Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.

Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (1/194)

In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model.  (+info)

Genetic localization and molecular characterization of two key genes (mitAB) required for biosynthesis of the antitumor antibiotic mitomycin C. (2/194)

Mitomycin C (MC) is an antitumor antibiotic derived biosynthetically from 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), D-glucosamine, and carbamoyl phosphate. A gene (mitA) involved in synthesis of AHBA has been identified and found to be linked to the MC resistance locus, mrd, in Streptomyces lavendulae. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that mitA encodes a 388-amino-acid protein that has 71% identity (80% similarity) with the rifamycin AHBA synthase from Amycolatopsis mediterranei, as well as with two additional AHBA synthases from related ansamycin antibiotic-producing microorganisms. Gene disruption and site-directed mutagenesis of the S. lavendulae chromosomal copy of mitA completely blocked the production of MC. The function of mitA was confirmed by complementation of an S. lavendulae strain containing a K191A mutation in MitA with AHBA. A second gene (mitB) encoding a 272-amino-acid protein (related to a group of glycosyltransferases) was identified immediately downstream of mitA that upon disruption resulted in abrogation of MC synthesis. This work has localized a cluster of key genes that mediate assembly of the unique mitosane class of natural products.  (+info)

Molecular characterization and analysis of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the antitumor antibiotic mitomycin C from Streptomyces lavendulae NRRL 2564. (3/194)

BACKGROUND: The mitomycins are natural products that contain a variety of functional groups, including aminobenzoquinone- and aziridine-ring systems. Mitomycin C (MC) was the first recognized bioreductive alkylating agent, and has been widely used clinically for antitumor therapy. Precursor-feeding studies showed that MC is derived from 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid (AHBA), D-glucosamine, L-methionine and carbamoyl phosphate. A genetically linked AHBA biosynthetic gene and MC resistance genes were identified previously in the MC producer Streptomyces lavendulae NRRL 2564. We set out to identify other genes involved in MC biosynthesis. RESULTS: A cluster of 47 genes spanning 55 kilobases of S. lavendulae DNA governs MC biosynthesis. Fourteen of 22 disruption mutants did not express or overexpressed MC. Seven gene products probably assemble the AHBA intermediate through a variant of the shikimate pathway. The gene encoding the first presumed enzyme in AHBA biosynthesis is not, however, linked within the MC cluster. Candidate genes for mitosane nucleus formation and functionalization were identified. A putative MC translocase was identified that comprises a novel drug-binding and export system, which confers cellular self-protection on S. lavendulae. Two regulatory genes were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: The overall architecture of the MC biosynthetic gene cluster in S. lavendulae has been determined. Targeted manipulation of a putative MC pathway regulator led to a substantial increase in drug production. The cloned genes should help elucidate the molecular basis for creation of the mitosane ring system, as well efforts to engineer the biosynthesis of novel natural products.  (+info)

Inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase protect rat cardiomyocytes against oxidant stress. (4/194)

OBJECTIVE: Inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activity reduce the infarct size caused by regional myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in the rabbit and rat in vivo. The mechanism of action of these inhibitors is unclear. Here we investigate the effects of the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) on infarct size caused by ischaemia and reperfusion of the isolated, perfused heart of the rat. We also investigate the role of PARS in the hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell injury/necrosis in rat cardiac myoblasts. METHODS: Rat isolated hearts perfused at constant pressure (80 mmHg) were subjected to 35 min of regional ischaemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined at the end of the experiment using nitro-blue tetrazolium. 3-AB (300 microM) or 3-aminobenzoic acid (3-ABA, 300 microM) were infused during the reperfusion period. Rat cardiac myoblasts (H9c2 cells) were preincubated with the PARS inhibitors, 3-AB. nicotinamide (Nic) or 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (ISO) or the inactive analogues 3-ABA or nicotinic acid (NicA) prior to exposure with hydrogen peroxide (1 mM). Cell injury was assessed by measuring mitochondrial respiration and cell necrosis by measuring the release of LDH. PARS activity was determined by measuring the incorporation of NAD into nuclear proteins. RESULTS: Regional ischaemia and reperfusion of the isolated rat heart resulted in an infarct size of 54% which was reduced by 3-AB, but not by 3-ABA. Exposure of rat cardiac myoblasts to hydrogen peroxide caused an increase in PARS activity and cell injury/necrosis which was attenuated by pretreatment with the PARS inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of the activity of PARS attenuates the cell death associated with oxidant stress in rat cardiac myoblasts and heart.  (+info)

Membrane tubule-mediated reassembly and maintenance of the Golgi complex is disrupted by phospholipase A2 antagonists. (5/194)

Although membrane tubules can be found extending from, and associated with, the Golgi complex of eukaryotic cells, their physiological function has remained unclear. To gain insight into the biological significance of membrane tubules, we have developed methods for selectively preventing their formation. We show here that a broad range of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) antagonists not only arrest membrane tubule-mediated events that occur late in the assembly of the Golgi complex but also perturb its normal steady-state tubulovesicular architecture by inducing a reversible fragmentation into separate "mini-stacks." In addition, we show that these same compounds prevent the formation of membrane tubules from Golgi stacks in an in vitro reconstitution system. This in vitro assay was further used to demonstrate that the relevant PLA2 activity originates from the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Golgi membrane tubules, sensitive to potent and selective PLA2 antagonists, mediate both late events in the reassembly of the Golgi complex and the dynamic maintenance of its steady-state architecture. In addition, they implicate a role for cytoplasmic PLA2 enzymes in mediating these membrane trafficking events.  (+info)

Effects of ambasilide, quinidine, flecainide and verapamil on ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents in canine atrial myocytes. (6/194)

OBJECTIVE: A dog atrial ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current (I(Kur. d)) is involved in canine atrial repolarization and shares similarities with the human atrial ultra-rapid delayed rectifier (I(Kur)). Almost no information is available about the actions of antiarrhythmic drugs on I(Kur.d). This study evaluated effects of ambasilide, quinidine, flecainide and verapamil on I(Kur.d) in isolated canine atrial myocytes. METHODS: Standard whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to study the effects of multiple concentrations of each drug. RESULTS: All drugs produced reversible concentration-, voltage- and time-dependent I(Kur.d) inhibition. Significant effects of quinidine, flecainide and ambasilide were noted at atrial-effective antiarrhythmic concentrations in the dog. Upon the onset of a depolarizing pulse, block developed exponentially in relation to time, with the blocking rate-constant increasing with drug concentration, consistent with open-channel blockade and permitting the calculation of forward and reverse rate-constants. For all drugs, the 50% blocking concentration (EC(50)) showed significant voltage-dependence, decreasing at more positive potentials. The magnitude of voltage-dependent block was directly related to the degree of drug-induced shift in the voltage dependence of activation (r=0.97), pointing to open-channel block as a mechanism for voltage-dependent action. An additional component of voltage-dependence suggested that blocking sites were subjected to 17-21% of the transmembrane voltage field. CONCLUSIONS: Ambasilide, quinidine, flecainide and verapamil inhibit I(Kur.d), with preferential action on the open state. I(Kur.d) inhibition may play a role in antiarrhythmic effects in canine atrial arrhythmia models. Comparisons between the effects of these drugs on I(Kur.d) and previously studied effects on I(Kur) suggest potential opportunities for investigating the molecular structural determinants of drug-blocking action on atrial-specific ultrarapid delayed rectifiers.  (+info)

Pharmacological properties of 5-Hydroxytryptamine(4) receptor antagonists on constitutively active wild-type and mutated receptors. (7/194)

We studied the pharmacological properties of twenty-four 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(4) receptor ligands known to act as antagonists on 5-HT(4) receptors positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase endogenously expressed in mouse colliculi neurons. In COS-7 cells expressing human or mouse 5-HT(4(a)) receptors (100-8000 fmol/mg of protein), we found neutral antagonists, partial agonists, and inverse agonists. The majority of neutral antagonists belong to the benzodioxanyl ketone class, whereas partial agonists belong to different chemical classes. We found only two inverse agonists, GR 125487 and SB 207266, which are both indoles. Analysis of pharmacological characteristics of the constitutively active wild-type and constitutively active mutated receptors revealed that 1) the ratio between the efficiencies of the full agonist 5-HT and the partial agonist RS 23597 was invariable when the receptor density increased, but was dependent on receptor structure; 2) similarly, the efficacy of the inverse agonist SB 207266 was not dependent on receptor density but was dependent on receptor structure; 3) when the receptor concentration increased, the EC(50) values of the full agonist 5-HT were not modified and the increase in basal constitutive activity, as well as its stimulation by 5-HT, followed a parallel evolution; and 4) the stimulation of basal constitutive activity by 5-HT was not modified by the overexpression of Galphas. All these results indicate that in COS-7 cells, the coupling of the 5-HT(4) receptor to adenylyl cyclase was linear with no indication of spare receptors even at high receptor density (8 pmol/mg). These results are also in accordance with a precoupling between the activated receptor (f(R*)) and adenylyl cyclase. Such observations allowed us to use the two-state model to calculate the constant J, i.e., the equilibrium allosteric constant denoting the ratio of the receptor in the inactive versus active state (J = [R]/[R*]). We found that J was a receptor structural characteristic, independent of receptor density.  (+info)

AIT-082, a cognitive enhancer, is transported into brain by a nonsaturable influx mechanism and out of brain by a saturable efflux mechanism. (8/194)

A fundamental feature of any drug designed to treat a disease of the central nervous system is the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Passage across the blood-brain barrier of AIT-082, a cognitive enhancer, was investigated in mice. [(14)C]AIT-082 crossed the blood-brain barrier in young male Swiss-Webster mice with a mean influx constant (K(i)) of 0.6 +/- 0.2 microl g(-1) min(-1). Furthermore, [(14)C]AIT-082 was transported into brain of both young and old male C57BL/6 mice with a K(i) of 0.35 +/- 0.06 and 0.33 +/- 0.02 microl g(-1) min(-1), respectively. There was no significant effect of age or strain on the movement of [(14)C]AIT-082 across the blood-brain barrier in mice. When 110- or 650-fold excess unlabeled AIT-082 was included in the injection solution, the K(i) was not significantly changed in either Swiss-Webster or C57BL/6 mice. This indicated that [(14)C]AIT-082 crossed the blood-brain barrier by a nonsaturable mechanism. The passage of AIT-082 into brain extracellular fluid was confirmed with capillary depletion and microdialysis. The efflux of [(14)C]AIT-082 from brain also was examined. After i.c.v. injection, [(14)C]AIT-082 levels in brain decreased over time with a t(1/2) of 20.0 +/- 1.0 min. Excess unlabeled AIT-082 (600-fold) increased the t(1/2) to 35.5 +/- 3.6 min. Together, these data indicate that AIT-082 moves into brain via a nonsaturable mechanism and is actively transported out of brain.  (+info)

Aminobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that contain an amino (NH2) group and a benzoate (C6H5COO-) group in their structure. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their various properties, such as ultraviolet light absorption, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory effects.

One of the most well-known aminobenzoates is para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is a naturally occurring compound found in some foods and also synthesized by bacteria in the human gut. PABA has been used as a topical sunscreen agent due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, but its use as a sunscreen ingredient has declined in recent years due to concerns about skin irritation and potential allergic reactions.

Other aminobenzoates have various medical uses, such as:

* Antimicrobial agents: Some aminobenzoates, such as benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride, are used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to disrupt bacterial cell membranes.
* Analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents: Aminobenzoates such as methyl salicylate and acetaminophen (paracetamol) are commonly used as pain relievers and fever reducers.
* Vitamin B supplements: PABA is a component of folic acid, which is an essential vitamin for human health. Some people take PABA supplements to treat or prevent various conditions, such as graying hair, rheumatoid arthritis, and vitiligo, although there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.

It's important to note that some aminobenzoates can be toxic in high doses or with prolonged exposure, so they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

McCullough WG, Piligian JT, Daniel IJ (1957). "Enzymatic decarboxylation of three aminobenzoates". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): ...
SUBSTITUTED PIPERIDINE-ALKYL BENZOATES AND PARA-AMINOBENZOATES". Journal of the American Chemical Society 49 (11): 2835-2840. ...
Walsh CT, Haynes SW, Ames BD (2012). "Aminobenzoates as building blocks for natural product assembly lines". Nat. Prod. Rep. 29 ...
Cope, Arthur C.; Hancock, Evelyn M. (1944). "1-Alkylamino-2-propanols and their p-Nitro- and p-Aminobenzoates". Journal of the ...
"Smectogenic Salts Formed by Combination of Alkyl p-Aminobenzoates and p-Ethyl-or p-Chlorobenzenesulfonic Acid". Molecular ...
... alkyl 2-aminobenzoates and 2-aminonicotinates". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 22 (5): 554-9. doi:10.1021/jm00191a017. PMID ...
McCullough WG, Piligian JT, Daniel IJ (1957). "Enzymatic decarboxylation of three aminobenzoates". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (3): ...
Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050]. *ortho-Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050.400]. *Fenamates [D02.241.223.100.050.400.200] ...
The preferred co-initiators are aminobenzoates. ...
Aminobenzoates. Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. ... ChemicalAminobenzoatesMafB Transcription FactorIntercellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsSOXE Transcription FactorsAlcian ...
Aminobenzoates. Aminobutyric Acids. Aminobutyrates. Dichloroacetate. Dichloroacetic Acid. Hydroxybenzoic Acids. ...
Aminobenzoates. Aminobutyric Acids. Aminobutyrates. Dichloroacetate. Dichloroacetic Acid. Hydroxybenzoic Acids. ...
Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050]. *ortho-Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050.400]. *3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid [D02.241. ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bromobenzoates" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bromobenzoates" was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Aminobenzoates. Benzoic Acids. Benzoates. Butyric Acids. Butyrates. Crotonic Acids. Crotonates. Formic Acids. Formates. ...
ortho-Aminobenzoates ortho-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile use o-Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile ortho-Dihydroxybenzenes use ...
MeSH Terms: Abnormalities, Drug-Induced; Aminobenzoates/pharmacology; Animals; Biological Assay; Craniofacial Abnormalities/ ...
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in developing countries where widespread malnutrition contributes to the decreased oral vaccine efficacy and increased prevalence of other enteric infections, which are major concerns for global health. Neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets cl …
ortho-Aminobenzoates / adverse effects* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
... aminobenzoates, cinnamates, and Eusolex 6300 (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany).[18] One hundred fifteen nonphotosensitive ...
... based on N-phenyl-aminobenzoates and their structure-activity relationships.. Adeniji AO; Twenter BM; Byrns MC; Jin Y; Chen M; ...
Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050] * meta-Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050.300] * ortho-Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100. ... Aminobenzoates [D02.455.426.559.389.127.020] * meta-Aminobenzoates [D02.455.426.559.389.127.020.452] * ortho-Aminobenzoates [ ... Aminobenzoates Preferred Term Term UI T812769. Date11/16/2011. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2013). ... Aminobenzoates Preferred Concept UI. M0568272. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or ...
Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050] * meta-Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100.050.300] * ortho-Aminobenzoates [D02.241.223.100. ... Aminobenzoates [D02.455.426.559.389.127.020] * meta-Aminobenzoates [D02.455.426.559.389.127.020.452] * ortho-Aminobenzoates [ ... Aminobenzoates Preferred Term Term UI T812769. Date11/16/2011. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2013). ... Aminobenzoates Preferred Concept UI. M0568272. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or ...
MeSH uploaded the disease portion of the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database available in the Unified Medical Language System. OMIM is a database that catalogues human diseases with genetic components. Although OMIM disease names are available for searches in PubMed, it is often difficult to index and search for the articles on rare diseases with genetic components because of multiple synonyms used by different scientists that often do not overlap. As was done with NIH Office of Rare Diseases and Research (ORDR) disease terms (see Whats New for 2010 MeSH for additional information), OMIM terms were compared to the existing MeSH descriptors and SCR records. When matches were found OMIM thesaurus tags were added to the matched MeSH record terms. Where there were no string matches, new disease SCRs were created and were mapped to descriptor(s) using the Heading Mapped to (HM) field. MeSH created 3,774 new disease SCRs, and identified and tagged 1,498 existing ORDR SCRs as rare ...
N0000185675 ortho-Aminobenzoates N0000185676 para-Aminobenzoates N0000185678 Adipates N0000185688 meta-Aminobenzoates ... Fur N0000185000 Pollen N0000185011 Feathers N0000185640 Hydroxybenzoates N0000185641 Occludin N0000185645 Aminobenzoates ...
... p-aminobenzoates, triazines, camphor derivatives, etc. Different tests have shown that some of these chemicals are absorbed ...
Aminobenzoates - para-Aminobenzoates. It belongs to the ontological category of aminobenzoic acid in the ChEBI Ontology tree. ...
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethyl)amino]propyl 4-[(alkoxycarbonyl)amino]benzoates. Tengler, J ...
Cystic Mesotherapy Mesterolone Mestranol Mesylates meta-Aminobenzoates Meta-Analysis Meta-Analysis as Topic Metabolic Clearance ... Phosphate Decarboxylase Orphan Drug Production Orphan Nuclear Receptors Orphanages Orphenadrine ortho-Aminobenzoates ... Disease Papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio ursinus Papua New Guinea para-Aminobenzoates ... Sugars Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase Aminoacetonitrile Aminoacridines Aminoacylation Aminoacyltransferases Aminobenzoates ...
... see also AMINOBENZOATES see also BENZYL BENZOATE xx AMINOBENZOATES BENZOCAINE see AMINOBENZOATES BENZODIOXANS see ... see also AMINOBENZOATES see also COCAINE see also ETHYL CHLORIDE see also PROCAINE x ALYPIN x APOSTHESINE x BUTYN x DIBUCAINE x ... xx ALCOHOLS AMINOBENZOATES see also BENZOATES see also PARA-AMINOBENZOIC ACID x ANTHRANILIC ACID x BENZOCAINE x ETHYL ... AMINOBENZOATES ETHYL BROMIDE xx BROMIDES ETHYL CHLORIDE xx ANESTHETICS, LOCAL xx CHLORIDES ETHYL IODIDE xx IODIDES ETHYLAMINES ...
  • Its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) category is Chemicals and Drugs Category - Organic Chemicals - Carboxylic Acids - Acids, Carbocyclic - Benzoates - Aminobenzoates - para-Aminobenzoates. (smolecule.com)

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