Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.ArabinoseSpectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)ReadingPhaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Phycodnaviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.Glutathione Synthase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.3.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Phytochelatins: Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Fucus: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Fucaceae. It is found in temperate, marine intertidal areas along rocky coasts and is a source of ALGINATES. Some species of Fucus are referred to as KELP.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Mycobacterium marinum: A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPenicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)

AtPCS1, a phytochelatin synthase from Arabidopsis: isolation and in vitro reconstitution. (1/414)

Phytochelatins, a class of posttranslationally synthesized peptides, play a pivotal role in heavy metal, primarily Cd2+, tolerance in plants and fungi by chelating these substances and decreasing their free concentrations. Derived from glutathione and related thiols by the action of gamma-glutamylcysteine dipeptidyl transpeptidases (phytochelatin synthases; EC 2.3.2.15), phytochelatins consist of repeating units of gamma-glutamylcysteine followed by a C-terminal Gly, Ser, or beta-Ala residue [poly-(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Xaa]. Here we report the suppression cloning of a cDNA (AtPCS1) from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a 55-kDa soluble protein that enhances heavy-metal tolerance and elicits Cd2+-activated phytochelatin accumulation when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the basis of these properties and the sufficiency of immunoaffinity-purified epitope-tagged AtPCS1 polypeptide for high rates of Cd2+-activated phytochelatin synthesis from glutathione in vitro, AtPCS1 is concluded to encode the enzyme phytochelatin synthase.  (+info)

Phytochelatin synthase genes from Arabidopsis and the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (2/414)

Phytochelatins (PCs), a family of heavy metal-inducible peptides important in the detoxification of heavy metals, have been identified in plants and some microorganisms, including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but not in animals. PCs are synthesized enzymatically from glutathione (GSH) by PC synthase in the presence of heavy metal ions. In Arabidopsis, the CAD1 gene, identified by using Cd-sensitive, PC-deficient cad1 mutants, has been proposed to encode PC synthase. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have isolated the CAD1 gene. Database searches identified a homologous gene in S. pombe, and a mutant with a targeted deletion of this gene was also Cd sensitive and PC deficient. Extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing a CAD1 cDNA or the S. pombe gene catalyzing GSH-dependent, heavy metal-activated synthesis of PCs in vitro demonstrated that both genes encode PC synthase activity. Both enzymes were activated by a range of metal ions. In contrast, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that expression of the CAD1 mRNA is not influenced by the presence of Cd. A comparison of the two predicted amino acid sequences revealed a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is presumed to be the catalytic domain, and a variable C-terminal region containing multiple Cys residues, which is proposed to be involved in activation of the enzyme by metal ions. Interestingly, a similar gene was identified in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that PCs may also be expressed in some animal species.  (+info)

Tolerance to toxic metals by a gene family of phytochelatin synthases from plants and yeast. (3/414)

Phytochelatins play major roles in metal detoxification in plants and fungi. However, genes encoding phytochelatin synthases have not yet been identified. By screening for plant genes mediating metal tolerance we identified a wheat cDNA, TaPCS1, whose expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a dramatic increase in cadmium tolerance. TaPCS1 encodes a protein of approximately 55 kDa with no similarity to proteins of known function. We identified homologs of this new gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and interestingly also Caenorhabditis elegans. The Arabidopsis and S.pombe genes were also demonstrated to confer substantial increases in metal tolerance in yeast. PCS-expressing cells accumulate more Cd2+ than controls. PCS expression mediates Cd2+ tolerance even in yeast mutants that are either deficient in vacuolar acidification or impaired in vacuolar biogenesis. PCS-induced metal resistance is lost upon exposure to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, a process necessary for phytochelatin formation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells disrupted in the PCS gene exhibit hypersensitivity to Cd2+ and Cu2+ and are unable to synthesize phytochelatins upon Cd2+ exposure as determined by HPLC analysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing PCS produce phytochelatins. Moreover, the recombinant purified S.pombe PCS protein displays phytochelatin synthase activity. These data demonstrate that PCS genes encode phytochelatin synthases and mediate metal detoxification in eukaryotes.  (+info)

Functional characterization of the D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase from Escherichia coli. (4/414)

The yihZ gene of Escherichia coli is shown to produce a deacylase activity capable of recycling misaminoacylated D-Tyr-tRNATyr. The reaction is specific and, under optimal in vitro conditions, proceeds at a rate of 6 s-1 with a Km value for the substrate equal to 1 microM. Cell growth is sensitive to interruption of the yihZ gene if D-tyrosine is added to minimal culture medium. Toxicity of exogenous D-tyrosine is exacerbated if, in addition to the disruption of yihZ, the gene of D-amino acid dehydrogenase (dadA) is also inactivated. Orthologs of the yihZ gene occur in many, but not all, bacteria. In support of the idea of a general role of the D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase function in the detoxification of cells, similar genes can be recognized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, mouse, and man.  (+info)

Staphylococcus aureus sortase, an enzyme that anchors surface proteins to the cell wall. (5/414)

Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria are linked to the bacterial cell wall by a mechanism that involves cleavage of a conserved Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly (LPXTG) motif and that occurs during assembly of the peptidoglycan cell wall. A Staphylococcus aureus mutant defective in the anchoring of surface proteins was isolated and shown to carry a mutation in the srtA gene. Overexpression of srtA increased the rate of surface protein anchoring, and homologs of srtA were found in other pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. The protein specified by srtA, sortase, may be a useful target for the development of new antimicrobial drugs.  (+info)

Evidence for tissue-specific forms of glutaminyl cyclase. (6/414)

Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) is responsible for the presence of pyroglutamyl residues in many neuroendocrine peptides. An examination of the bovine tissue distribution of QC immunoreactivity, enzyme activity, and mRNA confirmed that QC was abundant in brain and pituitary by all three measures. However, enzymatic activity was considerably more widespread than either immunoreactivity or mRNA, suggesting multiple enzyme forms. Partially purified QC from bovine spleen differed significantly from the known bovine pituitary QC in physical and catalytic properties. We propose that this form of glutaminyl cyclase plays a role in the posttranslational processing of constitutively secreted pGlu-containing proteins.  (+info)

Effect of dietary inducer dimethylfumarate on glutathione in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. (7/414)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dimethylfumarate (DMF), an inducer of glutathione (GSH)-dependent detoxification, on intracellular GSH levels in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cells, its mechanism of action, and its effect on hRPE cells subjected to oxidative injury. METHODS: Established hRPE cell lines were treated with DMF and assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography for intracellular and extracellular GSH levels. Quantification of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GLCL) was determined through northern and western blot analyses, and activity was measured. Effects of pretreatment with DMF on GSH redox status of hRPE cells was determined. Sensitivity of hRPE cells to oxidative stress was determined using tert-butylhydroperoxide as the oxidative agent. RESULTS: Dimethylfumarate caused a transient decrease followed by a significant increase in intracellular GSH. Glutathione increased maximally at 24 hours with 100 to 200 microM DMF. The initial decrease could be accounted for by the formation of a DMF-GSH conjugate. Dimethylfumarate treatment increased the steady state mRNA expression of the regulatory subunit of GLCL, but no increase was seen for the catalytic subunit. However, protein levels were increased for both, and the catalytic activity of GLCL was also increased. Whereas the initial decrease in GSH made hRPE cells more susceptible to oxidative damage, pretreatment with DMF under conditions that increased intracellular GSH protected hRPE cells against oxidative damage. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a means by which the antioxidant capability of hRPE may be augmented without direct antioxidant supplementation. Specifically, a dietary compound that conjugates with GSH can induce GSH synthesis, increase GSH concentration, and improve protection by GSH-dependent detoxification pathways in hRPE. However, the early depletion of GSH before stimulated synthesis necessitates caution in prevention strategies using dietary inducers.  (+info)

Spread of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries: Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study. (8/414)

Antimicrobial susceptibility of 996 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical specimens was investigated in 11 Asian countries from September 1996 to June 1997. Korea had the greatest frequency of nonsusceptible strains to penicillin with 79.7%, followed by Japan (65.3%), Vietnam (60.8%), Thailand (57.9%), Sri Lanka (41.2%), Taiwan (38.7%), Singapore (23.1%), Indonesia (21.0%), China (9.8%), Malaysia (9.0%), and India (3.8%). Serotypes 23F and 19F were the most common. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 154 isolates from Asian countries showed several major PFGE patterns. The serotype 23F Spanish clone shared the same PFGE pattern with strains from Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Malaysia. Fingerprinting analysis of pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes of 12 strains from six countries also showed identical fingerprints of penicillin-binding protein genes in most strains. These data suggest the possible introduction and spread of international epidemic clones into Asian countries and the increasing problems of pneumococcal drug resistance in Asian countries for the first time.  (+info)

*Lysyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...

*D-glutamyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...

*Glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...

*Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...

*UDP-N-acetylmuramoylpentapeptide-lysine N6-alanyltransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...

*Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...

*Alanylphosphatidylglycerol synthase

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...

*Aminoacyltransferase

Aminoacyltransferases (EC 2.3.2) are acyltransferase enzymes which act upon an amino group. For instance, aminoacyl tRNA ... Aminoacyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ...

*Pseudouridine

The function of it is not very clear, but it is expected to play a role in association with aminoacyl transferases during their ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... aminoacyltransferases MeSH D08.811.913.050.200.400 --- gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.200.500 --- gamma- ...
Zn(II)-dependent glutaminyl cyclase (QC) converts N-terminal glutamine or glutamate residues of peptides and proteins. The reaction product is in both cases N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pyroGlu). In animals the glutaminyl cyclization is involved in posttranslational modification and activation of peptide-based hormone and chemokine precursors. Recently it was established that the driving force in neurodegenerative processes is the pyroGlu modification at the N-terminus of Aβ peptides processed by QC. This unveils the inhibition of QC as a strategy in AD treatment. The enzyme-specific inhibition is required in order to avoid noxious side effects. The elucidation of the reaction mechanism might make possible the development of mechanism-based QC inhibitors (e.g. transition-state analog compounds). Mechanistic and structural investigations were accomplished using the mitochondrial isoform of QC from Drosophila melanogaster. Regarding enzyme kinetic and structural properties, this enzyme is highly ...
Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, 0248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the bloodmeal of adult female ticks prior to fast-feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A
BioAssay record AID 752868 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human glutaminyl cyclase expressed in HEK293 cells using L-glutaminyl-beta-naphthylamine as substrate after 1 hr by fluorometric analysis.
Alzheimers disease is characterised by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and deposits of amyloid peptides (Aβ) in the brain. N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamate-modified Aβ peptides (Aβ(pE)) are resistant to proteolysis, aggregate more readily than the unmodified peptide...
The use of enzymes for protein modification chemistry has gained traction in recent years due to the remarkable site-selectivity that enzymes afford. Among enzymes reported for this purpose, sortase A from Staphylococcus aureus (SrtAStaph) has garnered significant attention because of its selectivity, and its ability to install a wide range of non-natural modifications. In addition to SrtAStaph, it is now appreciated that sortase homologs exist in many bacterial strains, each with the potential to serve as a new catalyst for protein engineering. However, the majority of these enzymes has not been studied biochemically, and in order to utilize these enzymes for protein modification it is critical that the activity and specificity of each enzyme be verified experimentally. This includes determination of optimal substrate sequences and amine nucleophile preferences. Here we present progress toward characterizing the in vitro substrate specificity of ten sortase homologs using libraries of synthetic peptide
La glutamminil-peptide ciclotransferasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle transferasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: L-glutamminil-peptide ⇄ 5-ossoprolil-peptide + NH3 Lenzima è coinvolto nella formazione dellormone che rilascia la tirotropina e di altri peptidi biologicamente attivi che contengono residui di piroglutammato allN-terminale. Lenzima della papaia agisce anche sul glutamminil-tRNA. Busby, W.H., Quackenbush, G.E., Humm, J., Youngblood, W.W. and Kizer, J.S., An enzyme(s) that converts glutaminyl-peptides into pyroglutamyl-peptides. Presence in pituitary, brain, adrenal medulla, and lymphocytes, in J. Biol. Chem., vol. 262, 1987, pp. 8532-8536, Entrez PubMed 3597387. Fischer, W.H. and Spiess, J., Identification of a mammalian glutaminyl cyclase converting glutaminyl into pyroglutamyl peptides, in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 84, 1987, pp. 3628-3632, Entrez PubMed 3473473. Messer, M. and Ottesen, M., Isolation and properties of glutamine cyclotransferase of ...
The subject of N-acyl amino acid conjugates has been rapidly growing in recent years, especially with regard to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. The field is comprised of a large family of lipid signaling molecules whose importance is only now being fully realized. The most widely studied member is N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), which differs structurally from the endocannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide) by a single oxygen atom and the two are metabolically related. Topics that are covered in this mini review are: biosynthetic pathways for N-acyl amino acids, receptors for N-acyl amino acids, physiological actions of N-acyl amino acids, pharmacological effects of N-acyl amino acids and molecular mechanisms believed to be responsible for their effects ...
Qpct - Qpct (untagged) - Mouse glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase (glutaminyl cyclase) (Qpct), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Song, I., Chuang, C., Bateman, R. C. (1994). Molecular-Cloning, Sequence-Analysis and Expression of Human Pituitary Glutaminyl Cyclase. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, 13(1), 77-86 ...
Brown and beige adipocytes are specialized cells that express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and dissipate chemical energy as heat. These cells likely possess alternative UCP1-independent thermogenic mechanisms. Here, we identify a secreted enzyme, peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (PM20D1), that is enriched in UCP1(+) versus UCP1(-) adipocytes. We??demonstrate that PM20D1 is a bidirectional enzyme in??vitro, catalyzing both the condensation of fatty acids and amino acids to generate N-acyl amino acids and also the reverse hydrolytic reaction. N-acyl amino acids directly bind mitochondria and function as endogenous uncouplers of UCP1-independent respiration. Mice with increased circulating PM20D1 have augmented respiration and increased N-acyl amino acids in blood. Lastly, administration of N-acyl amino acids to mice improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure. These data identify an enzymatic node and a family of metabolites that regulate energy homeostasis. This pathway might be ...
Complete information for ATE1 gene (Protein Coding), Arginyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during DNA replication and depends on a protein complex called cohesin. At the metaphase-anaphase transition in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ESP1-encoded protease separin cleaves SCC1, a subunit of cohesin with a relative molecular mass of 63,000 (Mr 63K). The resulting 33K carboxy-terminal fragment of SCC1 bears an amino-terminal arginine-a destabilizing residue in the N-end rule. Here we show that the SCC1 fragment is short-lived (t1/2 approximately 2 min), being degraded by the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent N-end rule pathway. Overexpression of a long-lived derivative of the SCC1 fragment is lethal. In ubr1Delta cells, which lack the N-end rule pathway, we found a highly increased frequency of chromosome loss. The bulk of increased chromosome loss in ubr1Delta cells is caused by metabolic stabilization of the ESP1-produced SCC1 fragment. This fragment is the first physiological substrate of the N-end rule pathway that is targeted through
Schilling, S.; Stenzel, I.; von Bohlen, A.; Wermann, M.; Schulz, K.; Demuth, H.-U.; Wasternack, C. Isolation and characterization of the glutaminyl cyclases from ,i,Solanum tuberosum,/i, and ,i,Arabidopsis thaliana,/i,: implications for physiological functions Biol. Chem 388, 145-153, (2007) ...
Schilling, S.; Stenzel, I.; von Bohlen, A.; Wermann, M.; Schulz, K.; Demuth, H.-U.; Wasternack, C. Isolation and characterization of the glutaminyl cyclases from Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana: implications for physiological functions Biol. Chem 388, 145-153, (2007) DOI: 10.1515/BC.2007.016. ...
Stephan A, Wermann M, von Bohlen A, Koch B, Cynis H, Demuth HU, Schilling S. Mammalian glutaminyl cyclases and their isoenzymes have identical enzymatic characteristics ...
With the increasing availability of small molecules, drug-like libraries, and robotic automation, the search for sortase inhibitors has now entered the era of high-throughput screening. A screen of 1000 diverse compounds for inhibition of sortase yielded a diarylacrylnitrile with an IC50 of 231 μM (Oh et al., 2004). Examination of the structure-activity relationships of this compound indicated placing the two benzene rings in the trans-orientation as a (Z)-diarylacrylonitrile lowered the IC50 to 28 μM. Further structure-activity relationship indicated that a 2,5-dimethoxy configuration was the most potent with a competitive inhibition profile. Dialysis and activity recovery experiments suggested that inhibition was reversible. Modeling studies suggested further that the phenyl rings of the inhibitor may interact with lipophilic residues of the sortase substrate binding pocket. Future work on this class of inhibitors will be needed to achieve a structural appreciation of sortase ...
Bacterial sortases have been widely studied for their usefulness in protein modification, however, the variable substrate specificity and activity between homologs of these enzymes is not yet fully characterized. To attempt to further understand sorting signal recognition, we are working towards a substrate bound structure of sortase A from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SrtApneu). This enzyme displays a wide tolerance for alternate amino acids within the canonical LPXTG sorting motif. Our strategy involves a non-cleavable substrate analog that can be docked into the active site, allowing for elucidation of a structure displaying the key contacts that allow the enzyme to recognize alternate sorting signals. To this end, ketomethylene-linked
Im in. ,, -----Original Message----- ,, From: isdc2006-bounces at nss.org [mailto:isdc2006-bounces at nss.org] On ,, Behalf Of Pat Montoure ,, Sent: Friday, March 03, 2006 7:32 AM ,, To: isdc 2006; Mat Kaplan ,, Subject: [ISDC2006] ISDC2006 Committee telecon ,, ,, Better late than never. ,, ,, Reminder for our ISDC organizing committee telecon on Sunday Mar 5, 2006 ,, at 1:00pm Pacific / 4:00pm Eastern time. ,, ,, Call in: 888-387-8686 ,, Room code: 6863339# ,, ,, Agenda: ,, ,, 1. Introductions ,, 2. General updates ,, 3. Programming - Pat / George ,, A. Track Chairs Reports ,, 4. Programming Book - Track Chairs: Lisa Kaspin is going to be putting ,, together the program book. She will need Bio, Photos (if possible) and a ,, small (3-4 sentances) paragraph about speakers, and subject matter. ,, 5. Videographer for ISDC ,, 6. Responsibility reports ,, A. Big name speakers - George and Bruce ,, B. Thurs night Gala - Space Tourism Soc ,, C. Registration ,, D. Hotel - Please send any ...
The present invention provides compounds of the formula: |chemistry-cwu id=CHEM-US-00001 st32-name=CHEM-US|1|image id=EMI-C00001 he=74.9007 wi=85.4469 file=US20040167191A1-20040826-C00001
PC synthesis is activated both in vivo and in vitro by some metal ions to which the corresponding PC synthase mutant is not hypersensitive. For example, both the expressed Arabidopsis enzyme in vitro and PC synthesis in vivo (P.B. Goldsbrough, unpublished data) are efficiently activated by Cu. However, the cad1-3 mutant is only slightly more sensitive to Cu than is the wild type. Similarly, Zn activates both the expressed S. pombe enzyme in vitro and PC synthesis in S. pombe in vivo (Grill et al., 1986), but the PC synthase-deficient mutant is not more sensitive to Zn than is the wild type. Although PC synthesis may be activated in vivo by particular metal ions, PCs may play little or no role in their detoxification. This may be due, for example, to inefficient sequestration to the vacuole and an inability to form stable complexes or to the operation of other more effective mechanisms for the detoxification of these metals. Together, these observations indicate that in vitro data on the relative ...
Numerous studies suggest that the majority of Aβ peptides deposited in Alzheimers Disease (AD) is truncated and post-translationally modified at the N-terminus. Among these modified species, pyroglutamyl-Aβ (pE-Aβ including N3pE-Aβ42) has been identified as particularly neurotoxic. The N-terminal modification renders the peptide hydrophobic, accelerates formation of oligomers and reduces degradation by peptidases leading ultimately to the accumulation of the peptide and progression of AD. It has been shown, that the formation of pyroglutamyl residues is catalysed by glutaminyl cyclase (QC). Here, we present data about the pharmacological in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the QC-inhibitor PQ912, the first-in-class compound that is in clinical development. PQ912 inhibits human, rat and mouse QC-activity with Ki-values in the range between 20 and 65 nM. Chronic oral treatment of hAPPSLxhQC double transgenic mice applying approximately 200 mg/kg/day via chow shows a significant reduction of ...
Compounds and uses | Therapeutically active compounds and their methods of use | Crystalline forms of a biphenyl compound | Pyrimidine compounds for the treatment of hepatitis C | Inhibitors of glutaminyl cyclase |
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
These are the general reagents used for all ligation reactions. Discussion of the specific reagents will be in each individual protocol. Sortase: A Sortase A construct with the N-terminal membrane targeting sequence removed is readily purified in N-terminally His-tagged form. The pETMCSIII based vector pLLC064 is available for expression of this construct. The protein is easily overexpresed and purified using standard nickel affinity chromatography conditions. It should be noted that the protein migrates anomalously on SDS-PAGE gels and appears to run as a protein of ~26 kDa molecular weight (###). We have confirmed the correct molecular weight of Sortase A expressed from pLLC064 by MS. The protein is very stable. We find it convenient to store the protein in Sortase buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2, pH 7.5). The protein appears stable to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We have not as yet investigated the potential to freeze dry Sortase for storage although we hope to carry out this ...
These are the general reagents used for all ligation reactions. Discussion of the specific reagents will be in each individual protocol. Sortase: A Sortase A construct with the N-terminal membrane targeting sequence removed is readily purified in N-terminally His-tagged form. The pETMCSIII based vector pLLC064 is available for expression of this construct. The protein is easily overexpresed and purified using standard nickel affinity chromatography conditions. It should be noted that the protein migrates anomalously on SDS-PAGE gels and appears to run anomalouslyas a protein of higher molecular weight (see also [10] figure 5). We have confirmed the correct molecular weight of Sortase A expressed from pLLC064 by MS. The protein is very stable. We find it convenient to store the protein in Sortase buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2, pH 7.5). The protein appears stable to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We have not as yet investigated the potential to freeze dry Sortase for storage ...
This chapter reviews what is known about surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus, their mechanisms of anchoring to the cell wall envelope, and their contributions to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections. Protein A amino acid sequence, gene sequence, and three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction structures revealed a molecule comprised of five nearly identical Ig-binding domains as well as the molecular elements involved in binding Ig. S. aureus strains clump in the presence of plasma; this phenomenon, which has been exploited for diagnostic purposes, is the product of a molecular interaction between two microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMS), clumping factor A and B, with fibrinogen. Both S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains encode for multiple cell wall-anchored surface proteins with large serine-aspartate repeat (Sdr) domains. In addition to the subset of S. aureus sortase-anchored cell wall surface proteins that are covalently
Phytochelatins, the heavy-metal-binding peptides of plants, are synthesized from glutathione by a specific gamma-glutamylcysteine dipeptidyl transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthase ...
One of the routes to clinically important resistance in pathogenic bacteria is the ability of drug-resistant pathogens to modify the drug target to insensitivity while still retaining its essential cellular function. This chapter exemplifies the principles of antibiotic resistance arising from replacement or modification of the target. This can be achieved by mutation at one or more sites in the target gene or by importation of a gene that specifies a new replacement enzyme that has markedly decreased sensitivity to the drug. β-lactam resistance in the grampositive Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus strains represent these two variations on a theme. Unlike the S. aureus strains and many other pathogens, S. pneumoniae does not use β-lactamases as the major route to penicillin resistance. Analysis of transpeptidases/transglycosylases in S. pneumoniae reveal five high-molecular-weight PBPs which contribute to killing by β-lactams. One of the goals of medicinal chemistry in developing
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Competing interests HN reports other from Intermune, other from Roche, other from Boehringer- Ingelheim, other from Sanofi, during the conduct of the study; other from Centocor, outside the submitted work; DV reports personal fees from Intermune, personal fees from Roche, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Intermune, Roche, Boehringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work. Dr AG reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer, personal fees from Roche, outside the submitted work. GP reports personal fees from Actelion, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, GSK, Roche, outside the submitted work. VC reports personal fees from Actelion, Bayer, Biogen Idec, Boehringer Ingelheim, Gilead, GSK, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche/Intermune, Sanofi, grants from Actelion, Boehringer Ingelheim, GSK, Pfizer and Roche and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work. All other authors have no competing interests to declare. ...
Author Summary Schistosomiasis is a chronic, debilitating disease that affects hundreds of millions of people. The treatment of schistosomiasis relies solely on monotherapy with praziquantel and there is concern that drug-resistant parasites will evolve. Therefore, it is imperative to identify new drugs for schistosomiasis treatment. In this study our goal was to characterize a unique gene of Schistosoma mansoni that may be a candidate for drug targeting to control schistosomiasis. This gene, phytochelatin synthase (PCS), is a single copy gene in S. mansoni but is absent from humans. Our results confirm that schistosome PCS produces phytochelatins that are capable of scavenging and detoxifying heavy metals. The expression of the PCS gene in ex vivo adult schistosome worms was increased by exposure to a number of heavy metals. These results indicate that S. mansoni PCS regulates the availability of metal ions that the worm may be exposed to, either as co-factors in metalloenzymes or as excess metals
Lactobacilli are important for the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem in the human vagina. Various mechanisms are postulated but so far are poorly substantiated by molecular studies, such as mutant analysis. Bacterial autoaggregation is an interesting phenomenon that can promote adhesion to host cells and displacement of pathogens. In this study, we report on the identification of a human vaginal isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum strain CMPG5300, which shows high autoaggregative and adhesive capacity. To investigate the importance of sortase-dependent proteins (SDPs) in these phenotypes, a gene deletion mutant was constructed for srtA, the gene encoding the housekeeping sortase that covalently anchors these SDPs to the cell surface. This mutant lost the capacity to autoaggregate, showed a decrease in adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells, and lost biofilm-forming capacity under the conditions tested. These results indicate that the housekeeping sortase SrtA of CMPG5300 is a key determinant of the ...
This Mouse Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase-like protein (QPCTL) ELISA Kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate QPCTL.,QPCTL; FLJ20084; glutaminyl cyclase-like,QPCTL, also termed Iso-glutaminyl cyclase catalyzes the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid with liberation of ammonia and the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamate residues into pyroglutamic acid with liberation of water. Glutaminyl cyclase (QPCT) catalyzes the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamic acid liberating ammonia. In contrast, the physiological function of the plant QC is less clear. In case of the enzyme from C. papaya, a role in the plant defence against pathogenic microorganisms was suggested. Putative QCs from other plants were identified by sequence comparisons. The physiological function of these enzymes, however, is still ambiguous.
La glutatione gamma-glutammilcisteiniltransferasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle transferasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: glutatione + [Glu(-Cis)]n-Gly ⇄ Gly + [Glu(-Cis)]n+1-Gly Grill, E., Löffler, S., Winnacker, E.-L. and Zenk, M.H., Phytochelatins, the heavy-metal-binding peptides of plants, are synthesized from glutathione by a specific γ-glutamylcysteine dipeptidyl transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthase), in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 86, 1989, pp. 6838-6842 ...
Proteins that have a GPI glycolipid modification are acknowledged to be key in the lifecycle of Plasmodium; for example the involvement of the GPI-anchored MSP1 on merozoites in erythrocyte invasion. The enzyme that transfers the preformed GPI to the proteins such as MSP1 is named GPI:protein transamidase, however, studying this enzyme biochemically has been arduous, due to the following hurdles. Firstly, the GPI:protein transamidase functions as a subunit in multidomain complex, some components of which maybe membrane associated, and there are no reports of functional recombinant reconstitution of this complex. Secondly, there are no convenient and sensitive transamidase assays available that are amenable to medium/high throughput studies, even though large small molecule cysteine peptidase inhibitor libraries exist and can be used to studying this enzyme.. Any input/thoughts on how to overcome the aforementioned obstacles in studying the Plasmodium GPI:protein transamidase would be most ...
It has been demonstrated that under static conditions, pili are involved in self-aggregation and modify the architecture of a growing biofilm. To provide a deeper understanding of the role played by pili in biofilm formation, we focused on the influence of different pilins and sortase C on (i) the adhesion of cells to surfaces under dynamic conditions, and (ii) the nanomechanical properties of pili using single-molecule force spectroscopy.
The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system where its recognition components (N-recognins) recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins as an important part of specific degrons called N-degrons. like a scaffold E3 that promotes HR6B/UbcH2-reliant ubiquitylation of H2A and H2B however not H3 and H4 via a system distinct from normal polyubiquitylation. The E3 activity of UBR2 in histone ubiquitylation is activated by dipeptides bearing destabilizing N-terminal residues allosterically. Insufficient monoubiquitylation and polyubiquitylation on UBR2-lacking meiotic chromosomes correlate to problems in dual strand break (DSB) restoration along with other meiotic procedures leading to pachytene arrest at stage IV and apoptosis. A few of these features of UBR2 are found in somatic cells where UBR2 is really a chromatin-binding proteins involved in chromatin-associated ubiquitylation upon DNA damage. UBR2-deficient somatic cells show an array of chromosomal abnormalities ...
This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is an essential component of the multisubunit enzyme, GPI transamidase. GPI transamidase mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by catalyzing the transfer of fully assembled GPI units to proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
2G0B: FeeM, an N-Acyl Amino Acid Synthase from an Uncultured Soil Microbe: Structure, Mechanism, and Acyl Carrier Protein Binding.
GPI Transamidase Subunit; Involved In Attachment Of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) Anchors To Proteins; May Have A Role In Recognition Of The Attachment Signal Or Of The Lipid Portion Of GPI
Despite the identification and purification of PC synthase a decade ago, the isolation of the corresponding gene and a consequent detailed understanding of the mechanism of PC biosynthesis have eluded us until recently. PC synthase genes have been isolated simultaneously by three research groups using different approaches. Two groups used expression of plant genes in Brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to identify genes involved in Cd resistance. One group identified an Arabidopsis cDNA (AtPCS1) that suppressed the Cd-sensitive phenotype of both Brewers yeastyap1 and ycf1 mutants (Vatamaniuk et al., 1999).YAP1 encodes a transcription factor that is required for the expression of YCF1, a transporter responsible for the vacuolar sequestration of GSH-Cd complexes (Li et al., 1997). This group was searching for functional plant homologs of YAP1 by using a two-step screening procedure to identify Arabidopsis cDNAs that could suppress ayap1, but not a ycf1, mutant. In this screen they ...
List of all the English words with 21 letters containing letter F. aminoacyltransferases, antiferroelectrically, antiferromagnetically, arabinosyltransferase, arylsulfotransferases, arylsulphotransferase, biofunctionalisations, biofunctionalizations
C1QC兔多克隆抗体(ab92689)可与大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Lactobacillus reuteri, a symbiotic inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals, is marketed as a probiotic. The ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and mucus is an interesting property with regard to probiotic features such as colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and interaction with the host. Here, we present a study performed to elucidate the role of sortase (SrtA), four putative sortase-dependent proteins (SDPs), and one C-terminal membrane-anchored cell surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 in adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus in vitro. This included mutagenesis of the genes encoding these proteins and complementation of mutants. A null mutation in hmpref0536_10255 encoding srtA resulted in significantly reduced adhesion to Caco-2 cells and mucus, indicating involvement of SDPs in adhesion. Evaluation of the bacterial adhesion revealed that of the five putative surface protein mutants tested, only a null mutation in the hmpref0536_10633 gene,
Looking for online definition of GPI transamidase component PIG-S in the Medical Dictionary? GPI transamidase component PIG-S explanation free. What is GPI transamidase component PIG-S? Meaning of GPI transamidase component PIG-S medical term. What does GPI transamidase component PIG-S mean?
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital acquired diarrhoea. With extended hospitalisation, a high mortality rate and the risk of recurrence, C. difficile infection presents a burden to both patients and the healthcare system. Symptoms of disease are primarily mediated by the two major toxins released by C. difficile and are the focus of current vaccine studies. Little is known of surface proteins in C. difficile, their role in colonisation and their potential as antigens to reduce severity of disease. The surface of C. difficile is composed of a peptidoglycan cell wall and an external S-layer. In many Gram positive bacteria a membrane bound enzyme, sortase, covalently attaches specific proteins to the cell wall. In this study, seven potential sortase substrates were identified and shown to be expressed in C. difficile 630, and at least four were shown to be localised to the cell wall. The substrate CD0183 was shown to need its LPxTG like domain for correct sorting onto the cell ...
Peptidoglycan is a macromolecule made of long aminosugar strands cross-linked by short peptides. It forms the cell wall in bacteria surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane. The glycan strands are typically comprised of repeating N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) disaccharides. Each MurNAc is linked to a peptide of three to five amino acid residues. Disaccharide subunits are first assembled on the cytoplasmic side of the bacterial membrane on a polyisoprenoid anchor (lipid I and II). Polymerization of disaccharide subunits by transglycosylases and cross-linking of glycan strands by transpeptidases occur on the other side of the membrane. Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors form a major class of antibiotics ...
Mediates the side-chain deamidation of N-terminal glutamine residues to glutamate, an important step in N-end rule pathway of protein degradation. Conversion of the resulting N-terminal glutamine to glutamate renders the protein susceptible to arginylation, polyubiquitination and degradation as specified by the N-end rule. Does not act on substrates with internal or C-terminal glutamine and does not act on non-glutamine residues in any position. Does not deaminate acetylated N-terminal glutamine. With the exception of proline, all tested second-position residues on substrate peptides do not greatly influence the activity. In contrast, a proline at position 2, virtually abolishes deamidation of N-terminal glutamine (By similarity ...
2018. February 2018: Congrats to Sean for his Outstanding Presentation Award in Medicinal Chemistry from the GCURS!. 2017. November 2017: Everett (PhD Alumnus) is named the 2017 UT Emerging Inventor of the Year. Kudos!. November 2017: Our team publishes on the mechanism of AMA inhibiting metallo-beta-lactamases.. October 2017: Aleshas work on NDM-1 overcoming zinc scarcity is published and tweeted!. August 2017: Our team publishes a new NDM-1 inhibitor that works with clinical isolates.. July 2017: Best wishes to Alesha as she moves on to an APHL-CDC Postdoctoral Fellowship on Antimicrobial Resistance. July 2017: Best wishes to Ken (PhD Alumnus) as he moves on to AbbVie!. May 2017: Chriss work on covalent protein modification by 4-halopyridines is published.. May 2017: Wishing Jake farewell at an Austin landmark as he heads to Yale Chemistry for grad school. We knew him when!. March 2017: Congrats to Alesha Stewart for her successful PhD defense! Kudos!. March 2017: Say Hi to the 2017 Library ...
Bacterial transglutaminases are increasingly required as industrial reagents for in vitro modification of proteins in different fields such as in food processing as well as for enzymatic site-specific covalent conjugation of therapeutic proteins to polyethylene glycol to get derivatives with improved clinical performances. In this work we studied the production in Escherichia coli of a recombinant transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (microbial transglutaminase or MTGase) as enzymatically active chimeric forms using different expression systems under the control of both lac promoter or thermoinducible phage lambda promoter. Thermoinducible and constitutive expression vectors were constructed expressing Met-MTGase with chimeric LacZ1-8PNP1-20 or LacZ1-8 fusion protein under different promoters. After transformed in competent Escherichia coli K12 strains were fermented in batch and fed-bach mode in different mediums in order to select the best conditions of expression. The two most performing
Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria are required for: bacterial growth, cell wall maintenance, cell division, protection of bacteria from environmental challenges, adhesion to environment components, colonization and biofilm formation, interaction with eukaryotic cells and induction of immune responses. Thus, surface proteins are essential for bacterial life and critically important in competition for survival in different complex environments in the world.Regarding commensal or probiotic bacteria, the surface proteins are involved in bacteria-host interactions that support beneficial effects. In the era of metagenomics analysis of the human microbiota, identification of the effectors of the cross-talk between bacteria and their host is essential to understand the molecular basis of the symbiosis and develop strategies to restore homeostasis in disease situations.Regarding pathogens, the surface proteins often contribute to pathogenesis and are thus considered as virulence factors. In the era of
C elegans HMT-1 protein: HMT - heavy metals tolerance factor; a putative phytochelatin transporter required for cadmium tolerance; GenBank AAM33381, AF497513-4
GPI transamidase component PIG-T is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIGT gene. This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is an essential component of the multisubunit enzyme, GPI transamidase. GPI transamidase mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by catalyzing the transfer of fully assembled GPI units to proteins. PIGT has been shown to interact with PIGK and GPAA1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124155 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000017721 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Vainauskas S, Menon AK (Apr 2005). "Endoplasmic reticulum localization of Gaa1 and PIG-T, subunits of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase complex". J Biol Chem. 280 (16): 16402-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M414253200. PMID 15713669. "Entrez Gene: ...
p62/SQSTM1/Sequestosome-1 is an N-recognin of the N-end rule pathway which modulates autophagosome biogenesis / Hyunjoo Cha-Molstad; Ji-Eun Yu; Z Feng; S H Lee; Jung Gi Kim; P Yang; B Han; K W Sung; Y D Yoo; Joonsung Hwang; T McGuire; S M Shim; H D Song; S Ganipisetti; N Wang; J M Jang; M J Lee; Seung Jun Kim; Kyung Ho Lee; J T Hong; A Ciechanover; I Mook-Jung; K P Kim; X Q Xie; Y T Kwon; Bo Yeon Kim , 2017 ...
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Motivation. Cephalosporins are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics widely used in clinics for their antibacterial activity. Their mode of action, common to other beta lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, is the impairment of the synthesis of the peptidoglycan forming the bacterial cell wall. This polymer, essential for bacterium survival, is made by aminosugars connected by glycosidic bonds to form linear chains, and by short peptides forming cross-links between the linear chains. The enzymes catalyzing the creation of these cross-links are transpeptidases, also called penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) for their ability to interact with penicillins and other beta lactam antibiotics. These molecules mimic the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of the peptides, therefore they competitively inactivate the PBPs by binding covalently to the Ser residue responsible for the catalysis and stopping the transpeptidation. This results in cell lysis and bacterial death. One of the main problems to face when using
TY - JOUR. T1 - The importance of glutathione and phytochelatins on the selenite and arsenate detoxification in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Aborode, Fatai Adigun. AU - Raab, Andrea. AU - Voigt, Matthias. AU - Costa, Leticia Malta. AU - Krupp, Eva M. AU - Feldmann, Joerg. N1 - This study was supported by the Tesla Research Funds. L.M.C. thanks CNPq (201969/2010-6) for her research visit to Aberdeen and M.V. thanks the European Erasmus Exchange programme. PY - 2016/11. Y1 - 2016/11. N2 - We investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) on the detoxification of selenite using Arabidopsis thaliana. The wild-type (WT) of Arabidopsis thaliana and its mutants (glutathione deficient Cad 2-1 and phytochelatins deficient Cad 1-3) were separately exposed to varying concentrations of selenite and arsenate and jointly to both toxicants to determine their sensitivities. The results of the study revealed that, the mutants were about 20-fold more sensitive to arsenate than the WT, an ...
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SATO Y. , OKAMOTO K. , KAGAMI A. , YAMAMOTO Y. , IGARASHI T. , KIZAKI H. Journal of dental research 83(7), 534-539, 2004-07-01 機関リポジトリ 参考文献30件 被引用文献8件 ...
Cephalexin is a cephalosporin antibiotic used to study the effect of expression, binding, and inhibition of PBP3 and other penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) on bacterial cell wall mucopeptide synthesis. Cephalexin disrupts the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls which is responsible for cell wall structural integrity. Peptidoglycan synthesis is facilitated by transpeptidases known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). PBPs bind to the D-Ala-D-Ala at the end of muropeptides (peptidoglycan precursors) to crosslink the peptidoglycan. Cephalexin antibiotics mimic the D-Ala-D-Ala site, thereby competitively inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan.. ...
A bone anchor is provided that can toggle in two planes for secure anchorage within a bone cavity. The bone anchor includes an oblique suture channel configured such that a suture strand extending through the bone anchor can be tensioned to toggle the bone anchor inside the bone cavity. The suture strand can be located on the same side of the anchor body to maximize the area of the anchor surface which engages bone, resulting in increased engagement into bone and resistance to tensile forces.
Recognizing toxicant contributors to chronic disease and conducting research to evaluate chelation strategies and protocols to assess and address toxic metal bioaccumulation #articles #mercury #exposure #drblanchedgrube #halhugginsprotocol. http://goo.gl/aSCiEu ...
A published scientific abstract from a foreign medical journal written by Pisai Egyetem et al (1) titled "Different sensitivity to acid reaction of the AIDS virus and virus-producing cells" has some important observations that can be related to enemas that are acidic (either with vinegar added or coffee) and to the pH of the colon. What the researchers found is that cell free (HIV) virus gradually loses its infectivity in an acidic medium and loses it permanently when the pH is below 6.0. The more acid the colon, the more damage is done to the membranes of the virus and infectivity is lost and is not regained even when the pH is increased to over 6.0 again. ... For Starters - the first month - use some product that is effective against parasites: Colon Green Powder (Futurebiotics). I mentioned this product about a year ago after one of our readers who had constantly sinking stools told me that this was the only colon cleansing supplement he had found that restored normal floating stools. This ...
A published scientific abstract from a foreign medical journal written by Pisai Egyetem et al (1) titled "Different sensitivity to acid reaction of the AIDS virus and virus-producing cells" has some important observations that can be related to enemas that are acidic (either with vinegar added or coffee) and to the pH of the colon. What the researchers found is that cell free (HIV) virus gradually loses its infectivity in an acidic medium and loses it permanently when the pH is below 6.0. The more acid the colon, the more damage is done to the membranes of the virus and infectivity is lost and is not regained even when the pH is increased to over 6.0 again. ... For Starters - the first month - use some product that is effective against parasites: Colon Green Powder (Futurebiotics). I mentioned this product about a year ago after one of our readers who had constantly sinking stools told me that this was the only colon cleansing supplement he had found that restored normal floating stools. This ...
A synthetic nonapeptide comprising cysteinyl, phenylalanyl, phenylalanyl, glutaminyl, asparaginyl, cysteinyl, prolyl, lysyl, and glycinamide residues in sequence, with a disulfide bridge joining the two cysteine residues. Its antidiuretic effects are less than those of vasopressin. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in local anaesthetic injections for dental use, and is an ingredient of preparations that have been used for treatment of pain and inflammation of the mouth.
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Possible ATPase (PubMed:15653697) involved in DNA replication, may facilitate loading of CDC45 onto pre-replication complexes (PubMed:20065034).
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Elise Abi-Khalil, Diego Segond, Tyson Terpstra, Gwenaëlle André-Leroux, Mireille Kallassy, Didier Lereclus, Fadi Bou-Abdallah, Christina Nielsen-Leroux].
L-Arginine L-Pyroglutamate is a combination of Arginine and a molecule of Pyroglutamate. By putting the two amino acids together, this results in an increase of nitric oxide.. ...
Report Summary Printed Report Title: QC Summary: Fermentation QC Summary report by Batch No. with Charts for Key metrics and a raw data...
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
PRESENTED BY ANJU THAKUR FINAL YEARDEPARTMENT OF RADIODIAGNOSIS AND IMAGING PGIMER, CHANDIGARH
Some populations of brown seaweed species inhabit metal-polluted environments and can develop tolerance to metal stress, but the mechanisms by which this is accomplished are still to be elucidated. To address this, the responses of two strains of the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus isolated from sites with different histories of metal contamination exposed to total copper (CuT) concentrations ranging between 0 and 2.4 μM for 10 days were investigated. The synthesis of the metal-chelator phytochelatin (PCs) and relative levels of transcripts encoding the enzymes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione synthase (GS) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) that participate in the PC biosynthetic pathway were measured, along with the effects on growth, and adsorption and uptake of Cu. Growth of strain LIA, from a pristine site in Scotland, was inhibited to a greater extent, and at lower concentrations, than that of Es524, isolated from a Cu-contaminated site in Chile. Concentrations ...
This study set out to sequence the genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) 3/99-5, an ovine strain isolated from a naturally-occurring case of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in Scotland. The isolate was sequenced and assembled by 454 Life Sciences, and then gap closure performed by PCR bridging. The resulting sequence consisted of three contigs with a length of 2,319,079 bp and a G+C content of 52.18%. The genome was then annotated and predicted to contain 2,153 coding sequences. Analysis of the coding sequences revealed the presence of several putative virulence factors, including four sortases with multiple sortase target proteins containing LPXTG motifs. A further two Cp strains, an Australian ovine and a North American equine isolate, as well as C. ulcerans NCTC 12077 were sequenced for comparison. Comparative genomics, both intra- and inter-species showed all the genomes to be highly homologous. However, the C. ulcerans genome is larger than the Cp genomes and is more distinct; it ...
294518554 - EP 1062348 A1 2000-12-27 - RECOMBINANT ONCONASE AND FUSION PROTEINS OF RECOMBINANT ONCONASE - [origin: WO9946389A1] Recombinantly-produced Onconase molecules and fusion proteins containing the same are disclosed. The recombinantly-produced Onconase molecule has the sequence of native Onconase, retains the proper folding of native Onconase and has cytotoxic activity similar to that of Onconase purified from oocytes of Rana pipiens. cDNA coding for Onconase is extended by one triplet which codes for N-formyl-methionine. When expressed recombinantly, the mutant Onconase has N-formyl-methionine as the N-terminal amino acid, and glutaminyl as the penultimate N-terminal residue. Following expression, the N-formyl methionine residue is cleaved and the penultimate glutaminyl residues are cyclized to produce Onconase with an N-terminal pyroglutamate residue, and hence the same structure and function as native Onconase.[origin: WO9946389A1] Recombinantly-produced Onconase molecules and fusion proteins
Streptococcus pyogenes is an important human pathogen and surface structures allow it to adhere to, colonize and invade the human host. Proteins containing leucine rich repeats (LRR) have been identified in mammals, viruses, archaea and several bacterial species. The LRRs are often involved in protein-protein interaction, are typically 20-30 amino acids long and the defining feature of the LRR motif is an 11-residue sequence LxxLxLxxNxL (x being any amino acid). The streptococcal leucine rich (Slr) protein is a hypothetical lipoprotein that has been shown to be involved in virulence, but at present no ligands for Slr have been identified. We could establish that Slr is a membrane attached horseshoe shaped lipoprotein by homology modeling, signal peptidase II inhibition, electron microscopy (of bacteria and purified protein) and immunoblotting. Based on our previous knowledge of LRR proteins we hypothesized that Slr could mediate binding to collagen. We could show by surface plasmon resonance ...
A formulated biological adhesive composition utilizes tissue transglutaminase in a pharmaceutically acceptable aqueous carrier. The tissue transglutaminase is used in an effective catalytic amount to promote adhesion between tissue surfaces upon treatment thereof by catalyzing the reaction between glutaminyl residues and amine donors of the tissue and/or the enzyme. The carrier contains a divalent metal ion such as calcium to promote said reaction.

Response differences between Ectocarpus siliculosus populations to copper stress involve cellular exclusion and induction of...Response differences between Ectocarpus siliculosus populations to copper stress involve cellular exclusion and induction of...

Aminoacyltransferases. Biosynthetic Pathways. Chile. Copper. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase ...
more infohttps://pearl.plymouth.ac.uk/handle/10026.1/3917

Aminoacyl-transferases and the N-end rule pathway of prokaryotic/eukaryotic specificity in a human pathogen  - MURAL - Maynooth...Aminoacyl-transferases and the N-end rule pathway of prokaryotic/eukaryotic specificity in a human pathogen - MURAL - Maynooth...

Aminoacyl-transferases and the N-end rule pathway of prokaryotic/eukaryotic specificity in a human pathogen ... Aminoacyl-transferases and the N-end rule pathway of prokaryotic/eukaryotic specificity in a human pathogen. Proceedings of the ...
more infohttp://mural.maynoothuniversity.ie/6266/

KEGG ENZYME: 2.3.2.26KEGG ENZYME: 2.3.2.26

Aminoacyltransferases. Sysname. [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-S-ubiquitinyl-L-cysteine:[acceptor protein] ubiquitin ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?enzyme+2.3.2.26

KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RvKEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

2.3.2 Aminoacyltransferases 2.3.3 Acyl groups converted into alkyl groups on transfer ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?mtu01000+Rv2243

Metabolism of drugs and xenobioticsMetabolism of drugs and xenobiotics

aminoacyltransferases amino acids -COOH This list is sorted roughly according to decreasing importance. Glucuronidation is the ...
more infohttp://watcut.uwaterloo.ca/webnotes/Metabolism/DrugMetabolism.html

ENZYME search by enzyme classENZYME search by enzyme class

2. 3. 2.- Aminoacyltransferases. 2. 3. 3.- Acyl groups converted into alkyl groups on transfer. 2. 4. -.- Glycosyltransferases ...
more infohttps://enzyme.expasy.org/enzyme-byclass.html

The expanded specificity and physiological role of a widespread N-degron recognin | PNASThe expanded specificity and physiological role of a widespread N-degron recognin | PNAS

Aminoacyl-transferases and the N-end rule pathway of prokaryotic/eukaryotic specificity in a human pathogen. Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/116/37/18629

Lysyltransferase - WikipediaLysyltransferase - Wikipedia

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysyltransferase

D-glutamyltransferase - WikipediaD-glutamyltransferase - Wikipedia

This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the aminoacyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-glutamyltransferase

Words in 21 letters with FWords in 21 letters with F

aminoacyltransferases plural of aminoacyltransferase. → Definition and anagrams of aminoacyltransferases. → Other senses and ...
more infohttps://lotsofwords.com/f/21-letters

Words in 21 letters with TWords in 21 letters with T

aminoacyltransferases plural of aminoacyltransferase. → Definition and anagrams of aminoacyltransferases. → Other senses and ...
more infohttps://lotsofwords.com/t/21-letters

Enzymatic Single-Chain Antibody TaggingEnzymatic Single-Chain Antibody Tagging

Aminoacyltransferases (MeSH) * Animals (MeSH) * Bacterial Proteins (MeSH) * Blood Platelets (MeSH) * CHO Cells (MeSH) ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication527329

ZmpI-mediated release of the cell wall-associated CD283 | Open-iZmpI-mediated release of the cell wall-associated CD283 | Open-i

Aminoacyltransferases/metabolism. *Cell Membrane/metabolism. *Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism. *Gene Expression Profiling. * ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4591827_zbc0441527550002&req=4

Enzymatic Antibody Tagging: Toward a Universal Biocompatible Targeting ToolEnzymatic Antibody Tagging: Toward a Universal Biocompatible Targeting Tool

Aminoacyltransferases (MeSH) * Bacterial Proteins (MeSH) * Cardiovascular Diseases (MeSH) * Cardiovascular System & Hematology ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication527225

Jo 1 Antibodies | Native Calf Thymus | AROTEC DiagnosticsJo 1 Antibodies | Native Calf Thymus | AROTEC Diagnostics

It contains three structural motifs typical of class IIa aminoacyl transferases and two signature regions common to histidyl- ...
more infohttps://www.arodia.com/shop/Products/Antigens/NativeAnimal/Jo-1.html

Pseudouridine - WikipediaPseudouridine - Wikipedia

The function of it is not very clear, but it is expected to play a role in association with aminoacyl transferases during their ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudouridine

US Patent # 4,299,916. Preferential signal production on a surface in immunoassays - Patents.comUS Patent # 4,299,916. Preferential signal production on a surface in immunoassays - Patents.com

2.2 Transferring aldehydic or ketonic residues 2.3 Actyltransferases 2.3.1 Acyltransferases 2.3.2 Aminoacyltransferases 2.4 ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-4299916.html

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Acyltransferases, metabolism, Aminoacyltransferases, Bacterial Proteins, Carrier Proteins, isolation & purification, Cell Wall ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Biochemical+and+Biophysical+Research+Communications+97%EA%B6%8C+1%ED%98%B8

Emmanuelle Graciet | Maynooth UniversityEmmanuelle Graciet | Maynooth University

Aminoacyl-transferases and the N-end rule pathway of prokaryotic/eukaryotic specificity in a human pathogen E. Graciet, R-G. ... Hu, K. Piatkov, J.H. Rhee, E. M. Schwarz and A. Varshavsky (2006) Aminoacyl-transferases and the N-end rule pathway of ...
more infohttps://www.maynoothuniversity.ie/people/emmanuelle-graciet

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Aminoacyltransferases, genetics, metabolism, Bacterial Adhesion, Bacterial Proteins, Cell Line, Computational Biology, Cysteine ...
more infohttp://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Applied+and+Environmental+Microbiology+78%EA%B6%8C+24%ED%98%B8

Endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis. by Sreedhar R Nallapareddy, Kavindra V Singh et al."Endocarditis and biofilm-associated pili of Enterococcus faecalis." by Sreedhar R Nallapareddy, Kavindra V Singh et al.

Aminoacyltransferases, Animals, Aorta, Bacterial Adhesion, Bacterial Proteins, Biofilms, Cysteine Endopeptidases, Disease ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/uthmed_docs/158/

Ro52 Antigen | Recombinant Antigen | AROTEC DiagnosticsRo52 Antigen | Recombinant Antigen | AROTEC Diagnostics

... but also concurrently with antibodies to Jo-1 and to other aminoacyl transferases, with anti-SRP, anti-PMScl, anti-CENP-B, anti ...
more infohttps://www.arodia.com/shop/Products/Antigens/Insectcells/Ro52.html

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