DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Main article: Amino acid activation. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes consume ATP in the attachment tRNA to amino acids, ... Like many condensation reactions in nature, DNA replication and DNA transcription also consumes ATP. ... The amino acid is coupled to the penultimate nucleotide at the 3′-end of the tRNA (the A in the sequence CCA) via an ester bond ... Citric acid cycleEdit. Main articles: Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation ...
Amino Acid 3-Letter 1-Letter MT DNA Positions Strand Alanine Ala A MT-TA 5,587-5,655 H ... In humans, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) forms closed circular molecules that contain 16,569[2][3] DNA base pairs,[4] with each ... Paleo-DNA Laboratory - Forensic Services *^ Stone AC, Starrs JE, Stoneking M (January 2001). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of the ... Mitochondrial DNA polymerase[edit]. The Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase (Pol gamma, encoded by the POLG gene) is used in the ...
If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of the histone might be modified. DNA is not completely unwound ... Bacteria also use DNA adenine methylation (rather than DNA cytosine methylation) as an epigenetic signal. DNA adenine ... DNA damage can also cause epigenetic changes.[27][28][29] DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average about 60,000 times ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ...
Hydrolysis of hydantoins affords amino acids: RCHC(O)NHC(O)NH + H2O → RCHC(NH2)CO2H + NH3 Hydantoin itself reacts with hot, ... Such modifications block DNA polymerases and thus prevents PCR from working. Such damage is a problem when dealing with ancient ... Another useful route, which follows the work of Urech, involves the condensation of amino acids with cyanates and isocyanates: ... "Amino Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_057.pub2. Hofreiter, Michael; Serre, ...
The DNA sequence of a gene encodes the amino acid sequence of a protein ... The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ... amino acids. All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a ... If amino acids are present in the environment, microorganisms can conserve energy by taking up the amino acids from their ...
Needleman SB; Wunsch CD (March 1970). "A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of ... Since presently-available DNA sequencing technologies are ill-suited for reading long sequences, large pieces of DNA (such as ... SANGER F; TUPPY H (September 1951). "The amino-acid sequence in the phenylalanyl chain of insulin. 2. The investigation of ... This includes the biochemical or statistical analysis of amino acid residues in local regions and structural the inference from ...
DNA; A: adenine, T: thymine, G: guanine, C: cytosine. Amino acid; C: cysteine, W: tryptophan, Y: tyrosine, V: valine, D: ... aspartic acid, M: methionine, G: glycine, I: isoleucine, F: phenylalanine, E: glutamic acid, Q: glutamine, P: proline. ^The ... Tawa, R; Ono, T; Kurishita, A; Okada, S; Hirose, S (October 1990). "Changes of DNA methylation level during pre- and postnatal ... The mutations are located in the DNA-sequence-targeting domain of Dnmt1 which is responsible for chromatin binding during the ...
Different base substitutions or amino acid substitutions can have different scores. The substitution matrix of amino acids is ... Take the alignment of DNA sequences TGTTACGG. and GGTTGACTA. as an example. Use the following scheme:. *Substitution matrix: s ... A substitution matrix assigns each pair of bases or amino acids a score for match or mismatch. Usually matches get positive ... Saul B. Needleman; Christian D. Wunsch (1970). "A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid ...
Yamada J (2006). "Long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase in the brain". Amino Acids. 28 (3): 273-8. doi:10.1007/s00726-005-0181-1. PMID ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. doi:10.1038/nature04727 ... Amino Acids. 27 (3-4): 269-75. doi:10.1007/s00726-004-0138-9. PMID 15592755. Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, et al. ( ... The encoded protein hydrolyzes the CoA thioester of palmitoyl-CoA and other long-chain fatty acids. Decreased expression of ...
If in vitro evolution works for DNA it will happen much more easily with RNA.. Amino acid-RNA ligation. The ability to ... As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino-acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... as no amino acid molecules lie within 18Å of the enzyme's active site,[15] and, when the majority of the amino acids in the ... amino acids) for ribosomal protein synthesis are chemical derivatives of the α-amino acid Alanine as they are best suited for ...
Insertions can be particularly hazardous if they occur in an exon, the amino acid coding region of a gene. A frameshift ... In genetics, an insertion (also called an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA ... Frameshift mutations will alter all the amino acids encoded by the gene following the mutation. Usually, insertions and the ... multiple new amino acids that may affect the function of the protein. ...
Amino acids : Similar appearance to antibodies, generally invisible until the episode dealing with protein synthesis ... DNA/RNA : Represented quite accurately, and in detail when explaining protein synthesis ... Fats/Fatty acids: Represented as fat yellow ponies. *Proteins : Represented as a tall strong muscular orange character in ...
"Melanesian Blond Hair Is Caused by an Amino Acid Change in TYRP1". Science. 336: 554. doi:10.1126/science.1217849. PMC 3481182 ... DNA Sheds New Light on Polynesian Migration *^ a b Kayser, M.; Brauer, S.; Weiss, G.; Underhill, P.A.; Roewer, L.; ... Further DNA analysis has taken research into new directions, as more human species have been discovered since the late 20th ... Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving in ISEA for longer than previously believed. ...
Proteins have 20 (the amino acids). Saccharides have 32 types of sugar linkages. While these building blocks can be attached ... DNA and RNA have four building blocks each (the nucleosides or nucleotides). Lipids are divided into eight categories based on ... 68 building blocks (molecules for DNA, RNA and proteins; categories for lipids; types of sugar linkages for saccharides) ... anthranilic acid (AA), 2-aminopyridin (PA), 2-aminoacridone (AMAC) and 3-(acetylamino)-6-aminoacridine (AA-Ac) are just a few ...
Amino acid sequences of proteins. *DNA hybridization. *DNA and RNA sequences. *Restriction endonuclease analyses ... 16S ribosomal RNA - an intensively studied nucleic acid that has been useful in phylogenetics ...
Isolation and amino acid sequence". J. Biochem. 85 (2): 615-24. PMID 422550. Dobner T, Wolf I, Mai B, Lipp M (1992). "A novel ... 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID ... The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher ... 2001). "Enhancement of the p300 HAT activity by HIV-1 Tat on chromatin DNA". Virology. 289 (2): 312-26. doi:10.1006/viro. ...
... whose amino-acid analyses suggested that proteins were composed of integer multiples of 288 amino-acid residues (n=2). More ... For example, the Watson-Crick double helix model of DNA is sometimes said to be "obvious" because of its plausible hydrogen ... mainly due to the chirality of amino acids; naturally occurring proteins are composed of only left-handed amino acids. Hence, ... unbranched polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. However, a typical protein is remarkably long-hundreds of amino- ...
... amino acid sequences and DNA sequences. Proteins with the same three-dimensional structure need not have identical amino acid ... that code redundantly for the same amino acid. Since many species use the same codon at the same place to specify an amino acid ... The way that codons (DNA triplets) are mapped to amino acids seems to be strongly optimised. Richard Egel argues that in ... The genetic code (the "translation table" according to which DNA information is translated into amino acids, and hence proteins ...
Mutations altering the amino acid sequence of proteins (Ka) are the least common. In fact ~29% of all orthologous proteins are ... Data from both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) indicate that primates belong to the group of Euarchontoglires ... Chimps have two amino acid differences in FOXP2 compared with human and Neanderthal FOXP2. H. sapiens is thought to have ... The typical protein differs by only two amino acids. The measures of sequence divergence shown in the table only take the ...
Its amino acid code (DNA triplet --> amino acid incorporation) is identical across all Terrestrial life except for a very few ... Amino acid a weak acid carbon compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nitrogenous amine group is ... Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and there are about 20 used in the human body, of which about half can be ... Chemically it is two amino acids and is therefore a kind of miniature protein, a very small peptide. It is sweet because, in a ...
These herbicides slowly starve affected plants of these amino acids, which eventually leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis. ... EPSPS inhibitors: Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme (EPSPS) is used in the synthesis of the amino acids ... kills plants by inhibiting the production of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), which are necessary ... is the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine). ...
Prager EM, Wilson AC (1988). «Ancient origin of lactalbumin from lysozyme: analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences». J. Mol. ... Findlay JB, Brew K (1972). «The complete amino-acid sequence of human -lactalbumin.». Eur. J. Biochem. 27 (1): 65-86. DOI: ... Giuffrida MG, Cavaletto M, Giunta C, et al. (1998). «The unusual amino acid triplet Asn-Ile-Cys is a glycosylation consensus ... Nucleic Acids Res. 9 (1): 65-84. DOI:10.1093/nar/9.1.65. PMID 6163135.. ...
The protein RUNX1 is composed of 453 amino acids. As a transcription factor (TF), its DNA binding ability is encoded by the ... RUNX1 can bind DNA as a monomer, but its DNA binding affinity is enhanced by 10 fold if it heterodimerises with the core ... Other actions of AML-ETO that could induce leukemogenesis include downregulation of the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA ... The runt domain of RUNX1 binds to the core consensus sequence TGTGGNNN (where NNN can represent either TTT or TCA). DNA ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process. • transcription, DNA- ... There are six known isoforms of BRCA1,[28] with isoforms 1 and 2 comprising 1863 amino acids each.[citation needed] ... If DNA repair is deficient, DNA damage tends to accumulate. Such excess DNA damage may increase mutational errors during DNA ... BRCA1 directly binds to DNA, with higher affinity for branched DNA structures. This ability to bind to DNA contributes to its ...
Amino acids can also form dimers, which are called dipeptides. An example is glycylglycine, consisting of two glycine molecules ... Pyrimidine dimers are formed by a photochemical reaction from pyrimidine DNA bases. This cross-linking causes DNA mutations, ... For example, acetic acid forms a dimer in the gas phase, where the monomer units are held together by hydrogen bonds. Under ... Carboxylic acids form dimers by hydrogen bonding of the acidic hydrogen and the carbonyl oxygen when anhydrous. ...
... a 50-amino acid deletion in prelamin A (amino acids 607-656) removes the site for the second endoproteolytic cleavage. ... Dysfunction of lamin A triggers a DNA damage response and cellular senescence. DNA Repair (Amst.). 2006, 5 (2): 286-9. PMID ... Nucleic Acids Res. November 2002, 30 (21): 4634-42. PMC 135794. PMID 12409453. doi:10.1093/nar/gkf587.. ...
... expression in liver and skeletal muscle and the molecular mechanisms underlying the improvement in liver cirrhosis using DNA ... This study addresses the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on global gene ... DNA microarray analysis identified molecular pathways mediating the effects of supplementation of branched-chain amino acids on ... SCOPE: This study addresses the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on global gene expression in liver and skeletal ...
... Joe Felsenstein joe at evolution.genetics.washington.edu Mon Jun 26 16:12:22 EST 1995 *Previous ... which I take to mean any amino acid can change to any other. You could fake it if there were 5 or fewer amino acids by recoding ... Previous message: DNA vs amino acid sequences *Next message: DNA vs amino acid sequences ... DNA vs amino acid sequences *Next message: DNA vs amino acid sequences ...
... and the amino acids present are mainly contaminates. An exception is the amino acids in some insects preserved in amber. ... Amino acid racemization and the preservation of ancient DNA.. Poinar HN1, Höss M, Bada JL, Pääbo S. ... In samples in which the D/L ratio of aspartic acid exceeds 0.08, ancient DNA sequences could not be retrieved. Paleontological ... The extent of racemization of aspartic acid, alanine, and leucine provides criteria for assessing whether ancient tissue ...
A Coded DNA Amino Acid BCAA! , Sporting Goods, Fitness, Running & Yoga, Sports Supplements , eBay! ... Details about BPI Sports: BLOX Building Blocks! A Coded DNA Amino Acid BCAA! See original listing ...
Astronomy »Astronomy Observatory »Cosmic »DNA »GBT »Gates Foundation »Milky Way »Observatory »Organic Acids »amino acid » ... "Finding these molecules in an interstellar gas cloud means that important building blocks for DNA and amino acids can seed ... Discoveries Suggest Icy Cosmic Start for Amino Acids and DNA Ingredients 04.03.2013 ... thought to be a precursor to a key component of DNA and another that may have a role in the formation of the amino acid alanine ...
Excess amino acid polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA: contrasts among genes from Drosophila, mice, and humans.. Rand DM1, Kann ... Recent studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in mammals and Drosophila have shown an excess of amino acid variation ... The patterns of polymorphism and divergence at charge-altering amino acid sites are presented for the Drosophila ND5 gene to ... both Drosophila and human mtDNA show very significant excesses of amino acid polymorphism. Silent polymorphisms at ND5 show a ...
L-Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in our body and it plays a very key role in muscle recovery and protein development ... BSN DNA Glutamine is suitable for any man or women that engages in high intensity training where correct balance of amino acids ... BSN DNA Glutamine is suitable for any man or women that engages in high intensity training where correct balance of amino acids ... Glutamine is an amino acid that has anti-catabolic effects which can aid muscle repair and reduces muscle break down which is ...
Find Amino Acids. You are here. Home » Products » Sequencher » Sequencher Features » General Analysis » Find Amino Acids ... Find Amino Acids. The Find Amino Acids command within Sequencher allows for the quick identification of an individual or ... sequence of amino acids within your data. Using the single-letter code, plug in the amino acids you wish to locate and ... For more information, check out the Find Amino Acids command in the Sequencher User Manual. ...
... in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, ... The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the ... RevTrans: Multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Jul 1;31(13):3537-9. doi: ... It is therefore preferable to align coding DNA at the amino acid level and it is for this purpose we have constructed the ...
First RhaS DNA-contacting motif.AraC amino acids Ser208 and His212, which correspond to amino acids 2 and 6 of the DNA ... There are four amino acids in MarA H-T-H 2 which make base-specific DNA contacts and align with RhaS amino acids that do not ... 4). These amino acids align with RhaS amino acids judged not to be important for DNA binding (Ser251, Ser255, and Thr256) or ... amino acids 282 to 291). Solid lines indicate identical amino acids; broken lines represent similar amino acids. ...
The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, ... DNA cloning of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite gene: amino acid sequence of repetitive epitope ... DNA cloning of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite gene: amino acid sequence of repetitive epitope ... DNA cloning of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite gene: amino acid sequence of repetitive epitope ...
Protein-DNA interactions are vitally important in a wide range of biological processes such as gene regulation and DNA ...
For example, the base sequence ATG codes for the amino acid methionine. Since 3 bases code for 1 amino acid, the protein coded ... will contain 1000 amino acids. The genetic code is thus a series of codons that specify which amino acids are required to make ... complex molecules made up of long chains of subunits called amino acids. Twenty different kinds of amino acids are usually ... Amino Acid Identity and Order Dictated By DNA Genetic Code. view full-size image ...
... amino acids and polypeptides.someone please help me answer this! and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes ... Describe the link between DNA and protein manufacture - within your response explain the terms; proteins, ... As each new amino acid is linked to the previous one, by peptide bonds, a long chain of amino acids forms. This is called a ... Do DNA codon and their complementary codon represent the same amino acids? If not, how do... ...
... amino acid C) enzyme - protein D) RNA - nucleic acid and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes ... DNA is one type of nucleic acid, nucleic acid is made up of nucleotides not from the amino acids. amino acids joint by peptide ... Answer B is correct because DNA is not a type of amino acid, dna is a blueprint for transcription into ran which will translate ... Answer B is correct because DNA is not a type of amino acid, dna is a blueprint for transcription into ran which will translate ...
... extending the COI polypeptide by three amino acids. The mutation was dis … ... A mitochondrial DNA variant, identified in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients, which extends the amino acid sequence of ... extending the COI polypeptide by three amino acids. The mutation was discovered as an XbaI restriction-endonuclease-site loss ...
Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ...
The amino acid sequence of the protein was deduced. The mature beta and alpha subunits contain 642 and 993 amino acids ... The amino acid sequence of the protein was deduced. The mature beta and alpha subunits contain 642 and 993 amino acids ... The amino acid sequence of the protein was deduced. The mature beta and alpha subunits contain 642 and 993 amino acids ... Nucleotide sequence of complementary DNA and derived amino acid sequence of murine complement protein C3. Fey, G. H.; Lundwall ...
... ... Avisek Chatterjee (2012). Site Specific Surface Chemistry of Prototypical Amino Acid, Peptide and DNA Base Groups on Si(111)7x7 ... In contrast to common carboxylic acids, glycine is found to adsorb on Si(111)7×7 dissociatively through cleavage of a NH bond ...
... polymerase reads a DNA template and produces a complementary strand of RNA. 6) _ DNA _ ... amino-acid _. 5) _ RNA _ -polymerase reads a DNA template and produces a complementary strand of RNA. 6) _ DNA _ -polymerase ... BRAE 213-71/ENGR 213-71 Quiz #1 Biology for Engineers Possible Vocabulary Words: Plasmid, RNA, mRNA, DNA, amino-acid, Ribosome ... DNA, DNA Template, complementary strand, Engineers Possible Vocabulary, extra Bacterial Chromosome. * Click to edit the ...
DNA which encodes the polypeptide streptavidin has been isolated as a fragment 2 kb in length derived from a restriction ... endonuclease digestion of the chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces avidinii. The nuc ... per subunit Amino Acid.sup.a composition deduced from Amino acid.sup.b Amino acid.sup.c Amino nucleotide analysis analysis acid ... 88 amino acids), the membrane spanning region (22 amino acids) and the intracellular domain (49 amino acids). Modification of ...
Specifically, we consider H-bonded and stacked structures of DNA base pairs and amino acid pairs. Structure of pairs is either ... Calculated stabilization energies together with solvation energies are used for prediction of stability of DNA oligomers and ... "What tells us accurate interaction energies of DNA base pairs and amino acid pairs about stability of DNA and proteins" ... Specifically, we consider H-bonded and stacked structures of DNA base pairs and amino acid pairs. Structure of pairs is either ...
... demonstrate that four p53 molecules bind to two decameric DNA half-sites to form a dimer of dimers stabilized by protein-DNA an ... Our structural studies of the DNA binding domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and its complexes with various DNA targets ... Modulating DNA Binding Activity of p53 by Base Sequence Effects and Amino-Acid Mutations. Our structural studies of the DNA ... The 3-D architecture of the complex and its stability are dependent on the identity of the DNA half-sites and on the DNA spacer ...
Strings of amino acids make up proteins, of which there are countless varieties. ... AMINO ACIDS CONCEPT Amino acids are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and (in some cases) sulfur ... The sequence of amino acids in the chain is determined by the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence of the gene that codes for ... Only L-amino acids occur in proteins made by living systems. D-amino acids and amino acids other than α-amino acids occur in ...
Southern blots of chromosomal DNA from several Salmonella isolates probed with DNA encoding the first 96 amino acid residues of ... This specificity may not be conferred at the amino acid level, as sequences encoding the amino-terminal 15 amino acid residues ... Of the six conserved amino acid residues in the amino-terminal eight residues of SspH1 and SlrP, all but one have identical ... Translocation signals are located within the amino-terminal 50-100 amino acid residues of several Yop effectors (11, 13, 14). ...

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