemba, M. B. N., Sanz, C. M., Morgan, D. B., Pusey, A. E., Mugerwa, B. & 19 othersGilagiza, B., Tutin, C., Ewango, C. E. N., Sheil, D., Dimoto, E., Baya, F., Bujo, F., Ssali, F., Dikangadissi, J. T., Jeffery, K., Valenta, K., White, L., Masozera, M., Wilson, M. L., Bitariho, R., Ndolo Ebika, S. T., Gourlet-Fleury, S., Mulindahabi, F. & Beale, C. M., May 1 2018, In : Biotropica. 50, 3, p. 418-430 13 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Vasavda, C., Kothari, R., Malla, A. P., Tokhunts, R., Lin, A., Ji, M., Ricco, C., Xu, R., Saavedra, H. G., Sbodio, J. I., Snowman, A. M., Albacarys, L., Hester, L. D., Sedlak, T. W., Paul, B. & Snyder, S. H., Oct 17 2019, In : Cell Chemical Biology. 26, 10, p. 1450-1460.e7. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Structure of PTT and the reaction catalyzed by HEPDThe biosyntheses of the commercial herbicide phosphinothricin (boxed in the PTT structure) and the clinically
Samad, O. A., Geisen, M. J., Caronia, G., Varlet, I., Zappavigna, V., Ericson, J., Goridis, C. & Rijli, F. M., Aug 1 2004, In : Development. 131, 16, p. 4071-4083 13 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Rahman, M., Pressel, S., Davis, B. R., Nwachuku, C., Wright, J. T., Whelton, P. K., Barzilay, J., Batuman, V., Eckfeldt, J. H., Farber, M. A., Franklin, S., Henriquez, M., Kopyt, N., Louis, G. T., Saklayen, M., Stanford, C., Walworth, C., Ward, H. & Wiegmann, T., 2007, In : Nefrologia. 27, SUPPL.1, p. 36-37 2 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Comment/debate ...
Oxburgh, L., Carroll, T. J., Cleaver, O., Gossett, D. R., Hoshizaki, D. K., Hubbell, J. A., Humphreys, B. D., Jain, S., Jensen, J., Kaplan, D. L., Kesselman, C., Ketchum, C. J., Little, M. H., McMahon, A. P., Shankland, S. J., Spence, J. R., Valerius, M. T., Wertheim, J. A., Wessely, O., Zheng, Y. & 1 others, Drummond, I. A., May 2017, In : Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 28, 5, p. 1370-1378 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Greenberg, D. A., Durner, M., Keddache, M., Shinnar, S., Resor, S. R., Moshe, S. L., Rosenbaum, D., Cohen, J., Harden, C., Kang, H., Wallace, S., Luciano, D., Ballaban-Gil, K., Tomasini, L., Zhou, G., Klotz, I. & Dicker, E., Jan 1 2000, In : American Journal of Human Genetics. 66, 2, p. 508-516 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Aminobutyrates Medicine & Life Sciences * GABA Receptors Medicine & Life Sciences * Neurodevelopmental Disorders Medicine & ...
... oxovalerates and aminobutyrates). Among them, NAC2, which recently have been reported as markers of inflammation and have been ...
Ichinose, M., Miki, K., Tatematsu, M., Mizuno, T., Mutai, M., Furihata, C., Ichihara, Y., Ishihara, T., Tanji, M., Oka, H., Hinohara, Y., Takahashi, T., Kageyama, T. & Takahashi, K., 9 15 1988, : : Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 155, 2, p. 670-677 8 p.. 研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿 › 記事 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-serine enhances light-induced circadian phase resetting in mice and humans. AU - Yasuo, Shinobu. AU - Iwamoto, Ayaka. AU - Lee, Sang Il. AU - Ochiai, Shotaro. AU - Hitachi, Rina. AU - Shibata, Satomi. AU - Uotsu, Nobuo. AU - Tarumizu, Chie. AU - Matsuoka, Sayuri. AU - Furuse, Mitsuhiro. AU - Higuchi, Shigekazu. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood. Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans. Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 L-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before L-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed. In addition, the effect of L-serine on ...
Osheroff, N., Niederhoffer, E. C., Sabina, R. L., Cline, S. D., Wimmer, M. J., Franklin, D. S., Diekman, A. B., Hogg, T., Kearney, K. R., King, S., Pearson, D., Slaughter, C. A. & Thompson, K., Dec 1 2015, In : Medical Science Educator. 25, 4, p. 473-477 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of the multiple discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol using an ethanol-pentobarbital-water discrimination in rats. AU - Bowen, C. A.. AU - Gatto, G. J.. AU - Grant, Kathleen (Kathy). PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Previous drug discrimination studies have elucidated the importance of γ-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate, and serotonin (5-HT) receptor systems in mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol. The present study used a three-choice operant drug discrimination procedure in an attempt to determine if salient GABAergic effects could be separated from other stimulus effects of 2.0 g/kg ethanol. Adult male Long-Evans rats (n=7) were trained to discriminate pentobarbital (10.0 mg/kg; intragastrically (i.g.)) from ethanol (2.0 g/kg; i.g.) from water (4.7 ml; i.g.) using food reinforcement, Stimulus substitution tests were conducted following the administration of allopregnanolone (1.0-17.0 mg/kg; intraperitoncally ...
Li, Q., Parikh, H., Butterworth, M. D., Lernmark, Å., Hagopian, W., Rewers, M., She, J. X., Toppari, J., Ziegler, A. G., Akolkar, B., Fiehn, O., Fan, S., Krischer, J. P., Rewers, M., Barbour, A., Bautista, K., Baxter, J., Felipe-Morales, D., Driscoll, K., Frohnert, B. I. & 236 others, Stahl, M., Gesualdo, P., Hoffman, M., Karban, R., Liu, E., Norris, J., Peacock, S., Shorrosh, H., Steck, A., Stern, M., Villegas, E., Waugh, K., Toppari, J., Simell, O. G., Adamsson, A., Ahonen, S., Åkerlund, M., Hakola, L., Hekkala, A., Holappa, H., Hyöty, H., Ikonen, A., Ilonen, J., Jäminki, S., Jokipuu, S., Karlsson, L., Kero, J., Kähönen, M., Knip, M., Koivikko, M. L., Koskinen, M., Koreasalo, M., Kurppa, K., Kytölä, J., Latva-Aho, T., Lindfors, K., Lönnrot, M., Mäntymäki, E., Mattila, M., Miettinen, M., Multasuo, K., Mykkänen, T., Niininen, T., Niinistö, S., Nyblom, M., Oikarinen, S., Ollikainen, P., Othmani, Z., Pohjola, S., Rajala, P., Rautanen, J., Riikonen, A., Riski, E., Pekkola, M., Romo, ...
Romanov, R. A., Alpár, A., Zhang, M. D., Zeisel, A., Calas, A., Landry, M., Fuszard, M., Shirran, S. L., Schnell, R., Dobolyi, Á., Oláh, M., Spence, L., Mulder, J., Martens, H., Palkovits, M., Uhlen, M., Sitte, H. H., Botting, C. H., Wagner, L., Linnarsson, S. & 2 others, Hökfelt, T. & Harkany, T., Jan 2 2015, In : EMBO Journal. 34, 1, p. 36-54 19 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Mousa, O. Y., Nguyen, J. H., Ma, Y., Rawal, B., Musto, K. R., Dougherty, M. K., Shalev, J. A. & Harnois, D., Jan 1 2019, In : Liver Transplantation. 25, 9, p. 1363-1374 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brainstem nucleus incertus controls contextual memory formation. AU - Szőnyi, András. AU - Sos, Katalin E.. AU - Nyilas, Rita. AU - Schlingloff, Dániel. AU - Domonkos, Andor. AU - Takács, Virág T.. AU - Pósfai, Balázs. AU - Hegedüs, Panna. AU - Priestley, James B.. AU - Gundlach, Andrew L.. AU - Gulyás, Attila I.. AU - Varga, V.. AU - Losonczy, Attila. AU - Freund, T.. AU - Nyíri, G.. PY - 2019/5/24. Y1 - 2019/5/24. N2 - Hippocampal pyramidal cells encode memory engrams, which guide adaptive behavior. Selection of engram-forming cells is regulated by somatostatin-positive dendrite-targeting interneurons, which inhibit pyramidal cells that are not required for memory formation. Here, we found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing neurons of the mouse nucleus incertus (NI) selectively inhibit somatostatin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus, both monosynaptically and indirectly through the inhibition of their subcortical excitatory inputs. We demonstrated that ...

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