The conversion of uncharged TRANSFER RNA to AMINO ACYL TRNA.
A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. TRANSFER RNA AMINOACYLATION is the first step in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
An enzyme that activates phenylalanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.20.
An enzyme that activates isoleucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.5.
An enzyme that activates valine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.9
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
An enzyme that activates methionine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.10.
An enzyme that activates serine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.11.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying isoleucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.
An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.
An enzyme that activates lysine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.6.
An enzyme that activates arginine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.19.
An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.17.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.
An enzyme that activates tryptophan with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.2.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying serine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that activates threonine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.3.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying threonine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying asparagine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
An enzyme that activates histidine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.21.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
A mitochondrial disorder characterized by focal or generalized seizures, episodes of transient or persistent neurologic dysfunction resembling strokes, and ragged-red fibers on muscle biopsy. Affected individuals tend to be normal at birth through early childhood, then experience growth failure, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral insults resulting in visual loss and hemiparesis. The cortical lesions tend to occur in the parietal and occipital lobes and are not associated with vascular occlusion. VASCULAR HEADACHE is frequently associated and the disorder tends to be familial. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, p117)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A mitochondrial encephalomyopathy characterized clinically by a mixed seizure disorder, myoclonus, progressive ataxia, spasticity, and a mild myopathy. Dysarthria, optic atrophy, growth retardation, deafness, and dementia may also occur. This condition tends to present in childhood and to be transmitted via maternal lineage. Muscle biopsies reveal ragged-red fibers and respiratory chain enzymatic defects. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p986)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.

5'-Capping structures of Artemia salina mRNA and the translational inhibition by cap analogs. (1/111)

The mRNA of the brain shrimp Artemia salina has two types of blocked methylated 5'-terminal structures (caps). About 75% of the mRNA molecules have the 5'-end structure of m7G5'ppp5'-AmpGp and about 25% have the structure of m7G5'ppp5'GmpGp. The only other type of methylated residue found in Artemia mRNA is N6-methyladenosine and which is located at internal positions along the mRNA chain. Translation of Artemia cyst or nauplius poly(A)-rich mRNA in wheat-germ extracts was found to be inhibited by 7-methylguanosine 5'-monophosphate, a chemical analog of the cap, as well as by snythetic caps such as m7G5'ppp5'Gm. On the other hand, the elongation activity on endonegous mRNA in an Artemia cell-free system was not sensitive to 7-methylguanosine 5'-monophosphate.  (+info)

Translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B1 in rat-liver polysomes. (2/111)

Aflatoxin B1 strongly inhibits protein synthesis in rat liver cells. We previously demonstrated that this inhibition could be divided into two steps: up to 5 h aflatoxin blocks protein synthesis directly and specifically at the polysome level; beyond 7 h protein synthesis inhibition appears chiefly as a consequence of transcription impairment due to drug action. This paper confirms the foregoing results and represents an attempt to localize the translational step inhibited in vivo by aflatoxin B1. We used the simulation study developed by Li, Kisilevsky, Wasan and Hammond, 1972 (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 272, 451-462) to determine precisely the site inhibited in vivo after drug intoxication. This analysis is based on two parameters: the kinetics of polysome labeling to follow the nascent peptide synthesis, and the kinetics of supernatant labeling to follow the completed protein synthesis. Up to 5 h after dosing, aflatoxin specifically inhibits the elongation and/or termination steps during protein synthesis; after longer periods of time inhibition occurs essentially at the initiation step. When the intracellular concentration of aflatoxin is too high, particularly 2 h after dosing, each step of protein synthesis is blocked. Polypeptide synthesis by the postmitochondrial supernatants isolated from aflatoxin-treated animals is impaired in the same proportion as protein synthesis in vivo. The damage caused by aflatoxin is mostly observed on microsomes. However, purified polysomes isolated from aflatoxin-treated rats synthesize proteins in vitro to the same extent as those from controls. These results suggest that aflatoxin metabolite(s) are bound to polysomes with noncovalent bonds. These active metabolites are probably lost during polysome isolation procedures. Finally, relationships between protein metabolism and aflatoxin carcinogenesis are discussed.  (+info)

Polyanion-induced release of polyribosomes from HeLa cell nuclei. (3/111)

Intact detergent-washed HeLa nuclei contain a population of polyribisomes that were released by exposure to polyanions such as RNA or poly(U). The released material appeared by electron microscopic examination to be particles averaging about 200 to 300 angstroms in diameter. Sedimentation velocity analysis of the released particles indicated that the particles had S20,w values of 75 and 110. The particles stimulated amino acid incorporation in an ascites S-30 or S-100 extract at 2.5 mM Mg2+. Studies with a variety of antibiotics indicated that these polyribosomes were capable of elongating but not initiating protein synthesis. Although these polyribosomes may be of cytoplasmic origin, they appear unique in that agents thought to disperse chromatin are required for their release from the nucleus.  (+info)

Properties of biologically active messenger RNA from human placenta. Cell-free synthesis of two immunoreactive forms of placental lactogen. (4/111)

In order to understand better the regulation of human placental proteins the activity of placental lactogen messenger RNA has been examined. Total RNA was extracted from normal term placentas and purified by chromatography on oligo(dT)-cellulose. The poly(A)-containing fraction stimulated amino acid incorporation 5- to 10-fold in wheat germ cell-free extracts, and immunoprecipitation of the translation products with antiserum directed against human placental lactogen (hPL) suggests that about 2% of the peptides contain hPL determinants. Analysis of the material precipitated with hPL antiserum by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels revealed two major species, one co-migrating with hPL and the other migrating slightly slower than hPL. On DEAE-cellulose chromatography the former material eluted close to authentic hPL while the latter material eluted at higher ionic strength than hPL, indicating a difference in net charge of these two species. Tryptic peptide analysis of the large material and authentic hPL shows marked similarities in the primary structure of these two proteins. The slower migrating peptide has an apparent molecular weight about 3000 larger than hPL and thus may represent a precursor molecule. Both cell-free products could be competed out of immunoprecipitates by a large excess of authentic hPL, confirming their immunologic similarities. Centrifugation of the placental poly(A)-containing RNA through aqueous glycerol gradients indicates that the hPL mRNA sediments at about 14 S.  (+info)

(De)regulation of key enzyme steps in the shikimate pathway and phenylalanine-specific pathway of the actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica. (5/111)

Prephenate dehydratase (PDT), chorismate mutase (CM) and 3-deoxy-D-arabino-7-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase are key regulatory enzymes in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica. Deregulated, feedback-control-resistant mutants were isolated by incubation of A. methanolica on glucose mineral agar containing the toxic analogue p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (pFPhe). Several of these mutants had completely lost PDT sensitivity to Phe inhibition and Tyr activation. Mutant characterization yielded new information about PDT amino acid residues involved in Phe and Tyr effector binding sites. A. methanolica wild-type cells grown on glucose mineral medium normally possess a bifunctional CM/DAHP synthase protein complex (with DS1, a plant-type DAHP synthase). The CM activity of this protein complex is feedback-inhibited by Tyr and Phe, while DS1 activity is mainly inhibited by Trp. Isolation of pFPhe-resistant mutants yielded two feedback-inhibition-resistant CM mutants. These were characterized as regulatory mutants, derepressed in (a) synthesis of CM, now occurring as an abundant, feedback-inhibition-resistant, separate protein, and (b) synthesis of an alternative DAHP synthase (DS2, an E. coli-type DAHP synthase), only inhibited by Tyr and Trp. DS1 and DS2 thus are well integrated in A. methanolica primary metabolism: DS1 and CM form a protein complex, which stimulates CM activity and renders it sensitive to feedback inhibition by Phe and Tyr. Synthesis of CM and DS2 proteins appears to be controlled co-ordinately, sensitive to Phe-mediated feedback repression.  (+info)

Achieving error-free translation; the mechanism of proofreading of threonyl-tRNA synthetase at atomic resolution. (6/111)

The fidelity of aminoacylation of tRNA(Thr) by the threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) requires the discrimination of the cognate substrate threonine from the noncognate serine. Misacylation by serine is corrected in a proofreading or editing step. An editing site has been located 39 A away from the aminoacylation site. We report the crystal structures of this editing domain in its apo form and in complex with the serine product, and with two nonhydrolyzable analogs of potential substrates: the terminal tRNA adenosine charged with serine, and seryl adenylate. The structures show how serine is recognized, and threonine rejected, and provide the structural basis for the editing mechanism, a water-mediated hydrolysis of the mischarged tRNA. When the adenylate analog binds in the editing site, a phosphate oxygen takes the place of one of the catalytic water molecules, thereby blocking the reaction. This rules out a correction mechanism that would occur before the binding of the amino acid on the tRNA.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with the G8363A and A8296G mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) gene. (7/111)

Two mutations (G8363A and A8296G) in the mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) tRNA(Lys) gene have been associated with severe mitochondrial diseases in a number of reports. Their functional significance, however, remains unknown. We have already shown that homoplasmic cybrids harbouring the A8296G mutation display normal oxidative phosphorylation, although the possibility of a subtle change in mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains an open issue. We have now investigated the pathogenic mechanism of another mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene (G8363A) by repopulating an mtDNA-less human osteosarcoma cell line with mitochondria harbouring either this genetic variant alone or an unusual combination of the two mutations (A8296G+G8363A). Cybrids homoplasmic for the single G8363A or the A8296G+G8363A mutations have defective respiratory-chain enzyme activities and low oxygen consumption, indicating a severe impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Generation of G8363A cybrids within a wild-type or the A8296G mtDNA genetic backgrounds resulted in an important alteration in the conformation of the tRNA(Lys), not affecting tRNA steady-state levels. Moreover, mutant cybrids have an important decrease in the proportion of amino-acylated tRNA(Lys) and, consequently, mitochondrial protein synthesis is greatly decreased. Our results demonstrate that the pathogenicity of the G8363A mutation is due to a change in the conformation of the tRNA that severely impairs aminoacylation in the absence of changes in tRNA stability. The only effect detected in the A8296G mutation is a moderate decrease in the aminoacylation capacity, which does not affect mitochondrial protein biosynthesis.  (+info)

Divergent anticodon recognition in contrasting glutamyl-tRNA synthetases. (8/111)

The pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori utilizes two essential glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRS1 and GluRS2). These two enzymes are closely related in evolution and yet they aminoacylate contrasting tRNAs. GluRS1 is a canonical discriminating GluRS (D-GluRS) that biosynthesizes Glu-tRNA(Glu) and cannot make Glu-tRNA(Gln). In contrast, GluRS2 is non-canonical as it is only essential for the production of misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln). The co-existence and evident divergence of these two enzymes was capitalized upon to directly examine how GluRS2 acquired tRNA(Gln) specificity. One key feature that distinguishes tRNA(Glu) from tRNA(Gln) is the third position in the anticodon of each tRNA (C36 versus G36, respectively). By comparing sequence alignments of different GluRSs, including GluRS1s and GluRS2s, to the crystal structure of the Thermus thermophilus D-GluRS:tRNA(Glu) complex, a divergent pattern of conservation in enzymes that aminoacylate tRNA(Glu)versus those specific for tRNA(Gln) emerged and was experimentally validated. In particular, when an arginine conserved in discriminating GluRSs and GluRS1s was inserted into Hp GluRS2 (Glu334Arg GluRS2), the catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzyme (k(cat)/K(Mapp)) was reduced by approximately one order of magnitude towards tRNA(Gln). However, this mutation did not introduce activity towards tRNA(Glu). In contrast, disruption of a glycine that is conserved in all GluRS2s but not in other GluRSs (Gly417Thr GluRS2) generated a mutant GluRS2 with weak activity towards tRNA(Glu1). Synergy between these two mutations was observed in the double mutant (Glu334Arg/Gly417Thr GluRS2), which specifically and more robustly aminoacylates tRNA(Glu1) instead of tRNA(Gln). As GluRS1 and GluRS2 are related by an apparent gene duplication event, these results demonstrate that we can experimentally map critical evolutionary events in the emergence of new tRNA specificities.  (+info)

Mistranslation broadly encompasses the introduction of errors during any step of protein synthesis, leading to the incorporation of an amino acid that is different from the one encoded by the gene. Recent research has vastly enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms that control mistranslation at the molecular level and has led to the discovery that the rates of mistranslation in vivo are not fixed but instead are variable. In this Review we describe the different steps in translation quality control and their variations under different growth conditions and between species though a comparison of in vitro and in vivo findings. This provides new insights as to why mistranslation can have both positive and negative effects on growth and viability. ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with…
The noncanonical amino acid S-allyl cysteine (Sac) is one of the major compounds of garlic extract and exhibits a range of biological activities. It is also a small bioorthogonal alkene tag capable of undergoing controlled chemical modifications, such as photoinduced thiol-ene coupling or Pd-mediated deprotection. Its small size guarantees minimal interference with protein structure and function. Here, we report a simple protocol efficiently to couple in-situ semisynthetic biosynthesis of Sac and its incorporation into proteins in response to amber (UAG) stop codons. We exploited the exceptional malleability of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and evolved an S-allylcysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (SacRS) capable of specifically accepting the small, polar amino acid instead of its long and bulky aliphatic natural substrate. We succeeded in generating a novel and inexpensive strategy for the incorporation of a functionally versatile amino acid. This will help in the conversion of orthogonal ...
Sato, K, A mammalian cell mutant with an altered alanyl-trna synthetase. Abstr. (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 2737 ...
2ZIN: Multistep Engineering of Pyrrolysyl-tRNA Synthetase to Genetically Encode N(varepsilon)-(o-Azidobenzyloxycarbonyl) lysine for Site-Specific Protein Modification
Amino Acids play an important role in better nutrition and a healthier body. Browse the extensive iHerb selection of natural amino acid supplements.
Amino Acids play an important role in better nutrition and a healthier body. Browse the extensive iHerb selection of natural amino acid supplements.
Amino Acids play an important role in better nutrition and a healthier body. Browse the extensive iHerb selection of natural amino acid supplements.
Amino Acids play an important role in better nutrition and a healthier body. Browse the extensive iHerb selection of natural amino acid supplements.
100% pH 5.5 Natural Amino Acid Base Bar The GENESIS N-Amino Bar is especially effective for sensitive and tender baby or Atopic skin.. If you have a very sensitive skin, you should use a soap that is mild on the skin.. I bet N-amino bar can't be compared with others.. ...
Source Naturals의 다양한 상품 중 Source Naturals Amino Acids, 아미노산을 온라인으로 매일매일 싼 가격에 구해 보세요. 대한민국 빠르게 배송합니다.
An Excellent first time treatment for both men and women looking for a relaxing treatment, and for those who do not want to experience peeling. PCA Skin products are customized to your needs and goals. It includes deep cleansing and exfoliating, a light enzyme treatment to even texture and minimize the appearance of pores, a deep hydrating antioxidant treatment to soothe and hydrate impaired skin conditions of all kinds while improving the skins overall appearance, a relaxing facial massage, toning, corrections, and moisturizing based on your skin type, leaving your skin looking healthy, dewy and beautiful. It comes with your choice of a Hand & arm, or Foot massage. Extractions are also included. ​(55 Minutes) ...
Organisms use highly accurate molecular processes to transcribe their genes and a variety of mRNA quality control and ribosome proofreading mechanisms to maintain intact the fidelity of genetic information flow. Despite this, low level gene translational errors induced by mutations and environmental factors cause neurodegeneration and premature death in mice and mitochondrial disorders in humans. Paradoxically, such errors can generate advantageous phenotypic diversity in fungi and bacteria through poorly understood molecular processes. In order to clarify the biological relevance of gene translational errors we have engineered codon misreading in yeast and used profiling of total and polysome-associated mRNAs, molecular and biochemical tools to characterize the recombinant cells. We demonstrate here that gene translational errors, which have negligible impact on yeast growth rate down-regulate protein synthesis, activate the unfolded protein response and environmental stress response pathways, and down
Background Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze the first step of protein synthesis. We also established a strategy to check the natural activity of rhTyrRS by calculating aminoacylation and IL-8 launch in rhTyrRS-treated HL-60 cells. Conclusions The characterization of purified rhTyrRS indicated that proteins could be found in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic research. and animal research could possibly be carried out to judge its toxic and pharmacologic results then. In this scholarly study, rhTyrRS was indicated at a higher level in and purified for potential preclinical testing. Strategies Cells and antibodies The skilled stress BL21 (F-ompT hsdS (rB-mB-) gal dcm; providded by aTyr Pharma) was utilized as the sponsor for rhTyrRS manifestation. This stress was transformed using the pET24a inducible manifestation vector where the His-tag series was deleted as well as the T7 promoter was changed having a Tac promoter. A mouse anti-human IL-8 monoclonal antibody ...
Background The human alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) belongs to a family of tRNA synthases, of the class II enzymes. Class II tRNA synthases evolved early in evolution and are highly conserved. This is reflected by the fact...
Complete information for AARS1 gene (Protein Coding), Alanyl-TRNA Synthetase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
mitochondrial matrix, mitochondrion, leucine-tRNA ligase activity, leucyl-tRNA aminoacylation, mitochondrial translation, tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation
Les problèmes, leurs expériences et leurs publics : une enquête pragmatiste. An article from journal Sociologie et sociétés (Problèmes, expériences, publics : enquêtes pragmatistes), on Érudit.
natural amino acids supplement that contains a proprietary blend of L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine, L-Alanine, L-Glutamine, and Glycine that offer a host of unique benefits
Inolex is introducing two breakthrough products, AminoSensyl HC and AminoSensyl SC, to its 100% natural amino lipid technology platform. Both products are part of Inolexs patented AminoSensyl range, a portfolio of next generation conditioning
Découvrez des artistes originaux et talentueux, écoutez leurs titres via le streaming musique en gratuit et illimité. Invitez-les en concert dans votre ville.
Découvrez des artistes originaux et talentueux, écoutez leurs titres via le streaming musique en gratuit et illimité. Invitez-les en concert dans votre ville.
The genetic code is brought into action by 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes are evenly divided into two classes (I and II) that recognize tRNAs from the minor and major groove sides of the acceptor stem, respectively. We have reported recently that: (1) ribozymic precursors of the synthetases seem to have used the same two sterically mirror modes of tRNA recognition, (2) having these two modes might have helped in preventing erroneous aminoacylation of ancestral tRNAs with complementary anticodons, yet (3) the risk of confusion for the presumably earliest pairs of complementarily encoded amino acids had little to do with anticodons. Accordingly, in this communication we focus on the acceptor stem. Our main result is the emergence of a palindrome structure for the acceptor stems common ancestor, reconstructed from the phylogenetic trees of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. In parallel, for pairs of ancestral tRNAs with complementary anticodons, we present updated evidence of concerted
S. Mallakpour; M. Iderli and M.R. Sabzalian. Designed Monomers and Polymers, 2013, 16, 509-514. In vitro studies on biodegradable chiral nanostructure poly(amide-imide)s containing different natural amino acids in green medium. S. Mallakpour; M. Iderli and M.R. Sabzalian. Designed Monomers and Polymers, 2013, 16, 509-514. In vitro studies on biodegradable chiral nanostructure
Read Properties of the Functioning of the Promoter of the Microcin C51 Operon under Different Conditions of Escherichia coliCell Growth, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
View comparative expression as heatmap: raw , row-normalized. Trees: OG0005950_tree (Phylogenetic Tree) Specific for Archaeplastida. GO Terms (top 5): tRNA aminoacylation, tRNA metabolic process, amino acid activation, ncRNA metabolic process, cellular amino acid metabolic process InterPro domains (top 3): aa-tRNA-synt_IIb, tRNA_SAD, Anticodon-bd ...
A tRNA with double identity was created, and this tRNA was demonstrated in vitro to aminoacylate quantitatively with either of two amino acids. In contrast, acceptance of only one of these amino acids was observed in vivo, and a simple manipulation determined which one was accepted. Kinetic parameters were obtained for aminoacylation with each amino acid of the tRNA with double identity and of related tRNAs. Modeling with these parameters largely explains which amino acid specificity is observed in vivo. The results delineate some of the kinetic boundaries for the design and accommodation of tRNA sequence variations in the elaboration of identity in vivo ...
Tremplin (Le), Centre pour personnes immigrantes et leurs familles : Soutien aux personnes immigrantes et à leurs familles : * accompagnement dans les démarches dinstallation à Lévis * soutien dans les procédures administratives * aide pour lacquisition de biens esse ...
Expanding the Genetic Code using the PylRS/tRNACUA pair. A. An unnatural amino acid (blue star) is taken up by the cell. It is specifically recognized by an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and attached to the orthogonal amber suppressor tRNACUA (blue trident), which is decoded on the ribosome in response to an amber codon. Natural amino acids are shown as black ovals. B. Orthogonal synthetase tRNACUA pairs are generated in two steps: import of a heterologous tRNACUA into a host containing a set of natural synthetases (grey) that use natural amino acids, and the subsequent selection of a mutated active site in the orthogonal synthetase to recognize the unnatural amino acid. C. A large library of active site variants of the synthetase is subject to positive selection for activity with either natural or unnatural amino acids, by virtue of their ability to suppress a stop codon in a gene essential for survival. Synthetases using natural amino acids are subsequently removed by a negative ...
Read Activation of the expression of the microcin C51 operon upon glucose starvation of cells at the exponential growth phase, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
MARS Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_004981), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The encoded protein is a component of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex and catalyzes the ligation of methionine to tRNA molecules.
mitochondrial matrix, mitochondrion, nucleus, aspartate-tRNA ligase activity, aspartate-tRNA(Asn) ligase activity, ATP binding, protein homodimerization activity, tRNA binding, mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA aminoacylation, tRNA aminoacylation
Best price in Australia on Source Naturals Amino Day - 120 Tablets from eVitamins.com. Find Amino Day reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins. Fast and reliable shipping to the Australia. Amino Day and other products by Source Naturals for all your health needs.
July 15 2017 Issue The semi-monthly AARS online Hot Topics Newsletter is an exclusive AARS member benefit! You dont need to spend countless hours perusing your typical online sources when you have this! Stay informed today by becoming an AARS member and receiving the Hot Topics!
Dissolution enthalpies of several natural amino acids (l-α-asparagine, l-α-glutamine, l-α-aspartic acid, l-α-glutamic acid, l-α-arginine, l-α-lysine and l-α-histidine) were measured in aqueous solutions of potassium chloride ...
Arginine Capsules can be taken for a healthy heart. Arginine is a natural amino acid which has powerful vasodilatory properties. It may help maintain healthy blood flow to the heart. ✓Authorised Higher Nature Stockist ✓Free Delivery on £15 Orders
Background Among the 20 natural amino acids histidine is the most active and versatile member that plays the multiple roles in protein interactions, often the key residue in enzyme catalytic...
The Ingredients that matter for Menoxcel Menopause symptoms are the result of imbalances within the body. Menoxcel works on the underlying cause of menopause symptoms by bringing the natural amino acids, vitamins & minerals into balance. While many supplements contain generic herbal ingredients, Menoxcel contains
L-Arginine is a natural amino acid which during the process of digestion is converted into nitric oxide and released in blood stream. L-Arginine is … ...
Sodomy (/ˈsɒdəmi/) is any non-penile/vaginal copulation-like act, such as oral or anal sex, or sex between a person and an animal. Dont sodomize my mouth!
Serving Size: 1 ScoopServings per Container: 30 Amount Per Serving %Daily ValueCalories 12g Calories from Fat 0Total Fat 0 0%Carbohydrates 3g 1% Sugar 1g Fiber
Calendar , second long format de Motorama, fut le premier à bénéficier dune distribution commerciale. Très largement reconnus chez eux, faisant preuve dune soif dautonomie à toute épreuve, les musiciens éditaient auparavant eux même leurs CDs, réalisaient leurs vidéos clips, photos de presse, organisaient en interne leurs concerts dont une tournée européenne en 2011 et quelques festivals dimportance (Afisha Picnic, Exit).. Soit dix compositions pop aux cicatrices saillantes, dix perles addictives où lon retrouve cette spontanéité, cette douceur et cette fragilité à la tension sous-jacente qui habitent leurs titres. Si lon pense bien sûr aux fantômes de Joy Division, à The National, Interpol voire la pop rêveuse de Belle & Sebastian, leur musique demeure délicieusement moderne et insaisissable. ...
Apr 20, 2017 , Mistranslations. We have all seen how translation blunders can be humorous at times. While some may be entertaining, others cause quite a stir. There are entire websites dedicated to pointing out these translation errors on objects such as clothing or signs. Equally, you can discover ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases should ensure high accuracy in tRNA aminoacylation. However, the absence of significant structural differences between amino acids always poses a direct challenge for some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, such as leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), which require editing function to remove mis-activated amino acids. In the cytoplasm of the human pathogen Candida albicans, the CUG codon is translated as both Ser and Leu by a uniquely evolved CatRNASer(CAG). Its cytoplasmic LeuRS (CaLeuRS) is a crucial component for CUG codon ambiguity and harbors only one CUG codon at position 919. Comparison of the activity of CaLeuRS-Ser919 and CaLeuRS-Leu919 revealed yeast LeuRSs have a relaxed tRNA recognition capacity. We also studied the mis-activation and editing of non-cognate amino acids by CaLeuRS. Interestingly, we found that CaLeuRS is naturally deficient in tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing for non-cognate norvaline while displaying a weak tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing ...
PubMed journal article Inhibition of selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec aminoacylation provides evidence that aminoacylation is required for regulatory methylation of this tRN were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) comprise an ancient, diverse enzyme family that catalyzes specific attachment of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs and ensures the accurate translation of the genetic code in the first step of protein synthesis (Carter, 1993; Martinis and Schimmel, 1996). The aminoacylation reaction is accomplished by a two‐step process: (a) activation of amino acids with ATP, forming aminoacyl adenylate, and (b) transfer of the aminoacyl residue to the 3′‐end of tRNA (Ibba and Söll, 2000). In this two‐step reaction, each tRNA synthetase molecule must select and activate its cognate amino acid from the cellular pool of 20 different proteinaceous amino acids. Because of the structural similarity of some amino acids, aaRSs really have difficulties in accurately discriminating cognate substrate from others (Baldwin and Berg, 1966; Loftfield and Vanderjagt, 1972). High fidelity in the amino‐acid selection process, which in some cases depends on hydrolytic editing to ...
Tuesday, January 8. Special Interest Seminar, Host: Christian Melander. Dr. Herman Sintim, University of Maryland. Nucleotide signaling in bacteria-important second messengers in bacteria, which biologists ignored for almost three decades.. Please Note: Seminar will be held in Dabney 220 at 3:40 pm. Friday, January 11. Host: Alex Deiters. Stephen C. Miller, University of Massachusetts Medical School. Building better luciferins and fluorophores for live cell imaging [ View Abstract (PDF) ]. Wednesday, January 16. Host: Alex Deiters. Wenshe Liu, Texas A&M University, Department of Chemistry. Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase: a mediocre enzyme could be a gift from nature. Please Note: Seminar will be held in Dabney 220 at 3:40 pm. Friday, January 18. Host: David Shultz. Vince Rotello, University of Massachusetts Amherst. Gold Nanoparticles in Biomedicine: Delivery and Sensing [ View Abstract (PDF) ]. Wednesday, January 23. Special Interest Seminar: Inorganic Series, Host: Elon Ison. Timothy ...
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS) or tRNA ligase catalyzes the esterification of a specific amino acid to its cognate tRNA to form an aminoacyl-tRNA. The amino acid is transferred by the ribosome from the aminoacylated-tRNA onto a growing polypeptide chain. Class I of aaRS is a monomer or dimer, it has 2 highly conserved sequence motifs and it aminoacylates at the 2-OH of an adenosine nucleotide. Class II of aaRS is a dimer or tetramer, it has 3 highly conserved sequence motifs and it aminoacylates at the 3-OH of an adenosine nucleotide. CP1 domain of RS edits a mischarged aa-tRNA. Some of the crystal structures are complexes of the RS with their reactant analog: amino acid-sulfamoyl adenine (aa-SA).[1]. ...
FIG. 4. The aminopropyl group increases the efficiency of AspRS inhibition by processed McC. (A) E. coli S30 extracts were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of McC or the McC derivative lacking the aminopropyl group for a time period sufficient for complete processing. Next, the tRNAAsp aminoacylation reaction was carried out. The amounts of aminoacylated tRNAAsp (measured by determining the incorporation of [C14]Asp in trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material) are shown. See reference 10 for experimental details. The curves are representative of curves obtained in three independent experiments. (B) Structural modeling of the interaction of processed McC with E. coli AspRS: surface representation of E. coli AspRS (PDB code 1c0a) (4) residues within 10 Å of bound aspartyl-AMP and modeled processed McC (both shown using ball-and-stick representation). Distances between the modeled position of the propylamine nitrogen atom and side chain oxygen atoms of Glu482 and Asp475 are ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are modular enzymes globally conserved in the three kingdoms of life. All catalyze the same two-step reaction, i.e., the attachment of a proteinogenic amino acid on their cognate tRNAs, thereby mediating the correct expression of the genetic code. In addition, some aaRSs acquired other functions beyond this key role in translation. Genomics and X-ray crystallography have revealed great structural diversity in aaRSs (e.g., in oligomery and modularity, in ranking into two distinct groups each subdivided in 3 subgroups, by additional domains appended on the catalytic modules). AaRSs show huge structural plasticity related to function and limited idiosyncrasies that are kingdom or even species specific (e.g., the presence in many Bacteria of non discriminating aaRSs compensating for the absence of one or two specific aaRSs, notably AsnRS and/or GlnRS). Diversity, as well, occurs in the mechanisms of aaRS gene regulation that are not conserved in evolution, notably ...
BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industrys business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze aminoacylation of tRNAs in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, AARSs also have critical extracellular and nuclear functions. Evolutionary pressure for new functions might be manifested by splice variants that skip only an internal catalytic domain (CD) and link n …
Les primitifs et leurs signatures. [Tome 1] Les miniaturistes. Ebook by Mely Fernand de and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at AbeBooks.com.
I PILOT DEAMON - Hapilly Depressed |2007]Les quatre types de I Pilot Dæmon viennent de Toulouse, ont beaucoup écouté Breach, Botch, Converge et autre Unsane, et après avoir fait leurs premières armes dans diverses formations, ont décidé daccoucher sur disque de toutes leurs influences, laissant apparaître toutes leurs aspirations. Bien leur en a pris !Ce tout premier EP dans la discographie du quatuor suinte de toutes parts lénergie botchienne. Cela nest en aucun cas un reproche: I Pilot Dæmon fait létalage dune débauche de puissance toute caractéristique du combo culte de Seattle. Nous voici donc avec Happily Depressed plongés au sein dun hardcore féroce et compact. X-SILENCEHappily Depressed by I Pilot Dæmon
Our free easy to use news RSS Aggregator brings content to websites, easier than ever before and its FREE! Nothing to install! Nothing to download! No popups or banners from us on your site!
Site de lassociation Professionnels de limage et des archives de la francophonie, qui réunit tous les professionnels - documentalistes recherchistes et chercheurs dimages, responsables de fonds audiovisuels, cinéastes, monteurs, historiens... qui sintéressent aux images darchives et à leurs usages.
Aminoacylation[edit]. See also: Aminoacyl-tRNA. Aminoacylation is the process of adding an aminoacyl group to a compound. It ...
A transaminoacylator described in 2013 has five nucleotides, which is sufficient for a trans-amino acylation reaction and makes ... "Ribozyme-catalyzed tRNA aminoacylation". Nature Structural Biology. 7 (1): 28-33. doi:10.1038/71225. PMID 10625423. S2CID ...
Francklyn, C.; Shi, J. P.; Schimmel, P. (1992-02-28). "Overlapping nucleotide determinants for specific aminoacylation of RNA ... Francklyn, C.; Schimmel, P. (1989-02-02). "Aminoacylation of RNA minihelices with alanine". Nature. 337 (6206): 478-481. doi: ...
These latter enzymes link amino acids to their cognate transfer RNAs (tRNA) in aminoacylation reactions that establish the ... Bonnefond L, Giegé R, Rudinger-Thirion J (Sep 2005). "Evolution of the tRNA(Tyr)/TyrRS aminoacylation systems". Biochimie. 87 ( ... the first step of the aminoacylation reaction) and for transferring the amino-acid moiety from tyrosyl-adenylate to the 3'OH- ... CCA terminus of the cognate tRNA(Tyr) (the second step of the aminoacylation reaction). The other domains are responsible (i) ...
tRNA-like structures mimic some tRNA function, such as aminoacylation. There are three aminoacylation specificities, valine, ...
... structure also results in decreased aminoacylation. The mutation has also been shown to result in decreased function of the ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in ... "Precursor of pro-apoptotic cytokine modulates aminoacylation activity of tRNA synthetase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
Hopfield JJ, Yamane T, Yue V, Coutts SM (April 1976). "Direct experimental evidence for kinetic proofreading in amino acylation ...
Perona JJ, Steitz TA, Rould MA (1993). "Structural basis for transfer RNA aminoacylation by Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA ...
Metal Ion Requirements in Artificial Ribozymes that Catalyze Aminoacylation and Redox Reactions". Metal ion requirements in ... artificial ribozymes that catalyze aminoacylation and redox reactions. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 9. pp. 277-97. doi:10.1039/ ...
Wakasugi K, Quinn CL, Tao N, Schimmel P (1998). "Genetic code in evolution: switching species-specific aminoacylation with a ... Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA) by their cognate amino acid. Because of their ...
1999). "Precursor of pro-apoptotic cytokine modulates aminoacylation activity of tRNA synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (24): ...
Hipps D, Shiba K, Henderson B, Schimmel P (Jun 1995). "Operational RNA code for amino acids: species-specific aminoacylation of ... Wide divergence of primary structure from bacterial counterpart and species-specific aminoacylation". The Journal of Biological ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in ...
Thus far, this system has only been shown to work in an in-vitro translation setting where the aminoacylation of the orthogonal ... Ohuchi M, Murakami H, Suga H (October 2007). "The flexizyme system: a highly flexible tRNA aminoacylation tool for the ...
Ohuchi, Masaki; Murakami, Hiroshi; Suga, Hiroaki (2007). "The flexizyme system: a highly flexible tRNA aminoacylation tool for ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in ... Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. ...
Swanson R, Hoben P, Sumner-Smith M, Uemura H, Watson L, Söll D (December 1988). "Accuracy of in vivo aminoacylation requires ... It is thermodynamically favorable that the aminoacylation process yield a stable aa-tRNA molecule, thus providing for the ...
Swanson R, Hoben P, Sumner-Smith M, Uemura H, Watson L, Söll D (December 1988). "Accuracy of in vivo aminoacylation requires ...
Structural dynamics of the aminoacylation and proofreading functional cycle of bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase., Nat. Struct. ... "Structural dynamics of the aminoacylation and proofreading functional cycle of bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase". Nature ...
Functional evidence, i.e., mt-tmRNA Aminoacylation with alanine, is available for Jakoba libera. More recently, ssrA was also ... including the acceptor stem with elements like those in alanine tRNA that promote its aminoacylation by alanine-tRNA ligase. It ...
Each of the twenty aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyzes the aminoacylation of a specific tRNA or tRNA isoaccepting family with ... decreases the efficiency of aminoacylation". Biochemistry. 42 (4): 958-64. doi:10.1021/bi026882r. PMID 12549915. Yao YN, Wang L ...
"A single residue in leucyl-tRNA synthetase affecting amino acid specificity and tRNA aminoacylation". Biochemistry. 46 (15): ...
... structural and functional aspects of the aminoacylation reaction". EMBO J. 113 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1994. ...
The conformational change also switches LysRS activity from aminoacylation of Lysine tRNA to diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) ...
Phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase may influence common cellular processes via DNA binding, in addition to its aminoacylation ...
... which solely affected aminoacylation. Epilepsy Mitochondrial disease Myoclonus Ragged red fibers Gene Reviews: MERRF DiMauro, ...
CMT disease severity correlates with mutation-induced open conformation of histidyl-tRNA synthetase, not aminoacylation loss, ... not aminoacylation loss, in patient cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (39): 19440-19448. doi:10.1073 ...
Then PltF catalyzes the aminoacylation of PltL by attaching L-proline to the thiol of the 4'phosphopantetheine arm of PltL. ...
Aminoacylation is the process of adding an aminoacyl group to a compound. Acylation tRNA aminoacylation Transfer RNA-like ... structures Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sonenberg, Nahum (9 January 2018). "Aminoacylation of Proteins: New Targets ...
Gene Ontology Term: phenylalanyl-tRNA aminoacylation. GO ID. GO:0006432 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. The process of ...
Aminoacylation of tRNA is an essential event in the translation system. Although in the modern system protein enzymes play the ... The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 27;366(1580):2959-2964. ... The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 27;366(1580):2959-2964. ... The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 27;366(1580):2959-2964. ...
The aminoacylation/tRNA-recognition domains contain an insertion incompatible with the class-specific tRNA-binding mode. The ... A groove formed between the aminoacylation/tRNA-recognition domains and the editing domain appears to be an alternative tRNA- ... Unique protein architecture of alanyl-tRNA synthetase for aminoacylation, editing, and dimerization. Masahiro Naganuma, Shun- ... The globular subdomain, which is important for the aminoacylation and editing activities, has a positively-charged face ...
Inhibition of aminoacylation of a specific tRNA retards its appearance in the cytoplasm, indicating that nuclear aminoacylation ... Proofreading and Aminoacylation of tRNAs Before Export from the Nucleus Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Fersht AR, Kaethner MM.; Mechanism of aminoacylation of tRNA. Proof of the aminoacyl adenylate pathway for the isoleucyl- and ... the synthetase that catalyzes aminoacylation of mitochondrial tRNAs is encoded by a different gene than the one that acts on ...
The Mechanism of Aminoacylation of Yeast Phenylalanine Transfer Ribonucleic Acid RAINER THIEBE RAINER THIEBE ... The nuclear tRNA aminoacylation-dependent pathway may be the principal route used to export tRNA from the nucleus in ... RAINER THIEBE; The Mechanism of Aminoacylation of Yeast Phenylalanine Transfer Ribonucleic Acid. Biochem Soc Trans 1 December ...
Crystal structures of the interacting domains from yeast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA aminoacylation and nuclear export ... Crystal structures of the interacting domains from yeast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA aminoacylation and nuclear export ... Structures of the interacting domains from yeast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA-aminoacylation and nuclear-export cofactor ... from their prokaryotic counterparts which mediate complex formation between eukaryotic aaRS and cofactors of aminoacylation and ...
Structures of the interacting domains from yeast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA-aminoacylation and nuclear-export cofactor ... Crystal structures of the interacting domains from yeast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA aminoacylation and nuclear export ...
Sec aminoacylation provides evidence that aminoacylation is required for regulatory methylation of this tRN were found in PRIME ... TY - JOUR T1 - Inhibition of selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec aminoacylation provides evidence that aminoacylation is required for ... Inhibition of selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec aminoacylation provides evidence that aminoacylation is required for regulatory ... "Inhibition of Selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec Aminoacylation Provides Evidence That Aminoacylation Is Required for Regulatory ...
Both aminoacylations were completely dependent upon added ATP. Sodium ion inhibited both aminoacylations, but could be overcome ... The two methionines were competitive inhibitors of each other for the aminoacylation of tRNA. Aminoacyl synthetase and tRNA ... There was no difference in selenomethionine or methionine aminoacylation of tRNA using materials from normal or selenium ... Both selenomethionine and methionine had about the same optimum aminoacylation conditions: enzyme and tRNA concentration, ATP/ ...
Aminoacylation of tRNA within the nucleus. (A) Aminoacylation of tRNAi Metoccurs in the nucleus.32P-labeled pre-tRNAi Met (Fig ... B) Nuclear aminoacylation of tRNAi Met occurs independently of export. Export (upper panels) and the extents of aminoacylation ... Inhibition of aminoacylation of a specific tRNA retards its appearance in the cytoplasm, indicating that nuclear aminoacylation ... The effect of nuclear aminoacylation on tRNATyr export was monitored with Tyr-AMS. In the absence of aminoacylation, export of ...
Characterization of Leucyl -Trna Synthetase From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Escherichia Coli in Aminoacylation, Amino Acid ... Characterization of Leucyl -Trna Synthetase From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Escherichia Coli in Aminoacylation, Amino Acid ... Characterization of Leucyl -Trna Synthetase From Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Escherichia Coli in Aminoacylation, Amino Acid ...
Uptake and aminoacylation of exogenous Escherichia coli tRNA by mouse fibroblasts. by Tetsuya Sakai et al. ... Uptake and aminoacylation of exogenous Escherichia coli tRNA by mouse fibroblasts.. *. Tetsuya Sakai, S S Cohen ...
Amino-acylation site mutations in amino acid-activating domains of surfactin synthetase: effects on surfactin production and ... Ser-to-Ala substitutions were made in the amino-acylation site of each domain, and their effects on surfactin production and ... All of the mutations conferred a surfactin-negative phenotype, supporting the finding that the conserved Ser in the amino-acylation ... other than amino-acylation and perhaps unrelated to peptide synthesis, possessed by the fourth domain is involved in the role ...
Aminoacylation[edit]. See also: Aminoacyl-tRNA. Aminoacylation is the process of adding an aminoacyl group to a compound. It ...
Aminoacylation reactions were quenched in a buffer containing 0.4 M sodium acetate (pH 5.2) (P1 nuclease digestions) or 0.6 M ... Aminoacylation Kinetics.. tRNA was 32P-labeled at the 3′ terminal internucleotide linkage by using the exchange reaction of ... suggests that efficient aminoacylation with Glu in the Rossmann fold context requires two arginines. We recapitulated the GluRS ... GlnRS RNP and would validate the fundamental concept that tRNA plays an active role in its own specific aminoacylation. ...
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in ... Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in ... Product name : Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their ... WP1938: tRNA Aminoacylation. WP219: Cytoplasmic tRNA Synthetases. WP433: tRNA Synthetases. WP521: amino acid conjugation of ...
Replication in vivo of mutant brome mosaic virus RNAs defective in aminoacylation.. J Mol Biol. 206(3):425-38. April 5, 1989. ... In order to understand the relationship between replication and aminoacylation of the genomic RNAs of brome mosaic virus, the ... may indicate that an indirect role for aminoacylation exists. However, the results obtained argue against an obligatory role ...
name: valyl-tRNA aminoacylation. namespace: biological_process. def: "The process of coupling valine to valyl-tRNA, catalyzed ... is_a: GO:0006418 ! tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation. AmiGO ,GOterm,GO:0006438,/GOterm,. Gene Ontology Home ... Pages in category "GO:0006438 ! valyl-tRNA aminoacylation". The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. ... Retrieved from "https://gowiki.tamu.edu/wiki/index.php?title=Category:GO:0006438_!_valyl-tRNA_aminoacylation&oldid=5920270" ...
Indirect aminoacylation in the Plasmodium apicoplast Gardner, Malcolm John Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA, ... Indirect aminoacylation in the Plasmodium apicoplast. Gardner, Malcolm John / Seattle Biomedical Research Institute. $238,590. ... Indirect aminoacylation in the Plasmodium apicoplast. Gardner, Malcolm John / Seattle Biomedical Research Institute. $289,200. ... Completion of these goals will demonstrate that the proposed indirect aminoacylation pathway in the apicoplast is functional ...
AT437946T - Ribozyme with wide trna-aminoacylation effect - Google Patents. Ribozyme with wide trna-aminoacylation effect Info ... aminoacylation. trna. ribozyme. wide. effect. Prior art date. 2002-02-15. Application number. AT03709182T. Other languages. ... AT03709182T 2002-02-15 2003-02-18 Ribozyme with wide trna-aminoacylation effect AT437946T (en) Priority Applications (2). ...
Aminoacylation and editing reactions.. Aminoacylation properties of the wt and H324Q mutant enzymes were determined by ... One of the consequences of this mutation is a reduced aminoacylation of tRNALeu(UUR). In this study, we have examined whether ... Functional in vitro tests examining aminoacylation and mischarging of the tRNA leucine have not shown major differences. ... In vitro analysis of aminoacylation and editing properties using purified wild-type and 324Q mutant LeuRS yielded identical ...
... Academic Article ... The genetic code is based on the aminoacylation of tRNA with amino acids catalyzed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The ... In one case, a relatively small catalytic domain catalyzes the aminoacylation of these substrates independent of the rest of ... Several synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of RNA oligonucleotide substrates that recreate only the tRNA acceptor stems. ...
... Academic Article ... No aminoacylation with methionine was detected with several analogous RNA substrates whose sequences were based on noncognate ... While the efficiency of aminoacylation is reduced by orders of magnitude relative to methionine tRNA, the results establish ... the anticodon and other parts of the tRNA are dispensable for aminoacylation. In contrast, the anticodon is a major determinant ...
9 thoughts on "The attachment of Amino Acids to tRNA - Aminoacylation" * Betul May 8, 2009 at 7:16 am. Great. It is tidy and ... The attachment of Amino Acids to tRNA - Aminoacylation. 9 Replies *First the Amino Acid must be activated. This involves the ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phe-tRNA synthetase: structural insights into tRNA recognition and aminoacylation. ... an initial recognition via indirect readout of anticodon stem-loop and aminoacylation ready state involving interactions of the ...
Loss of positional specificity in the aminoacylation of Escherichia coli tRNAGly.. G. M. Ehrenfeld, T. A. Francis, S. M. Hecht ... Ehrenfeld, G. M. ; Francis, T. A. ; Hecht, S. M. / Loss of positional specificity in the aminoacylation of Escherichia coli ... Ehrenfeld, G. M., Francis, T. A., & Hecht, S. M. (1983). Loss of positional specificity in the aminoacylation of Escherichia ... Loss of positional specificity in the aminoacylation of Escherichia coli tRNAGly. / Ehrenfeld, G. M.; Francis, T. A.; Hecht, S ...
Translational fidelity, essential for protein and cell function, requires accurate transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation. Purified ... The accuracy of tRNA aminoacylation in vivo is uncertain, however, and might be considerably lower3,4,5,6. Here we show that in ... the accuracy of tRNA aminoacylation in vivo is uncertain. In mammalian cells, approximately 1% of methionine residues used in ... Accurate transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation is necessary for translational fidelity; however, ...
Aminoacylation of trnI.2 is reduced in mterf6 plants. Analysis of trnI.2 and trnI.1 aminoacylation in soil-grown wild-type (Col ... Aminoacylation Analysis of tRNAs. For RNA isolation, which preserves aminoacylation of tRNAs, frozen tissue was ground in ... Why Is trnI.2 Aminoacylation Reduced in mter6 Mutants?. In mterf6-1 and even more in mterf6-2, the level of aminoacylated trnI. ... 1C). This difference in survival is likely to be explained by the facts that (1) aminoacylation of trnI.2 is not completely ...
  • The editing domain is fixed tightly via hydrophobic interactions to the aminoacylation/tRNA-recognition domains, on the side opposite from that in threonyl-tRNA synthetase. (pnas.org)
  • A single synthetase mediates the charging of all of the tRNA species specific for any one amino acid but, with three exceptions, glycine, lysine, and glutamine, the synthetase that catalyzes aminoacylation of mitochondrial tRNAs is encoded by a different gene than the one that acts on mitochondrial tRNAs. (wikipathways.org)
  • Mutation of the discriminator base at position 73 in tRNA([Ser]Sec) dramatically reduced aminoacylation with serine, as did an inhibitor of seryl-tRNA synthetase, SB-217452. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Using comparative genome analyses, we recently identified P. falciparum nuclear genes encoding apicoplast-targeted orthologs of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase, two enzymes that constitute an indirect aminoacylation pathway for the production of Gln-tRNAGln, a key substrate required for protein biosynthesis. (grantome.com)
  • In addition, recombinant apicoplast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase expressed in wheat germ exhibited both discriminating and non-discriminating activity by glutamylating apicoplast tRNAGlu and tRNAGln, an essential property of tRNA synthetases that participate in indirect aminoacylation pathways in bacteria and plastids. (grantome.com)
  • In this study, we have examined whether variants in the leucyl tRNA synthetase gene ( LARS2 ), involved in aminoacylation of tRNA Leu(UUR) , associate with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The positional specificity in the aminoacylation of Escherichia coli tRNAGly by its cognate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase has been studied using tRNAGlys terminating in 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine under conditions believed to alter tRNA conformation. (elsevier.com)
  • Although E. coli tRNAGly terminating in 3'-deoxyadenosine has been reported not to be a good substrate for activation by the homologous glycyl-tRNA synthetase, by systematic variation of the conditions employed for aminoacylation it was possible to activate this tRNA to essentially the same extent as unmodified tRNAGly. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of these triesters on the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase catalyzed aminoacylation of tRNA was examined. (elsevier.com)
  • The results are discussed in terms of the current mechanism of aminoacylation of tRNA and of the role of the anticodon in the tRNA-synthetase interaction. (elsevier.com)
  • Structural basis for transfer RNA aminoacylation by Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase may influence common cellular processes via DNA binding, in addition to its aminoacylation function. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. (fishersci.com)
  • The precursor protein is identical to the p43 subunit, which is associated with the multi-tRNA synthetase complex, and it modulates aminoacylation activity of tRNA synthetase in normal cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • No aminoacylation with methionine was detected with several analogous RNA substrates whose sequences were based on noncognate tRNAs. (scripps.edu)
  • As expected, d-Tp(Et)Gp(Et)G inhibits the aminoacylation of all five tRNAs examined (phenylalanine, lysine, tyrosine, proline, and leucine) by 55-80%, while the inhibition by d-Tp(Et)Tp(Et)Cp(Et)A is more specific and is greatest for tRNA phe . (elsevier.com)
  • We have reported recently that: (1) ribozymic precursors of the synthetases seem to have used the same two sterically mirror modes of tRNA recognition, (2) having these two modes might have helped in preventing erroneous aminoacylation of ancestral tRNAs with complementary anticodons, yet (3) the risk of confusion for the presumably earliest pairs of complementarily encoded amino acids had little to do with anticodons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CC editing domain removes incorrectly charged amino acids, while the CC C-Ala domain, along with tRNA(Ala), serves as a bridge to CC cooperatively bring together the editing and aminoacylation CC centers thus stimulating deacylation of misacylated tRNAs. (genome.jp)
  • First, amino acids are covalently linked to their cognate tRNAs via an aminoacylation reaction catalyzed by a diverse group of proteins, the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs). (asm.org)
  • The synthetases may have been amongst the earliest proteins to appear, perhaps replacing ribozymes that catalyzed the aminoacylation of primordial tRNAs. (scripps.edu)
  • Although in the modern system protein enzymes play the sole role in tRNA aminoacylation, in the primitive translation system RNA molecules could have catalysed aminoacylation onto tRNA or tRNA-like molecules. (nih.gov)
  • In one case, a relatively small catalytic domain catalyzes the aminoacylation of these substrates independent of the rest of the protein. (scripps.edu)
  • Translational fidelity, essential for protein and cell function, requires accurate transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation. (nature.com)
  • To find out, they took the AlaRS protein apart-separating the aminoacylation domain from the editing domain with or without C-Ala-and then put different combinations of these protein regions back together again. (scripps.edu)
  • the k cat for aminoacylation and the K m for tRNA are essentially the same for the truncated protein as for the native enzyme. (embopress.org)
  • Eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) frequently contain additional appended domains that are absent from their prokaryotic counterparts which mediate complex formation between eukaryotic aaRS and cofactors of aminoacylation and translation. (rcsb.org)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Prosci \ Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Product Detail : 30-809 Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The genetic code is based on the aminoacylation of tRNA with amino acids catalyzed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. (scripps.edu)
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases should ensure high accuracy in tRNA aminoacylation. (oup.com)
  • The tRNA aminoacylation reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases includes two steps. (asm.org)
  • The rules of the code--which relate specific nucleotide triplets to specific amino acids--are established by aminoacylation reactions catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. (scripps.edu)
  • There was no difference in selenomethionine or methionine aminoacylation of tRNA using materials from normal or selenium adapted Escherichia coli B. Both methionine and selenomethionine were rapidly bound in this system. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Uptake and aminoacylation of exogenous Escherichia coli tRNA by mouse fibroblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Loss of positional specificity in the aminoacylation of Escherichia coli tRNAGly. (elsevier.com)
  • One of the consequences of this mutation is a reduced aminoacylation of tRNA Leu(UUR) . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Several synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of RNA oligonucleotide substrates that recreate only the tRNA acceptor stems. (scripps.edu)
  • Inhibition of aminoacylation of a specific tRNA retards its appearance in the cytoplasm, indicating that nuclear aminoacylation promotes efficient export. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we solved the crystal structures of 2 halves of Archaeoglobus fulgidus AlaRS: AlaRS-ΔC, comprising the aminoacylation, tRNA-recognition, and editing domains, and AlaRS-C, comprising the dimerization domain. (pnas.org)
  • The aminoacylation/tRNA-recognition domains contain an insertion incompatible with the class-specific tRNA-binding mode. (pnas.org)
  • A groove formed between the aminoacylation/tRNA-recognition domains and the editing domain appears to be an alternative tRNA-binding site, which might be used for the aminoacylation and/or editing reactions. (pnas.org)
  • the anticodon and other parts of the tRNA are dispensable for aminoacylation. (scripps.edu)
  • While the efficiency of aminoacylation is reduced by orders of magnitude relative to methionine tRNA, the results establish that specific aminoacylation with methionine of small duplex substrates can be achieved without the anticodon or other domains of the tRNA. (scripps.edu)
  • High-resolution models reveal details of two modes of tRNA interaction with the enzyme: an initial recognition via indirect readout of anticodon stem-loop and aminoacylation ready state involving interactions of the 3′ end of tRNA Phe with the adenylate site. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Phosphoserine aminoacylation of tRNA bearing an unnatural base anticodon. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In tRNA aminoacylation, the amino acid is first activated by linkage to AMP and then transferred to either the 2'- or the 3'-hydroxyl group of the 3'- adenosine residue of the tRNA. (cathdb.info)
  • Three aromatic amino acids, Phe, Tyr and Trp, with their mode of tRNA aminoacylation contradicting the class aaRS membership, are italicized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA hairpin helices and hybrid duplexes that reconstruct the acceptor-T psi C stem and the acceptor stem, respectively, of methionine tRNA were investigated here for aminoacylation with methionine. (scripps.edu)
  • Among its related pathways are Metabolism and tRNA Aminoacylation . (genecards.org)
  • We selected most pathways AIMP1 participated on our site, such as Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation, Gene Expression, tRNA Aminoacylation, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Then AlaXps got bigger during evolution by the addition of C-Ala. They then came together with the aminoacylation function through gene fusion. (scripps.edu)
  • Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the genetic code per se (the one associated with the anticodons) and the operational code of aminoacylation (associated with the acceptor) diverged from a common ancestor that probably began developing before translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that the triesters can inhibit tRNA aminoacylation by specifically masking complementary regions of the tRNA through complex formation. (elsevier.com)
  • These two results suggest that the first pairs of "complementary" amino acids that were engaged in primordial coding, such as Gly and Ala, could have avoided erroneous aminoacylation if and only if the acceptor stems of their adaptors were recognized from the same, major groove, side. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One domain of AlaRS is responsible for aminoacylation, the chemical reaction that adds alanine to tRNA Ala. A second domain, the editing domain, removes amino acids other than alanine added to tRNA Ala by mistake. (scripps.edu)
  • The idea is that if the editing domain of AlaRS does not catch the error in aminoacylation then there is another chance," explains Schimmel. (scripps.edu)
  • Direct visualization of the aminoacylated RNA product on an acidic polyacrylamide gel by phosphor imaging demonstrated specific aminoacylation with substrates that contained as few as 7 base pairs. (scripps.edu)
  • Both selenomethionine and methionine had about the same optimum aminoacylation conditions: enzyme and tRNA concentration, ATP/Mg ratios, and pH range. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The 40% reduction of replication in protoplasts seen for mutant delta 5', whose only known functional lesion is depressed tyrosylation in vitro, may indicate that an indirect role for aminoacylation exists. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Together, these data strongly support the hypothesis that biosynthesis of Gln-tRNAGln in the Plasmodium apicoplast occurs via indirect rather than direct aminoacylation. (grantome.com)
  • Completion of these goals will demonstrate that the proposed indirect aminoacylation pathway in the apicoplast is functional and set the stage for subsequent studies to validate indirect aminoacylation in the apicoplast as a target for malaria chemotherapy. (grantome.com)
  • Aminoacylation is the process of adding an aminoacyl group to a compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Friedel-Crafts-like process and the cleavage of the amino function masking group can selectively be performed since, as verified in all cases, the α-aminoacylation step occurred with kinetics that were faster than those required to remove the N-protection. (unical.it)
  • Aminoacylation of tRNA is an essential event in the translation system. (nih.gov)
  • Replication in vivo of mutant brome mosaic virus RNAs defective in aminoacylation. (scienceexchange.com)
  • In order to understand the relationship between replication and aminoacylation of the genomic RNAs of brome mosaic virus, the replication of four mutants, whose RNAs were expected (on the basis of their properties in vitro) to be inefficiently tyrosylated in vivo, was studied in barley protoplasts and plants. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Herein, we investigated the relationship between tRNA([Ser]Sec) aminoacylation and Um34 synthesis which is the last step in the maturation of this tRNA. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These include cleaving of the primary transcript, further polymerization and chemical modifications such as adenylation and aminoacylation. (news-medical.net)
  • C-Ala acts as a functional bridge between the aminoacylation and editing functions. (scripps.edu)
  • The altered tRNA Arg mnm5UCU has a decreased stability and reduced aminoacylation due to changed secondary and/or tertiary structure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Whereas intact McC has no effect on the aminoacylation reaction, processed McC has no antibacterial activity at concentrations at which intact McC efficiently inhibits growth ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The RNA origin of transfer RNA aminoacylation and beyond. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, we systematically studied the aminoacylation and editing properties of Ca LeuRS and established a characteristic LeuRS model with naturally deficient tRNA-dependent pre-transfer editing, which increases LeuRS types with unique editing patterns. (oup.com)