SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Five-carbon furanose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

Differential expression of alpha2-6 sialylated polylactosamine structures by human B and T cells. (1/534)

We found that human peripheral B and T cells differed in the surface expression of alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain glycans. In contrast to B cells, T cells expressed only sialoglycans with repeated N-acetyllactosamine (Galss1-4GlcNAc) disaccharides. This finding was based on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies HB6, HB9 (CD24), HD66 (CDw76), FB21, and CRIS4 (CDw76) with the alpha2-6 sialylated model gangliosides IV6NeuAcnLc4Cer (2-6 SPG), VI6NeuAcnLc6Cer (2-6 SnHC), VIII6NeuAcnLc8Cer (2-6 SnOC), and X6NeuAcnLc10Cer (2-6 SnDC). We found that, in addition to their common requirement of an alpha2-6 bound terminal sialic acid for binding, the antibodies displayed preferences for the length of the carbohydrate backbones. Some of them bound mainly to 2-6 SPG with one N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) unit (HB9, HD66); others preferentially to 2-6 SnHC and 2-6 SnOC, with two and three LacNAc units, respectively (HB6 and FB21); and one of them exclusively to very polar alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain antigens (CRIS4) such as to 2-6 SnOC and even more polar gangliosides with three and more LacNAc units. These specificities could be correlated with the cellular binding of the antibodies as follows: whereas all antibodies bound to human CD 19 positive peripheral B cells, their reactivity with CD3 positive T cells was either nearly lacking (HD66, HB9), intermediate (about 65%: HB6, FB21) or strongly positive (CRIS4, 95%). Thus, the binding of the antibodies to 2-6 sialylated glycans with multiple lactosamine units appeared to determine their binding to T-cells.  (+info)

Enzymatic synthesis of alpha3'sialylated and multiply alpha3fucosylated biantennary polylactosamines. A bivalent [sialyl diLex]-saccharide inhibited lymphocyte-endothelium adhesion organ-selectively. (2/534)

Multifucosylated sialo-polylactosamines are known to be high affinity ligands for E-selectin. PSGL-1, the physiological ligand of P-selectin, is decorated in HL-60 cells by a sialylated and triply fucosylated polylactosamine that is believed to be of functional importance. Mimicking some of these saccharide structures, we have synthesized enzymatically a bivalent [sialyl diLex]-glycan, Neu5Acalpha2-3'Lexbeta1-3'Lexbeta1-3'(Neu5Acalpha2-3'Lexbeta1-3Lexbe ta1-6')LN [where Neu5Ac is N-acetylneuraminic acid, Lex is the trisaccharide Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc and LN is the disaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAc]. Several structurally related, novel polylactosamine glycans were also constructed. The inhibitory effects of these glycans on two L-selectin-dependent, lymphocyte-to-endothelium adhesion processes of rats were analysed in ex-vivo Stamper-Woodruff binding assays. The IC50 value of the bivalent [sialyl diLex]-glycan at lymph node high endothelium was 50 nm, but at the capillaries of rejecting cardiac allografts it was only 5 nm. At both adhesion sites, the inhibition was completely dependent on the presence of fucose units on the sialylated LN units of the inhibitor saccharide. These data show that the bivalent [sialyl diLex]-glycan is a high affinity ligand for L-selectin, and may reduce extravasation of lymphocytes at sites of inflammation in vivo without severely endangering the normal recirculation of lymphocytes via lymph nodes.  (+info)

Molecular cloning of a novel alpha2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal VI) that sialylates type II lactosamine structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids. (3/534)

A novel member of the human CMP-NeuAc:beta-galactoside alpha2, 3-sialyltransferase (ST) subfamily, designated ST3Gal VI, was identified based on BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags, and a cDNA clone was isolated from a human melanoma line library. The sequence of ST3Gal VI encoded a type II membrane protein with 2 amino acids of cytoplasmic domain, 32 amino acids of transmembrane region, and a large catalytic domain with 297 amino acids; and showed homology to previously cloned ST3Gal III, ST3Gal IV, and ST3Gal V at 34, 38, and 33%, respectively. Extracts from L cells transfected with ST3Gal VI cDNA in a expression vector and a fusion protein with protein A showed an enzyme activity of alpha2, 3-sialyltransferase toward Galbeta1,4GlcNAc structure on glycoproteins and glycolipids. In contrast to ST3Gal III and ST3Gal IV, this enzyme exhibited restricted substrate specificity, i.e. it utilized Galbeta1,4GlcNAc on glycoproteins, and neolactotetraosylceramide and neolactohexaosylceramide, but not lactotetraosylceramide, lactosylceramide, or asialo-GM1. Consequently, these data indicated that this enzyme is involved in the synthesis of sialyl-paragloboside, a precursor of sialyl-Lewis X determinant.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of linear polylactosamines containing one and two site-specifically positioned Lewis x determinants: WGA agarose chromatography in fractionation of mixtures generated by random, partial enzymatic alpha3-fucosylation of pure polylactosamines. (4/534)

We report that isomeric monofucosylhexasaccharides, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 GlcNAc, and bifucosylhexasaccharides Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3) GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc, Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4 (Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4( Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc can be isolated in pure form from reaction mixtures of the linear hexasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1- 3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc with GDP-fucose and alpha1,3-fucosyltransferases of human milk. The pure isomers were characterized in several ways;1H-NMR spectroscopy, for instance, revealed distinct resonances associated with the Lewis x group [Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAc] located at the proximal, middle, and distal positions of the polylactosamine chain. Chromatography on immobilized wheat germ agglutinin was crucial in the separation process used; the isomers carrying the fucose at the reducing end GlcNAc possessed particularly low affinities for the lectin. Isomeric monofucosyl derivatives of the pentasaccharides GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1- 4Gl cNAc and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4G lcN Ac and the tetrasaccharide Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc were also obtained in pure form, implying that the methods used are widely applicable. The isomeric Lewis x glycans proved to be recognized in highly variable binding modes by polylactosamine-metabolizing enzymes, e.g., the midchain beta1,6-GlcNAc transferase (Leppanen et al., Biochemistry, 36, 13729-13735, 1997).  (+info)

Characterization of the substrate specificity of alpha1,3galactosyltransferase utilizing modified N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides. (5/534)

alpha1,3galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GalT) catalyzes the synthesis of a range of glycoconjugates containing the Galalpha1,3Gal epitope which is recognized by the naturally occurring human antibody, anti-Gal. This enzyme may be a useful synthetic tool to produce a range of compounds to further investigate the binding site of anti-Gal and other proteins with a Galalpha1,3Gal binding site. Thus, the enzyme has been probed with a series of type 2 disaccharide-C8(Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-C8) analogs. The enzyme tolerated acceptors with modifications at C2 and C3 of the N-acetylglucosamine residue, producing a family of compounds with a nonreducing alpha1,3 linked galactose. Compounds that did not serve as acceptors were evaluated as inhibitors. Interestingly, the type 1 disaccharide-C8, Galbeta1-3GlcNAc-C8, was a good inhibitor of the enzyme (Ki = 270 microM vs. Km = 190 microM for Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-C8). A potential photoprobe, based on a modified type 2 disaccharide (octyl 3-amino-3-deoxy-3-N-(2-diazo-3, 3, 3-trifluoropropionyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1, 4)-2-acetamindo-2-deoxy-beta-D-glycopyranoside, (DTFP-LacNAc-C8)), was evaluated as an inhibitor of alpha1,3GalT. alpha1,3GalT bound DTFP-LacNAc-C8 with an affinity (Ki = 300 microM) similar to that displayed by the enzyme for LacNAc-C8. Additional studies were done to determine the enzyme's ability to transfer a range of sugars from UDP-sugar donors. The results of these experiments demonstrated that alpha1,3GalT has a strict specificity for UDP-Gal. Finally, inactivation studies with various amino acid modifiers were done to obtain information on the importance of different types of amino acids for alpha1,3GalT activity.  (+info)

Effects of egg-adaptation on the receptor-binding properties of human influenza A and B viruses. (6/534)

Propagation of human influenza viruses in embryonated chicken eggs (CE) results in the selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the receptor-binding site of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. To evaluate the mechanisms by which these substitutions enable human virus growth in CE, we studied the binding of 10 human influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and B strains, isolated and propagated solely in MDCK cells, and of their egg-adapted counterparts to preparations of cellular membranes, gangliosides, sialylglycoproteins, and sialyloligosaccharides. All egg-adapted variants differed from nonadapted strains by increased binding to the plasma membranes of chorio-allantoic (CAM) cells of CE and by the ability to bind to CAM gangliosides. In addition, there was no decrease in affinity for inhibitors within allantoic fluid. These findings indicate that growth of human influenza viruses in CE is restricted because of their inefficient binding to receptors on CAM cells and that gangliosides can play an important role in virus binding and/or penetration. The effects of the egg-adaptation substitutions on the receptor-binding properties of the viruses include (i) enhancement of virus binding to the terminal Sia(alpha2-3)Gal determinant (substitutions in HA positions 190, 225 of H1N1 strains and in position 186 of H3N2 strains); (ii) a decrease of steric interference with more distant parts of the Sia(alpha2-3Gal)-containing receptors (a loss of glycosylation sites in positions 163 of H1 HA and 187 of type B HA); and (iii) enhanced ionic interactions with the negatively charged molecules due to charged substitutions at the tip of the HA [187, 189, 190 (H1), and 145, 156 (H3)]. Concomitantly with enhanced binding to Sia(alpha2-3)Gal-terminated receptors, all egg-adapted variants decreased their affinity for equine macroglobulin, a glycoprotein bearing terminal 6'-sialyl(N-acetyllactosamine)-moieties.  (+info)

Lipid A modifications characteristic of Salmonella typhimurium are induced by NH4VO3 in Escherichia coli K12. Detection of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, phosphoethanolamine and palmitate. (7/534)

Two-thirds of the lipid A in wild-type Escherichia coli K12 is a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine in which monophosphate groups are attached at positions 1 and 4'. The remaining lipid A contains a monophosphate substituent at position 4' and a pyrophosphate moiety at position 1. The biosynthesis of the 1-pyrophosphate unit is unknown. Its presence is associated with lipid A translocation to the outer membrane (Zhou, Z., White, K. A., Polissi, A., Georgopoulos, C., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 12466-12475). To determine if a phosphatase regulates the amount of the lipid A 1-pyrophosphate, we grew cells in broth containing nonspecific phosphatase inhibitors. Na2WO4 and sodium fluoride increased the relative amount of the 1-pyrophosphate slightly. Remarkably, NH4VO3-treated cells generated almost no 1-pyrophosphate, but made six major new lipid A derivatives (EV1 to EV6). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry of purified EV1 to EV6 indicated that these compounds were lipid A species substituted singly or in combination with palmitoyl, phosphoethanolamine, and/or aminodeoxypentose residues. The aminodeoxypentose residue was released by incubation in chloroform/methanol (4:1, v/v) at 25 degrees C, and was characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shifts and vicinal coupling constants of the two anomers of the aminodeoxypentose released from EV3 closely resembled those of synthetic 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. NH4VO3-induced lipid A modification did not require the PhoP/PhoQ two-component regulatory system, and also occurred in E. coli msbB or htrB mutants. The lipid A variants that accumulate in NH4VO3-treated E. coli K12 are the same as many of those normally found in untreated Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella minnesota, demonstrating that E. coli K12 has latent enzyme systems for synthesizing these important derivatives.  (+info)

Role of lactosyl glycan sequences in inhibiting enteropathogenic Escherichia coli attachment. (8/534)

Previously, we found that asialo-lactosamine sequences served as receptors for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the present report, we have extended these earlier results by examining the ability of lactosamine- or fucosylated lactosamine-bovine serum albumin (BSA) glycoconjugates to inhibit EPEC, strain E2348/69, binding to HEp-2 cells. We found that, consistent with our previous findings with CHO cells, N-acetyllactosamine-BSA was the most effective inhibitor of EPEC localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, with Lewis X-BSA being the next best inhibitor. Further investigation revealed that coincubating EPEC E2348/69 with these BSA glycoconjugates alone caused a decrease in the expression of the bundle-forming pilus structural subunit (BfpA) and intimin by the bacteria. BfpA and intimin expression were reduced to the greatest extent by N-acetyllactosamine-BSA and Lewis X-BSA, respectively. These results suggest that the glycoconjugate inhibition of EPEC binding to HEp-2 cells might be achieved, wholly or in part, by an active mechanism that is distinct from simple competitive antagonism of receptor-adhesin interactions.  (+info)

FIGURE 1. In vivo Ab production after the intranasal immunization with saline, HSA or sugar-conjugated HSA in BALB/c (A-D) and C57BL/6 (E and F) mice. Serum samples were taken after prime (▦), boost (□), and challenge (▪) as described in Materials and Methods. Ab of IgG (A and E), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses (B) specific for HSA were measured by indirect ELISA and estimated by endpoint titer. IgE titers specific for HSA (C and F) and the volume of serum total IgE (D) were determined by sandwich ELISA. Levels of HSA-specific IgE were presented as the absorbance at 450 nm from duplicate wells of 1/4 serum dilution. Results show the mean ± SEM of four individual serum per group. Data are representative of three (A-D) and two (E and F) separate experiments.. ...
α-1,6-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); α-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); α-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); GDP-Man: inositol-phosphorylceramide transferase (EC 2.4.1.-); UDP-Gal: β-galactoside α-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); UDP-Gal: lactose/N-acetyl-lactosamine α-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
α-1,6-mannosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); α-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); α-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); GDP-Man: inositol-phosphorylceramide transferase (EC 2.4.1.-); UDP-Gal: β-galactoside α-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); UDP-Gal: lactose/N-acetyl-lactosamine α-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
A - Tilt: 3° - Segments: 1( 28- 47), 2( 105- 126), 3( 135- 153), 4( 158- 175), 5( 186- 203), 6( 205- 221), 7( 233- 250), 8( 282- 304), 9( 321- 337), 10( 343- 358), 11( 369- 389), 12( 406- 427), 13( 434- 453 ...
Looking for online definition of Amino sugars metabolism in the Medical Dictionary? Amino sugars metabolism explanation free. What is Amino sugars metabolism? Meaning of Amino sugars metabolism medical term. What does Amino sugars metabolism mean?
The use of small carbohydrates that stabilize proteins from misfolding is important from pharmaceutical point of view. We have investigated the role of small isomeric amino sugars on the in vitro aggregation of insulin amyloid. Using mass spectrometry, we screened 6 isomeric aminosugars for their role on inhibition of insulin amyloid formation and the results were compared with transmission electron microscopy imaging. We found that three N-acetylamino sugars promote insulin fibril formation. Among three isomeric aminosugars studied, only galactosamine showed few fibrils whereas other two isomers showed enhanced fibrils. The results demonstrated here may contribute to future designing of small amine derivatised galactose sugars as amyloid inhibitors and understanding their action ...
Catalyzes the conversion of UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP-Ara4O) to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides.
Glucosamine sulfate is a naturally occurring amino sugar. Amino sugars are key constituents of larger compounds called glucosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, whi
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the therapeutic index (TI) of aminosugar cardiac glycosides with digoxin (D). AU - Caldwell, R. W.. AU - Nash, C. B.. PY - 1977/1/1. Y1 - 1977/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017383001&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017383001&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017383001. VL - 36. SP - No.3705. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
The group of 17 opportunistic pathogens linked to severe infections in cystic fibrosis and other immunocompromised conditions has been known as the Burkholderia cepacia complex.[1] The inner Kdo residue of Burkholderia lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is highly conserved across the genus, is flanked by 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose units (Ara4N).[2] Furthermore, the binding of Ara4N to the phosphate groups of lipid A has been purported as one of the reasons for hindered interaction with cationic agents and consequently, to induce antibiotic resistance.[3] We set out to synthesize a series of tenable Ara4N transferase (ArnT) inhibitors with the prospect of impeding the biosynthetic pathway towards activated Ara4N species.[4] By the same token, we intend to inhibit the transfer of Ara4N residues both to Burkholderia LPS core and lipid A in vitro. Our synthetic endeavours en route to C-glycosidic derivatives mimicking either the transition state of glycosyl transfer or ArnT natural substrate will be ...
Abstract. The expression of major carbohydrate antigens carried by polylactosaminyl chains in human erythroleukemia cell lines, K562 and HEL, was investigated b
Chemo-enzymatic modification of poly-N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) oligomers and N,N-diacetyllactosamine (LacDiNAc) based on galactose oxidase treatment
Gelatinase B (MMP-9) and galectin-3 are widely known to participate in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Glycans derived from MMP-9 expressed in MCF-7 breast cancer and THP-1 myeloid leukemia cells were compared with those from MMP-9 expressed in natural neutrophils. The many O-linked glycans of neutrophil gelatinase B presented a cluster of mainly galactosylated core II structures, 46% of which were ligands for galectin-3; 11% contained two to three N-acetyllactosamine repeating units that are high-affinity ligands for the lectin. The glycan epitopes thus provide MMP-9 with both high-affinity and (presumably) high-avidity interactions with galectin-3. In contrast, the O-glycans released from MMP-9 expressed in MCF-7 and THP-1 cells were predominantly sialylated core I structures. Only 10% of MCF-7 and THP-1 gelatinase B O-glycans were ligands for galectin-3 and contained only a maximum single N-acetyllactosamine repeat. Consistent with the glycan analysis, surface plasmon resonance binding ...
New amino sugars which are glucopyranosyl and oligoglucosidyl derivatives of 4,6-bisdesoxy-4-(4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylamino)-α-D-glucopyranose inhibit glycoside hydrolases of the digestive tract. The compounds, of which O-{4,6-bisdesoxy-4-[1S-(1,4,6/5)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylamino]-α-D-glucopyranosyl}-(1→4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucopyranose is a representative embodiment, demonstrate both saccharase and amylase inhibiting properties.
Information for Muramic acid 1114-41-6 including Muramic acid CAS NO 1114-41-6, Muramic acid Suppliers, Muramic acid Manufacturers, related products of Muramic acid.
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP-Ara4O) and the addition of a formyl group to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N) to form UDP-L-4-formamido-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4FN). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides ...
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP-Ara4O) and the addition of a formyl group to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N) to form UDP-L-4-formamido-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4FN). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides ...
1MDZ: Structural studies of Salmonella typhimurium ArnB (PmrH) aminotransferase: A 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose lipopolysaccharide modifying enzyme
UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose formyltransferase / UDP-glucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UDP-4-keto-hexauronic acid decarboxylating) [EC:2.1.2.13 1.1.1.305 ...
Enzymatic Protein Deglycosylation Kit: The E-DEGLY Kit contains all the enzymes and reagents needed to completely remove all N-linked and simple O-linked carbohydrates from glycoproteins, as well as cleave complex core O-linked carbohydrates including those containing polylactosamine.
1GX4: Structural Basis of Ordered Binding of Donor and Acceptor Substrates to the Retaining Glycosyltransferase, Alpha -1,3 Galactosyltransferase
Support your muscles, joints and ligaments with Glucosamine HCI. Essential for the health of connective tissues, blood vessels and cartilage, glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar which can be hard to obtain through diet alone. This formula helps support your health, with a salt-free capsule that
Glucosamine is an amino sugar, which is a constituent of cartilage proteoglycans It is derived from marine exoskeletons or produced synthetically
|p|The amino sugar Glucosamine consists of glucose combined with the amino acid Glutamine. It is an important component of the mucopolysaccharides, which provide structure to bone, cartilage and other body tissues. Several studies have shown that besides
NATURAJOINT SUPERIOR GLUCOSAMINE HCL FOR PROVISION OF HEALTHY, FLEXIBLE JOINTS Pure human pharmaceutical grade 99.9% soluble, with a measured amount of maganese ascorbate to aid digestion and absorption. Gl;ucoasmine is an amino sugar used to build tendons, ligaments, cartilage and synovial fluid (joint oil). It stim
China Sulfo Series catalog of P-Toluene Sulfonyl Chloride (PTSC), O/P-Toluene Sulfonamide (OPTSA) provided by China manufacturer - Heze Kingvolt Chemical Co., Ltd., page1.
Buy Chloromycetin Online! Chloromycetin is a broad spectrum antibiotic originally isolated from Streptomyces venezuelae. Chloromycetin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when given by mouth and widely distributed throughout most body tissues and fluids.
refined sugar ( Page 3 ) 제조업체 주소록 - EC21에는 세계곳곳에서 등록한 3,000,000개의 refined sugar 수입업체, 수출업체, 제조업체, 공급업체, 도매업체, 유통업체, 무역회사, 셀러 등이 있습니다. EC21을 통해 쉽게 거래선을 발굴 하세요.
Although sugar is more and more criticised these days, it is still just as appreciated. Sugar is an important ingredient in cooking. To find out all about the differ...
German Research Foundation; SCHA 1693/1-1. Functional specialization of proinflammatory dendritic cells in Psoriasis. Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease in which dendritic cells (DC) are thought to orchestrate the pathogenic Th17/Th1-dominated immune response. Our studies demonstrate the functional specialization of slan (6-sulfo LacNAc+) DC as an important proinflammatory DC subtype in psoriasis. Previously, we identified slanDC and reported on their proinflammatory function. In the meanwhile slanDC have also been described in other chronic inflammatory diseases such as lupus erythematosus, Crohns disease and multiple sclerosis. Skin lesion from psoriasis patients contain increased numbers of activated slanDC expressing the key proinflammatory molecules TNF-a, IL-23 and iNOS. Complexes of autologous nucleic acids and the antimicrobial peptide LL37 (Cathelicidin) triggering Toll-like receptors (TLR) are regarded as important stimuli for cell activation in psoriasis. For ...
Catalyzes the conversion of UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP-Ara4O) to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides.
Glucosamine is perhaps the most commonly recognized joint supplement. Its popularity grew and grew out of research done in the 1980s.. Glucosamine is an aminosugar and is a precursor to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which are a component of connective tissues like cartilage. It is thought that by supplementing the body with glucosamine, GAG synthesis will increase.. There are 2 forms of glucosamine you can take orally: sulfate and hydrochloride. Most GAGs in the body are sulfated.. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ ...
Hepatic Bmal1 regulates rhythmic mitochondrial dynamics and promotes metabolic fitness. Jacobi D, Liu S, Burkewitz K, Mair WB, Lee CH. Cell Metab 2015; 22:709-720.. A diurnal serum lipid integrates hepatic lipogenesis and peripheral fatty acid utilization. Liu S, Brown JD, Stanya KJ, Homan E, Leidi M, Inouye K, Bhargava P, Gangl MR, Dai L, Hatano B, Hotamisligil GS, Saghatelian A, Plutzky J, Lee CH. Nature 2013; 502:550-553.. Direct control of hepatic glucose production by II-13. Stanya KJ, Jacobi D, Liu S, Bhargava P, Dai L, Gangl MR, Inouye K, Barlow JL, Ji Y, Mizgerd JP, Qi L, Shi H, McKenzie, Lee CH. J Clin Invest 2013, 123:261-271.. Immunomodulatory glycan LNFPIII alleviates hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance through direct and indirect control of metabolic pathways. Bhargava P, Li C, Stanya KJ, Jacobi D, Liu S, Dai L, Gangl MR Harn DA, Lee CH. Nat Med 2012. 18:1665-72.. Nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT regulates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mediates aging-related metabolic ...
Keratan sulfate (KS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) type consisted of a sulfated poly-N-acetyl lactosamine chain. Besides acting as a constitutive molecule of the extracellular matrices, this GAG also plays a role as a hydrating and signaling agent in
The amino sugar Glucosamine consists of glucose combined with the amino acid Glutamine. It is an important component of the mucopolysaccharides, which provide structure to bone, cartilage and other body tissues. Several studies have shown that besides stimulating the production of cartilage, glucosamine helps to reduce
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine ...
cytochrome P450 [cytochrome P450 hydroxylase PiKC] GTGCGCCGTACCCAGCAGGGAACGACCGCTTCTCCCCCGGTACTCGACCTCGGGGCCCTG GGGCAGGATTTCGCGGCCGATCCGTATCCGACGTACGCGAGACTGCGTGCCGAGGGTCCG GCCCACCGGGTGCGCACCCCCGAGGGGGACGAGGTGTGGCTGGTCGTCGGCTACGACCGG GCGCGGGCGGTCCTCGCCGATCCCCGGTTCAGCAAGGACTGGCGCAACTCCACGACTCCC CTGACCGAGGCCGAGGCCGCGCTCAACCACAACATGCTGGAGTCCGACCCGCCGCGGCAC ACCCGGCTGCGCAAGCTGGTGGCCCGTGAGTTCACCATGCGCCGGGTCGAGTTGCTGCGG CCCCGGGTCCAGGAGATCGTCGACGGGCTCGTGGACGCCATGCTGGCGGCGCCCGACGGC CGCGCCGATCTGATGGAGTCCCTGGCCTGGCCGCTGCCGATCACCGTGATCTCCGAACTC CTCGGCGTGCCCGAGCCGGACCGCGCCGCCTTCCGCGTCTGGACCGACGCCTTCGTCTTC CCGGACGATCCCGCCCAGGCCCAGACCGCCATGGCCGAGATGAGCGGCTATCTCTCCCGG CTCATCGACTCCAAGCGCGGGCAGGACGGCGAGGACCTGCTCAGCGCGCTCGTGCGGACC AGCGACGAGGACGGCTCCCGGCTGACCTCCGAGGAGCTGCTCGGTATGGCCCACATCCTG CTCGTCGCGGGGCACGAGACCACGGTCAATCTGATCGCCAACGGCATGTACGCGCTGCTC TCGCACCCCGACCAGCTGGCCGCCCTGCGGGCCGACATGACGCTCTTGGACGGCGCGGTG GAGGAGATGTTGCGCTACGAGGGCCCGGTGGAATCCGCGACCTACCGCTTCCCGGTCGAG ...
By Nancy Appleton, Ph.D. Author of Lick The Sugar Habit and Lick The Sugar Habit Sugar Counter. Sugar can suppress the immune system. Sugar upsets the mineral relationships in the body.
pressure or other symptoms? These all can be signs of a sugar problem. We have evolved from early man having digestive mechanisms to digest ...
Define sugar: a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of sucrose, is colorless or white when pure… - sugar in a sentence
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Hersheys Sugar Free Twizzlers are sugar free with 20% fewer calories. However, they contain about the same level of fat as their regular counterparts.
New API has been added to telepathy-gabble and telepathy-salut to support the work on the collaboration framework, which results in needing 0.9.16 for tp-gabble and 0.3.13 for tp-salut. One of the goals of the collaboration refactoring was dropping functionality in sugar that has been implemented in telepathy-mission-control, so Sugar now depends on tp-mission-control 5.4.3. ...
You may query a listing of Alcohol Policy Changes based on Topic, Jurisdiction, and/or Year by selecting items from the View Policy Changes menu. Multiple items may be selected from each menu of options. Once you select an item(s), a list of corresponding Policy Changes will display.. Additionally, you may view a count of changes by Year, Jurisdiction, or Topic by selecting the corresponding option.. ...
Many monoclonal antibodies that react with the lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNF III) antigenic determinant, Gal beta 1-4(Fuc alpha 1-3)GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc, have been described recently. The terminal trisaccharide of this determinant, fucosyllactosamine, is present on glycolipids and glycoproteins and on the surface of granulocytes, monocytes, and other cells. To study the structural and genetic diversity of these antibodies, syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies were produced in BALB/c mice against PMN 6, a monoclonal antibody directed against this sequence. Anti-idiotypic antibodies 6B1 and 6C4 reacted with 50% of a panel of 20 anti-LNF III monoclonal antibodies, whereas 6A3 reacted strongly only with PMN 6. This indicates that the determinants recognized by 6C4 and 6B1 represent major cross-reactive idiotopes of this family of antibodies. The binding of idiotypic antibodies to a glycolipid bearing this antigenic determinant was completely inhibited by the three anti-idiotypic ...
Glucosamine is a compound known as an aminosugar, and is naturally concentrated in human connective tissue and joint synovial fluid. Several forms of glucosamine are available. However, glucosamine sulfate appears to have superior absorption and effectiveness.. The sulfur portion of the compound also has nutritional value since the body can use it to produce disulfate bonds that further contribute to the strength and integrity of connective tissue. In fact, recent studies have shown that glucosamine sulfate supplementation may be as effective as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for relief of arthritis pain and inflammation.. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a mucopolysaccharide and natural constituent of cartilage, connective tissue and bone. Clinical research has shown that when taken as a nutritional supplement, CS can provide several important compounds vital to healthy connective tissue. CS has been shown to produce positive results in a variety of joint complaints, and has gained ...
Indre Arna is a settlement in Arna borough in Bergen, Norway. While Indre Arna is relatively far from most of the city by road, an 8-minute train journey through Ulriken connects Indre Arna to the city centre. On January 1, 2008, the Indre Arna urban settlement, as defined by Statistics Norway, had a population of 6198. The urban settlement covered a land area of 3.80 square kilometres, and had a population density of 1631 per square kilometre.[1] Arna Church is located in the village. ...
Our previous observations that human CD8 TIL increased their secretion of IFN-γ after ex vivo treatment with disaccharide LacNAc prompted us to test GCS-100, a polymeric galectin ligand approved for clinical trials. The results reported here indicate that GCS-100 is as efficient as LacNAc in boosting TIL to be cytotoxic and to secrete different cytokines, not only CD8+ but also CD4+ TIL. This effect was obtained at concentrations (5 μg/mL) much lower than those used to induce apoptosis of tumor cells (,100 μg/mL), the activity that prompted its administration to cancer patients (30).. Why do galectin-3 ligands improve human TIL function? Our working hypothesis is that TILs have been stimulated by antigen recently and that activation could modify the expression of enzymes of the N-glycosylation pathway and change the structure of N-glycans exposed at the cell surface, as shown for murine T cells (45). We surmise that the recently activated TILs, compared with resting T cells, harbor a set of ...
Cathy Davey Health. Buy Now Foods Glucosamine & M.S.M, 180 Caps, 750/250 Mg. Glucosamine & MSM combines the nutritive benefits of two potent dietary supplements. Glucosamine is an amino sugar derived from the chitin of shellfish tha
L - Glutamine Is a non-essential amino acid which helps protect the immune system. It plays a vital role in the synthesis of amino sugars and is required by tissues with a high cell division rate. Promoting a healthy lifestyle - Helps protect the digestive tract lining and maintain the integrity of the intestinal membr
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Oftest oppstår de i ansikt, hals, hender og knær, men kan også ses andre steder på huden.. Det er viktig å ikke bli solbrent, da de hvite flekkene i huden mangler beskyttelse i form av pigment ...
How to Sift Powdered Sugar. Powdered sugar absorbs moisture from the air, forming hardened lumps that can affect the texture of your baking projects. Sifting removes these lumps and makes the sugar fluffier by adding air. Any fine mesh...
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There are no clinical studies that clearly demonstrate that there are any known side effects to using glucosamine found in Synflex.
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ေဆးပညာအခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကို Hello Sayarwon တြင္ရွာေဖြႏုိင္ျပီး၊ Glucosamine (ဂလူကိုဆာမင္း) , ၏ ေဆးညႊန္းမ်ား၊ ေဘးထြက္ဆိုးက်ိဳးမ်ားႏွင့္သတိေပးခ်က္မ်ားရွာေဖြႏုိင္ပါသည္။
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... caramelization of sugars, and the Maillard reaction of amino acids. Raised to a high enough temperature, meat blackens from ...
Kornfeld S, Glaser L (October 1962). "The synthesis of thymidine-linked sugars. v. thymidine diphosphate-amino sugars". The ... This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of enzymes ...
31, 145, 149, ISBN 978-0-8018-8835-9 Short AR, Bywaters HW (June 1913). "Amino-Acids and Sugars in Rectal Feeding". Br Med J. 1 ... Neither the milk sugars and proteins nor the molasses are absorbed in the lower intestine, thus keeping the water from the ...
They have sugar chains (glycans) added to conserved amino acid residues.[4][21] In other words, antibodies are glycoproteins.[4 ... which is found as a terminal sugar on glycosylated cell surface proteins, and generated in response to production of this sugar ... α and γ contain approximately 450 amino acids, whereas μ and ε have approximately 550 amino acids.[2] ... The approximate length of a light chain is 211 to 217 amino acids.[2] Each antibody contains two light chains that are always ...
Products of digestion (sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids) are absorbed into the bloodstream here. The suspensory muscle of ... Proteins are degraded into small peptides and amino acids before absorption.[19] Chemical breakdown begins in the stomach and ... Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase free the end amino acid products.. *Lipids (fats) are degraded into fatty acids and glycerol. ... Some carbohydrates are degraded into simple sugars, or monosaccharides (e.g., glucose). Pancreatic amylase breaks down some ...
Pfrengle, Fabian; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich (2010). "Amino sugars and their mimetics via 1,2-oxazines". Chem. Soc. Rev. 39 (2): 549- ...
Donohoe, Timothy J.; Blades, Kevin; Helliwell, Madeleine (1999). "Synthesis of amino-sugars using the directed dihydroxylation ... With triethylsilane (R'=H), the reaction yields a 2,3-unsaturated deoxy sugar. An analogous reaction with nitrogen as the ...
More complex alcohols however are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids. ... Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast ... However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names ...
... such as sugars or amino acids, must enter the cell, and certain products of metabolism must leave the cell. Such molecules can ... The penultimate sugar is galactose and the terminal sugar is sialic acid, as the sugar backbone is modified in the Golgi ... amino acids and sugars). Some eukaryotic cells also have cell walls, but none that are made of peptidoglycan. The outer ... amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and ions) from diffusing across the membrane, but generally allows for the ...
"A classification of nucleotide-diphospho-sugar glycosyltransferases based on amino acid sequence similarities". Biochem. J. 326 ... A classification of glycosyltransferases using nucleotide diphospho-sugar, nucleotide monophospho-sugar and sugar phosphates ( ... These enzymes catalyse the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming ...
... sugars and amino acids existed in space, via meteorites. This includes non-terrestrial amino acids. Multiple isotopes do not ... doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2008.tb01115.x. Degens, E; Bajor, M (1963). "Amino acids and sugars in the bruderheim and Murray ... The levels of amino acids are higher in CMs than CIs. Amino-like nitriles/cyanides and heterocycles are also found. These ... As amino acids are diverse but low, the discovery of meteoritic chirality had to await the separation of IOM. Handedness of ...
The produced nectar is rich in sugars and amino acids. Their function may be to attract ants (or other organisms) for ...
This enzyme participates in amino sugars metabolism and glycan biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 10 structures have been solved ... diphospho-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxyglucose 3-enolpyruvyltransferase, phosphopyruvate-uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine ...
"Award Abstract #1213845 Enhancing the NMR Characterization of Amino Sugars". National Science Foundation. Archived from the ...
... is an amino sugar acid. In terms of chemical composition, it is the ether of lactic acid and glucosamine. It ...
... amino acids are almost universally of the L form and sugars are of the D form. Molecules using D amino acids or L sugars may be ... Amino acids whose chirality is opposite to the norm are found on Earth, and these substances are generally thought to result ... Doig, Abdrew J. (7 December 2016). "Frozen, but no accident - why the 20 standard amino acids were selected". FEBS J. 284 (9): ... Polysilanols, the silicon compounds corresponding to sugars, are soluble in liquid nitrogen, suggesting that they could play a ...
Root exudates contain numerous sugars, amino acids, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites. The production of these exudates ...
Contributors to the chiral pool are amino acids, sugars, and terpenes. Their use improves the efficiency of total synthesis. ... Production of optically active amino acids by catalytic hydrogenation". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99 (19): 6262-6267. doi:10.1021/ ...
... is an amino sugar derived from glucose. It is often used as an excipient in pharmaceuticals and in conjunction with ...
Chemically speaking, bletting brings about an increase in sugars and a decrease in the acids and tannins that make the unripe ... organic acids and amino acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) during fruit development and maturation". Food Chemistry. 83 (3 ... Glew, R.H.; Ayaz, F. A.; Sanz, C.; VanderJagt, D. J.; Huang, H. S.; Chuang, L. T.; Strnad, M. (2003). "Changes in sugars, ...
The substrates that can be transported include ions, amino acids, peptides, sugars, and other molecules that are mostly ... 3.A.1.3 Polar Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (PAAT) 3.A.1.4 Hydrophobic Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (HAAT) 3.A.1.5 Peptide/ ... In MsbA, the sugar head groups are sequestered within the chamber during the "power stroke". The cavity is lined with charged ... For MsbA, in particular, the size of the chamber is large enough to accommodate the sugar groups from lipopolysaccharides (LPS ...
Through this process, sugars, amino acids, and other monomers pass into the cytosol and become nutrients for the cell. ... These special proteins contain a specialized retention signal made up of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them ... The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... The Golgi apparatus removes and substitutes sugar monomers, producing a large variety of oligosaccharides. In addition to ...
Tan YH, Barakat F, Berthold W, Smith-Johannsen H, Tan C (August 1979). "The isolation and amino acid/sugar composition of human ... amino acid analysis and amino terminal amino acid sequence". Science. 207 (4430): 525-6. Bibcode:1980Sci...207..525K. doi: ... Tan's laboratory isolated sufficient amounts of human beta interferon to perform the first amino acid, sugar composition and N- ... Zoon KC, Smith ME, Bridgen PJ, Anfinsen CB, Hunkapiller MW, Hood LE (February 1980). "Amino terminal sequence of the major ...
The sugars hydrolyzed from starch add sweetness into soy sauce. Umami is largely caused by the presence of free amino acids. ... This amino-glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color. Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid ... The hydrolysis of protein and large carbohydrates has provided free amino acids and simple sugars as reagents for Maillard ... Based on the result of free amino acid analysis, the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid, ...
July 1992). "Changes in sugars, acids, and amino acids during ripening and storage of apples (cv. Glockenapfel)". Journal of ... nearly the amount the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of added sugar, and 5-10 times the amount of sugar in lager ... Sugar 9-12% Cider with Other Fruit[25]. Clear to brilliant Color varies, color additives appropriate to appearance of added ... The juice of any variety of apple can be used to make cider, but cider apples are best.[8] The addition of sugar or extra fruit ...
It is hardened and browned through the Maillard reaction using the sugars and amino acids and the intense heat at the bread ... This yeast ferments some of the carbohydrates in the flour, including any sugar, producing carbon dioxide. Commercial bakers ... sugar, spice, fruit such as raisins, vegetables such as onion, nuts such as walnut or seeds such as poppy.[30] ...
Supplementary minimal media are minimal media that also contains a single selected agent, usually an amino acid or a sugar. ... a source of amino acids and nitrogen (e.g., beef, yeast extract) *This is an undefined medium because the amino-acid source ... Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by ... a carbon source, which may be a sugar such as glucose, or a less energy-rich source such as succinate ...
Products of digestion (sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids) are absorbed into the bloodstream here. ...
It can eliminate the bean's odor, increase the amount of edible fiber, free amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, vitamin B12, ... The ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acids is similar to tofu and soymilk.[5] Nevertheless, it remains a challenge ...
Many sugars are ketones, known collectively as ketoses. The best known ketose is fructose, which exists as a cyclic hemiketal, ... and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after fasting, ... Representative ketones, from the left: acetone, a common solvent; oxaloacetate, an intermediate in the metabolism of sugars; ... Acetoacetate is an intermediate in the Krebs cycle which releases energy from sugars and carbohydrates.[22] ...
This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... The earliest amyloid imaging probes included 2-(1-{6-[(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile ([ ... The molecule most commonly used for this purpose is F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a sugar, for which the waiting ...
The sugar Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 (where Glc=Glucose, Man=Mannose, and GlcNAc=N-acetylglucosamine) is attached to an asparagine (Asn) ... residue in the sequence Asn-X-Ser or Asn-X-Thr where X is any amino acid except proline. This sequence is called a ... Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST (EC 2.4.1.119) is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from ... Sec61 is the protein-conducting channel and the OST adds sugar moieties to the nascent protein. ...
Dermatologists also recommend a diet low in simple sugars as a method of improving acne.[53] As of 2014, the available evidence ... Hydroquinone lightens the skin when applied topically by inhibiting tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for converting the amino ... Eating fewer simple carbohydrates such as sugar may minimize the condition.[7] Treatments applied directly to the affected skin ...
The brewing process for sake differs from the process for beer, where the conversion from starch to sugar and then from sugar ... Iron will bond with an amino acid produced by the kōji to produce off flavors and a yellowish color. Manganese, when exposed to ... Nihonshu-do (日本酒度) is calculated from the specific gravity of the sake and indicates the sugar and alcohol content of the sake ... As the proportion of amino acids rises, the sake tastes more savory. This number is determined by titration of the sake with a ...
In chemical nomenclature of sugars and amino acids. Technical code[सम्पादन गर्ने]. Technically, any call such as: x{{sc,L,ord}} ...
"The glycemic index (GI) factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood sugar levels. The diet based around ... The emphasis was on avoiding sugar, sweet foods, starch, beer, milk and butter. Banting's pamphlet was popular for years to ... to be used to synthesize sugars for use as energy by the rest of the body. Most experts believe that a prolonged fast can lead ...
Sugar * sw:Sukari. Suicide * sw:Kujiua. Suleiman the Magnificent * sw:Suleiman the Magnificent. Sun * sw:Sun. Sun Yat-sen * sw: ... Kama viungo vya Kiswahili bado ni vyekundu, ni alama ya kwamba ama jina halikusahihishwa bado, au hakuna makala bado. Mpangilio ...
Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ...
a b c AMA Guides Archived 2006-05-02 at the Wayback Machine ... which a measurement of blood glucose or sugar level.[43] In ...
British drinkers preferred to add sugar and milk to black tea, and black tea overtook green tea in popularity in the 1720s.[45] ... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... By adding the milk afterwards, it is easier to dissolve sugar in the tea and also to ensure the desired amount of milk is added ... Tea in Ireland is usually taken with milk or sugar and is slightly spicier and stronger than the traditional English blend. The ...
... use more energy sources than eukaryotes: these range from organic compounds, such as sugars, to ammonia, metal ions or ... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102] ...
The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... Nonpolar interactions between the histone and deoxyribose sugars on DNA. *Salt bridges and hydrogen bonds between side chains ... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ...
Alcohol fuels are produced by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar ... Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... to release sugars from stored starches), fermentation of the sugars, distillation and drying. The distillation process requires ... Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, ...
Amato P, Simpson JL. The genetics of polycystic ovary syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2004, 18 (5): 707-18. PMID ... Elevated blood sugar and insulin values do not predict who responds to an insulin-lowering medication, low-glycemic diet, and ... A hypoglycemic response in which the two-hour insulin level is higher and the blood sugar lower than fasting is consistent with ...
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ... HADHB encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase ...
The microbes are also responsible for metabolising the carbohydrates and amino acids present in the tea leaves.[15][16][17] ...
Many beet products are made from other Beta vulgaris varieties, particularly sugar beet. ... a homolog of the naturally occurring amino acid cysteine. High circulating levels of homocysteine may be harmful to blood ...
... and differences with previous cDNA and amino acid sequences". DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.85. ... Hydrolase: sugar hydrolases (EC 3.2). 3.2.1: Glycoside hydrolases. Disaccharidase. *Sucrase/Sucrase-isomaltase/Invertase ...
Orthogonal protection of L-Tyrosine (Protecting groups are marked in blue, the amino acid is shown in black). (1) Fmoc- ... Bn group is widely used in sugar and nucleoside chemistry.. *β-Methoxyethoxymethyl ether (MEM) - Removed by acid. ... In the example shown, the protected amino acid tyrosine, the benzyl ester can be removed by hydrogenolysis, the ... protected amino group, (2) benzyl ester protected carboxyl group and (3) tert-butyl ether protected phenolic hydroxyl group of ...
They are made up of joined-up sugars. Sugars have the general formula Cm(H2O)n, and are also known as saccharides. ... Oligosaccharides (shortish chains), often linked to amino acids or lipids. They play a special role in cell membranes. ... Simple saccharides with one or two sugar molecules *Monosaccharides: single sugar e.g. glucose , fructose ... Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of sugars or branched clusters. Their function is ...
Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated ... The dominant monosaccharides in honey bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is ... Adult worker honey bees require 4 mg of utilizable sugars per day and larvae require about 59.4 mg of carbohydrates for proper ... Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids, ten of which are considered essential to honey bees: methionine, tryptophan ...
Amino acid-RNA ligation. The ability to conjugate an amino acid to the 3'-end of an RNA in order to use its chemical groups or ... The major difference between RNA and DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2'-position of the ribose sugar in RNA ( ... As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino-acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... The most commonly selected monomers (i.e. amino acids) for ribosomal protein synthesis are chemical derivatives of the α-amino ...
Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... When combined in the way that the image to the right depicts, sucrose, one of the more common sugar products found in plants, ... Some of these products occur naturally like salt and sugar, but flavour chemists (called a "flavourist") develop many of these ...
Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Savini I, Rossi A, Pierro C, Avigliano L, Catani MV (April 2008). "SVCT1 and SVCT2: key proteins for vitamin C uptake". Amino ... Mineral Nutrients and Amino Acids May or Must be Added.[87] Voluntary and mandatory fortification was described for various ... all simple sugars) and proceeds to L-galactose, L-galactonolactone and ascorbic acid.[134][135] There is feedback regulation in ...
Amino acid sequence of sweet protein curculin adapted from Swiss-Prot biological database of protein sequences.[3] ... The mature monomers each consist of a sequence of 114 amino acids, weighing 12.5 kDa (curculin 1) and 12.7 kDa (curculin 2), ... "Purification and complete amino acid sequence of a new type of sweet protein taste-modifying activity, curculin". The Journal ...
3-{[(2'-{(5S,8S,9S,10R,13S)-15-{6-amino-2- [(1S)-3-amino-1-{[(2S)-2,3-diamino-3-oxopropyl]amino}-3-oxopropyl] -5- ... Bleomycin naturally occurring-analogues have two to three sugar molecules, and DNA cleavage activities of these analogues have ... Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides are synthesized from amino acids and short carboxylic acids by NRPSs and PKSs, ... bleomycin megasynthetase-templated assembly of the bleomycin peptide/polyketide/peptide aglycon was proposed from nine amino ...
A metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.. fitness. fitness landscape. fertilization. fetus. Also ... A polypeptide chain of amino acids. It is a body-building nutrient.. protist. psychobiology. Also called behavioral ... amino acid. A class of organic compounds containing an amine group and a carboxylic acid group which function as the ... In humans, a set of nine amino acids, two fatty acids, thirteen vitamins, and fifteen minerals are considered essential ...
Villus capillaries collect amino acids and simple sugars taken up by the villi into the blood stream. Villus lacteals (lymph ... An increased absorptive area is useful because digested nutrients (including monosaccharide and amino acids) pass into the ...
New amino sugars which are glucopyranosyl and oligoglucosidyl derivatives of 4,6-bisdesoxy-4-(4,5,6-trihydroxy-3- ... Amino sugar compound. US4273765 *. Feb 9, 1979. Jun 16, 1981. Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.. Amino sugar derivatives containing ... They form a series of which the amino sugar derivative [C19 H33 O13 N] is to be regarded as the initial member; i.e. R is a ... Amino-sugar derivatives, process for their preparation and pharmaceutical composition thereof. US4197292 *. Feb 2, 1979. Apr 8 ...
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.. *Drugs ...
In organic chemistry, an amino sugar (or more technically a 2-amino-2-deoxysugar) is a sugar molecule in which a hydroxyl group ... More than 60 amino sugars are known, with one of the most abundant being N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine, which is the main component of ... Amino+Sugars at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... This can be achieved using azides with subsequent reduction yielding the amino sugar. One advantage of introducing azide moiety ...
Control of Sugar and Amino Acid Feeding via Pharyngeal Taste Neurons. Yu-Chieh David Chen, Vaibhav Menon, Ryan Matthew Joseph, ... Control of Sugar and Amino Acid Feeding via Pharyngeal Taste Neurons. Yu-Chieh David Chen, Vaibhav Menon, Ryan Matthew Joseph, ... Control of Sugar and Amino Acid Feeding via Pharyngeal Taste Neurons Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Control of Sugar and Amino Acid Feeding via Pharyngeal Taste Neurons. Yu-Chieh David Chen, Vaibhav Menon, Ryan Matthew Joseph ...
This amino acid-sugar conjugate was prepared by solution synthesis in analogy to the natural fructosyl-amino acids. Furthermore ... Risseeuw MD, Overhand M, Fleet GW, Simone MI (2007) A compendium of sugar amino acids (SAA): scaffolds, peptide- and glyco- ... Gruner SAW, Locardi E, Lohof E, Kessler H (2002) Carbohydrate-based mimetics in drug design: sugar amino acids and carbohydrate ... Lac-l-TTA, a novel lactose-based amino acid-sugar conjugate for anti-metastatic applications. ...
... one each for sugars, neutral amino acids, basic amino acids, and Na+ are joined together, as in a mosaic. ... Transport of Sugars and Amino Acids in the Intestine: Evidence for a Common Carrier ... Transport of Sugars and Amino Acids in the Intestine: Evidence for a Common Carrier ... Transport of Sugars and Amino Acids in the Intestine: Evidence for a Common Carrier ...
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES. ... "Amino Sugars" by people in this website by year, and whether "Amino Sugars" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Amino Sugars" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Sugars" by people in Profiles. ...
What is Amino sugars metabolism? Meaning of Amino sugars metabolism medical term. What does Amino sugars metabolism mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino sugars metabolism in the Medical Dictionary? Amino sugars metabolism explanation free. ... amino sugar. (redirected from Amino sugars metabolism). Also found in: Encyclopedia. amino sugar. a MONOSACCHARIDE in which an ... Amino sugars metabolism , definition of Amino sugars metabolism by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Proline and serine are the predominant amino acids. High content of essential amino acids, minerals and the sugar mannitol ... free amino acids and sugars. Palynological analysis showed that the predominant pollen was monofloral from Senna sp. species ( ... Proline and serine are the predominant amino acids. High content of essential amino acids, minerals and the sugar mannitol ... Identification of Sugar, Amino Acids and Minerals from the Pollen of Jandaíra Stingless Bees (Melipona subnitida) ...
Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ... Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ... Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ... Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ...
Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40. Michael S. Miller, Lester Kwock and Donald ... Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 ... Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 ... Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 ...
Here, we have examined the effect of leptin on sugar and amino acids absorption in the human model of intestina ... Studies in rodents have shown that leptin controls sugars and glutamine entry in the enterocytes by regulating membrane ... Here, we have examined the effect of leptin on sugar and amino acids absorption in the human model of intestinal cells Caco-2 ... Previous Document: Amino acids downregulate the expression of several autophagy-related genes in rainbow trout myoblast.... ...
... Cancer Res. 1977 Apr;37(4):1068-74. ... The magnitude of inhibition of thymidine kinase activity and amino acid incorporation by D-glucosamine was comparable to that ... However, whereas the kinetics of recovery of amino acid incorporation from inhibition was rapid, thymidine kinase activity was ... D-Glucosamine inhibited the incorporation of labeled uridine and amino acids into acid-precipitable material. ...
... sugars and amino acids Aleksandra Marsh1, Rachael E. H. Miles1, Grazia Rovelli. 1, Alexander G. Cowling1, Lucy Nandy2, Cari S. ... The chemical compounds studied include dicarboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars and polyols. These data provide a comprehensive ... Abstract. Hygroscopicity data for 36 organic compounds, including amino acids, organic acids, alcohols and sugars, are ... Similarly, amino acid hygroscopicity is under-predicted by UNIFAC predictions, a consequence of the original data used in the ...
... and methionine on the measurement of reducing sugars using a ... This study evaluated the interference of the amino acids ... Amino acids interference on the quantification of reducing sugars by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay mislead carbohydrase ... The amino acids valine, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine did not affect the DNS reaction, while methionine decreased the color ... This study evaluated the interference of the amino acids tryptophan, cysteine, histidine, tyrosine, hydroxyproline, leucine, ...
... amino acid C) enzyme - protein D) RNA - nucleic acid and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes ... Which of the following pairs are NOT related?A) sugar - carbohydrate B) DNA - amino acid C) enzyme - protein D) RNA - nucleic ... amino acids joint by peptide bond and prepare protein. so my answer is B) that means DNA is not related to amino acid. ... Sugars are a type of carbohydrate, enzymes are a type of protein, and RNA is a type of nucleic acid. Answer B is correct ...
Exploring the conformational and biological versatility of beta-turn-modified gramicidin S by using sugar amino acid homologues ... Exploring the conformational and biological versatility of beta-turn-modified gramicidin S by using sugar amino acid homologues ...
Amino Acid and Sugar Catabolism in the Marine Bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 from an Energetic Viewpoint. Daniel ... Amino Acid and Sugar Catabolism in the Marine Bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 from an Energetic Viewpoint ... Amino Acid and Sugar Catabolism in the Marine Bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 from an Energetic Viewpoint ... Amino Acid and Sugar Catabolism in the Marine Bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 from an Energetic Viewpoint ...
... groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cycl ... To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) ... In sugar chains with amino sugar (HexNH2), the sodium cations can coordinate to any sugars and glycosyl bonds are likely to ... Protons localize at the amino group in sugar chains, and the product ions include the protonated amino sugar. The mobile ...
... not added sugar in details, quantity how high or low Arginine, Arg or R, α-amino acid nutrient content it has. ... α-amino acid is present in Pears, dried, sulfured, stewed, ... sulfured-stew-no-added-sugar/arginine-r-arg-alpha-amino-acid. ... There is g amount of Arginine, Arg or R, α-amino acid in amount of Pears, dried, sulfured, stewed, not added sugar. Determine, ... Amount of Arginine, Arg or R, α-amino acid in Pears, dried, sulfured, stewed, not added sugar. Back to products complete ...
Scientists surprised to find that amino acids, not sugar, supply most building blocks for tumor cells. *amino acids ... Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling and insulin resistance. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important ... Instead, the largest contributors to cell mass were amino acids, which make up proteins. As a group, amino acids (excluding ... medicalxpress.com/news/2016-03-scientists-amino-acids-sugar-blocks.html ...
Saccharides and Amino Sugars (3) (SC1011). Saccharides and amino sugars were analyzed using SUGAR SC1011, a column for analysis ... Saccharides, Sugar Alcohols, Amino Sugars and Amino Acids. Saccharides and Organic Acids. Polysaccharides. High-selective ... Amino Acid Analysis. Guidelines for Shodex Column Selection : Proteins, Peptides and Amino Acids. ... Proteins, Peptides and Amino acids. Aqueous SEC (GFC) Analysis. Reversed Phase Analysis. HILIC Analysis. Ion Exchange Analysis ...
Stereospecificity of multiple receptor sites in a labellar sugar receptor of the fleshfly for amino acids and small peptides.. ... Stereospecificity of multiple receptor sites in a labellar sugar receptor of the fleshfly for amino acids and small peptides. ... sites in the sugar receptor. The effect of small peptides on the sugar receptor was examined systematically. Their ... and N-methylation of the alpha-amino group of L-phenylalanine result in extremely decreased responses of the labellar sugar ...
Effects of water deficit on the activity of nitrate reductase and content of sugars, nitrate and free amino acids in the leaves ...
... Am J Physiol. 1991 Oct;261(4 Pt 2): ... Rates of transport for the sugars glucose and fructose and the amino acids (AAs) aspartate, leucine, lysine, and proline were ... In contrast, the sugar transporters of the cat were unresponsive to varying carbohydrate levels, and long-term feeding of a ... Although all three species consume much carbohydrate during early development, only the mink was able to regulate sugar ...
Morning Liquid Vitamins by MaryRuths (Raspberry) Vegan Multivitamin Trace Minerals & Amino Acids Gluten Free 0 Sugar 32oz $ ... Morning Liquid Vitamins by MaryRuths (Raspberry) Vegan Multivitamin Trace Minerals & Amino Acids Gluten Free 0 Sugar 32oz $ ... Amino Acids Paleo - Gluten Free - 0 Sugar - 32oz for just $33.94. You are saving $6.01 (15%) on this purchase. The shipping is ... Amino Acids Gluten Free 0 Sugar 32oz $33.94 (15% OFF) ... Zero Sugar!. *DELICIOUS TASTE- Take 1 oz a day of delicious ...
Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups ... Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups ... Keywords:sugar amino acid based scaffolds. Abstract: To meet the growing demands for the development of new molecular entities ... Sugar Amino Acid Based Scaffolds - Novel Peptidomimetics and Their Potential in Combinatorial Synthesis. Author(s): Tushar K. ...
DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS AND SUGARS CONTENT IN ANTENNARIA DIOICA GAERTN * LIUDMYLA SLOBODIANIUK Department of Pharmacognosy ... Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine sugars and amino acids content of Antennaria dioica Gaertn. herb. In ... was analyzed for the content of sugars by GC/MS. The amino acids were identified and quantified by HPLC method. ... Determination of amino acids in medicinal plants from southern sonora, mexico. Trop J Pharm Res 2014;13:601-6.. 27. Wu G. Amino ...
Amino acids and plant sugars. iStock/via glytone-usa. As we age, our skin naturally loses much of its moisture-retaining ... Immupure products are cold-sterilized for safety, but in a way that preserves their skin-friendly proteins, amino acids, growth ... This lightweight layering serum targets the skins water and lipid content by combining amino acids, which provide immediate ... moisture and calm skin, and plant sugars, which help to prevent trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and replenish skins natural ...
... amino sugar N-acetyl- glucosamine, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, aspirin, autoimmune reaction, autoimmunity, berberine ... Filed Under: Health Tagged With: a chronic skin condition, abdominal bloating, acne, AIDS, Allergic reactions to food, amino ... Archives for amino sugar N-acetyl- glucosamine. amino sugar N-acetyl- glucosamine. ...
  • High content of essential amino acids, minerals and the sugar mannitol confirmed high nutritional value of pollen samples from jandaíra bees. (scirp.org)
  • GlycoTrol ® was designed by Dr. Charles I. Jarowski, Director of Research and Development at Pfizer, Inc., to balance dietary essential amino acids and support and maintain healthy blood-sugar. (lidtke.com)
  • Dr. Jarowski identified the essential amino acids most frequently lacking in the American diet, and by simply supplementing these amino acids before a meal as part of your diet, GlycoTrol helps maintain a healthy blood sugar level. (lidtke.com)
  • This bar chart shows the total %RDI (Recommended Daily Intake) for all essential amino acids. (myfooddata.com)
  • Rich with antioxidants, over 14 essential amino acids, and natural sugars, this superfood makes an excellent nutritious snack. (zestofmoringa.com)
  • 11 of these amino acids are made by your body and are called 'non-essential' amino acids. (cyh.com)
  • The other 9 'essential' amino acids you have to get by eating the right foods. (cyh.com)
  • Protein from animal foods has all the essential amino acids you need. (cyh.com)
  • The alkali protein fraction was the more rich in all amino acids especially the essential amino acids which were in amounts higher than that given in Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] pattern. (who.int)
  • Perfection isolate vanilla contains 15.5% less protein, 185% more carbohydrates and 112% more sugar than indicated on the label. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • The higher content of carbohydrates and sugars is exactly the same as that of the students. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • As well as the measurement of different carbohydrates and sugars. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • In organic chemistry, Sugar Amino Acids and derivatives are sugar acids and sugar acid derivatives of organic compounds in the carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates subclass in the organooxygen compounds class within the organic oxygen compounds superclass , containing a saccharide unit that bears both an amine group and a carboxylic acid group. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, cellulose and many other compounds found in living organisms. (scientificpsychic.com)
  • In their basic form, carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides . (scientificpsychic.com)
  • These simple sugars can combine with each other to form more complex carbohydrates. (scientificpsychic.com)
  • Carbohydrates consisting of two to ten simple sugars are called oligosaccharides , and those with a larger number are called polysaccharides . (scientificpsychic.com)
  • Sugars are white crystalline carbohydrates that are soluble in water and generally have a sweet taste. (scientificpsychic.com)
  • Biomolecules: amino acids and proteins, sugars and carbohydrates. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • The only really low-carb bar - only 3g of net carbohydrates - and nuts, not sugar! (guiltfree.pl)
  • Some simple carbohydrates come from 'sometimes' foods like fizzy drinks and lollies, which have lots of sugar and don't have important vitamins which your body needs. (cyh.com)
  • Instead, the largest contributors to cell mass were amino acids, which make up proteins. (syromonoed.com)
  • The subunits of proteins are a. sugar molecules. (weegy.com)
  • Subunits of proteins are amino acids. (weegy.com)
  • proteins and peptides , steroids (fat-soluble molecules whose basic structure is a skeleton of four carbon rings), or derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine, characterized by a 6-carbon, or benzene, ring. (encyclopedia.com)
  • proteins and amino acid assumed to be responsible for many of the biological activities in plant cell. (journalajrib.com)
  • Then somehow, out of that prebiotic stew emerged the first critical building blocks - proteins, sugars, amino acids, cell walls - that would combine over the next billion years to form the first specks of life on the planet. (livescience.com)
  • So are sugars, amino acids, and proteins. (livescience.com)
  • The resulting multivariate dataset was used to estimate the prediction ability of the individual scanning methods on starch-related parameters, selected simple sugars, selected amino acids, conductivity of pressed cell sap and cell sizes. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • The combination of two simple sugars is a disaccharide . (scientificpsychic.com)
  • Many simple sugars can exist in a chain form or a ring form, as illustrated by the hexoses above. (scientificpsychic.com)
  • A number of simple sugars may combine to form: A. protein. (weegy.com)
  • A significantly higher anticancer effect of Lac-L-TTA with respect to the fructose analogue emerged from our study suggesting that the anti-metastatic potential of fructosyl-amino acids can be enhanced by increasing the polarity of the compounds, for example by introducing disaccharide moieties in place of fructose. (springer.com)
  • Rates of transport for the sugars glucose and fructose and the amino acids (AAs) aspartate, leucine, lysine, and proline were measured throughout the intestine (only proline and glucose in the frogs) by an in vitro everted-sleeve method. (nih.gov)
  • Results showed that most types of spectral analyses had relatively high potential for predicting the starch-related parameters and medium potential for predicting the concentration of the reducing sugars fructose and glucose. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • The higher content of the sugar comes form fructose what is stated on the ingredients but not added to the sugar value in the nutrition table. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • Fructose, also called levulose or "fruit sugar", is shown here in the chain and ring forms. (scientificpsychic.com)
  • GLC and PC analysis of free sugars and mucilage hydrolysates revealed the presence of rhamnose , arabinose , xylose fructose , glucose , galactose , galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid . (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSION: These data show in human intestinal cells that leptin can rapidly control the activity of physiologically relevant transporters for rich-energy molecules, i.e D-glucose (SGLT1) and amino acids (ASCT2, B(0) AT1 and PAT1). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We focus our attention on differences among the hydroxy group of glucose (Glc), the amino group of hexosamine (HexNH 2 ), and the acetamide group of N -acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc) in ionization and fragmentation. (springer.com)
  • Most of the fuel consumed by these rapidly proliferating cells is glucose, a type of sugar. (syromonoed.com)
  • Although cells consume glucose and the amino acid glutamine at very high rates, the researchers found that those two molecules contribute little to the mass of new cells-glucose accounts for 10 to 15 percent of the carbon found in the cells, while glutamine contributes about 10 percent of the carbon. (syromonoed.com)
  • It isn't necessarily about how the Warburg effect helps cells put glucose into cell mass, but more about why does glucose -to-lactate conversion help cells use amino acids to build more cells . (syromonoed.com)
  • This amino sugar derivative produced from glucose and propylamine with the aid of immobilized Candida antarctica (Novozyme 435) lipase, as catalyst. (upm.edu.my)
  • Hygroscopicity data for 36 organic compounds, including amino acids, organic acids, alcohols and sugars, are determined using a comparative kinetics electrodynamic balance (CK-EDB). (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • New hygroscopicity data are also reported for a selection of alcohols and sugars and they show variable levels of agreement with predictions. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The compounds, of which O-{4,6-bisdesoxy-4-[1S-(1,4,6/5)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylamino]-α-D-glucopyranosyl}-(1→4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucopyranose. (google.com)
  • GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES. (drugbank.ca)
  • These compounds are conjugates of amino sugars and aminocyclitols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the aforesaid classes of compounds are all transported by similar, sodium-ion-dependent mechanisms and elicit countertransport of each other, all may share a common, polyfunctional carrier in which a series of separate binding sites, namely, one each for sugars, neutral amino acids, basic amino acids, and Na + are joined together, as in a mosaic. (sciencemag.org)
  • The chemical compounds studied include dicarboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars and polyols. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • So, if one residue of HexNH 2 or HexNAc is inserted in these compounds, the position of the hetero-sugar residue in the homo-oligosaccharides can be identified to only one structure as shown Figure 1 . (springer.com)
  • N-methylated amino acids are found in Nature in various biological compounds. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The aim of this investigation was to analyze two samples of pollen from jandaíra stingless bees ( Melipona subnitida ) in view of their mineral composition, free amino acids and sugars. (scirp.org)
  • We determined 17 bound and 16 free amino acids in the Antennaria dioica Gaertn. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Moreover, analysis of free amino acids content and total amino acids of protein hydrolysate was carried out by HPLC technique. (bvsalud.org)
  • N-functionalized of glycals at the C2 position, combined with glycosidic bond formation at C1 is a common strategy for the synthesis of amino sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleophilic displacement can be an effective strategy for the synthesis of amino sugars, however success strongly depends upon the nature of nucleophile, the type of leaving group and site of displacements on sugar rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor Rojas's research interests focus on new methods for incorporating nitrogen into organic molecules and application of these methods to the synthesis of amino sugars. (barnard.edu)
  • DNA is one type of nucleic acid, nucleic acid is made up of nucleotides not from the amino acids. (enotes.com)
  • A team of such chemists from the Scripps Research Institute reported Nov. 6 in the journal Nature Chemistry that they identified a single, primitive enzyme that could have reacted with early Earth catalysts to produce some of the key precursors to life: the short chains of amino acids that power cells, the lipids that form cell walls, and the strands of nucleotides that store genetic information. (livescience.com)
  • Amino acids, sugars, nucleotides and vitamins are all metabolites. (princeton.edu)
  • Stereospecificity of multiple receptor sites in a labellar sugar receptor of the fleshfly for amino acids and small peptides. (rupress.org)
  • The effect of small peptides on the sugar receptor was examined systematically. (rupress.org)
  • This review chronicles the development of sugar amino acids as a novel class of peptidomimetic building blocks and their applications in generating desired secondary structures in peptides as well as in creating mimics of natural biopolymers. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The quality of the sedimentary OM was determined by the diagenetic indicators %T AA C (percentage of total organic carbon present as amino acid carbon), %T AA N (percentage of total nitrogen present as amino acid nitrogen), aspartic acid:β-alanine ratios, and glutamic acid:γ-amino butyric acid ratios. (frontiersin.org)
  • This gives out a total of 1.69 + 1.27 = 2.96% more of added amino acids which brings the nitrogen content higher, and thus also the protein content. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • How is protein tested with a nitrogen and amino acid analysis? (supplementlabtest.com)
  • Studies continue to highlight the importance of additional nutrients that play an important role in sugar metabolism. (lidtke.com)
  • This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry, an amino sugar (or more technically a 2-amino-2-deoxysugar) is a sugar molecule in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced with an amine group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups provide an excellent opportunity for organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to natures molecular arsenal. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We investigated the impact of temperature on the microbial turnover of organic matter (OM) in a hydrothermal vent system in Guaymas Basin, by calculating microbial bio- and necromass turnover times based on the culture-independent D:L-amino acid model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Handling and processing of potatoes is performed in increasingly large and more automated facilities, and the industry calls for more automated machinery for quality assessment and sorting by concentration of starch, soluble sugars, protein, amino acids etc. of the potato tubers. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • The highest sugar content was by extracting it with an Methyl alcohol, where it reached 1.89 (mg g -1 DW) followed by Ethanol extract (1.66 mg g -1 DW) However, distilled water extract recorded the lowest content of soluble sugars compared to Methyl and Ethanol alcohol extraction, where it reached (1.30 mg g -1 DW). (journalajrib.com)
  • Merete Edelenbos » Research outputs » Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in P. (au.dk)
  • The magnitude of inhibition of thymidine kinase activity and amino acid incorporation by D-glucosamine was comparable to that produced by cycloheximide, suggesting that the inhibition might arise from interference with enzyme synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • However, whereas the kinetics of recovery of amino acid incorporation from inhibition was rapid, thymidine kinase activity was depressed for at least 6 hr after drug washout. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with these results, production of H 2 O 2 was increased in most commensals when growing on amino sugars, and inhibition of S. mutans by Streptococcus cristatus , Streptococcus oralis , or S. gordonii was enhanced by amino sugars on agar plates. (asm.org)
  • To reveal the effects of amino and acetamide groups, we chose the ideal analytes in which one sugar unit with amino or acetamide groups differs in long homo-oligosaccharides. (springer.com)
  • These basic studies made possible the identification and quantification of the flavonoid, carboxylic-/amino acid and sugar constituents of citrus fruit juices and albedos, without any extraction/enrichment procedure. (elsevier.com)
  • Füzfai, Z & Molnár-Perl, I 2007, ' Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of flavonoids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: Analysis of flavonoids, sugars, carboxylic and amino acids in model systems and in citrus fruits ', Journal of Chromatography A , vol. 1149, no. 1, pp. 88-101. (elsevier.com)
  • The C. glutamicum strain producing this imine reductase enzyme was engineered further to extend this green chemistry route to production of N-methyl-l-alanine from alternative feed stocks such as starch or the lignocellulosic sugars xylose and arabinose. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Sugars are a type of carbohydrate, enzymes are a type of protein, and RNA is a type of nucleic acid. (enotes.com)
  • Built with science, innovation, and clinically studied ingredients, our products do more than deliver a sugar rush or simply replace nutrients lost in sweat. (bcaabar.com)
  • THE OFFICIAL RECOVERY BRAND OF CHAMPIONS: For over 10 years, XTEND has been making the best recovery products in the world, more than delivering a sugar rush or simply replacing nutrients lost in sweat. (bcaabar.com)
  • D-Galactose, L-arginine, and their respective actively transported analogs are partially competitive inhibitors of the active transport of neutral amino acids in the small intestine of hamsters. (sciencemag.org)
  • Uptake of 20 μM glutamine and 0.1 mM phenylalanine was also inhibited by leptin, indicating sensitivity to the hormone of the Na(+) -dependent neutral amino acid transporters ASCT2 and B(0) AT1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Leptin also inhibited 1 mM proline and β-alanine uptake in Na(+) medium at pH 6, conditions for optimal activity of the H(+) -dependent neutral amino acid transporter PAT1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The obtained results indicate that slightly lower temperatures (105ºC) than for the classical combined amino acid hydrolysis and longer times (22 hours) than for chitin minimized losses and maximized recoveries of monomeric amino acids and amino sugars. (leibniz-zmt.de)
  • Every can is powered by 7 grams of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which have been clinically shown to support muscle repair and recovery, plus hydrating electrolytes and additional performance ingredients to help you refuel, repair, and recover. (bcaabar.com)
  • ZERO SUGAR, ZERO CALORIES, ZERO CARBS: Every can of XTEND Carbonated includes 7g of BCAAs at the research-backed 2:1:1 ratio with 3.5g of leucine and 1.75g each of isoleucine and valine, and 1g Citrulline Malate to support muscle growth, recovery, and replenishment of electrolytes. (bcaabar.com)
  • Answer B is correct because DNA is not a type of amino acid, dna is a blueprint for transcription into ran which will translate to the correct sequence of amino acids to build protein. (enotes.com)
  • Demonstration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities from sugar-amino acid maillard reaction products. (abcam.com)
  • caramelization of sugars, and the Maillard reaction of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found the best affordable Scivation XTEND Energy BCAA Powder Knockout Fruit Punch 125mg Caffeine Sugar Free Pre Workout Muscle Recovery Drink with Amino Acids 7g BCAAs for Men Women 30 Servings Packaging May Vary you can buy at website Amazon.com. (wildfoods.info)
  • If you have been looking for a cheap bcaa powder reviews, this Scivation XTEND Energy BCAA Powder Knockout Fruit Punch 125mg Caffeine Sugar Free Pre Workout Muscle Recovery Drink with Amino Acids 7g BCAAs for Men Women 30 Servings Packaging May Vary is the best choice for you. (wildfoods.info)
  • In this work, a new type of amino sugar derivative tagged as amino sugar similar to N-acetyl-glucosamine, commonly used in medical field as medicine to treat osteoarthritis has been synthesized. (upm.edu.my)
  • Coverage of topics such as nucleosides, amino-sugars, alditols and cyclitols also covers much research of relevance to biological and medicinal chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • Department bcaa stevia would be the necessary amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine. (pinksugarcupcakery.com)
  • This is a bonded chain of three key amino acids: leucine, isoleucine and valine, which may act as a better transport vehicle for optimal absorption. (kauf.com)
  • N-Formylation and N-methylation of the alpha-amino group of L-phenylalanine result in extremely decreased responses of the labellar sugar receptor of the fleshfly, whereas the same structural alteration of L-valine hardly affects the response. (rupress.org)
  • Fourteen different substrates (five sugars and nine amino acids) and their degradation pathways were assessed for energetic efficiencies based on catabolic ATP yields, calculated from net formed ATP and reducing equivalents. (asm.org)
  • Optimized condition yields 73.37 % amino sugar was obtained upon 2 h of reaction, 1:5 molar ratio of substrates, 40 ºC temperature and 17 % enzyme mass. (upm.edu.my)
  • In this work we demonstrate that A. baumannii PglC has the ability to utilize three different UDP-sugar substrates: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) or UDP-diNAcBac. (wustl.edu)
  • Moreover, all members within a clade are predicted to have the same preference for one of the three possible sugar substrates. (wustl.edu)
  • Gruner SAW, Locardi E, Lohof E, Kessler H (2002) Carbohydrate-based mimetics in drug design: sugar amino acids and carbohydrate scaffolds. (springer.com)
  • DNA and RNA are examples of which type of compound?A) amino acid B) nucleic acid C) carbohydrate. (enotes.com)
  • Although all three species consume much carbohydrate during early development, only the mink was able to regulate sugar transporter activity in response to changes in levels of dietary carbohydrate. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the sugar transporters of the cat were unresponsive to varying carbohydrate levels, and long-term feeding of a high-carbohydrate diet caused down-regulation of sugar transport in frogs. (nih.gov)
  • Recent advances in the area of combinatorial chemistry give unprecedented technological support for rapid compilations of sugar amino acid-based libraries exploiting the diversities of carbohydrate molecules and well-developed solid-phase peptide synthesis methods. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The measured carbohydrate and sugar content of 6,76 grams is lower with the 10 grams indicated on the label. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • Sodium cation (Na + ) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. (springer.com)
  • a MONOSACCHARIDE in which an amino group has replaced an hydroxyl group on one or more occasions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 13. Husak L, Dakhym I, Marchyshyn S, Nakonechna S. Determination of sugars and fructans content in Stachys sieboldii. (innovareacademics.in)
  • On the Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for Simultaneous Determination of Amino Acids and Amino Sugars in Marine Sediments. (leibniz-zmt.de)
  • In the present work different approaches were tested for the optimization of the hydrolysis conditions for the joint determination of amino acids and amino sugars in chitin, an important structural polymer in fungi, invertebrates, algae and the exoskeleton of zooplankton. (leibniz-zmt.de)
  • With zero carbs, zero calories, and absolutely zero sugar, our XTEND® Hydration & Recovery Drink is a better-tasting, better-for-you sports drink. (bcaabar.com)
  • Mixtures of solvent influence the high solubility of sugar and thus increasing the yield. (upm.edu.my)
  • Proline and serine are the predominant amino acids. (scirp.org)
  • Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: N-deacetylation of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan amino sugars. (asm.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dietary intake of nutritious chemicals such as sugars and amino acids is essential for the survival of an animal. (jneurosci.org)
  • We compared the degradation behaviour of amino sugars (ASs) and amino acids (AAs) during sedimentation in two lakes. (lib4ri.ch)
  • MS/MS spectral patterns depend on many factors such as the sugar chain structure, sugar content, ionic forms of sugars, ionization methods, etc. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of our study was to determine sugars and amino acids content of Antennaria dioica Gaertn. (innovareacademics.in)
  • was analyzed for the content of sugars by GC/MS. The amino acids were identified and quantified by HPLC method. (innovareacademics.in)
  • These amino acids must be subtracted from the protein content. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • There were not differences between irrigated and non-irrigated Q. ilex seedlings in the content of sugar and photosynthetic pigments, while the total amino acid and phenolic content significantly increased under drought conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • On the basis of the amino acid analysis we can rule out aminospiking seen there are no abnormal values in relation to the total protein content. (supplementlabtest.com)
  • Amino acid quantities were transformed into percentages (% of each AA over the total AA content of a flower). (naturalis.nl)
  • nectar volume was negatively related to flies (both hover flies and remaining Diptera), whereas total sugar content was not significant for any guild. (naturalis.nl)
  • high amino acids content with Methyl alcohol (0.55 mg g -1 DW) and distilled water record 0.47 mg g -1 DW, while the low of amino acids content (0.27 mg g -1 DW) it was with the Ethanol alcohol extract. (journalajrib.com)
  • Also, the yeast protein fractions and the amino acid content of each protein fraction and the whole biomass were determined. (who.int)
  • Amazon is currently offering Morning Liquid Vitamins by MaryRuth's (Raspberry) Vegan Multivitamin A B C D3 E Trace Minerals & Amino Acids Paleo - Gluten Free - 0 Sugar - 32oz for just $33.94. (mojosavings.com)
  • Tushar K. Chakraborty, Sarva Jayaprakash and Subhash Ghosh, " Sugar Amino Acid Based Scaffolds - Novel Peptidomimetics and Their Potential in Combinatorial Synthesis", Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening (2002) 5: 373. (eurekaselect.com)
  • As a group, amino acids (excluding glutamine) contribute the majority of the carbon atoms found in new cells and 20 to 40 percent of the total mass. (syromonoed.com)
  • Their effectiveness depends mainly on the place of the constituent amino acids rather than on their composition, indicating the decisive role that certain aliphatic amino acids in the C-terminal position play in stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • it advisable to study the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of sugars and amino acids from the herb of this plant. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Naturalis Institutional Repository: What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars? (naturalis.nl)
  • We studied the amino acid (AA) composition of the floral nectars of 73 plant species occurring in a phryganic (East Mediterranean garrigue) community and investigated whether AA and sugar composition is shaped by evolutionary (plant phylogeny), ecological (flowering time as a direct effect of summer drought) and coevolutionary (pollinator partnership) constraints. (naturalis.nl)