Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acids, SulfurAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chromatiaceae: A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Sulfur Acids: Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Amino Acids, DiaminoPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Chlorobium: A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Acidithiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein PrecursorsProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.

Effects of high-dose folic acid and pyridoxine on plasma and erythrocyte sulfur amino acids in hemodialysis patients. (1/195)

In this investigation, sulfur amino acids (sAA) and sulfhydryls were determined in the plasma and erythrocytes (RBC) of 10 uremic patients on regular hemodialysis (HD) treatment and 10 healthy subjects, before and after supplementation with 15 mg/d of folic acid and 200 mg/d of pyridoxine for 4 wk. The basal total plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), cysteinylglycine (Cys-Gly), gamma-glutamylcysteine (gamma-Glu-Cys), glutathione (GSH), and free cysteinesulfinic acid (CSA) were significantly higher in HD patients when compared to healthy subjects, whereas methionine (Met) and taurine (Tau) concentrations were the same in the two groups. HD patients showed significantly higher RBC levels of Hcy and Cys-Gly, whereas the RBC concentrations of Met, Cys, Tau, and GSH were not different from those in the healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of sAA and sulfhydryls differed compared with RBC levels in the healthy subjects and HD patients. In both groups, supplementation with high doses of folic acid and pyridoxine reduced the plasma Hcy concentration. In addition, increased plasma concentrations of Cys-Gly and GSH were found in the HD patients and of CSA in the healthy subjects. After vitamin supplementation, the RBC concentrations of Hcy, Cys, and GSH increased and that of Tau decreased in healthy subjects. The only significant finding in RBC of HD patients was an increase in GSH levels after supplementation. This study shows several RBC and plasma sAA and sulfhydryl abnormalities in HD patients, which confirms earlier findings that RBC and plasma pools play independent roles in interorgan amino acid transport and metabolism. Moreover, high-dose supplementation with folic acid and pyridoxine significantly reduced Hcy levels, but did not restore the sAA and sulfhydryl abnormalities to normal levels. The increase that was observed in GSH after vitamin supplementation may have a beneficial effect in improving blood antioxidant status in uremic patients. Finally, the findings of elevated plasma Cys levels correlating to the elevated plasma Hcy levels in the presence of elevated plasma CSA levels, both before and after vitamin supplementation, led to the hypothesis that a block in decarboxylation of CSA is linked to hyperhomocysteinemia in end-stage renal failure.  (+info)

Protein synthesis by native chemical ligation: expanded scope by using straightforward methodology. (2/195)

The total chemical synthesis of proteins has great potential for increasing our understanding of the molecular basis of protein function. The introduction of native chemical ligation techniques to join unprotected peptides next to a cysteine residue has greatly facilitated the synthesis of proteins of moderate size. Here, we describe a straightforward methodology that has enabled us to rapidly analyze the compatibility of the native chemical ligation strategy for X-Cys ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The simplified methodology avoids the necessity of specific amino acid thioester linkers or alkylation of C-terminal thioacid peptides. Experiments using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS analysis of combinatorial ligations of LYRAX-C-terminal thioester peptides to the peptide CRANK show that all 20 amino acids are suitable for ligation, with Val, Ile, and Pro representing less favorable choices because of slow ligation rates. To illustrate the method's utility, two 124-aa proteins were manually synthesized by using a three-step, four-piece ligation to yield a fully active human secretory phospholipase A(2) and a catalytically inactive analog. The combination of flexibility in design with general access because of simplified methodology broadens the applicability and versatility of chemical protein synthesis.  (+info)

Evaluation of feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids for growing steers. (3/195)

In situ and digestion studies were conducted to evaluate feather meal (FTH), blood meal (BM), and meat and bone meal (MBM) for escape protein content, amino acid composition of the escape protein, true protein digestibility, and digestibility of the individual amino acids. Following 12 h of ruminal incubation, escape protein values were 73.5, 92.4, and 60.8% of CP for FTH, BM, and MBM, respectively. Blood meal and MBM were poor sources of sulfur amino acids (SAA), whereas FTH was a good source. Most of the SAA of FTH, however, was Cys, with very little Met. True protein digestibilities were not different for the protein sources (P > .15), ranging from 86.7 to 94.0% of the CP. However, digestibilities of the individual amino acids were quite different. Two growth studies were conducted to evaluate FTH as a source of SAA for growing cattle. The first study used 120 steers (228 +/- 15 kg) supplemented with urea, MBM, MBM plus 1% FTH, or MBM plus 2% FTH. Additionally, incremental amounts of rumen-protected Met were added to treatments containing MBM. Supplementation of MBM increased (P < .05) ADG compared with the urea control. Addition of FTH to MBM resulted in a linear (P < .01) increase in ADG. However, addition of rumen-protected Met to MBM plus FTH treatments further improved gains. Although FTH is an effective source of SAA, Met probably was first-limiting. The second study used 90 steers (243 +/- 18 kg) supplemented with BM plus incremental amounts of SAA from either FTH or rumen-protected Met. Addition of SAA improved ADG compared with BM alone (P < .05). Rumen-protected Met as a source of SAA improved ADG compared with FTH (P < .05). The SAA from FTH promoted a gain response equal to 50% of the response obtained with rumen-protected Met. Formulation of ruminant diets for metabolizable amino acids must account for escape value and digestibility of each individual amino acid. Feather meal is an effective source of SAA; however, Cys supplies over five times the amount supplied by Met.  (+info)

Dietary sulfur amino acid requirement of juvenile yellow perch fed the maximum cystine replacement value for methionine. (4/195)

We conducted three separate experiments designed to determine the dietary methionine requirement, ability of cyst(e)ine to spare methionine, and the total sulfur amino acid requirement (TSAA) of juvenile yellow perch when fed the maximal amount of cyst(e)ine. The purified basal diet used in each experiment contained 33.6 g of crude protein/100 g diet and 12.0 g of lipid/100 g diet. In the first experiment,;>L-methionine was added to eight diets providing methionine concentrations ranging from 0.37 to 1.77 g/100 g diet in gradations of 0.2 g/100 g diet. Diets were fed for 12 wk to juvenile yellow perch initially weighing 4.7 g/fish. Broken-line analyses of weight gain and feed efficiency data indicated that the dietary methionine requirement was 1.0 g/100 g diet (3.1 g TSAA/100 g dietary protein) and 1.1 g/100 g diet (3.4 g TSAA/100 g dietary protein), respectively. In the second experiment, various ratios of L-cyst(e)ine and L-methionine were added to the basal diet and fed for 12 wk to determine the cyst(e)ine replacement value of yellow perch initially weighing 19.3 g/fish. Weight gain and feed efficiency (FE) data indicated that cyst(e)ine spared up to 51% of the methionine requirement. In the final experiment, graded levels of cyst(e)ine plus methionine in a ratio of 51:49 were added to the basal diet in gradations of 0.1 g/100 g diet (0.5 to 1.2 g TSAA/100 g diet) to determine the dietary total sulfur amino acid requirement. Diets were fed to satiation for 10 wk to fish initially weighing 8. 1 g. Broken-line analyses of weight gain, feed intake and FE data indicated that the dietary TSAA requirement was 0.85, 0.87 and 1.0 g of TSAA/100 g diet (2.5 to 3.0 g of TSAA/100 g of dietary protein), respectively. The majority of dietary TSAA requirements of fish are in the range of 2 to 4 g/100 g of dietary protein and are generally similar to those of both birds and swine, but lower than estimates for rodents.  (+info)

Improved HPLC determination of acidic opines by phenylisothiocyanate derivatization and its application to marine animals. (5/195)

We present here a reliable and sensitive method for the determination of acidic opines such as meso-alanopine, beta-alanopine, tauropine and strombine in biological samples. Interfering primary amino acids were eliminated by reaction with o-phthalaldehyde, and the derivatized compounds were passed through Sep-Pak Plus PS-1 cartridges. The acidic opines were recovered by flushing the cartridges with water, then determined by high performance liquid chromatography after a second derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate. All 4 acidic opines were detected within 30 min. This method ensured good separation and guaranteed almost full recovery of all acidic opines. This method was applied to analyze opines in marine animals and to test whether opines are metabolized in the livers of the rat and fish.  (+info)

Oxoproline kinetics and oxoproline urinary excretion during glycine- or sulfur amino acid-free diets in humans. (6/195)

L-5-oxoproline (L-5-OP) is an intermediate in glutathione synthesis, possibly limited by cysteine availability. Urinary 5-OP excretion has been proposed as a measure of glycine availability. We investigated whether 5 days of dietary sulfur amino acid (SAA-free) or glycine (Gly-free) restriction affects plasma kinetics of 5-OP and urinary excretion of L- and D-5-OP in 6 healthy men. On day 6, L-5-[1-(13)C]oxoproline and [3,3-(2)H(2)]cysteine were infused intravenously for 8 h (3 h fast/5 h fed). In a control study (adequate amino acid mixture), plasma oxoproline fluxes were 37.8 +/- 13.8 (SD) and 38.4 +/- 14.8 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); oxidation accounted for 85% of flux. Cysteine flux was 47.9 +/- 8.5 and 43.2 +/- 8.5 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) for fast and fed phases, respectively. Urinary excretion of L- and D-5-OP was 70 +/- 34 and 31.1 +/- 13.3 micromol/mmol creatinine, respectively, during days 3-5, and 46.4 +/- 13.9 and 22.4 +/- 8.3 micromol/mmol over the 8-h tracer study. The 5-OP flux for the Gly-free diet was higher (P = 0. 018) and tended to be higher for the SAA-free diet (P = 0.057) when compared with the control diet. Oxidation rates were higher on the Gly-free (P = 0.005) and SAA-free (P = 0.03) diets. Cysteine fluxes were lower on the the Gly-free (P = 0.01) and the SAA-free diets (P = 0.001) compared with the control diet. Rates of L-5-OP excretion were unchanged by withdrawal of SAA or Gly for 5 days but increased on day 6 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.019, respectively). Thus acute changes in the dietary availability of SAA and Gly alter oxoproline kinetics and urinary 5-OP excretion.  (+info)

Blood glutathione synthesis rates in healthy adults receiving a sulfur amino acid-free diet. (7/195)

The availability of cysteine is thought to be the rate limiting factor for synthesis of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), based on studies in rodents. GSH status is compromised in various disease states and by certain medications leading to increased morbidity and poor survival. To determine the possible importance of dietary cyst(e)ine availability for whole blood glutathione synthesis in humans, we developed a convenient mass spectrometric method for measurement of the isotopic enrichment of intact GSH and then applied it in a controlled metabolic study. Seven healthy male subjects received during two separate 10-day periods an L-amino acid based diet supplying an adequate amino acid intake or a sulfur amino acid (SAA) (methionine and cysteine) free mixture (SAA-free). On day 10, L-[1-(13)C]cysteine was given as a primed, constant i.v. infusion (3 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) for 6 h, and incorporation of label into whole blood GSH determined by GC/MS selected ion monitoring. The fractional synthesis rate (mean +/- SD; day(-1)) of whole blood GSH was 0.65 +/- 0.13 for the adequate diet and 0.49 +/- 0.13 for the SAA-free diet (P < 0.01). Whole blood GSH was 1,142 +/- 243 and 1,216 +/- 162 microM for the adequate and SAA-free periods (P > 0.05), and the absolute rate of GSH synthesis was 747 +/- 216 and 579 +/- 135 micromol x liter(-1) x day(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). Thus, a restricted dietary supply of SAA slows the rate of whole blood GSH synthesis and diminishes turnover, with maintenance of the GSH concentration in healthy subjects.  (+info)

The effect of dietary sulfur-containing amino acids on the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat-liver microsomes. (8/195)

Male Wistar rats were fed either a balanced diet whose protein source was a mixture of amino acids (diet 1), or a similar diet which differed only in having 48% less the quantity of the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine (diet 2). The diets were given either continuously for 1 month or for 15 days after a protein-free diet. Both diets 1 and 2 permitted good growth of rats and relatively stable microsomal protein content. Protein depletion decreased the total proteins, total phospholipids, and cytochrome P-450 content, and it strongly increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in rat-liver microsomes. Repletion with diet 1 restored those values, to the level found in control rats. However, diet 2, given continuously induced an increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and in the cytochrome P-450 concentration. Since high UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was related to lessened amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet, we discuss the possible effect of methionine and cystine on the regulation of glucuronoconjugation in relation to sulfoconjugation.  (+info)

  • The terminology that we are using to express amino acid requirements is based on the digestible levels of these amino acids (called standardized ileal digestible or SID) which reflects the amount of each amino acid absorbed and utilized for efficient synthesis of muscle. (blueseal.com)
  • I've read it and see that they are using all 3 vitamins, although the B6 levels are indeed elevated 1000% (20mg/day for 2 years) but the B12 levels are 5000% daily recommended dose, and folic acid is 2000% daily recommended dose. (stackexchange.com)
  • l-homocysteic acid slightly potentiated phosphoinositide hydrolysis at a concentration of 100μm, but caused inhibition at 500 μM. (elsevier.com)
  • Increasing the synthetic amino acids (AA), and increasing the soybean meal resulted in marked improvements in gain and feed efficiency when compared to the standard diets with very slight improvements in gain and feed efficiency occurring with the 2X AA compared to the 1X AA levels. (blueseal.com)
  • In Table 4 are the overall data (Days 0-110) in which pigs on the two previous amino acid treatments were fed similar diets from Days 42-110. (blueseal.com)
  • Based on further information in the industry, it was apparent that we should continue to evaluate higher levels of amino acids in the grower stages, but not in the finishing stages. (blueseal.com)
  • Pinto W, Rodrigues V, Dinis MTeresa, Aragão C . Can dietary aromatic amino acid supplementation be beneficial during fish metamorphosis? . (ualg.pt)
  • However, you will find recommended food sources for different types of amino acids (including branched chain, sulfur-containing, aromatic, and others) in the Summary of Food Sources section of this article. (whfoods.org)
  • During the fourth week albumin, protein and glucose concentration increased significantly (P0.05) in plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Substances that can act as either an acid or a base are defined as what and are referred to as what? (scribd.com)
  • Organic sulfur sources were also evaluated as urinary acidifying agents for Pointer puppies fed a corn-soy-meat and bone meal diet. (illinois.edu)
  • Sulphur is however assimilated in the organic matter as sulphide (S 2− ). (springer.com)
  • MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) is an natural organic sulfur compound that. (spintoband.com)
  • The present study was designed to compare the effect of an antibiotic, an organic acid and a probiotic on performance traits, blood biochemical parameters, ileal histology and antioxidant status in broilers during finishing phase exposed to Clostridium perfringens challenge. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • and T5: infected + organic acid + probiotic. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • From the results, we concluded that probiotic and organic acid could be successfully used as antibiotic to sustain growth and biochemical profile in broilers challenged with C. perfringens. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Such demand can be managed by nutriceutical alternatives such as organic acid, phytogenetics, prebiotics and probiotics (Ao et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Researchers wish rather been fired in dietary sulfur amino acid warranty since the 1990s, when tests began to depict healthiness promotes in animals fed Met-restricted abstains. (piwip.com)
  • There were no other fooling unresponsive effects of dietary sulfur amino acid comestibles in the studies. (piwip.com)
  • Richie is now have charge of the first tensely authority over be nourishing reflect on of dietary sulfur amino acid qualification in benevolent fields, which may nourishment more be at the tiller evidence of curtail benefits. (piwip.com)
  • According to the authors at the Journal of Nutrition (JN), the "difference accounts for some of the distinctive properties of the sulfur-containing amino acids. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • If you are starting to conclude that amino acids are somewhat like a jigsaw puzzle with many pieces that can be difficult to fit together into a coherent picture, then you are arriving at the same conclusion as many nutrition researchers! (whfoods.org)
  • Five hypotheses for frataxin's mitochondrial function have been generated, largely from work in non-human cells: iron transporter, iron-sulfur cluster assembler, iron-storage protein, antioxidant and stimulator of oxidative phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Because, says JN, oxygen and sulfur both belong to 'Group 6' of the Periodic Table of Elements, so are "capable of making similar covalent linkages" with a critical difference that sulfur has a low electronegativity (oxygen has the second lowest electronegativity). (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • Then, the key antioxidant potential supported by selenoproteins through the selenocysteine amino acid (SeCys) was presented by Dr Mickaël Briens, (Expert Micronutrients and antioxidants, Adisseo, France). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The first is a targeted, pathway-oriented approach aimed at understanding pathway architecture and coordination, and the regulation of the sulfur-containing metabolites as such. (mpg.de)
  • Therefore, amino acids disorders are biochemically characterized by abnormal levels of single or several amino acids and their downstream plasma and/or urine metabolites ( Tables 2 - 6 ). (intechopen.com)
  • This distorted pattern of sulfur-containing amino acids results in changes in amino acid availability to the brain. (who.int)
  • Association of Vitamin B12, Folate, and Sulfur Amino Acids With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IMPORTANCE: Vitamin B12, folate, and sulfur amino acids may be modifiable risk factors for structural brain changes that precede clinical dementia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of circulating levels of vitamin B12, red blood cell folate, and sulfur amino acids with the rate of total brain volume loss and the change in white matter hyperintensity volume as measured by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in older adults. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Excess dietary cystine superimposed on a methionine-deficient diet manifested as an amino acid imbalance. (illinois.edu)
  • Diet, sulphur amino acids, and health span : Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science Symposium 2015 / [edited by Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences editorial staff]. (princeton.edu)
  • To provide an opportunity for leaders in the field of aging and dietary restriction to share current research and plan future investigations, the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science (OFAS) sponsored the symposium Diet, Sulfur Amino Acids, and Healthspan, on September 21 and 22, 2015, in Tarrytown, New York. (princeton.edu)
  • This collection of papers was invited from speakers at the second biennial symposium of the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science, Inc. (OFAS), "Diet, Sulfur Amino Acids, and Healthspan," held in Tarrytown, New York, September 20&22, 2015. (princeton.edu)
  • A plant-based diet low in such sulfur amino acid foods as meat, dairy, nuts and soy may be key to lowering the risk of heart disease, concludes a study from the Penn State University College of Medicine. (naoklahoma.com)
  • When making nutritional recommendations for our everyday diet, health scientists have expressed much more confidence in estimating our total protein needs than in estimating our need for individual amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Dietary sodium chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid-producing diet. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Potassium salts counteract an acidogenic high-sulfur amino acid diet. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Although the milligrams of sulfur provided by eating a plant-based diet are critically important for human functioning, it may very well be the over-consumption of centigrams and decigrams of sulfur which fill hospital beds and fuel America's ever-expanding medical community. (all-creatures.org)
  • People who eat lots of plant-based products like fruits and vegetables will consume lower amounts of sulfur amino acids," says lead author Zhen Dong, a doctor of public health. (naoklahoma.com)
  • For centuries, arthritis sufferers have been helped by bathing in waters that contain high amounts of sulfur. (healthy.net)
  • Plant food potassium salts have a balancing effect on acid-base status and digestive fermentation in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)