An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC

Effects of high-dose folic acid and pyridoxine on plasma and erythrocyte sulfur amino acids in hemodialysis patients. (1/195)

In this investigation, sulfur amino acids (sAA) and sulfhydryls were determined in the plasma and erythrocytes (RBC) of 10 uremic patients on regular hemodialysis (HD) treatment and 10 healthy subjects, before and after supplementation with 15 mg/d of folic acid and 200 mg/d of pyridoxine for 4 wk. The basal total plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), cysteinylglycine (Cys-Gly), gamma-glutamylcysteine (gamma-Glu-Cys), glutathione (GSH), and free cysteinesulfinic acid (CSA) were significantly higher in HD patients when compared to healthy subjects, whereas methionine (Met) and taurine (Tau) concentrations were the same in the two groups. HD patients showed significantly higher RBC levels of Hcy and Cys-Gly, whereas the RBC concentrations of Met, Cys, Tau, and GSH were not different from those in the healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of sAA and sulfhydryls differed compared with RBC levels in the healthy subjects and HD patients. In both groups, supplementation with high doses of folic acid and pyridoxine reduced the plasma Hcy concentration. In addition, increased plasma concentrations of Cys-Gly and GSH were found in the HD patients and of CSA in the healthy subjects. After vitamin supplementation, the RBC concentrations of Hcy, Cys, and GSH increased and that of Tau decreased in healthy subjects. The only significant finding in RBC of HD patients was an increase in GSH levels after supplementation. This study shows several RBC and plasma sAA and sulfhydryl abnormalities in HD patients, which confirms earlier findings that RBC and plasma pools play independent roles in interorgan amino acid transport and metabolism. Moreover, high-dose supplementation with folic acid and pyridoxine significantly reduced Hcy levels, but did not restore the sAA and sulfhydryl abnormalities to normal levels. The increase that was observed in GSH after vitamin supplementation may have a beneficial effect in improving blood antioxidant status in uremic patients. Finally, the findings of elevated plasma Cys levels correlating to the elevated plasma Hcy levels in the presence of elevated plasma CSA levels, both before and after vitamin supplementation, led to the hypothesis that a block in decarboxylation of CSA is linked to hyperhomocysteinemia in end-stage renal failure.  (+info)

Protein synthesis by native chemical ligation: expanded scope by using straightforward methodology. (2/195)

The total chemical synthesis of proteins has great potential for increasing our understanding of the molecular basis of protein function. The introduction of native chemical ligation techniques to join unprotected peptides next to a cysteine residue has greatly facilitated the synthesis of proteins of moderate size. Here, we describe a straightforward methodology that has enabled us to rapidly analyze the compatibility of the native chemical ligation strategy for X-Cys ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The simplified methodology avoids the necessity of specific amino acid thioester linkers or alkylation of C-terminal thioacid peptides. Experiments using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS analysis of combinatorial ligations of LYRAX-C-terminal thioester peptides to the peptide CRANK show that all 20 amino acids are suitable for ligation, with Val, Ile, and Pro representing less favorable choices because of slow ligation rates. To illustrate the method's utility, two 124-aa proteins were manually synthesized by using a three-step, four-piece ligation to yield a fully active human secretory phospholipase A(2) and a catalytically inactive analog. The combination of flexibility in design with general access because of simplified methodology broadens the applicability and versatility of chemical protein synthesis.  (+info)

Evaluation of feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids for growing steers. (3/195)

In situ and digestion studies were conducted to evaluate feather meal (FTH), blood meal (BM), and meat and bone meal (MBM) for escape protein content, amino acid composition of the escape protein, true protein digestibility, and digestibility of the individual amino acids. Following 12 h of ruminal incubation, escape protein values were 73.5, 92.4, and 60.8% of CP for FTH, BM, and MBM, respectively. Blood meal and MBM were poor sources of sulfur amino acids (SAA), whereas FTH was a good source. Most of the SAA of FTH, however, was Cys, with very little Met. True protein digestibilities were not different for the protein sources (P > .15), ranging from 86.7 to 94.0% of the CP. However, digestibilities of the individual amino acids were quite different. Two growth studies were conducted to evaluate FTH as a source of SAA for growing cattle. The first study used 120 steers (228 +/- 15 kg) supplemented with urea, MBM, MBM plus 1% FTH, or MBM plus 2% FTH. Additionally, incremental amounts of rumen-protected Met were added to treatments containing MBM. Supplementation of MBM increased (P < .05) ADG compared with the urea control. Addition of FTH to MBM resulted in a linear (P < .01) increase in ADG. However, addition of rumen-protected Met to MBM plus FTH treatments further improved gains. Although FTH is an effective source of SAA, Met probably was first-limiting. The second study used 90 steers (243 +/- 18 kg) supplemented with BM plus incremental amounts of SAA from either FTH or rumen-protected Met. Addition of SAA improved ADG compared with BM alone (P < .05). Rumen-protected Met as a source of SAA improved ADG compared with FTH (P < .05). The SAA from FTH promoted a gain response equal to 50% of the response obtained with rumen-protected Met. Formulation of ruminant diets for metabolizable amino acids must account for escape value and digestibility of each individual amino acid. Feather meal is an effective source of SAA; however, Cys supplies over five times the amount supplied by Met.  (+info)

Dietary sulfur amino acid requirement of juvenile yellow perch fed the maximum cystine replacement value for methionine. (4/195)

We conducted three separate experiments designed to determine the dietary methionine requirement, ability of cyst(e)ine to spare methionine, and the total sulfur amino acid requirement (TSAA) of juvenile yellow perch when fed the maximal amount of cyst(e)ine. The purified basal diet used in each experiment contained 33.6 g of crude protein/100 g diet and 12.0 g of lipid/100 g diet. In the first experiment,;>L-methionine was added to eight diets providing methionine concentrations ranging from 0.37 to 1.77 g/100 g diet in gradations of 0.2 g/100 g diet. Diets were fed for 12 wk to juvenile yellow perch initially weighing 4.7 g/fish. Broken-line analyses of weight gain and feed efficiency data indicated that the dietary methionine requirement was 1.0 g/100 g diet (3.1 g TSAA/100 g dietary protein) and 1.1 g/100 g diet (3.4 g TSAA/100 g dietary protein), respectively. In the second experiment, various ratios of L-cyst(e)ine and L-methionine were added to the basal diet and fed for 12 wk to determine the cyst(e)ine replacement value of yellow perch initially weighing 19.3 g/fish. Weight gain and feed efficiency (FE) data indicated that cyst(e)ine spared up to 51% of the methionine requirement. In the final experiment, graded levels of cyst(e)ine plus methionine in a ratio of 51:49 were added to the basal diet in gradations of 0.1 g/100 g diet (0.5 to 1.2 g TSAA/100 g diet) to determine the dietary total sulfur amino acid requirement. Diets were fed to satiation for 10 wk to fish initially weighing 8. 1 g. Broken-line analyses of weight gain, feed intake and FE data indicated that the dietary TSAA requirement was 0.85, 0.87 and 1.0 g of TSAA/100 g diet (2.5 to 3.0 g of TSAA/100 g of dietary protein), respectively. The majority of dietary TSAA requirements of fish are in the range of 2 to 4 g/100 g of dietary protein and are generally similar to those of both birds and swine, but lower than estimates for rodents.  (+info)

Improved HPLC determination of acidic opines by phenylisothiocyanate derivatization and its application to marine animals. (5/195)

We present here a reliable and sensitive method for the determination of acidic opines such as meso-alanopine, beta-alanopine, tauropine and strombine in biological samples. Interfering primary amino acids were eliminated by reaction with o-phthalaldehyde, and the derivatized compounds were passed through Sep-Pak Plus PS-1 cartridges. The acidic opines were recovered by flushing the cartridges with water, then determined by high performance liquid chromatography after a second derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate. All 4 acidic opines were detected within 30 min. This method ensured good separation and guaranteed almost full recovery of all acidic opines. This method was applied to analyze opines in marine animals and to test whether opines are metabolized in the livers of the rat and fish.  (+info)

Oxoproline kinetics and oxoproline urinary excretion during glycine- or sulfur amino acid-free diets in humans. (6/195)

L-5-oxoproline (L-5-OP) is an intermediate in glutathione synthesis, possibly limited by cysteine availability. Urinary 5-OP excretion has been proposed as a measure of glycine availability. We investigated whether 5 days of dietary sulfur amino acid (SAA-free) or glycine (Gly-free) restriction affects plasma kinetics of 5-OP and urinary excretion of L- and D-5-OP in 6 healthy men. On day 6, L-5-[1-(13)C]oxoproline and [3,3-(2)H(2)]cysteine were infused intravenously for 8 h (3 h fast/5 h fed). In a control study (adequate amino acid mixture), plasma oxoproline fluxes were 37.8 +/- 13.8 (SD) and 38.4 +/- 14.8 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); oxidation accounted for 85% of flux. Cysteine flux was 47.9 +/- 8.5 and 43.2 +/- 8.5 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) for fast and fed phases, respectively. Urinary excretion of L- and D-5-OP was 70 +/- 34 and 31.1 +/- 13.3 micromol/mmol creatinine, respectively, during days 3-5, and 46.4 +/- 13.9 and 22.4 +/- 8.3 micromol/mmol over the 8-h tracer study. The 5-OP flux for the Gly-free diet was higher (P = 0. 018) and tended to be higher for the SAA-free diet (P = 0.057) when compared with the control diet. Oxidation rates were higher on the Gly-free (P = 0.005) and SAA-free (P = 0.03) diets. Cysteine fluxes were lower on the the Gly-free (P = 0.01) and the SAA-free diets (P = 0.001) compared with the control diet. Rates of L-5-OP excretion were unchanged by withdrawal of SAA or Gly for 5 days but increased on day 6 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.019, respectively). Thus acute changes in the dietary availability of SAA and Gly alter oxoproline kinetics and urinary 5-OP excretion.  (+info)

Blood glutathione synthesis rates in healthy adults receiving a sulfur amino acid-free diet. (7/195)

The availability of cysteine is thought to be the rate limiting factor for synthesis of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), based on studies in rodents. GSH status is compromised in various disease states and by certain medications leading to increased morbidity and poor survival. To determine the possible importance of dietary cyst(e)ine availability for whole blood glutathione synthesis in humans, we developed a convenient mass spectrometric method for measurement of the isotopic enrichment of intact GSH and then applied it in a controlled metabolic study. Seven healthy male subjects received during two separate 10-day periods an L-amino acid based diet supplying an adequate amino acid intake or a sulfur amino acid (SAA) (methionine and cysteine) free mixture (SAA-free). On day 10, L-[1-(13)C]cysteine was given as a primed, constant i.v. infusion (3 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) for 6 h, and incorporation of label into whole blood GSH determined by GC/MS selected ion monitoring. The fractional synthesis rate (mean +/- SD; day(-1)) of whole blood GSH was 0.65 +/- 0.13 for the adequate diet and 0.49 +/- 0.13 for the SAA-free diet (P < 0.01). Whole blood GSH was 1,142 +/- 243 and 1,216 +/- 162 microM for the adequate and SAA-free periods (P > 0.05), and the absolute rate of GSH synthesis was 747 +/- 216 and 579 +/- 135 micromol x liter(-1) x day(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). Thus, a restricted dietary supply of SAA slows the rate of whole blood GSH synthesis and diminishes turnover, with maintenance of the GSH concentration in healthy subjects.  (+info)

The effect of dietary sulfur-containing amino acids on the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat-liver microsomes. (8/195)

Male Wistar rats were fed either a balanced diet whose protein source was a mixture of amino acids (diet 1), or a similar diet which differed only in having 48% less the quantity of the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine (diet 2). The diets were given either continuously for 1 month or for 15 days after a protein-free diet. Both diets 1 and 2 permitted good growth of rats and relatively stable microsomal protein content. Protein depletion decreased the total proteins, total phospholipids, and cytochrome P-450 content, and it strongly increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in rat-liver microsomes. Repletion with diet 1 restored those values, to the level found in control rats. However, diet 2, given continuously induced an increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and in the cytochrome P-450 concentration. Since high UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was related to lessened amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet, we discuss the possible effect of methionine and cystine on the regulation of glucuronoconjugation in relation to sulfoconjugation.  (+info)

Fructose-sweetened liquid consumption is associated with fatty liver and oxidative stress. In rodent models of fructose-mediated fatty liver, protein consumption is decreased. Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. Studies were designed to test whether oxidative stress in fructose-sweetened liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by decreased ad libitum solid food intake with associated inadequate sulfur amino acid intake. C57BL6 mice were grouped as: control (ad libitum water), fructose (ad libitum 30% fructose-sweetened liquid), glucose (ad libitum 30% glucose-sweetened water) and pair-fed (ad libitum water and sulfur amino acid intake same as the fructose group). Hepatic and plasma thiol-disulfide antioxidant status were analyzed after five weeks. Fructose- and glucose-fed mice developed fatty liver. The mitochondrial antioxidant protein, thioredoxin-2, displayed decreased abundance in the liver of fructose and glucose-fed mice compared to controls.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of receptor-coupled phosphoinositide hydrolysis by sulfur-containing amino acids in rat brain slices. AU - Li, Xiaohua. AU - Jope, Richard S. PY - 1989/9/1. Y1 - 1989/9/1. N2 - Sulfur-containing amino acids were found to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated [3H]phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat cortical slices. Of the amino acids tested, l-cysteine was the most potent, inhibiting the response by 42 and 85% at concentrations of 50 and 500 μM respectively. l-Cystine and l-serine-O-sulfate also inhibited the response to norepinephrine, but to a lesser degree than did l-cysteine. l-homocysteic acid slightly potentiated phosphoinositide hydrolysis at a concentration of 100μm, but caused inhibition at 500 μM. l-cysteine sulfinate produced effects intermediate to those of l-cysteine and l-homocysteic acid, having no effect on the response to norepinephrine at 50 μM, but causing 84% inhibition at 500 μM. The d-isomers of cysteine and homocysteic acid were much less potent ...
One-hundred twenty individually fed steer calves were used to evaluate feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids. Treatment proteins included a urea control and meat and bone meal (6.4% of dietary DM) plus 0, 1, or 2% feather meal with incremental levels of rumen protected methionine. Adding feather meal to meat and bone meal resulted in a linear increase in gain. Likewise, rumen-protected methionine also improved gain. These results indicate feather meal can provide a portion of the sulfur amino acids lacking in meat and bone meal. However, additional methionine may further improve performance.
Your shown homocysteine pathway is way too simple. Especially the production of the neuromodulator H2S from excess sulfur amino acids is not shown. In the last years many more enzymes and reactions have been discovered. I have summarized human sulfur amino acid metabolism in, so please use this link to discover all the details and new papers. Ill also append some of the relevant papers below.. Brosnan, JT, Brosnan, ME The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview 2006 J Nutr PMID 16702333. Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can also happen using betaine as a methyl donor. This reaction is also part of choline catabolism.. Li, F, Feng, Q, Lee, C, Wang, S, Pelleymounter, LL, Moon, I, Eckloff, BW, Wieben, ED, Schaid, DJ, Yee, V, Weinshilboum, RM Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional characterization 2008 Mol Genet Metab PMID 18457970. Bearden, SE, Beard RS, Jr, Pfau, JC Extracellular transsulfuration ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity
The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity
More than 90 participants attended the 9th Advancia International Seminar, which was held in Prague, Czech Republic. Advancia is the Scientific and Technical Community, gathering scientists and nutritionists to share research progresses on sulphur amino acids.
Oxidation of the sulfur amino acids by autoxidizing lipids was studied in a model system consisting of an amino acid dispersed in cold-pressed, molecularly distilled menhaden oil (20-80% w/w). Under all conditions investigated, cysteine was oxidized completely to cystine. Preliminary results suggest that at 110°C the oxidation follows first-order kinetics for at least the first 8 hr. A specific reaction rate constant of 0.25 per hour was calculated. When fatty acids were added to the system, cystine was oxidized to its thiosulfinate ester. When the fatty acid-cystine ratio was 1:2, oxidation of cystine was a maximum. No oxidation of cystine occurred unless either a fatty acid, volatile organic acid, or ethanol was added. Under the conditions investigated, methionine was not oxidized to either its sulfoxide or its sulfone....
By Roberta Masella. The advanced roles of glutathione and sulfur amino acids in human healthGlutathione (?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is a huge antioxidant appearing as a unfastened radical scavenger that protects the telephone from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulfur amino acids (SAAs), comparable to methionine and cysteine, play a severe function within the upkeep of future health. GSH depletion in addition to adjustments of SAA metabolism are associated with a bunch of ailment states together with liver cirrhosis, numerous pulmonary illnesses, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion harm, getting older, Parkinsons ailment, Alzheimers ailment, sepsis, and others. This e-book presents researchers with a complete evaluation of the biochemistry, absorption, metabolism, organic actions, sickness prevention, and health and wellbeing advertising of glutathione and sulfur amino acids.The twenty-two chapters discover such themes as:Chemistry, absorption, delivery, and metabolism of GSH and ...
In 2017, Kent Research determined that diets with both higher levels of synthetic amino acids [lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), tryptophan (Trp)] and soybean meal performed better than our previous grow-finish program. However, in the trial work of 2017 we only evaluated one level of amino acids that were higher than the control diets at that time. Based on further information in the industry, it was apparent that we should continue to evaluate higher levels of amino acids in the grower stages, but not in the finishing stages. When Met is added to the diet, it also is converted in the pig into another sulfur amino acid called Cystine (Cys). So in our diet tables you will see the term Met + Cys which refers to these two sulfur amino acids that are needed in pig diets. The terminology that we are using to express amino acid requirements is based on the digestible levels of these amino acids (called standardized ileal digestible or SID) which reflects the amount of each amino acid ...
In these current studies in the SHR model, we investigated whether risk for features of the metabolic syndrome might be influenced by genetically determined variation in folate and sulfur amino acid metabolism. We found that genetically determined reductions in expression levels of Folr1 may be contributing to decreased renal tubular reabsorption of folate, reduced plasma folate levels, increased plasma levels of cysteine, and consequent disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. We implicate a functional role for a promoter variant in Folr1 in these processes based on a combination of genetic and metabolic studies in RI, transgenic, and congenic strains together with promoter function studies in HEK293 cells.. Mechanisms that may connect folate deficiency with disturbances of lipid and glucose metabolism are not fully understood. One possibility is that reduced availability of folate for homocysteine remethylation might result in deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine and accumulation of ...
Hyoung-gon Lee, Mark A. Smith, Barney Dwyer, Aki Nunomura, George Perry, Xiongwei Zhu Increased levels of plasma homocysteine (HC), a key metabolic intermediate in sulfur amino acid metabolism, have been associated with several disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). While HC is toxic in cell culture models including primary cortical neurons, the mechanism of HC toxicity and the role of HC in disease pathogenesis remain unclear. Hasegawa and colleagues hypothesized that homocysteic acid (HA), an oxidant product of HC, might play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD by regulating amyloid-β (Aβ) production. They demonstrate that HA dramatically decreases the extracellular level of Aβ42 but increases the intracellular level of Aβ42 in primary cortical neurons and APP-overexpressing CHO cells, and they suggest that this is associated with HA toxicity. This finding led them to show that a γ-secretase inhibitor prevents HA toxicity. While the level of HC is increased both in plasma and ...
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Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is a natural sulfur-containing compound detected in human plasma and urine, in mammalian brain and in many common edible vegetables. Over the past decade many studies have been undertaken to identify its metabolic role. Attention has been focused on its antioxidant properties and on its reactivity against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species. These properties have been studied in different model systems starting from plasma lipoproteins to specific cellular lines. All these studies report that aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is able to interact both with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite and its derivatives). Its antioxidant activity is similar to that of Vitamin E while higher than other hydrophilic antioxidants, such as trolox and N-acetylcysteine.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased transsulfuration mediates longevity and dietary restriction in Drosophila. AU - Kabil, Hadise. AU - Kabil, Omer. AU - Banerjee, Ruma. AU - Harshman, Lawrence G.. AU - Pletcher, Scott D.. PY - 2011/10/4. Y1 - 2011/10/4. N2 - The mechanisms through which dietary restriction enhances health and longevity in diverse species are unclear. The transsulfuration pathway (TSP) is a highly conserved mechanism for metabolizing the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Here we show that Drosophila cystathionine β-synthase (dCBS), which catalyzes the rate-determining step in the TSP, is a positive regulator of lifespan in Drosophila and that the pathway is required for the effects of diet restriction on animal physiology and lifespan. dCBS activity was up-regulated in flies exposed to reduced nutrient conditions, and ubiquitous or neuron-specific transgenic overexpression of dCBS enhanced longevity in fully fed animals. Inhibition of the TSP abrogated the changes ...
.LongDesc { font-family: Verdana, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; font-variant: normal; color: #666; } Life Extension N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine 600mg 60 VegCaps L-cysteine is a conditionally essential amino acid, one of only three sulfur-containing amino acids, the others being taurine (which can be produced from L-cysteine) and L-methionine (from which L-cysteine can be produced in the body by a multi-step process). Cysteine plays a role in the sulfation cycle, acting as a sulfur donor in phase II detoxification and as a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.Cysteine also helps synthesize glutathione, the bodys most important intracellular antioxidant and a vital detoxifier. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is the acetylated form of L-cysteine that has been used to break up pulmonary and bronchial mucous. It is very efficiently absorbed and has been shown to protect cells directly and support the immune system. NAC is an
Sulfur is important for the formation of sulfur-containing amino acids, like cysteine, methionine and taurine. Sulfur is essential for the formation of good structure of the connective tissue (part of skin, hair, nails, bones, cartilage and blood vessel wall). The form sulfur compounds of disulfide bonds helps tissues to maintain their structure and flexibility.. Allergen information: ...
Cysteine and Cystine are sulfur-containing amino acids that are synthesized in the liver and are involved in multiple metabolic pathways. Cysteine is formed from
In other words, you can try these out in some cases a protein is valuable in and of alone, and at other moments it is valuable for the person amino acids that it includes. You will find ongoing debates about The simplest way to measure the health Gains linked to the amino acid information of proteins. Most of these debates fall beneath the heading of protein excellent, and you may find out more concerning this issue inside our amino acids profile . Even so, whatever the particular solution that is certainly taken to protein excellent, we believe that it is useful to consume proteins which can be rich in a number of various amino acids. As an example, we feel that sulfur-containing amino acids Have a very Unique price all their own, in a similar way as branched-chain amino acids or aromatic amino acids. The easiest method to get hold of a abundant a number of amino acids from all these more compact amino acid subgroups is always to on a regular basis enjoy a range of foods. More particularly, ...
Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning we need to get it from our diet as our body does not produce it. Methionine is a unique sulfur-containing amino acid that can be used to build proteins and produce many molecules in the body. Function of amino acids: - Amino acids help build the proteins that…
Get the latest total sulfur process analyzer news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is responsible for the production of collagen and is a powerful antioxidant that helps fight free radicals in the body as well as slow the aging process.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, is the precursor to the amino acid L-cysteine, one of the three amino acids that comprise glutathione. Animal and human studies of NAC have concluded it has potent antioxidant activity.* In addition to its antioxidant activity, NAC is effective in promoting normal liver detoxification and protecting the liver and the kidneys from toxic insults.* As a sulfur source, NAC stimulates the synthesis and activity of glutathione, an important antioxidant in its own right.* Research suggests NAC is capable of enhancing immune function.* NAC also helps maintain good pulmonary health due to its mucolytic activity ...
How It Works: N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non-essential amino acid L-Cysteine. Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures. Although NAC possesses its own free radical scavenging activity, its primary function in the body is to supply Cysteine necessary for glutathione synthesis and replenishment. This unique formula also contains Molybdenum, an essential trace element that functions as a cofactor in many biochemical reactions, and Selenium, another trace mineral that supports glutathione production. ...
Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a crucial role in methylation reactions. Transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine creates methionine, which donates the methyl group to methylate DNA, proteins, lipids, and other intracellular metabolites. The protein encoded by this gene is one of two methyl transferases that can catalyze the transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine. Anomalies in homocysteine metabolism have been implicated in disorders ranging from vascular disease to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Taurine, or 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid, has long been known to be the major organic product formed from the breakdown of the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. It is excreted as
NOW Foods NAC 600 mg 100 Capsules - N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non-essential amino acid L-Cysteine. It is a sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures, and is also necessary for the formation of glutathione.
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non-essential amino acid L-Cysteine. It is a sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures, and is also necessary for the formation of glutathione.
J nut. 2004 Mar;1343:489-92. 13. Whey has a very high content of sulfur-containing amino acids such as cysteine that are necessary for the biosynthesis of glutathione. Whether its high protein snacks like nitrate-free jerky or any variety of protein supplements like a whey powder shake, these protein foods are vital for healthy body function. Rated 1 out of 5 by aggie1789 bitter taste The powder has a good consistency and mixed well, however it has a terrible bitter taste after a few hours it is mixed. ... Dec. 2007;266:713S-23S. 7. Nutrition. 1935;5:155-71. 86. Kind of pleasant actually. No further. .... ...
Risk Factors for Premature Atherosclerotic Heart Disease. Dyslipidemia (high LDL, low HDL) Diabetes Hypertension Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Obesity Smoking Male sex Hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine. Non-protein-forming, sulfur-containing amino acid Slideshow 153772 by albert
As evidence continues to build on the efficacy of chondroitin for osteoarthritis, as in the title of the Cochrane Collaboration review, confusion persists in the market and in the public health arena regarding chondroitins performance for a number of reasons. First, chondroitin sulfate, an extract from cartilage tissues of domesticated food animals-mainly of bovine, porcine, and avian species-is believed to work by slowing or stopping the degradation of cartilage in joints and restoring lost cartilage, gradually. Chondroitin also contains sulfur-containing amino acids, which are essential building blocks for cartilage molecules in the human body. Naturally extracted chondroitin does not act like a chemically formulated pain killer compound to produce quick interventional bodily reactions. As all properly designed studies have shown, it takes time for chondroitin to demonstrate efficacy. Consumers may give up unless they are taking supplements with a large enough amount of high-quality ...
Taurine, like carnitine, is synthesised from methionine and cysteine. It, too, is found only in animal products. A deficiency in intake of these three amino acids, or a metabolic defect in metabolising these sulphur amino acids may lead to a deficiency of taurine creating numerous symptoms, including poor digestion of fat. A supplement of molybdenum enhances sulphite oxidase activity and helps convert potentially harmful sulphites into taurine. For 36%, this reduced urinary sulphite loss and improved symptoms. This improved enzyme activity enhances detoxification of the very toxic cyanide ions improving oxidative phosphorylation and cellular oxidation increasing ATP (energy molecule). Supplementing molybdenum or the amino acid L-taurine (500 mg daily, shortly reducing to 100 mg) will then improve the function of the liver, producing better quality bile (darkening of the stool), protecting against gall stones, and improving the digestion of fats. Taurine is vital in preventing cataracts. It ... We are looking for the very best compost. There are two types depending on the soil and the crops you are growing. Traditional compost is for most vegetable crops. You will need 300 lbs of carbon to 10 lbs of Nitrogen to 1 pound of Sulfur (for sulfur amino acids). Sulfur is the limiting factor.. Then there is fungal dominant compost designed for superior forage grasses and the growing of berries.. 2/3rds of a Farms Organic Matter comes from decayed roots. It takes 8 weeks for fungi to digest your crop residue and roots. This OM plus soil biology greatly increases your lands ability to absorb a heavy downpour. Floods destroy developed agriculture.. Both types of compost can be done using a Johnson Su Bioreactor that eliminates all that turning. Johnson and his wife Su are academics. They do not care that fungal dominant compost takes 2 years to complete. Not good for market gardeners. Speed the process up ...
The sulphur amino acid, cysteine, plays an essential role in maintaining cellular redox potential and is a key constituent of the antioxidant, glutathione. Cysteine is highly reactive and readily oxidises to the disulfide form, cystine, producing oxygen radicals as a by-product. In this book, the authors present curren
Economy Size 100% Natural Pharmaceutical Grade Dietary Supplement Healthy Origins Setria L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cysteine, L-Glutamic Acid, and Glycine. Our L-Glutathione Reduced is produce
N-Acetyl cysteine is a more stable form of the sulfur amino acid L-cysteine, and is a powerful antioxidant. It is an excellent predecessor of glutathione, anoth
Healthy Origins® Setria® L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cystene, L-Glutamic Acid and Glycine. Our Setria® brand of L-Glutathione Reduced is a trademark of Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., and is produ
Healthy Origins® Setria® L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cystene, L-Glutamic Acid and Glycine. Our Setria® brand of L-Glutathione Reduced is a trademark of Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., and is produ
Healthy Origins® Setria® L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cystene, L-Glutamic Acid and Glycine. Our Setria® brand of L-Glutathione Reduced is a trademark of Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., and is produ
The factorial approach to assess the amino acid (AA) requirements of pigs is based on the assumption that the AA composition of body protein is constant. However, there are indications that this assumption may not be valid because the AA composition of body protein can be affected by the AA supply. The extent to which different tissues are affected by an AA deficiency is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding pig diets with a deficient or sufficient total sulfur AA supply (TSAA; Met+Cys) from 6 to 23 weeks of age on tissue composition and meat quality. The deficient diet (TSAA-) provided 24% Met : Lys and 51% TSAA : Lys on a standardized ileal digestible basis, which are 19% and 16% below the recommended requirements, respectively. The sufficient diet (TSAA+) provided 33% Met : Lys and 60% TSAA : Lys. Diets were offered slightly below the ad libitum feed intake capacity of the pigs. Pigs offered diet TSAA- had a lower average daily gain, lower weights of ...
With ever increasing regulatory requirements, the balance between the declining quality of incoming crude oil and the heavily regulated quality of
A mid-level SaaS sales representative has 2-5 years of experience.. Some mid-level SaaS roles will require you to work in a managerial capacity, coaching and guiding a small team. Alternatively, you can work as a more advanced account executive, handling delicate or highly profitable contracts.. Heres a list of qualifications for a mid-level sales role at HubSpot:. We are looking for people who have at least 2+ years of experience leading and coaching a quota carrying team; experience in successfully mentoring and/or leading others effectively; experience leading a consultative sales process; experience using CRM to manage and forecast sales opportunities; strong analytical skills to identify trends and patterns; and strong communication skills in written, verbal, and PowerPoint forms.. Senior SaaS Sales Experience. A senior SaaS salesperson, such as a senior sales manager or a senior account executive, has an average of 5-7 years of experience.. Senior SaaS sales roles typically require ...
Model 6200T UV Fluorescence Total Sulfur Analyzer - Choose the Lincoln Electric web site for your country or region to find the best selection of welding equipment, welding wire and electrode, welding safety equipment, weld fume control, and welding automation systems.
Businesses become more resilient in times of crises. This is especially true for SaaS businesses that are facing unprecedented challenges in this environment. While some are catering to a surge in traffic, others are figuring out innovative solutions to retain their customers. In addition, increasing malicious attacks are straining the resources of these SaaS businesses. Now more than ever, it is important for SaaS providers to deliver an uninterrupted experience. One that is fast, secure, and reliable to their customers in a cost effective manner.
SaaS multiples look great and made a nice comeback from Q4 2018: of the 72 SaaS companies we follow, the average public SaaS business is trading at 10.51x revenue while the median is 8.94x.
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The Gaylord Archival® C-flute Tray for Acid-Free Record Storage Cartons allows you to utilize every inch of storage space inside your record storage cartons. You can add up to three sturdy, interior trays to a single carton to safely stack and store small artifacts. Circular cutouts on the ends make each tray easy to remove. Ships flat.
Although the overall reaction is that of a transferase, the mechanism involves the formation of ketimine between fructose 6-phosphate and a 6-amino group from a lysine residue at the active site, which is subsequently displaced by ammonia (transamidination). -!- Formerly EC ...
Patent No. U.S. 6,432,483 B1 DuPont has obtained a patent for a coating composition comprising a crosslinking component that contains a polyketimine having an average of at least two ketimine functionalities per polyketimine molecule and a bin
Richerson RB, Ziegler DM (1987). "Sulfur and Sulfur Amino Acids. Cysteamine dioxygenase". Methods Enzymol. Methods in ...
Sörbo B (1987). "3-Mercaptopyruvate, 3-mercaptolactate and mercaptoacetate". Sulfur and Sulfur Amino Acids. Methods in ... MPST protein consists of 317 amino acid residues and weighs 35250Da. MPST contains two rhodanese domains with similar secondary ... Striking similarity in active site amino acid sequence and the increase in the mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase activity of ... MPST catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur atom from mercaptopyruvate to sulfur acceptors like cyanides or thiol compounds. Thus ...
The main dietary source of sulfur for humans is sulfur-containing amino-acids, which can be found in plant and animal proteins ... an amino acid containing a thiol group Methionine, an amino acid containing a thioether Diphenyl disulfide, a representative ... The two principal sulfur oxides are obtained by burning sulfur: S + O2 → SO2 (sulfur dioxide) 2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3 (sulfur ... In all forms of life, most of the sulfur is contained in two proteinogenic amino acids (cysteine and methionine), thus the ...
ISBN 978-0-943088-39-6. Brosnan JT, Brosnan ME (June 2006). "The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of ... part of amino acid catabolism (see below). A rare exception to the dominance of α-amino acids in biology is the β-amino acid ... D-amino acid residues are found in some proteins, but they are rare. Amino acids are designated as α- when the amino nitrogen ... Amino acids containing an amino group bonded directly to the α-carbon are referred to as α-amino acids. These include proline ...
Brosnan, J.T.; Brosnan, M.E. (2006). "The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6): 1636S ... The proteins are especially rich in the sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, and tryptophan. Gamma- ... linolenic acid (GLA), and linoleic acid are present. Mainly for these polyunsaturated fatty acids, evening primrose oil is sold ... "Gamma linolenic acid". American Cancer Society. 13 May 2010. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 1 August ...
Sulfur is contained in the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Phosphorus is contained in phospholipids, a class of lipids ... Brosnan JT, Brosnan ME (June 2006). "The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6 Suppl): ... isofulminic acid (HONC), cyanic acid (HOCN) and isocyanic acid (HNCO), having one of each atom. Wikimedia Commons has media ... Phosphate groups are also an essential component of the backbone of nucleic acids (general name for DNA & RNA) and are required ...
These sulfur-based amino acids play an essential role in building the protein structures within this crop. The sugar content in ... Brosnan, J.T.; Brosnan, M.E. (June 2006). "The Sulfur-containing amino acids: An overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6): ... Additionally, C. scarabaeoides is rich in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, around 3% of protein compared to only 2% in ... scarabaeoides is rich in protein and essential amino acids. The seed protein content can range from 17.8-27%, typically being ...
Brosnan JT, Brosnan ME (June 2006). "The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6 Suppl): ... Sulfonic acids, Glycine receptor agonists, Inhibitory amino acids). ... Studies suggest the amino acid should be supplied at 10 mg/kg of bodyweight/day for domestic cats. Taurine appears essential to ... Other effects of a diet lacking in this essential amino acid are dilated cardiomyopathy and reproductive failure in females. ...
The remaining peptide has 373 amino acids. There are two sulfur bridges. The sugars are attached at two different N- ... The amino acid sequence is the same as for androgen-binding protein but that has different oligosaccharides attached and is ... Walsh KA, Titani K, Takio K, Kumar S, Hayes R, Petra PH (November 1986). "Amino acid sequence of the sex steroid binding ... When first produced the SHBG precursor has a leading signal peptide attached with 29 amino acids. ...
Dominique Thomas; Yolande Surdin-Kerjan (1997). "Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Microbiology ... v t e (CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, Iron enzymes, Sulfur enzymes, Sulfur metabolism, Tetrapyrroles, All stub articles, ... It is a cofactor at the active site of sulfite reductase, which plays a major role in sulfur assimilation pathway, converting ... is a heme-like prosthetic group at the active sites of some enzymes to accomplish the six-electron reduction of sulfur and ...
The integration of sulfur is positively regulated by CysB. Effective inducers of this regulon are N-acetyl-serine (NAS) and ... For example, humans can synthesize 11 of the 20 standard amino acids (a.k.a. non-essential amino acids). Most amino acids are ... Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the amino acids are produced. The ... The commercial production of amino acids usually relies on mutant bacteria that overproduce individual amino acids using ...
2015). Linkage [1-#-NαC] Occurs between amino acid 1 and amino acid "#" through the α-amino group that a N-C cyclization of the ... Use the en dash (-) as in ranges and place the square brackets; [#-Xaa,#-Xaa], methionine S-oxide has a chiral sulfur. Two ... linkage occurs between amino acid 1 and amino acid "#" through the α-amino group that a N-C cyclization of the core peptide. ... Amino acid residue numbering (#) Residue numbering begins at the N-terminal-most amino acid residue of the orbitide, based on ...
The metabolism of amino acids containing sulfur can be toxic; however, if the sulfur amino acids are not catabolized as the ... Feathers are largely made of the keratin protein complex, which has disulfide bonds between amino acids that give it stability ... final products of urea or uric acid but used for the synthesis of keratin instead, the release of hydrogen sulfide is extremely ...
The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine are more easily oxidized than the other amino acids. Intravenous and ... Amino acid derivatives, Antidotes, Antioxidants, Excipients, Excitatory amino acid receptor ligands, Wikipedia medicine ... It is being studied in conditions such as autism, where cysteine and related sulfur amino acids may be depleted due to ... Bin P, Huang R, Zhou X (2017). "Oxidation Resistance of the Sulfur Amino Acids: Methionine and Cysteine". BioMed Research ...
The sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine are more easily oxidized than the other amino acids. Unlike oxidation ... It is an amino acid that occurs naturally although it is formed post-translationally. Oxidation of the sulfur of methionine ... "Oxidation Resistance of the Sulfur Amino Acids: Methionine and Cysteine". BioMed Research International. 2017: 9584932. doi: ... Methionine sulfoxide (MetO), the oxidized form of the amino acid methionine (Met), increases with age in body tissues, which is ...
Sulfur (S) is a nonmetal. It is found in two amino acids: cysteine and methionine. Chlorine (Cl) is a halogen. It is used as a ... sulfur, and phosphorus, carbon is the basis of every important biological compound. Nitrogen (N) is found mainly as mostly ...
... s are sulfur-rich macrocyclic peptides containing highly-modified amino acids. They are characterized by a nitrogen- ... A macrocylic ring serves as a scaffold for a tail that also incorporates modified amino acids often with azole rings, such as ... substituted with multiple thiazole rings and dehydroamino acids. ...
Because sulfur-containing amino acids play a role in multiple biological processes, the regulation of these amino acids is ... It degrades sulfur-containing amino acids to α-keto acids, ammonia, and thiols: L-methionine + H2O = methanethiol + NH3 + 2- ... Stipanuk MH (2004). "Sulfur amino acid metabolism: pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine". Annual ... Ali V, Nozaki T (Jan 2007). "Current therapeutics, their problems, and sulfur-containing-amino-acid metabolism as a novel ...
This process can effectively lead to the depletion of vital protective reserves of the sulfur amino acid cysteine and thereby ... It inhibits the conversion of the sulfur amino acid methionine to cysteine. Cystathionine, an intermediary product of this ... Canavanine, a toxic analogue of the amino acid arginine, has been identified in Hairy Vetch as an appetite suppressant for ... Tanja Pless; Michael Boettger; Peter Hedden & Jan Graebe (1984). "Occurrence of 4-Cl-indoleacetic acid in broad beans and ...
Amino Acids Using Sulphur Cystine, an important Amino Acid Cystathionine Djenkolic Acid Lanthionine Methionine, a core Amino ... elemental sulfur), essential amino acid (methionine) and semi-essential amino acid (e.g. cysteine). Sulfur is an essential ... A low-sulfur diet is a diet with reduced sulfur content. Important dietary sources of sulfur and sulfur containing compounds ... particularly sulfur containing amino acids). Generally, a low sulfur diet involves reduction of meats, dairy products, eggs, ...
With du Vigneaud, she proved that sulfur-based amino acids could replace cystine. The pair attempted to isolate the active ... She was the first chemist to create the antimetabolite of an amino acid. Dyer's studies with vitamin B6 included the discovery ... As a Ph.D. student at George Washington University, Dyer had a job as a teaching fellow, where she studied sulfur compounds ... that the vitamin prevented heightened excretion of abnormal tryptophan metabolites, including xanthurenic acid, in animals that ...
It is used to label the sulfur-containing amino-acids methionine and cysteine. When a sulfur atom replaces an oxygen atom in a ... Radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine have been used extensively to trace the path of biochemical ... is adsorbed onto acid alumina (Al2O3). When the 99Mo decays it forms pertechnetate TcO4−, which because of its single charge is ... fatty acid synthesis, and other metabolic processes. While radioactive tracers are sometimes still used in human studies, ...
Hair's protein, keratin, contains the amino acid cysteine and cysteine contains sulfur atoms; Normally, two sulfurs form a ...
Proteinogenic amino acids, Glucogenic amino acids, Sulfur amino acids, Thioethers, Essential amino acids). ... Methionine (symbol Met or M) (/mɪˈθaɪəniːn/) is an essential amino acid in humans. As the precursor of other amino acids such ... Together with cysteine, methionine is one of two sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids. Excluding the few exceptions ... Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768. doi:10.17226/ ...
Sulfur amino acids, Thioethers, Non-proteinogenic amino acids). ... It was found to be a sulfur-containing amino acid; accordingly ... Isolation of a New Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid (Lanthionine) from Sodium Carbonate-Treated Wool. Journal of Biological ... Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid with the chemical formula (HOOC-CH(NH2)-CH2-S-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH). It is typically ... The sulfur extrusion method is, however, the only pathway for lanthionine that has been employed in the total synthesis of a ...
It is also relatively low in the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine, and cysteine. Filaggrin is essential for the ... Filaggrin undergoes further processing in the upper stratum corneum to release free amino acids that assist in water retention ... However, others have shown that the filaggrin-histidine-urocanic acid cascade is not essential for skin acidification. ... "Is the filaggrin-histidine-urocanic acid pathway essential for stratum corneum acidification?". The Journal of Investigative ...
... which is mixed with water and acidified to form selenous acid (oxidation step). Selenous acid is bubbled with sulfur dioxide ( ... From about three billion years ago, prokaryotic selenoprotein families drive the evolution of selenocysteine, an amino acid. ... Selenous acid can also be made directly by oxidizing elemental selenium with nitric acid: 3 Se + 4 HNO 3 + H 2 O ⟶ 3 H 2 SeO 3 ... In living systems, selenium is found in the amino acids selenomethionine, selenocysteine, and methylselenocysteine. In these ...
Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral element in the body. The amino acids cysteine and methionine are used by the body to ... From the sulfide they form the amino acids cysteine and methionine, sulfolipids, and other sulfur compounds. Animals obtain ... Sulfur oxidizers use enzymes such as Sulfide:quinone reductase, sulfur dioxygenase and sulfite oxidase to oxidize sulfur ... Sulfur is metabolized by all organisms, from bacteria and archaea to plants and animals. Sulfur is reduced or oxidized by ...
Reaction of α-amino acids in aqueous solution with COS or with CO and H2S generates a peptide cycle wherein dipeptides, ... Reaction of pyruvic acid or other α-keto acids with ammonia in the presence of ferrous hydroxide or in the presence of ferrous ... Huber, Claudia; Günter Wächtershäuser (2006-10-27). "α-Hydroxy and α-amino acids under possible Hadean, volcanic origin-of-life ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(02)02863-0. Huber, Claudia; Günter Wächtershäuser (1998-07-31). "Peptides by activation of amino acids ...
... amino acid metabolism; transsulfuration; and more. In plants, SAM is crucial to the biosynthesis of ethylene, an important ... S-Adenosyl methionine consists of the adenosyl cation attached to the sulfur of methionine. It is synthesized from ATP and ... They all feature iron-sulfur cluster at their active sites. Most enzymes with this capability share a region of sequence ... More than 40 methyl transfers from SAM are known, to various substrates such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and secondary ...
Sulfur is conveyed from cysteinyl persulfide in a manner reminiscent of the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur proteins. The ... IUPAC Name [2-amino-4-oxo-6,7-bis(sulfanyl)-3,5,5~{a},8,9~{a},10-hexahydropyrano[3,2-g]pteridin-8-yl]methyl dihydrogen ... Tungsten-using enzymes typically reduce free carboxylic acids to aldehydes. The first tungsten-requiring enzyme to be ... ISBN 978-0-306-45053-2. Stiefel, E. I. (1998). "Transition metal sulfur chemistry and its relevance to molybdenum and tungsten ...
... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... The energy in sunlight is captured by plants, cyanobacteria, purple bacteria, green sulfur bacteria and some protists. This ... amino acids can be linked in varying sequences to form a huge variety of proteins. Proteins are made from amino acids that have ... which is then transaminated to form an amino acid. Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide ...
... activity with a major exception compared to other parasites still retain the bio-synthetic ability of production of amino acid ... the reduction of the mitochondria to a relic voided of genomes and metabolic activity except to the production of iron sulfur ... Commoner, Barry (June 1964). "Roles Of Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Inheritance". Nature. 202 (4936): 960-968. Bibcode:1964Natur. ...
The horse's hoof contains a high proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids which contribute to its resilience and toughness. ... Pepsin allows for the further breakdown of proteins into amino acid chains. Other enzymes include resin and lipase. ... In the stomach, assorted acids and the enzyme pepsin break down food. ...
Meierhenrich, Uwe (2008). Amino acids and the asymmetry of life caught in the act of formation. Berlin: Springer. pp. 76-78. ... Several well formed milky white casts, made up of many small sharp calcite crystals, from the sulfur mines at Agrigento, Sicily ... and D-amino acids. Rhombohedral faces are not chiral. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show ... "Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 15066. doi: ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium ... The other major minerals (potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body ...
Metabolites of nonsulfur amino acid constituents (simple and branched-chain hydrocarbons) such as ethylene (produced by mycelia ... Depending on the truffle species, lifecycle, or location, they include: Sulfur volatiles, which occur in all truffle species, ... Splivallo, R; Ebeler, SE (Mar 2015). "Sulfur volatiles of microbial origin are key contributors to human-sensed truffle aroma ... Plant macronutrients include potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur, whereas micronutrients include iron, copper, zinc, ...
Chirality is easily incorporated by using 2-amino alcohols prepared by the reduction of amino acids; which are both optically ... where the oxygen is replaced by sulphur Other pages Aminorex a drug bearing an oxazoline ring Wenker, H. (1938). "Syntheses ... typically obtained by the reduction of an amino acid) with a suitable functional group. The overall mechanism is usually ... The synthesis of 2-oxazoline rings is well established and in general proceeds via the cyclisation of a 2-amino alcohol ( ...
Studies have shown that the particular identity of the amino-acid used to coordinate the Mo core greatly influences Mo redox ... Tenderholt AL, Wang JJ, Szilagyi RK, Holm RH, Hodgson KO, Hedman B, Solomon EI (June 2010). "Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption ... DMS, a product of DMSOR, is a component of the sulfur cycle. DMS is oxidized to Methanesulfonates, which nucleate cloud ...
The addition of a nitroso group to a sulfur atom of an amino acid residue of a protein is known as S-nitrosylation or S- ... SNO donors target specific amino acids motifs; post-translational modification leads to changes in protein activity, protein ... The prefix "S" indicates that the NO group is attached to sulfur. The S-N-O angle is near 114°, reflecting the influence of the ... S-Nitrosothiols may arise from condensation from nitrous acid and a thiol: RSH + HONO ⟶ RSNO + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {RSH ...
... which has 76 amino acid residues arranged into a "beta-grasp" protein fold consisting of a five-strand antiparallel beta sheet ... Wang F, Liu M, Qiu R, Ji C (August 2011). "The dual role of ubiquitin-like protein Urm1 as a protein modifier and sulfur ... Interestingly, the eukaryotic protein URM1 functions as both a UBL and a sulfur-carrier protein, and has been described as a ... the bacterial sulfur transfer proteins ThiS and MoaD from these pathways share the beta-grasp fold with UBLs, while sequence ...
It also lowers the concentration of low molecular weight molecules like sugars and amino acids and increases the concentration ... It plays a key role in the function of enzymes like cytochrome a, b and c as well as iron-sulfur complexes which play an ...
Acid mine drainage from coal refuse varies considerably but in some areas remediation of the mine sites is needed. The amount ... "Kömür yerli ama ödemesi dolarla" [The coal is local but payment is in dollars]. Sözcü. 5 February 2019. Archived from the ... Turkish lignite has high carbon, sulphur, ash, moisture and volatile components. Its calorific value is less than 12.5 MJ/kg - ... and sulfur 0.8 to 1. Although low grade it is generally of cokeable or semi-cokeable quality. Because there is so much faulting ...
... amino acids, and lipids. Multiple dimethyl sulfoxide-molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the ... Most species grow either chemolithoautotrophically by sulfur reduction or organotrophically by sulfur respiration or by ... Also, use of elemental sulphur for growth was observed. Further, P. aerophilum grows between 75 and 104 °C with an optimal ... Growth in the presence of elemental sulfur and arsenate resulted in the formation of thioarsenates and polysulfides. The ...
These transgenic plants would contain more essential sulphur amino acids meaning a healthier diet for humans and animals. The ... This particular enzyme catalyses serine into cysteine which is eventually converted to the essential amino acid methionine. Of ... amino-terminal alpha-helical domain particularly the amino acid residues His158 (histidine in position 158) and Asp143 ( ... to create nutritionally essential amino acids and to exploit this ability through transgenic plants. ...
Methionine sulfoxide forms from the amino acid methionine and its accumulation is associated with aging. The enzyme DMSO ... The sulfur center is pyramidal; the sum of the angles at sulfur is about 306°. Sulfoxides are generally represented with the ... diaryl sulfoxides can be prepared by two Friedel-Crafts arylations of sulfur dioxide using an acid catalyst: 2 ArH + SO2 → ... The double-bond resonance form implies 10 electrons around sulfur (10-S-3 in N-X-L notation). The double-bond character of the ...
As for size, each monomer is approximately 500 amino acids long (514 amino acids for humans). Functional and structural ... Inactivation leads to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur". The EMBO Journal. 10 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1002/j.1460- ... 2 glutamic acids, and other polar amino acids. The proline at position 172 is thought to play a crucial role in positioning ... These mutations are mainly missense mutations that result in amino acid substitutions, and while some of them result in G6PD ...
... which has raised questions about whether TDP must be deprotonated by a basic amino acid at a second site away from the ... A key feature of the cofactor TPP is the relatively acidic proton bound to the carbon atom between the nitrogen and sulfur in ... a TPP-dependent enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids in certain organisms. Sequence alignments ... Dailey FE, Cronan JE (February 1986). "Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis ...
Nitrogen sources include nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, amino acids, urea, aspartate, asparagine, alanine and thiourea, depending ... essential for sulfur oxidation in a new sulfur lithotrophic bacterium". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (15): 4278-87. doi:10.1128 ... Sulfur produced by the oxidation of sulfide is stored into internal globules and can be used when the concentration of sulfide ... Here, the sulfur source is provided by the flux of sulfide. Another '' layer '' is made by NaHCO3 without sulfide or ...
The catalytic domain of PRMTs consists of a SAM binding domain and substrate binding domain (about 310 amino acids in total). ... The lysine chain then makes a nucleophilic attack on the methyl group on the sulfur atom of the SAM molecule, transferring the ... composed of approximately 130 amino acids), the pre-SET, and the post-SET domains. The pre-SET and post-SET domains flank the ... Next, a nearby tyrosine residue deprotonates the ε-amino group of the lysine residue. ...
Farkas, Etelka; Buglyó, Péter (2017). "Chapter 8. Lead(II) Complexes of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Other Related Ligands of ... Penicillamine, which contains nitrogen and sulphur donor atoms, is used as this type of ligand binds more strongly to copper ... Miller, Marvin J. (1989). "Syntheses and therapeutic potential of hydroxamic acid-based siderophores and analogs". Chemical ...
1994). "trans-2,3-cis-3,4-Dihydroxyproline, a New Naturally Occurring Amino Acid, Is the Sixth Residue in the Tandemly Repeated ... rosin and sulfur; "Black stuff", a mixture of tar and pitch; and "Brown stuff", which was simply sulfur added to Black stuff. ... At UV-range wavelengths, such fluorescence arises from three aromatic amino acids-tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. The ... An Aramaic record dating from 412 B.C. tells of a ship's bottom being coated with a mixture of arsenic, oil and sulphur. In ...
The CDGSH iron sulfur domain are a group of iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S) clusters and a unique 39 amino acid CDGSH domain [C-X-C-X2-(S/ ... T)-X3-P-X-C-D-G-(S/A/T)-H]. The CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1 protein (also referred to as mitoNEET) is an integral membrane ...
They transfer lipoic acid or octanoate from lipoyl domains and transfer to other lipoyl domains. In Bacillus subtilis, the ... They also share the target modification domain (Pfam PF00364), and the sulfur insertion enzyme (Pfam PF04055). Biotin protein ... two step reaction that results in the formation of an amide linkage between the carboxyl group of biotin and the epsilon-amino ... Lipoate-protein ligase catalyses the formation of an amide linkage between lipoic acid and a specific lysine residue of the ...
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... iron-sulfur protein - isoenzyme - isoleucine - Isomer - Isothermal titration calorimeter - Isotopic tracer junk DNA kainic acid ... nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ... essential amino acid - ester - estradiol receptor - estrogen receptor - ethanol - ether - eukaryote - evolution - evolutionary ...
... with a high lysine content and lower concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) and tryptophan. ... The grains also contain a high amount of starch (26-40%). The amino acid pattern of the seeds of Erythrina edulis forms a good ...
In addition, a unique sulfonamide ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group ... from the amino acid glycine and succinyl-CoA from the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). The rate-limiting enzyme responsible for ... For example, the ability of hemoglobin to effectively deliver oxygen to tissues is due to specific amino acid residues located ... The addition of peroxide with the glutamyl-375 and aspartyl-225 of lactoperoxidase forms ester bonds between these amino acid ...
Methionine and cysteine are the two canonical sulfur-containing amino acids. Of the two, δ34S values of methionine are ... The sulfur stable isotope system is based on small, mass-dependent fractionations of sulfur isotopes in an analyzed material. ... Various studies have analyzed the isotopic ratios of sulfur in mummified hair. Hair is a good candidate for sulfur studies as ... The ratio of the most abundant sulfur isotope, 32S, compared to rarer isotopes such as, 33S, 34S, and 36S, is used to ...
Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of ... Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a ... The reaction of aqueous hypochlorous acid with alpha-amino acids and dipeptides". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 313 (1): 170- ... The first reaction yields sulfenic acid (R-SOH) then sulfinic acid (R-SO2H) and finally R-SO3H. Sulfenic acids form disulfides ...
In addition, the seeds contain a high amount of arginine, tryptophan, and the sulfur-containing amino acids.[citation needed] ... The oil content of the seeds is 17-19% (w/w), consisting of 67-73% linoleic acid, 10-16% oleic acid, 5-8% stearic acid, and 9- ... Oleic and linoleic acids isolated from C. colocynthis petroleum ether extracts show larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. ... Rahuman, A. Abdul; Venkatesan, P.; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha (2008). "Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids ...
... [Abstract ... HNF4alpha Regulates Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism and Confers Sensitivity to Methionine Restriction in Liver Cancer. ... Story HNF4alpha Regulates Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism and Confers Sensitivity to Methionine Restriction in Liver Cancer] Xu Q ... Synopsis HNF4alpha Regulates Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism and Confers Sensitivity to Methionine Restriction in Liver Cancer] [ ...
... sulfur Trifluoride, the Deoxo-Fluor Reagent: Application toward One-Flask Transformations of Carboxylic Acids to Amides. ... The conversion of acids to amides and Weinreb amides and the use of Deoxo-Fluor as peptide-coupling reagent have been explored ... Deoxo-Fluor, Carboxylic Acids, Acyl Fluorides, Amides, Weinreb Amides, Peptides, Coupling Reagent ...
Dive into the research topics of Sulfur-containing amino acid requirement of rapidly growing steers.. Together they form a ...
In the produced wines, volatile and sulfur compounds as well as amino acid concentrations were investigated. Also the physico- ... In the produced wines, volatile and sulphur compounds as well as amino acid concentrations were investigated. Also the physico- ... In addition, the production of sulfur compounds was further evaluated by using a gas-chromatograph coupled with a Flame ... In addition, the production of sulphur compounds was further evaluated by using a gas-chromatograph coupled with a Flame ...
Sulfur-containing amino acids methionine (Met), cysteine (Cys) and taurine (Tau) are common dietary constituents with important ... Artificial Diets with Altered Levels of Sulfur Amino Acids Induce Anticancer Activity in Mice with Metastatic Colon Cancer, ... Artificial Diets with Altered Levels of Sulfur Amino Acids Induce Anticancer Activity in M ... amino acids; anticancer activity; cancer metabolism; colorectal cancer; cysteine; metastasis; methionine; ovarian cancer; renal ...
... amino acid ), called methionine, in the blood. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition. ... The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1636S-1640S. doi: 10.1093/jn/136.6.1636S. ... Inborn errors of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism. J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6 Suppl):1750S-1754S. doi: 10.1093/jn/136.6. ... The reactions involved help supply some of the amino acids needed for protein production. These reactions are also involved in ...
... the amino groups and, for the amino acids methionine and cysteine, the sulfhydryl group and despite the involvement of amino ... the plant usually manages to provide relatively constant levels of all amino acids. Here we collate data on how amino acid ... Effect of sulfur availability on the integrity of amino acid biosynthesis in plants ... Effect of sulfur availability on the integrity of amino acid biosynthesis in plants. ...
Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins in the body. A subcategory called sulfur amino acids includes methionine ( ... Sulfur amino acid restriction could amount to new dietary approach to health. Health News ... Sulfur amino acids are important for growth. One of the effects of their restriction is to inhibit growth, leading to healthier ... Dietary sulfur amino acids are found in protein-containing foods, so restricting them isnt easy. The review, however, points ...
Determining The Total Sulfur Amino Acid To Lysine Requirement Of The Lactating Sow. Kansas State University 2006 Swine Day ... A total of 163 sows were used in a study to determine the requirement for total sulfur amino acids (TSAA), relative to lysine, ... with other crystalline amino acids added to ensure that TSAA was first limiting. The dietary TID TSAA rates were formulated to ... and amino acid) intake of sows, coupled with possible tissue breakdown as a source of TSAA, did not decrease the dietary ...
Amino Acid Sequence * Base Sequence * Carbon-Sulfur Lyases / metabolism * Gene Deletion * Genes, Fungal ... The sulfur-flow of eukaryotic 2-thiouridine formation is distinct mechanism from the bacterial sulfur-relay system which is ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Mar;37(4):1335-52. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn1023. Epub 2009 Jan 16. ... Mechanistic characterization of the sulfur-relay system for eukaryotic 2-thiouridine biogenesis at tRNA wobble positions ...
This glossary will help you understand everything about amino acids ... Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid. Amino acids such as methionine and cystine are called "sulfur-containing amino acids" because ... Non-Essential Amino Acid. Amino acids that can be made by our bodies are called non-essential amino acids. Other amino acids ... Amino Acids for Hangover. Amino acids (alanine and glutamine) assist liver function. Alanine and glutamine are glucogenic amino ...
Potassium salts counteract an acidogenic high-sulfur amino acid diet.Aug 01, 2005. ... Diseases : Acid-Base Imbalance, Acidosis, Osteoporosis. Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: Less Acid/More Alkaline ... Plant food potassium salts have a balancing effect on acid-base status and digestive fermentation in rats.Jul 01, 2007. ... chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid- ...
... sulfur, and sugar contents. Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor - Texas A&M ... Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar ... free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. The flavor precursor ... Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most ...
involved_in sulfur amino acid catabolic process TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info ... This protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur ion from 3-mercaptopyruvate to cyanide or other thiol ... distinct roles of each TUM1 isoform in the sulfur transfer processes in the cell Title: Characterization and interaction ... the main pathway of sulfane sulfur formation is the MPST-catalyzed reaction. Title: The expression and activity of ...
Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors. D12 - Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins. Chimeric Proteins. Recombinant Fusion ... Amino Acid Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitter Agents. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antirheumatic Agents, and Inflammation ... Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors. Sulfite Reductases. ... Indoleacetic Acids. D08 - Enzymes and Coenzymes. Sulfite Oxidases. ...
Amino acids become diminished 3) Messes up the enzymes. -The importance of sulfur and why we have have become so deficient in ... am i wrong in thinking that taking sulfur-boosting sulfur in the body-while it might not completely mitigate the glyphosate ... The relationship between sulfur and cholesterol….this is fascinating. -Autism rates are right in step with glyphosate usage. - ... It appears that the best form of Vit.C is ascorbate not ascorbic acid. Try to look at Perques vit. C, powder or capsule and ...
... produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of ... Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as ... The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and ... Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global ...
Its a sulfur containing amino acid. Here is a pubmed search of it as a search term with gadolinium. ... NAC is a thiol amino acid that increases GSH, so it helps your body get rid of a lot of toxic stuff. ... The chelation solution contained three grams of the synthetic amino acid ethylene diamine tetra-acetic (EDTA), seven grams of ...
Most of the foods that contain exclusively protein tend to be high in sulfur-containing amino acids, and therefore are ... Most plant-based foods dont contain high levels of sulfur-containing amino acids and are generally alkaline-forming. The ... which are high in full-fat dairy foods as well as higher in sulfur-containing amino acids and phosphate, plant-based diets are ... Our bodies attempt to maintain a narrow acid-base range by any means necessary. A disturbance of the acid-base balance occurs ...
Sulfur Compounds [D02.886]. *Amino Acids, Sulfur [D02.886.030]. *Homocystine [D02.886.030.554]. *Amino Acids, Peptides, and ... Complementary effects of multivitamin and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on indices of cardiovascular health in individuals ... ine is associated with increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in the era of folic acid grain fortification. ...
... enables the body to produce vitamin B12 and the essential amino acids. You can find out more about this incredible nutrient ... After taking the organic sulfur crystals (they are harvested from the pine trees in Louisiana) in November of 2008 for 10 days ... The sulfur, as proven by the University of Southampton in England, ...
Sulfur is a component of many amino acids, proteins, vitamins and hormones. Its important for healthy hair, skin and digestion ... Sulfur and iodine are essential natural elements for healthy cells. ... Sulfur and iodine are essential natural elements for healthy cells. Sulfur is a component of many amino acids, proteins, ... Herbs containing sulfur and iodine have a range of actions. Some aid your digestive process and are useful in malabsorption ...
Sulfur - Dietary sulfur is a crucial nutrient. Sulfur, a component of various amino acids, is also a natural flea repellent. ... Once ingested, sulfur creates a scent on the skin of dogs that keeps fleas away. Sulfur can be given in either liquid or tablet ... Tags: animal health, animals, Brewers yeast, dietary sulfur, dogs, fleas, garlic, goodhealth, home remedies, Homeopathy, ... Mix dietary sulfur into dog food or administer it orally.. Even products labeled "natural" are not always safe. Check the label ...
These compounds are highly reactive electrophiles that form stable adducts to a variety of available amino acid residues on ... Sulfur and nitrogen mustards are internationally banned vesicants listed as Schedule 1 chemical agents in the Chemical Weapons ... In a case-control study of patients with HS, we evaluated the associations between the use of 5 mg folic acid (FA) daily and ... CONCLUSION: This population-based study suggests that higher dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, and lower n-6:n-3 ratios, are ...
Cystine stones contain an amino acid with sulfur.. The amino acid is used in the health of skin, hair, bones and connective ... A bacterial infection can make the urine less (or more) acid and form stones. ...
3. Sulfur-containing amino acids and protein content in selected soybean progenies. ... 7. Regulation of sulfur nutrition in wild-type and transgenic poplar over-expressing gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in the ...
Urine can begin to smell like sulfur for many different reasons. Several causes relate to diet and lifestyle, such as eating ... This can occur if someone eats a lot of foods that contain methionine, or if the body does not break the amino acid down ... It causes an excess of the amino acid cysteine to build up, which can lead to urinary stones forming in the kidneys. In ... Hypermethioninemia occurs when there is an excess of the amino acid methionine in the blood. ...
amino acid. molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. ... fatty acid. hydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid. protein. polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide ... folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids. ... nucleic acid. polymer of nucleotides; the genetic material of organisms. chemical reaction. process by which substances change ...
  • During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be responsible for the production of several sulfur compounds via the sulfate reduction pathway ( Swiegers and Pretorius, 2007 ), but the majority of H 2 S produced during winemaking occurs as a result of the biosynthesis of the sulfur containing amino acids, methionine, and cysteine, which occur in low concentrations in grape juice, through the sulfate reduction sequence (SRS). (
  • Sulfur -containing amino acids methionine (Met), cysteine (Cys) and taurine (Tau) are common dietary constituents with important cellular roles . (
  • Homocysteine may be converted back to methionine or into another amino acid, cysteine. (
  • Despite the diversity of precursors involved in amino acid biosynthesis as providing the carbon backbones, the amino groups and, for the amino acids methionine and cysteine, the sulfhydryl group and despite the involvement of amino acids as substrates in various downstream metabolic processes, the plant usually manages to provide relatively constant levels of all amino acids. (
  • First, metabolites containing reduced sulfur (cysteine, glutathione, S-adenosylmethionine) are reduced leading to a number of downstream effects. (
  • A subcategory called sulfur amino acids includes methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys), which not only make up proteins but also play many roles in metabolism and health. (
  • We have identified five genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, YIL008w (URM1), YHR111w (UBA4), YOR251c (TUM1), YNL119w (NCS2) and YGL211w (NCS6), that are required for 2-thiolation of mcm(5)s(2)U. An in vitro sulfur transfer experiment revealed that Tum1p stimulated the cysteine desulfurase of Nfs1p, and accepted persulfide sulfurs from Nfs1p. (
  • Cysteine is an amino acid that reduces the amount of black melanin pigmentation made in skin. (
  • The contents of flavor precursors (S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide [1-PeCSO] and S-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide [MCSO]), free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. (
  • For dogs, methionine is the only strictly essential sulfur amino acid, as cysteine and taurine can be synthesized if enough methionine is provided. (
  • Those are precursors to solidify own and a lot of the the sulfur nutrients cysteine, glycine, glutamine, those are big, big ways to do it. (
  • We will also check whether Cysteine, an amino acid containing sulfur, interferes with the same oxidation. (
  • 3. Certain activities like the loss of dopamine and cysteine (which is basically a sulfur-containing molecule), enhanced oxidative damage, and the presence of dopamine-derived neurotoxins are linked to Manganism disease. (
  • In addition to the supplements listed below, cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid. (
  • Sulfur mustard binds to reactive cysteine residues, forming a stable sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl [S-HETE] adduct that can be used as a long-term biomarker of sulfur mustard exposure in humans. (
  • Moreover, the amino acid profile of plant proteins may be incomplete, particularly with methionine and lysine being limiting amino acids. (
  • In wines, the presence of sulfur compounds is the resulting of several contributions among which yeast metabolism. (
  • In addition, the production of sulfur compounds was further evaluated by using a gas-chromatograph coupled with a Flame Photometric Detector. (
  • In the produced wines, volatile and sulfur compounds as well as amino acid concentrations were investigated. (
  • Also sulfur compounds, which can be considered a "double-edged sword," can contribute positively or negatively to wine aroma ( Vichi and Cortes-Francisco, 2015 ). (
  • Thus, biosynthesis of aromatic compounds is triggered to compensate for this loss, leading to an increased flux and accumulation of aromatic amino acids, especially tryptophan. (
  • This study indicates that onion pungency is primarily determined by the content of flavor precursor compounds and not by total S, total sugars, or individual/total free amino acids in shortday bulbs. (
  • This protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur ion from 3-mercaptopyruvate to cyanide or other thiol compounds. (
  • Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. (
  • The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. (
  • Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. (
  • 1982. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle. (
  • The digestion of these foods often creates sulfur-like compounds that exit the body in the urine. (
  • Drinking more water may help to dilute the sulfur compounds in the body and reduce the smell. (
  • Deoxyadenosine and cordycepic acid, two compounds found in Cordyceps, appear to have a direct effect on the part of the brain responsible for sexual desire. (
  • Many of the unpleasant odors of organic matter, including garlic odor and " skunk stink," are produced by sulfur-containing compounds. (
  • Moreover, sulfur and its compounds are important for a host of practical applications. (
  • Several of the compounds of sulfur should be handled with care. (
  • Those sulfur-rich veggies contain organosulfur compounds that we need to have so our bodies run optimally. (
  • prōt′ē-ĭn) [ proto- + -in ] Any of a class of complex nitrogen-containing compounds synthesized by all living organisms and yielding amino acids when hydrolyzed. (
  • Certain bacteria on the back of the tongue can interact with amino acids in foods and make smelly sulfur compounds. (
  • Most studies of occupational exposure to methyl mercaptan in the pulp industry also involve exposure to other sulfur-containing compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide as well as to methyl mercaptan (Kangas et al. (
  • Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate halitosis parameters and sialometry in patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy compared to patients with periodontal disease, establishing a relationship between oral concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and tongue coating presence, salivary flow rate and BANATM test. (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to sulfate starvation respond with a set of adaptation processes to achieve a new balance of amino acid metabolism. (
  • Metabolic pathway enrichment identified 41 pathways associated with benzene exposure, with altered pathways including carnitine shuttle, fatty acid metabolism, sulfur amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and branched chain amino acid metabolism. (
  • These results suggest disruption to fatty acid uptake, energy metabolism and increased oxidative stress, and point towards pathways related to mitochondrial dysfunction, which has previously been linked to benzene exposure in animal models and human studies. (
  • Inborn errors of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism. (
  • Different environmental temperatures affect amino acid metabolism in the eurytherm teleost Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) as indicated by changes in plasma metabolites. (
  • Teleost fish larvae adapt to dietary arachidonic acid supply through modulation of the expression of lipid metabolism and stress response genes. (
  • Vitamin B6: Supports the amino acid metabolism and helps increase energy levels through the formation of red blood cells. (
  • Some scientists believe the early Earth atmosphere contained water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia and nitrogen, while others believe it was similar to today's atmosphere and includes water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and oxygen. (
  • Also, if the bacteria on your skin are not making enough fatty acids or peptides, a topical product with fatty acids can give it a boost," Dr Mhatre suggests. (
  • Sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent which quickly reacts with nucleophiles such as DNA, RNA, water, lipids, peptides, and proteins via an episulfonium ion intermediate. (
  • The reactions involved help supply some of the amino acids needed for protein production. (
  • Dietary sulfur amino acids are found in protein-containing foods, so restricting them isn't easy. (
  • Beans and other legumes are a good source of protein that are low in sulfur amino acids. (
  • A protein with an amino acid score close to 100 can be said to be a good quality protein. (
  • Protein-rich foods contain sulfur amino acids. (
  • Meats and other high-protein foods are generally higher in sulfur amino acid content," says Zhen Dong, the study's lead author and a College of Medicine graduate. (
  • A protein consists of from 50 to thousands of amino acids arranged in a specific sequence. (
  • An incomplete protein lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. (
  • A vegetarian diet can compensate for dietary protein deficiencies by combining vegetable groups that complement each other in their basic amino acid groups. (
  • Though both the total quantity of dietary protein and the biological value, a function of digestibility and constituent amino acid content, must be considered. (
  • The protein profile of beans and pulses composed of all the required essential amino acids including leucine which are otherwise deficient in the cereal grains. (
  • The digestion of sulfur mustard-exposed blood samples with proteinase K following total protein precipitation with acetone produces the tripeptide biomarker [S-HETE]-Cys-Pro-Phe. (
  • As a result, a simple and high-throughput method has been developed and validated for the quantitation of sulfur mustard blood protein adducts in low volume blood specimens which should be readily adaptable for quantifying human exposures to other alkylating agents. (
  • Dietary indispensable amino acids profile affects protein utilization and growth of Senegalese sole larvae. (
  • Urine metabolites of sulfur mustard are useful biomarkers due to their abundance and non-invasive specimen collection methods. (
  • Feed deprivation in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) juveniles: effects on blood plasma metabolites and free amino acid levels. (
  • Potassium salts counteract an acidogenic high-sulfur amino acid diet. (
  • Even after accounting for possible confounding factors like age, sex, and medical history, researchers noted that a high sulfur amino acid intake was associated with a higher composite cardiometabolic risk score. (
  • Amino acids that have an aromatic ring (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) are called aromatic amino acids. (
  • Complementary effects of multivitamin and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on indices of cardiovascular health in individuals with elevated homocysteine. (
  • Sulfur amino acid supplementation displays therapeutic potential in a C. elegans model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (
  • These aromatic amino acids are used to make hormones and various amines in the body. (
  • No effect on the branched chain:aromatic amino acid ratios was observed. (
  • Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most abundant amino acids were glutamine and arginine. (
  • The antioxidant properties of LA may make it useful in aquaculture nutrition, but several effects must first be investigated, and we address here plasma free amino acids (FAA). (
  • Sulfur is a component of many amino acids, proteins, vitamins and hormones. (
  • They indeed are excellent sources of B-complex vitamins such as pyridoxine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin and folates. (
  • These natural vitiligo remedies include vitamins, amino acids, and herbal extracts. (
  • And when Vitamins C and E join forces with Hyaluronic Acid and MSM, they're known to encourage collagen production and boost radiance for truly nourished and healthy-feeling skin. (
  • In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate. (
  • Folic acid is an important cofactor for enzymes used in nucleoprotein synthesis and maintenance of erythropoiesis. (
  • When those membranes are broken by our knives, they release a number of enzymes and a chemical called amino acid sulfoxide into the air. (
  • Additional research is needed to confirm this relatively low TSAA requirement, and that the relatively high feed (and amino acid) intake of sows, coupled with possible tissue breakdown as a source of TSAA, did not decrease the dietary requirement. (
  • Dietary sodium chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid-producing diet. (
  • This study provides the first epidemiologic evidence that excessive dietary intake of sulfur amino acids may be related to chronic disease outcomes in humans. (
  • The relationship between dietary sulfur amino acids intake and severity and frequency of pain in Iranian patients with musculoskeletal pains, 2020. (
  • An Ohio study on the effect of Omega-3 on cytokine production in the brain yielded a surprising side effect of the intake of Omega-3 fatty acids by a group of medical students. (
  • A regular intake of Omega-3 fatty acids strengthen the cell membranes, which in turn boosts the performance of Serotonin which prevents anxiety (5). (
  • While battling infertility is a complicated and often expensive process, one thing that you can do to help is to increase your daily intake of Omega-3 fatty acids. (
  • If you need therapeutic amounts of sulfur or iodine, consult your health care provider. (
  • Therefore, it is not surprising that many are surpassing the average requirement when considering these foods contain higher amounts of sulfur amino acids. (
  • People who eat lots of plant-based products like fruits and vegetables will consume lower amounts of sulfur amino acids. (
  • Their fat composition mainly comprises of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and less of saturated fats which help in weight reduction and blood pressure control. (
  • Artificial Diets with Altered Levels of Sulfur Amino Acids Induce Anticancer Activity in Mice with Metastatic Colon Cancer, Ovarian Cancer and Renal Cell Carcinoma. (
  • The longevity and health improvements seen in animals on sulfur amino acid-restricted diets could translate to people, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers who recently conducted a review of published studies. (
  • Researchers have been interested in dietary sulfur amino acid restriction since the 1990s, when studies began to show health benefits in animals fed Met-restricted diets. (
  • The literature still offers uncertainty about whether the benefits of diets that restrict sulfur amino acids can be translated to humans," Dong said. (
  • The experimental diets contained 0.37% L-lysine HCl, with other crystalline amino acids added to ensure that TSAA was first limiting. (
  • The research team discovered that diets low in sulfur amino acids are associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease . (
  • For decades it has been understood that diets restricting sulfur amino acids were beneficial for longevity in animals," says John Richie, a professor of public health sciences at Penn State's College of Medicine, in a release . (
  • The byproducts of the sulfur can cause buildups of ammonia, etc. (
  • The conversion of acids to amides and Weinreb amides and the use of Deoxo-Fluor as peptide-coupling reagent have been explored. (
  • Tri means three, Peptide means essentially amino acid. (
  • Students can build three amino acids simultaneously with this kit to investigate D and L isomers of amino acids, hydrogen bonding, dehydration synthesis, peptide formation, the meaning of "alpha amino acid", primary and secondary structures of proteins, and amines such as GABA and epinephrine. (
  • Students can build a five amino acids simultaneously with this kit to investigate D and L forms of amino acids, hydrogen bonding, dehydration synthesis, peptide formation, the meaning of "alpha amino acid", primary and secondary structure of proteins. (
  • Peptide Complex is known for supporting skin's own collagen and elastin, but when joined forces with Botanical Hyaluronic Acid, Plant Stem Cells, and Licorice Extract, it becomes the gold standard in eye skincare. (
  • A total of 163 sows were used in a study to determine the requirement for total sulfur amino acids (TSAA), relative to lysine, during lactation. (
  • Also, the bioavailability of sulfur amino acids can vary depending on ingredient source, and high levels of dietary fibre appear to increase biliary taurine losses and/or support bacterial degradation of dietary taurine. (
  • Taurine deficiency causes ocular changes, dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, while signs of sulfur amino acid deficiency also include weight loss, lethargy, and skin lesion. (
  • Legumes supply sulfur containing amino acids such as cystiene and taurine. (
  • Studies involving people have associated sulfur amino acids with increased body weight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer, suggesting that restricting Met and Cys could protect against these conditions. (
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins in the body. (
  • Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) help reduce the breakdown of proteins in the body. (
  • Plant food potassium salts have a balancing effect on acid-base status and digestive fermentation in rats. (
  • One of the most abundant biological matrices is represented by erythrocytes, being glutathione the only sulfur-containing mechanism for the red blood cell oxidative protection. (
  • And there's three amino acids that make up glutathione. (
  • So when you look on the organic acids section, it gives you about five different organic acids that are that are very, very helpful at looking at glutathione the big three of the ones I just mentioned, I'll pull up a couple others that I use as well, that are more on the precursor side for glycine. (
  • however, whether this mutation alone can lead to cerebrovascular events or whether it requires additional environmental or nutritional lack of folic acid to cause symptomatic homocysteinemia is unclear. (
  • Low vitamin B6 but not homocyst(e)ine is associated with increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in the era of folic acid grain fortification. (
  • however, such benefits are difficult to ascertain because of the complementary functions of vitamin B12 and folic acid. (
  • Vitamin B12 might lower high homocysteine levels below a threshold level achieved by folic acid alone. (
  • Vitamin B12 might help protect against chronic disease and neural tube defects, but more research, particularly in the area of nutritional genomics, is needed to determine how vitamin B12 might augment the benefits of folic acid. (
  • Some consideration should be given to the potential value of fortifying foods with vitamin B12 in addition to the current mandatory folic acid fortification of grains. (
  • However, these gains are usually so challenging to determine due to the many additional roles of vitamin B12 working together with folic acid. (
  • They may reduce the extreme homocysteine levels below the threshold level attained by folic acid acting independently [5] . (
  • Citric acid is a substance in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which generates energy in the body. (
  • The TCA cycle starts with citric acid and is also called the "citric acid cycle. (
  • Onions belong to a group of plants that absorb sulfur from the soil as they grow. (
  • Onions and lactic acid bacteria make it possible to form their own microflora in the intestines of the chicken. (
  • This element is essential for living organisms, particularly as part of the structures of certain amino acids and proteins . (
  • Valine, isoleucine and leucine are called branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). (
  • Ingredients with prebiotic effect include amino acids, plant sugars such as fructooligosaccharides, sulphur, calcium and magnesium," she says. (
  • Omega-3 is made up of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DPA). (
  • This review describes a number of studies which provide some hints that sulfur amino acid restriction might achieve some of the benefits observed in animal models, including cancer inhibition and reducing risks for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). (
  • The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. (
  • M00595 ] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. (
  • It is generally considered an essential amino acid in infants. (
  • The AMINOMAZING of the NF24Essentials Series is an innovative and essential amino acid powder, which contains acerola extract (vitamin C), L-carnitine, grape seed extract (OPC), MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) and a vitamin mixture was combined. (
  • MSM: Is a potent organic sulfur which acts as an anti-oxidant, analgesic, detoxicant and anti-inflammatory. (
  • Elemental sulfur can be found near hot springs and volcanic regions in many parts of the world, especially along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"-a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the Pacific Ocean. (
  • Significant deposits of elemental sulfur also exist in salt domes along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and in evaporites in Eastern Europe and western Asia. (
  • It is made from the amino acids alanine and proline. (
  • 6,858,715 and 7,199,236, the contents of which are incorporated by reference into the present specification, describe a process for deprotection of β-cyanoethyl protective groups wherein an amine, the conjugate acid of which has a pKa of from about 8 to about 11 must be used. (
  • Mica is also known to be the source of some of the best mineral formations such as zeolites, fulvic acid, ocean salts, etc. (
  • However, without intelligence, there's no mechanism that could create and arrange all the necessary proteins, amino acids, fats, lipids and nucleotides into any kind of meaningful arrangement in the right order that could be considered life. (
  • It is then further oxidized into acetic acid and finally broken down into carbon dioxide for energy production. (
  • Aerobic exercise is endurance exercise that efficiently uses energy by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle while using large amounts of oxygen over an extended period. (
  • Evaporites are mineral sediments that are left behind after evaporation of the water in shich they were once dissolved) The sulfur in these deposits is believed to come from the action of anaerobic bacteria on sulfate minerals, especially gypsum . (
  • About 20 different amino acids make up human proteins, which may contain other minerals such as iron or copper. (
  • For instance, hydrogen sulfide is quite toxic , and both sulfurous acid and sulfuric acid can harm biological tissue. (
  • Effects of dietary arachidonic acid on cortisol production and gene expression in stress response in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) post-larvae. (
  • Sulfur or sulphur ( see spelling below ) (chemical symbol S , atomic number 16) is a yellow crystalline solid at ordinary temperatures and pressures. (
  • Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar contents. (
  • People who ate foods with less sulfur amino acids displayed a much lower risk of developing heart disease based on their blood work. (
  • The disease mainly appeared in the dry season when there was high consumption of insufficiently processed cassava and the diet lacked supplementary foods with sulfur-containing amino acids which promote cyanide detoxification. (
  • Pomegranate extract, or phenolic acids, has antioxidant properties that can help reduce inflammation throughout the body. (
  • Powder with 8 essential amino acids, acerola extract, L-carnitine, grape seed extract, methylsulfonylmethane and a vitamin mixture. (