Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.PseudouridineEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.UracilHydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.UridineNucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein: A mitochondrial protein consisting of four alpha-subunits and four beta-subunits. It contains enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activities and plays an important role in the metabolism of long chain FATTY ACIDS.Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of mitochondrial trifunctional protein that contains acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. There are four of these beta subunits in each trifunctional protein complex.Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein, alpha Subunit: The alpha subunit of mitochondrial trifunctional protein. It contains both enoyl-CoA hydratase activity (EC and long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (EC There are four of these alpha subunits in each mitochondrial trifunctional protein molecule.Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.Long-Chain-3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase that has specificity for acyl chains containing 8 and 10 carbons.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Phycodnaviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.Glutathione Synthase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Phytochelatins: Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Mycobacterium marinum: A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.DenmarkAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.

AtPCS1, a phytochelatin synthase from Arabidopsis: isolation and in vitro reconstitution. (1/414)

Phytochelatins, a class of posttranslationally synthesized peptides, play a pivotal role in heavy metal, primarily Cd2+, tolerance in plants and fungi by chelating these substances and decreasing their free concentrations. Derived from glutathione and related thiols by the action of gamma-glutamylcysteine dipeptidyl transpeptidases (phytochelatin synthases; EC, phytochelatins consist of repeating units of gamma-glutamylcysteine followed by a C-terminal Gly, Ser, or beta-Ala residue [poly-(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Xaa]. Here we report the suppression cloning of a cDNA (AtPCS1) from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a 55-kDa soluble protein that enhances heavy-metal tolerance and elicits Cd2+-activated phytochelatin accumulation when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the basis of these properties and the sufficiency of immunoaffinity-purified epitope-tagged AtPCS1 polypeptide for high rates of Cd2+-activated phytochelatin synthesis from glutathione in vitro, AtPCS1 is concluded to encode the enzyme phytochelatin synthase.  (+info)

Phytochelatin synthase genes from Arabidopsis and the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (2/414)

Phytochelatins (PCs), a family of heavy metal-inducible peptides important in the detoxification of heavy metals, have been identified in plants and some microorganisms, including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but not in animals. PCs are synthesized enzymatically from glutathione (GSH) by PC synthase in the presence of heavy metal ions. In Arabidopsis, the CAD1 gene, identified by using Cd-sensitive, PC-deficient cad1 mutants, has been proposed to encode PC synthase. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have isolated the CAD1 gene. Database searches identified a homologous gene in S. pombe, and a mutant with a targeted deletion of this gene was also Cd sensitive and PC deficient. Extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing a CAD1 cDNA or the S. pombe gene catalyzing GSH-dependent, heavy metal-activated synthesis of PCs in vitro demonstrated that both genes encode PC synthase activity. Both enzymes were activated by a range of metal ions. In contrast, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments showed that expression of the CAD1 mRNA is not influenced by the presence of Cd. A comparison of the two predicted amino acid sequences revealed a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is presumed to be the catalytic domain, and a variable C-terminal region containing multiple Cys residues, which is proposed to be involved in activation of the enzyme by metal ions. Interestingly, a similar gene was identified in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that PCs may also be expressed in some animal species.  (+info)

Tolerance to toxic metals by a gene family of phytochelatin synthases from plants and yeast. (3/414)

Phytochelatins play major roles in metal detoxification in plants and fungi. However, genes encoding phytochelatin synthases have not yet been identified. By screening for plant genes mediating metal tolerance we identified a wheat cDNA, TaPCS1, whose expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a dramatic increase in cadmium tolerance. TaPCS1 encodes a protein of approximately 55 kDa with no similarity to proteins of known function. We identified homologs of this new gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and interestingly also Caenorhabditis elegans. The Arabidopsis and S.pombe genes were also demonstrated to confer substantial increases in metal tolerance in yeast. PCS-expressing cells accumulate more Cd2+ than controls. PCS expression mediates Cd2+ tolerance even in yeast mutants that are either deficient in vacuolar acidification or impaired in vacuolar biogenesis. PCS-induced metal resistance is lost upon exposure to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, a process necessary for phytochelatin formation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells disrupted in the PCS gene exhibit hypersensitivity to Cd2+ and Cu2+ and are unable to synthesize phytochelatins upon Cd2+ exposure as determined by HPLC analysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing PCS produce phytochelatins. Moreover, the recombinant purified S.pombe PCS protein displays phytochelatin synthase activity. These data demonstrate that PCS genes encode phytochelatin synthases and mediate metal detoxification in eukaryotes.  (+info)

Functional characterization of the D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase from Escherichia coli. (4/414)

The yihZ gene of Escherichia coli is shown to produce a deacylase activity capable of recycling misaminoacylated D-Tyr-tRNATyr. The reaction is specific and, under optimal in vitro conditions, proceeds at a rate of 6 s-1 with a Km value for the substrate equal to 1 microM. Cell growth is sensitive to interruption of the yihZ gene if D-tyrosine is added to minimal culture medium. Toxicity of exogenous D-tyrosine is exacerbated if, in addition to the disruption of yihZ, the gene of D-amino acid dehydrogenase (dadA) is also inactivated. Orthologs of the yihZ gene occur in many, but not all, bacteria. In support of the idea of a general role of the D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase function in the detoxification of cells, similar genes can be recognized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana, mouse, and man.  (+info)

Staphylococcus aureus sortase, an enzyme that anchors surface proteins to the cell wall. (5/414)

Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria are linked to the bacterial cell wall by a mechanism that involves cleavage of a conserved Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly (LPXTG) motif and that occurs during assembly of the peptidoglycan cell wall. A Staphylococcus aureus mutant defective in the anchoring of surface proteins was isolated and shown to carry a mutation in the srtA gene. Overexpression of srtA increased the rate of surface protein anchoring, and homologs of srtA were found in other pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. The protein specified by srtA, sortase, may be a useful target for the development of new antimicrobial drugs.  (+info)

Evidence for tissue-specific forms of glutaminyl cyclase. (6/414)

Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) is responsible for the presence of pyroglutamyl residues in many neuroendocrine peptides. An examination of the bovine tissue distribution of QC immunoreactivity, enzyme activity, and mRNA confirmed that QC was abundant in brain and pituitary by all three measures. However, enzymatic activity was considerably more widespread than either immunoreactivity or mRNA, suggesting multiple enzyme forms. Partially purified QC from bovine spleen differed significantly from the known bovine pituitary QC in physical and catalytic properties. We propose that this form of glutaminyl cyclase plays a role in the posttranslational processing of constitutively secreted pGlu-containing proteins.  (+info)

Effect of dietary inducer dimethylfumarate on glutathione in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. (7/414)

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dimethylfumarate (DMF), an inducer of glutathione (GSH)-dependent detoxification, on intracellular GSH levels in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cells, its mechanism of action, and its effect on hRPE cells subjected to oxidative injury. METHODS: Established hRPE cell lines were treated with DMF and assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography for intracellular and extracellular GSH levels. Quantification of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GLCL) was determined through northern and western blot analyses, and activity was measured. Effects of pretreatment with DMF on GSH redox status of hRPE cells was determined. Sensitivity of hRPE cells to oxidative stress was determined using tert-butylhydroperoxide as the oxidative agent. RESULTS: Dimethylfumarate caused a transient decrease followed by a significant increase in intracellular GSH. Glutathione increased maximally at 24 hours with 100 to 200 microM DMF. The initial decrease could be accounted for by the formation of a DMF-GSH conjugate. Dimethylfumarate treatment increased the steady state mRNA expression of the regulatory subunit of GLCL, but no increase was seen for the catalytic subunit. However, protein levels were increased for both, and the catalytic activity of GLCL was also increased. Whereas the initial decrease in GSH made hRPE cells more susceptible to oxidative damage, pretreatment with DMF under conditions that increased intracellular GSH protected hRPE cells against oxidative damage. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a means by which the antioxidant capability of hRPE may be augmented without direct antioxidant supplementation. Specifically, a dietary compound that conjugates with GSH can induce GSH synthesis, increase GSH concentration, and improve protection by GSH-dependent detoxification pathways in hRPE. However, the early depletion of GSH before stimulated synthesis necessitates caution in prevention strategies using dietary inducers.  (+info)

Spread of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries: Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study. (8/414)

Antimicrobial susceptibility of 996 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical specimens was investigated in 11 Asian countries from September 1996 to June 1997. Korea had the greatest frequency of nonsusceptible strains to penicillin with 79.7%, followed by Japan (65.3%), Vietnam (60.8%), Thailand (57.9%), Sri Lanka (41.2%), Taiwan (38.7%), Singapore (23.1%), Indonesia (21.0%), China (9.8%), Malaysia (9.0%), and India (3.8%). Serotypes 23F and 19F were the most common. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 154 isolates from Asian countries showed several major PFGE patterns. The serotype 23F Spanish clone shared the same PFGE pattern with strains from Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Malaysia. Fingerprinting analysis of pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes of 12 strains from six countries also showed identical fingerprints of penicillin-binding protein genes in most strains. These data suggest the possible introduction and spread of international epidemic clones into Asian countries and the increasing problems of pneumococcal drug resistance in Asian countries for the first time.  (+info)