An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Effects of high-dose folic acid and pyridoxine on plasma and erythrocyte sulfur amino acids in hemodialysis patients. (1/195)

In this investigation, sulfur amino acids (sAA) and sulfhydryls were determined in the plasma and erythrocytes (RBC) of 10 uremic patients on regular hemodialysis (HD) treatment and 10 healthy subjects, before and after supplementation with 15 mg/d of folic acid and 200 mg/d of pyridoxine for 4 wk. The basal total plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), cysteine (Cys), cysteinylglycine (Cys-Gly), gamma-glutamylcysteine (gamma-Glu-Cys), glutathione (GSH), and free cysteinesulfinic acid (CSA) were significantly higher in HD patients when compared to healthy subjects, whereas methionine (Met) and taurine (Tau) concentrations were the same in the two groups. HD patients showed significantly higher RBC levels of Hcy and Cys-Gly, whereas the RBC concentrations of Met, Cys, Tau, and GSH were not different from those in the healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of sAA and sulfhydryls differed compared with RBC levels in the healthy subjects and HD patients. In both groups, supplementation with high doses of folic acid and pyridoxine reduced the plasma Hcy concentration. In addition, increased plasma concentrations of Cys-Gly and GSH were found in the HD patients and of CSA in the healthy subjects. After vitamin supplementation, the RBC concentrations of Hcy, Cys, and GSH increased and that of Tau decreased in healthy subjects. The only significant finding in RBC of HD patients was an increase in GSH levels after supplementation. This study shows several RBC and plasma sAA and sulfhydryl abnormalities in HD patients, which confirms earlier findings that RBC and plasma pools play independent roles in interorgan amino acid transport and metabolism. Moreover, high-dose supplementation with folic acid and pyridoxine significantly reduced Hcy levels, but did not restore the sAA and sulfhydryl abnormalities to normal levels. The increase that was observed in GSH after vitamin supplementation may have a beneficial effect in improving blood antioxidant status in uremic patients. Finally, the findings of elevated plasma Cys levels correlating to the elevated plasma Hcy levels in the presence of elevated plasma CSA levels, both before and after vitamin supplementation, led to the hypothesis that a block in decarboxylation of CSA is linked to hyperhomocysteinemia in end-stage renal failure.  (+info)

Protein synthesis by native chemical ligation: expanded scope by using straightforward methodology. (2/195)

The total chemical synthesis of proteins has great potential for increasing our understanding of the molecular basis of protein function. The introduction of native chemical ligation techniques to join unprotected peptides next to a cysteine residue has greatly facilitated the synthesis of proteins of moderate size. Here, we describe a straightforward methodology that has enabled us to rapidly analyze the compatibility of the native chemical ligation strategy for X-Cys ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The simplified methodology avoids the necessity of specific amino acid thioester linkers or alkylation of C-terminal thioacid peptides. Experiments using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS analysis of combinatorial ligations of LYRAX-C-terminal thioester peptides to the peptide CRANK show that all 20 amino acids are suitable for ligation, with Val, Ile, and Pro representing less favorable choices because of slow ligation rates. To illustrate the method's utility, two 124-aa proteins were manually synthesized by using a three-step, four-piece ligation to yield a fully active human secretory phospholipase A(2) and a catalytically inactive analog. The combination of flexibility in design with general access because of simplified methodology broadens the applicability and versatility of chemical protein synthesis.  (+info)

Evaluation of feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids for growing steers. (3/195)

In situ and digestion studies were conducted to evaluate feather meal (FTH), blood meal (BM), and meat and bone meal (MBM) for escape protein content, amino acid composition of the escape protein, true protein digestibility, and digestibility of the individual amino acids. Following 12 h of ruminal incubation, escape protein values were 73.5, 92.4, and 60.8% of CP for FTH, BM, and MBM, respectively. Blood meal and MBM were poor sources of sulfur amino acids (SAA), whereas FTH was a good source. Most of the SAA of FTH, however, was Cys, with very little Met. True protein digestibilities were not different for the protein sources (P > .15), ranging from 86.7 to 94.0% of the CP. However, digestibilities of the individual amino acids were quite different. Two growth studies were conducted to evaluate FTH as a source of SAA for growing cattle. The first study used 120 steers (228 +/- 15 kg) supplemented with urea, MBM, MBM plus 1% FTH, or MBM plus 2% FTH. Additionally, incremental amounts of rumen-protected Met were added to treatments containing MBM. Supplementation of MBM increased (P < .05) ADG compared with the urea control. Addition of FTH to MBM resulted in a linear (P < .01) increase in ADG. However, addition of rumen-protected Met to MBM plus FTH treatments further improved gains. Although FTH is an effective source of SAA, Met probably was first-limiting. The second study used 90 steers (243 +/- 18 kg) supplemented with BM plus incremental amounts of SAA from either FTH or rumen-protected Met. Addition of SAA improved ADG compared with BM alone (P < .05). Rumen-protected Met as a source of SAA improved ADG compared with FTH (P < .05). The SAA from FTH promoted a gain response equal to 50% of the response obtained with rumen-protected Met. Formulation of ruminant diets for metabolizable amino acids must account for escape value and digestibility of each individual amino acid. Feather meal is an effective source of SAA; however, Cys supplies over five times the amount supplied by Met.  (+info)

Dietary sulfur amino acid requirement of juvenile yellow perch fed the maximum cystine replacement value for methionine. (4/195)

We conducted three separate experiments designed to determine the dietary methionine requirement, ability of cyst(e)ine to spare methionine, and the total sulfur amino acid requirement (TSAA) of juvenile yellow perch when fed the maximal amount of cyst(e)ine. The purified basal diet used in each experiment contained 33.6 g of crude protein/100 g diet and 12.0 g of lipid/100 g diet. In the first experiment,;>L-methionine was added to eight diets providing methionine concentrations ranging from 0.37 to 1.77 g/100 g diet in gradations of 0.2 g/100 g diet. Diets were fed for 12 wk to juvenile yellow perch initially weighing 4.7 g/fish. Broken-line analyses of weight gain and feed efficiency data indicated that the dietary methionine requirement was 1.0 g/100 g diet (3.1 g TSAA/100 g dietary protein) and 1.1 g/100 g diet (3.4 g TSAA/100 g dietary protein), respectively. In the second experiment, various ratios of L-cyst(e)ine and L-methionine were added to the basal diet and fed for 12 wk to determine the cyst(e)ine replacement value of yellow perch initially weighing 19.3 g/fish. Weight gain and feed efficiency (FE) data indicated that cyst(e)ine spared up to 51% of the methionine requirement. In the final experiment, graded levels of cyst(e)ine plus methionine in a ratio of 51:49 were added to the basal diet in gradations of 0.1 g/100 g diet (0.5 to 1.2 g TSAA/100 g diet) to determine the dietary total sulfur amino acid requirement. Diets were fed to satiation for 10 wk to fish initially weighing 8. 1 g. Broken-line analyses of weight gain, feed intake and FE data indicated that the dietary TSAA requirement was 0.85, 0.87 and 1.0 g of TSAA/100 g diet (2.5 to 3.0 g of TSAA/100 g of dietary protein), respectively. The majority of dietary TSAA requirements of fish are in the range of 2 to 4 g/100 g of dietary protein and are generally similar to those of both birds and swine, but lower than estimates for rodents.  (+info)

Improved HPLC determination of acidic opines by phenylisothiocyanate derivatization and its application to marine animals. (5/195)

We present here a reliable and sensitive method for the determination of acidic opines such as meso-alanopine, beta-alanopine, tauropine and strombine in biological samples. Interfering primary amino acids were eliminated by reaction with o-phthalaldehyde, and the derivatized compounds were passed through Sep-Pak Plus PS-1 cartridges. The acidic opines were recovered by flushing the cartridges with water, then determined by high performance liquid chromatography after a second derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate. All 4 acidic opines were detected within 30 min. This method ensured good separation and guaranteed almost full recovery of all acidic opines. This method was applied to analyze opines in marine animals and to test whether opines are metabolized in the livers of the rat and fish.  (+info)

Oxoproline kinetics and oxoproline urinary excretion during glycine- or sulfur amino acid-free diets in humans. (6/195)

L-5-oxoproline (L-5-OP) is an intermediate in glutathione synthesis, possibly limited by cysteine availability. Urinary 5-OP excretion has been proposed as a measure of glycine availability. We investigated whether 5 days of dietary sulfur amino acid (SAA-free) or glycine (Gly-free) restriction affects plasma kinetics of 5-OP and urinary excretion of L- and D-5-OP in 6 healthy men. On day 6, L-5-[1-(13)C]oxoproline and [3,3-(2)H(2)]cysteine were infused intravenously for 8 h (3 h fast/5 h fed). In a control study (adequate amino acid mixture), plasma oxoproline fluxes were 37.8 +/- 13.8 (SD) and 38.4 +/- 14.8 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); oxidation accounted for 85% of flux. Cysteine flux was 47.9 +/- 8.5 and 43.2 +/- 8.5 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) for fast and fed phases, respectively. Urinary excretion of L- and D-5-OP was 70 +/- 34 and 31.1 +/- 13.3 micromol/mmol creatinine, respectively, during days 3-5, and 46.4 +/- 13.9 and 22.4 +/- 8.3 micromol/mmol over the 8-h tracer study. The 5-OP flux for the Gly-free diet was higher (P = 0. 018) and tended to be higher for the SAA-free diet (P = 0.057) when compared with the control diet. Oxidation rates were higher on the Gly-free (P = 0.005) and SAA-free (P = 0.03) diets. Cysteine fluxes were lower on the the Gly-free (P = 0.01) and the SAA-free diets (P = 0.001) compared with the control diet. Rates of L-5-OP excretion were unchanged by withdrawal of SAA or Gly for 5 days but increased on day 6 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.019, respectively). Thus acute changes in the dietary availability of SAA and Gly alter oxoproline kinetics and urinary 5-OP excretion.  (+info)

Blood glutathione synthesis rates in healthy adults receiving a sulfur amino acid-free diet. (7/195)

The availability of cysteine is thought to be the rate limiting factor for synthesis of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), based on studies in rodents. GSH status is compromised in various disease states and by certain medications leading to increased morbidity and poor survival. To determine the possible importance of dietary cyst(e)ine availability for whole blood glutathione synthesis in humans, we developed a convenient mass spectrometric method for measurement of the isotopic enrichment of intact GSH and then applied it in a controlled metabolic study. Seven healthy male subjects received during two separate 10-day periods an L-amino acid based diet supplying an adequate amino acid intake or a sulfur amino acid (SAA) (methionine and cysteine) free mixture (SAA-free). On day 10, L-[1-(13)C]cysteine was given as a primed, constant i.v. infusion (3 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) for 6 h, and incorporation of label into whole blood GSH determined by GC/MS selected ion monitoring. The fractional synthesis rate (mean +/- SD; day(-1)) of whole blood GSH was 0.65 +/- 0.13 for the adequate diet and 0.49 +/- 0.13 for the SAA-free diet (P < 0.01). Whole blood GSH was 1,142 +/- 243 and 1,216 +/- 162 microM for the adequate and SAA-free periods (P > 0.05), and the absolute rate of GSH synthesis was 747 +/- 216 and 579 +/- 135 micromol x liter(-1) x day(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). Thus, a restricted dietary supply of SAA slows the rate of whole blood GSH synthesis and diminishes turnover, with maintenance of the GSH concentration in healthy subjects.  (+info)

The effect of dietary sulfur-containing amino acids on the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat-liver microsomes. (8/195)

Male Wistar rats were fed either a balanced diet whose protein source was a mixture of amino acids (diet 1), or a similar diet which differed only in having 48% less the quantity of the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine (diet 2). The diets were given either continuously for 1 month or for 15 days after a protein-free diet. Both diets 1 and 2 permitted good growth of rats and relatively stable microsomal protein content. Protein depletion decreased the total proteins, total phospholipids, and cytochrome P-450 content, and it strongly increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in rat-liver microsomes. Repletion with diet 1 restored those values, to the level found in control rats. However, diet 2, given continuously induced an increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and in the cytochrome P-450 concentration. Since high UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was related to lessened amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet, we discuss the possible effect of methionine and cystine on the regulation of glucuronoconjugation in relation to sulfoconjugation.  (+info)

Fructose-sweetened liquid consumption is associated with fatty liver and oxidative stress. In rodent models of fructose-mediated fatty liver, protein consumption is decreased. Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. Studies were designed to test whether oxidative stress in fructose-sweetened liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by decreased ad libitum solid food intake with associated inadequate sulfur amino acid intake. C57BL6 mice were grouped as: control (ad libitum water), fructose (ad libitum 30% fructose-sweetened liquid), glucose (ad libitum 30% glucose-sweetened water) and pair-fed (ad libitum water and sulfur amino acid intake same as the fructose group). Hepatic and plasma thiol-disulfide antioxidant status were analyzed after five weeks. Fructose- and glucose-fed mice developed fatty liver. The mitochondrial antioxidant protein, thioredoxin-2, displayed decreased abundance in the liver of fructose and glucose-fed mice compared to controls.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of receptor-coupled phosphoinositide hydrolysis by sulfur-containing amino acids in rat brain slices. AU - Li, Xiaohua. AU - Jope, Richard S. PY - 1989/9/1. Y1 - 1989/9/1. N2 - Sulfur-containing amino acids were found to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated [3H]phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat cortical slices. Of the amino acids tested, l-cysteine was the most potent, inhibiting the response by 42 and 85% at concentrations of 50 and 500 μM respectively. l-Cystine and l-serine-O-sulfate also inhibited the response to norepinephrine, but to a lesser degree than did l-cysteine. l-homocysteic acid slightly potentiated phosphoinositide hydrolysis at a concentration of 100μm, but caused inhibition at 500 μM. l-cysteine sulfinate produced effects intermediate to those of l-cysteine and l-homocysteic acid, having no effect on the response to norepinephrine at 50 μM, but causing 84% inhibition at 500 μM. The d-isomers of cysteine and homocysteic acid were much less potent ...
One-hundred twenty individually fed steer calves were used to evaluate feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids. Treatment proteins included a urea control and meat and bone meal (6.4% of dietary DM) plus 0, 1, or 2% feather meal with incremental levels of rumen protected methionine. Adding feather meal to meat and bone meal resulted in a linear increase in gain. Likewise, rumen-protected methionine also improved gain. These results indicate feather meal can provide a portion of the sulfur amino acids lacking in meat and bone meal. However, additional methionine may further improve performance.
Your shown homocysteine pathway is way too simple. Especially the production of the neuromodulator H2S from excess sulfur amino acids is not shown. In the last years many more enzymes and reactions have been discovered. I have summarized human sulfur amino acid metabolism in reactome.org, so please use this link to discover all the details and new papers. Ill also append some of the relevant papers below.. Brosnan, JT, Brosnan, ME The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview 2006 J Nutr PMID 16702333. Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can also happen using betaine as a methyl donor. This reaction is also part of choline catabolism.. Li, F, Feng, Q, Lee, C, Wang, S, Pelleymounter, LL, Moon, I, Eckloff, BW, Wieben, ED, Schaid, DJ, Yee, V, Weinshilboum, RM Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional characterization 2008 Mol Genet Metab PMID 18457970. Bearden, SE, Beard RS, Jr, Pfau, JC Extracellular transsulfuration ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity
The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity
More than 90 participants attended the 9th Advancia International Seminar, which was held in Prague, Czech Republic. Advancia is the Scientific and Technical Community, gathering scientists and nutritionists to share research progresses on sulphur amino acids.
Oxidation of the sulfur amino acids by autoxidizing lipids was studied in a model system consisting of an amino acid dispersed in cold-pressed, molecularly distilled menhaden oil (20-80% w/w). Under all conditions investigated, cysteine was oxidized completely to cystine. Preliminary results suggest that at 110°C the oxidation follows first-order kinetics for at least the first 8 hr. A specific reaction rate constant of 0.25 per hour was calculated. When fatty acids were added to the system, cystine was oxidized to its thiosulfinate ester. When the fatty acid-cystine ratio was 1:2, oxidation of cystine was a maximum. No oxidation of cystine occurred unless either a fatty acid, volatile organic acid, or ethanol was added. Under the conditions investigated, methionine was not oxidized to either its sulfoxide or its sulfone....
By Roberta Masella. The advanced roles of glutathione and sulfur amino acids in human healthGlutathione (?-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is a huge antioxidant appearing as a unfastened radical scavenger that protects the telephone from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulfur amino acids (SAAs), comparable to methionine and cysteine, play a severe function within the upkeep of future health. GSH depletion in addition to adjustments of SAA metabolism are associated with a bunch of ailment states together with liver cirrhosis, numerous pulmonary illnesses, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion harm, getting older, Parkinsons ailment, Alzheimers ailment, sepsis, and others. This e-book presents researchers with a complete evaluation of the biochemistry, absorption, metabolism, organic actions, sickness prevention, and health and wellbeing advertising of glutathione and sulfur amino acids.The twenty-two chapters discover such themes as:Chemistry, absorption, delivery, and metabolism of GSH and ...
In 2017, Kent Research determined that diets with both higher levels of synthetic amino acids [lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), tryptophan (Trp)] and soybean meal performed better than our previous grow-finish program. However, in the trial work of 2017 we only evaluated one level of amino acids that were higher than the control diets at that time. Based on further information in the industry, it was apparent that we should continue to evaluate higher levels of amino acids in the grower stages, but not in the finishing stages. When Met is added to the diet, it also is converted in the pig into another sulfur amino acid called Cystine (Cys). So in our diet tables you will see the term Met + Cys which refers to these two sulfur amino acids that are needed in pig diets. The terminology that we are using to express amino acid requirements is based on the digestible levels of these amino acids (called standardized ileal digestible or SID) which reflects the amount of each amino acid ...
In these current studies in the SHR model, we investigated whether risk for features of the metabolic syndrome might be influenced by genetically determined variation in folate and sulfur amino acid metabolism. We found that genetically determined reductions in expression levels of Folr1 may be contributing to decreased renal tubular reabsorption of folate, reduced plasma folate levels, increased plasma levels of cysteine, and consequent disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. We implicate a functional role for a promoter variant in Folr1 in these processes based on a combination of genetic and metabolic studies in RI, transgenic, and congenic strains together with promoter function studies in HEK293 cells.. Mechanisms that may connect folate deficiency with disturbances of lipid and glucose metabolism are not fully understood. One possibility is that reduced availability of folate for homocysteine remethylation might result in deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine and accumulation of ...
Hyoung-gon Lee, Mark A. Smith, Barney Dwyer, Aki Nunomura, George Perry, Xiongwei Zhu Increased levels of plasma homocysteine (HC), a key metabolic intermediate in sulfur amino acid metabolism, have been associated with several disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). While HC is toxic in cell culture models including primary cortical neurons, the mechanism of HC toxicity and the role of HC in disease pathogenesis remain unclear. Hasegawa and colleagues hypothesized that homocysteic acid (HA), an oxidant product of HC, might play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD by regulating amyloid-β (Aβ) production. They demonstrate that HA dramatically decreases the extracellular level of Aβ42 but increases the intracellular level of Aβ42 in primary cortical neurons and APP-overexpressing CHO cells, and they suggest that this is associated with HA toxicity. This finding led them to show that a γ-secretase inhibitor prevents HA toxicity. While the level of HC is increased both in plasma and ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is a natural sulfur-containing compound detected in human plasma and urine, in mammalian brain and in many common edible vegetables. Over the past decade many studies have been undertaken to identify its metabolic role. Attention has been focused on its antioxidant properties and on its reactivity against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species. These properties have been studied in different model systems starting from plasma lipoproteins to specific cellular lines. All these studies report that aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer is able to interact both with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite and its derivatives). Its antioxidant activity is similar to that of Vitamin E while higher than other hydrophilic antioxidants, such as trolox and N-acetylcysteine.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased transsulfuration mediates longevity and dietary restriction in Drosophila. AU - Kabil, Hadise. AU - Kabil, Omer. AU - Banerjee, Ruma. AU - Harshman, Lawrence G.. AU - Pletcher, Scott D.. PY - 2011/10/4. Y1 - 2011/10/4. N2 - The mechanisms through which dietary restriction enhances health and longevity in diverse species are unclear. The transsulfuration pathway (TSP) is a highly conserved mechanism for metabolizing the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Here we show that Drosophila cystathionine β-synthase (dCBS), which catalyzes the rate-determining step in the TSP, is a positive regulator of lifespan in Drosophila and that the pathway is required for the effects of diet restriction on animal physiology and lifespan. dCBS activity was up-regulated in flies exposed to reduced nutrient conditions, and ubiquitous or neuron-specific transgenic overexpression of dCBS enhanced longevity in fully fed animals. Inhibition of the TSP abrogated the changes ...
.LongDesc { font-family: Verdana, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; font-variant: normal; color: #666; } Life Extension N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine 600mg 60 VegCaps L-cysteine is a conditionally essential amino acid, one of only three sulfur-containing amino acids, the others being taurine (which can be produced from L-cysteine) and L-methionine (from which L-cysteine can be produced in the body by a multi-step process). Cysteine plays a role in the sulfation cycle, acting as a sulfur donor in phase II detoxification and as a methyl donor in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.Cysteine also helps synthesize glutathione, the bodys most important intracellular antioxidant and a vital detoxifier. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is the acetylated form of L-cysteine that has been used to break up pulmonary and bronchial mucous. It is very efficiently absorbed and has been shown to protect cells directly and support the immune system. NAC is an
Sulfur is important for the formation of sulfur-containing amino acids, like cysteine, methionine and taurine. Sulfur is essential for the formation of good structure of the connective tissue (part of skin, hair, nails, bones, cartilage and blood vessel wall). The form sulfur compounds of disulfide bonds helps tissues to maintain their structure and flexibility.. Allergen information: ...
Cysteine and Cystine are sulfur-containing amino acids that are synthesized in the liver and are involved in multiple metabolic pathways. Cysteine is formed from
In other words, you can try these out in some cases a protein is valuable in and of alone, and at other moments it is valuable for the person amino acids that it includes. You will find ongoing debates about The simplest way to measure the health Gains linked to the amino acid information of proteins. Most of these debates fall beneath the heading of protein excellent, and you may find out more concerning this issue inside our amino acids profile . Even so, whatever the particular solution that is certainly taken to protein excellent, we believe that it is useful to consume proteins which can be rich in a number of various amino acids. As an example, we feel that sulfur-containing amino acids Have a very Unique price all their own, in a similar way as branched-chain amino acids or aromatic amino acids. The easiest method to get hold of a abundant a number of amino acids from all these more compact amino acid subgroups is always to on a regular basis enjoy a range of foods. More particularly, ...
Methionine is an essential amino acid, meaning we need to get it from our diet as our body does not produce it. Methionine is a unique sulfur-containing amino acid that can be used to build proteins and produce many molecules in the body. Function of amino acids: - Amino acids help build the proteins that…
Get the latest total sulfur process analyzer news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is responsible for the production of collagen and is a powerful antioxidant that helps fight free radicals in the body as well as slow the aging process.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, is the precursor to the amino acid L-cysteine, one of the three amino acids that comprise glutathione. Animal and human studies of NAC have concluded it has potent antioxidant activity.* In addition to its antioxidant activity, NAC is effective in promoting normal liver detoxification and protecting the liver and the kidneys from toxic insults.* As a sulfur source, NAC stimulates the synthesis and activity of glutathione, an important antioxidant in its own right.* Research suggests NAC is capable of enhancing immune function.* NAC also helps maintain good pulmonary health due to its mucolytic activity ...
How It Works: N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non-essential amino acid L-Cysteine. Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures. Although NAC possesses its own free radical scavenging activity, its primary function in the body is to supply Cysteine necessary for glutathione synthesis and replenishment. This unique formula also contains Molybdenum, an essential trace element that functions as a cofactor in many biochemical reactions, and Selenium, another trace mineral that supports glutathione production. ...
Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a crucial role in methylation reactions. Transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine creates methionine, which donates the methyl group to methylate DNA, proteins, lipids, and other intracellular metabolites. The protein encoded by this gene is one of two methyl transferases that can catalyze the transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine. Anomalies in homocysteine metabolism have been implicated in disorders ranging from vascular disease to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Taurine, or 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid, has long been known to be the major organic product formed from the breakdown of the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. It is excreted as
NOW Foods NAC 600 mg 100 Capsules - N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non-essential amino acid L-Cysteine. It is a sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures, and is also necessary for the formation of glutathione.
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a stable form of the non-essential amino acid L-Cysteine. It is a sulfur-containing amino acid that acts as a stabilizer for the formation of protein structures, and is also necessary for the formation of glutathione.
J nut. 2004 Mar;1343:489-92. 13. Whey has a very high content of sulfur-containing amino acids such as cysteine that are necessary for the biosynthesis of glutathione. Whether its high protein snacks like nitrate-free jerky or any variety of protein supplements like a whey powder shake, these protein foods are vital for healthy body function. Rated 1 out of 5 by aggie1789 bitter taste The powder has a good consistency and mixed well, however it has a terrible bitter taste after a few hours it is mixed. ... Dec. 2007;266:713S-23S. 7. Nutrition. 1935;5:155-71. 86. Kind of pleasant actually. No further. .... ...
Risk Factors for Premature Atherosclerotic Heart Disease. Dyslipidemia (high LDL, low HDL) Diabetes Hypertension Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Obesity Smoking Male sex Hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine. Non-protein-forming, sulfur-containing amino acid Slideshow 153772 by albert
As evidence continues to build on the efficacy of chondroitin for osteoarthritis, as in the title of the Cochrane Collaboration review, confusion persists in the market and in the public health arena regarding chondroitins performance for a number of reasons. First, chondroitin sulfate, an extract from cartilage tissues of domesticated food animals-mainly of bovine, porcine, and avian species-is believed to work by slowing or stopping the degradation of cartilage in joints and restoring lost cartilage, gradually. Chondroitin also contains sulfur-containing amino acids, which are essential building blocks for cartilage molecules in the human body. Naturally extracted chondroitin does not act like a chemically formulated pain killer compound to produce quick interventional bodily reactions. As all properly designed studies have shown, it takes time for chondroitin to demonstrate efficacy. Consumers may give up unless they are taking supplements with a large enough amount of high-quality ...
Taurine, like carnitine, is synthesised from methionine and cysteine. It, too, is found only in animal products. A deficiency in intake of these three amino acids, or a metabolic defect in metabolising these sulphur amino acids may lead to a deficiency of taurine creating numerous symptoms, including poor digestion of fat. A supplement of molybdenum enhances sulphite oxidase activity and helps convert potentially harmful sulphites into taurine. For 36%, this reduced urinary sulphite loss and improved symptoms. This improved enzyme activity enhances detoxification of the very toxic cyanide ions improving oxidative phosphorylation and cellular oxidation increasing ATP (energy molecule). Supplementing molybdenum or the amino acid L-taurine (500 mg daily, shortly reducing to 100 mg) will then improve the function of the liver, producing better quality bile (darkening of the stool), protecting against gall stones, and improving the digestion of fats. Taurine is vital in preventing cataracts. It ...
https://gsmgardening.wordpress.com/2020/09/06/gardening-as-if-your-life-depended-on-it/. We are looking for the very best compost. There are two types depending on the soil and the crops you are growing. Traditional compost is for most vegetable crops. You will need 300 lbs of carbon to 10 lbs of Nitrogen to 1 pound of Sulfur (for sulfur amino acids). Sulfur is the limiting factor.. Then there is fungal dominant compost designed for superior forage grasses and the growing of berries.. 2/3rds of a Farms Organic Matter comes from decayed roots. It takes 8 weeks for fungi to digest your crop residue and roots. This OM plus soil biology greatly increases your lands ability to absorb a heavy downpour. Floods destroy developed agriculture.. Both types of compost can be done using a Johnson Su Bioreactor that eliminates all that turning. Johnson and his wife Su are academics. They do not care that fungal dominant compost takes 2 years to complete. Not good for market gardeners. Speed the process up ...
The sulphur amino acid, cysteine, plays an essential role in maintaining cellular redox potential and is a key constituent of the antioxidant, glutathione. Cysteine is highly reactive and readily oxidises to the disulfide form, cystine, producing oxygen radicals as a by-product. In this book, the authors present curren
Economy Size 100% Natural Pharmaceutical Grade Dietary Supplement Healthy Origins Setria L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cysteine, L-Glutamic Acid, and Glycine. Our L-Glutathione Reduced is produce
N-Acetyl cysteine is a more stable form of the sulfur amino acid L-cysteine, and is a powerful antioxidant. It is an excellent predecessor of glutathione, anoth
Healthy Origins® Setria® L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cystene, L-Glutamic Acid and Glycine. Our Setria® brand of L-Glutathione Reduced is a trademark of Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., and is produ
Healthy Origins® Setria® L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cystene, L-Glutamic Acid and Glycine. Our Setria® brand of L-Glutathione Reduced is a trademark of Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., and is produ
Healthy Origins® Setria® L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally derived substance that is a biologically active sulfur amino acid tripeptide compound containing three amino acids: L-Cystene, L-Glutamic Acid and Glycine. Our Setria® brand of L-Glutathione Reduced is a trademark of Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., and is produ
The factorial approach to assess the amino acid (AA) requirements of pigs is based on the assumption that the AA composition of body protein is constant. However, there are indications that this assumption may not be valid because the AA composition of body protein can be affected by the AA supply. The extent to which different tissues are affected by an AA deficiency is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding pig diets with a deficient or sufficient total sulfur AA supply (TSAA; Met+Cys) from 6 to 23 weeks of age on tissue composition and meat quality. The deficient diet (TSAA-) provided 24% Met : Lys and 51% TSAA : Lys on a standardized ileal digestible basis, which are 19% and 16% below the recommended requirements, respectively. The sufficient diet (TSAA+) provided 33% Met : Lys and 60% TSAA : Lys. Diets were offered slightly below the ad libitum feed intake capacity of the pigs. Pigs offered diet TSAA- had a lower average daily gain, lower weights of ...
With ever increasing regulatory requirements, the balance between the declining quality of incoming crude oil and the heavily regulated quality of
Model 6200T UV Fluorescence Total Sulfur Analyzer - Choose the Lincoln Electric web site for your country or region to find the best selection of welding equipment, welding wire and electrode, welding safety equipment, weld fume control, and welding automation systems.
Businesses become more resilient in times of crises. This is especially true for SaaS businesses that are facing unprecedented challenges in this environment. While some are catering to a surge in traffic, others are figuring out innovative solutions to retain their customers. In addition, increasing malicious attacks are straining the resources of these SaaS businesses. Now more than ever, it is important for SaaS providers to deliver an uninterrupted experience. One that is fast, secure, and reliable to their customers in a cost effective manner.
Top SaaS Insights of the Week: SaaS Growth Are you looking to double your customer value? Who isnt? The team at Baremetrics provides 7 ways to reduce SaaS churn to help you achieve this.
The Gaylord Archival® C-flute Tray for Acid-Free Record Storage Cartons allows you to utilize every inch of storage space inside your record storage cartons. You can add up to three sturdy, interior trays to a single carton to safely stack and store small artifacts. Circular cutouts on the ends make each tray easy to remove. Ships flat.
Although the overall reaction is that of a transferase, the mechanism involves the formation of ketimine between fructose 6-phosphate and a 6-amino group from a lysine residue at the active site, which is subsequently displaced by ammonia (transamidination). -!- Formerly EC 5.3.1.19 ...
Patent No. U.S. 6,432,483 B1 DuPont has obtained a patent for a coating composition comprising a crosslinking component that contains a polyketimine having an average of at least two ketimine functionalities per polyketimine molecule and a bin
Process integration of e-services on e-logistics Platform in SaaS model AGENDA Dr ing Olgierd Dziamski The e-logistics process oriented architecture platform E-services integrated in supply chain y Service
The SaaS application market is currently thriving. But why? Here are the 7 key factors which explain the massive migration from EDI to SaaS.
The other sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, cannot form disulfide bonds. More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to ... "Hydrophobic amino acids". Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. ... and glutamic acid. While glutamic acid is usually sufficient because amino acid nitrogen is recycled through glutamate as an ... In animals, biosynthesis begins with the amino acid serine. The sulfur is derived from methionine, which is converted to ...
The other sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, cannot form disulfide bonds. More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to ... "Hydrophobic amino acids". Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. ... so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine ... In animals, biosynthesis begins with the amino acid serine. The sulfur is derived from methionine, which is converted to ...
"The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6 Suppl): 1636S-1640S. doi:10.1093/jn/136.6. ... Olive MF (2002). "Interactions between taurine and ethanol in the central nervous system". Amino Acids. 23 (4): 345-57. doi: ... Other effects of a diet lacking in this essential amino acid are dilated cardiomyopathy and reproductive failure in females.[54 ... Shao A, Hathcock JN (April 2008). "Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine". Regulatory ...
Richerson RB, Ziegler DM (1987). "Sulfur and Sulfur Amino Acids. Cysteamine dioxygenase". Methods Enzymol. Methods in ...
Sörbo B (1987). "3-Mercaptopyruvate, 3-mercaptolactate and mercaptoacetate". Sulfur and Sulfur Amino Acids. Methods in ... MPST protein consists of 317 amino acid residues and weighs 35250Da. MPST contains two rhodanese domains with similar secondary ... Striking similarity in active site amino acid sequence and the increase in the mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase activity of ... MPST catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur atom from mercaptopyruvate to sulfur acceptors like cyanides or thiol compounds. Thus ...
The proteins are especially rich in the sulphur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine, as well as in tryptophan - all ... Brosnan, J.T.; Brosnan, M.E. (2006). "The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6): 1636S ... essential amino acids. There is a relative deficiency in lysine and four other essential amino acids. The nutrient of greatest ... GLA, also referred to as C18:3-ω6 fatty acid, is not an essential fatty acid because it can readily be created from linoleic ...
Sulfur is contained in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Phosphorus is contained in phospholipids, a class of lipids that ... "The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview". The Journal of Nutrition. 136 (6 Suppl): 1636S-1640S. doi:10.1093/jn/136.6. ... The simplest compounds to contain all of the CHON elements are fulminic acid and isocyanic acid (the latter of which is much ... Phosphate groups are also an essential component of the backbone of nucleic acids (general name for DNA & RNA) and are required ...
These sulfur-based amino acids play an essential role in building the protein structures within this crop. The sugar content in ... Brosnan, J.T.; Brosnan, M.E. (June 2006). "The Sulfur-containing amino acids: An overview". American Society for Nutrition. 136 ... Additionally, C. scarabaeoides is rich in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, around 3% of protein compared to only 2% in ... scarabaeoides is rich in protein and essential amino acids. The seed protein content can range from 17.8-27%, typically being ...
The remaining peptide has 373 amino acids. There are two sulfur bridges. The sugars are attached at two different N- ... The amino acid sequence is the same as for androgen-binding protein but that has different oligosaccharides attached and is ... Walsh KA, Titani K, Takio K, Kumar S, Hayes R, Petra PH (November 1986). "Amino acid sequence of the sex steroid binding ... When first produced the SHBG precursor has a leading signal peptide attached with 29 amino acids. ...
Dominique Thomas; Yolande Surdin-Kerjan (1997). "Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Microbiology ... It is a cofactor at the active site of sulfite reductase, which plays a major role in sulfur assimilation pathway, converting ... is a heme-like prosthetic group at the active sites of some enzymes to accomplish the six-electron reduction of sulfur and ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ... as well as the amino acids histidine and cysteine. MTs are present in a vast range of taxonomic groups, ranging from ... metal selectivity is apparently achieved by sequence modulation of amino acid residues not directly involved in metal binding ( ...
2015). Linkage [1-#-NαC] Occurs between amino acid 1 and amino acid "#" through the α-amino group that a N-C cyclization of the ... Use the en dash (-) as in ranges and place the square brackets; [#-Xaa,#-Xaa], methionine S-oxide has a chiral sulfur. Two ... linkage occurs between amino acid 1 and amino acid "#" through the α-amino group that a N-C cyclization of the core peptide. ... Amino acid residue numbering (#) Residue numbering begins at the N-terminal-most amino acid residue of the orbitide, based on ...
This excess sulfur is concentrated in spore coats as an amino acid, cysteine. It is believed that the macromolecule accountable ... The endospore consists of the bacterium's DNA, ribosomes and large amounts of dipicolinic acid. Dipicolinic acid is a spore- ... The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[14]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between ... Dipicolinic acid could be responsible for the heat resistance of the spore, and calcium may aid in resistance to heat and ...
The metabolism of amino acids containing sulfur can be toxic; however, if the sulfur amino acids are not catabolized at the ... Feathers are largely made of the keratin protein complex, which has disulfide bonds between amino acids that give it stability ... final products of urea or uric acid but used for the synthesis of keratin instead, the release of hydrogen sulfide is extremely ...
It was found to be a sulfur-containing amino acid; accordingly it was given the name lanthionine [wool (Latin: Lana), sulfur ( ... Isolation of a New Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid (Lanthionine) from Sodium Carbonate-Treated Wool. Journal of Biological ... Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid with the chemical formula (HOOC-CH(NH2)-CH2-S-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH). It is typically ... The sulfur extrusion method is, however, the only pathway for lanthionine that has been employed in the total synthesis of a ...
Sulfur (S) is a nonmetal. It is found in two amino acids: cysteine and methionine. Chlorine (Cl) is a halogen. It is used as a ... sulfur, and phosphorus, carbon is the basis of every important biological compound. Nitrogen (N) is found mainly as mostly ...
... s are sulfur-rich macrocyclic peptides containing highly-modified amino acids. They are characterized by a nitrogen- ... A macrocylic ring serves as a scaffold for a tail that also incorporates modified amino acids often with azole rings, such as ... substituted with multiple thiazole rings and dehydroamino acids. ...
The sulfur-containing amino acid, taurine, is primarily found in meat and dairy products and assists in the uptake of calcium ... On the other hand, some amino acids can be lost with heat. Lysine, both a reactive and an essential amino acid, has low ... Wu, Guoyao (May 2009). "Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition". Amino Acids. 37 (1): 1-17. doi:10.1007/s00726-009- ... eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Alpha-linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid, and is the form ...
It degrades sulfur-containing amino acids to α-keto acids, ammonia, and thiols. Because sulfur-containing amino acids play a ... Stipanuk MH (2004). "Sulfur amino acid metabolism: pathways for production and removal of homocysteine and cysteine". Annual ... Ali V, Nozaki T (Jan 2007). "Current therapeutics, their problems, and sulfur-containing-amino-acid metabolism as a novel ... Nozaki T, Ali V, Tokoro M (2005). Sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism in parasitic protozoa. Advances in Parasitology. 60. ...
... she proved that sulfur-based amino acids could replace cystine. The pair attempted to isolate the active compounds within the ... She was the first chemist to create the antimetabolite of an amino acid.[5] Dyer's studies with vitamin B6 included the ... where she studied sulfur compounds with Vincent du Vigneaud, the 1955 Nobel laureate in chemistry. In 1935, after receiving her ... discovery that the vitamin prevented heightened excretion of abnormal tryptophan metabolites, including xanthurenic acid, in ...
The remaining chiral amino acids, having lighter atoms in that position, have S chirality. Replacing sulfur with selenium gives ... Betts, M.J.; R.B. Russell (2003). "Hydrophobic amino acids". Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: ... and glutamic acid. While glutamic acid is usually sufficient because amino acid nitrogen is recycled through glutamate as an ... Non-Polar Amino Acids". Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 2012-09-16. "Virtual Chembook--Amino Acid Structure ...
With du Vigneaud, she proved that sulfur-based amino acids could replace cystine. The pair attempted to isolate the active ... She was the first chemist to create the antimetabolite of an amino acid. Dyer's studies with vitamin B6 included the discovery ... As a Ph.D. student at George Washington University, Dyer had a job as a teaching fellow, where she studied sulfur compounds ... that the vitamin prevented heightened excretion of abnormal tryptophan metabolites, including xanthurenic acid, in animals that ...
It is used to label the sulfur-containing amino-acids methionine and cysteine. When a sulfur atom replaces an oxygen atom in a ... Radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine have been used extensively to trace the path of biochemical ... is adsorbed onto acid alumina (Al2O3). When the 99Mo decays it forms pertechnetate TcO4−, which because of its single charge is ... fatty acid synthesis, and other metabolic processes. While radioactive tracers are sometimes still used in human studies, ...
Together with cysteine, methionine is one of two sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acids. Excluding the few exceptions ... Methionine (symbol Met or M) (/mɪˈθaɪəniːn/) is an essential amino acid in humans. As the substrate for other amino acids such ... is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH3+ ... "Protein and Amino Acids". Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, ...
It is also relatively low in the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. Filaggrin is essential for the ... Filaggrin undergoes further processing in the upper stratum corneum to release free amino acids that assist in water retention ... through a breaking down mechanism to form histidine and subsequently trans-urocanic acid, however others have shown that the ... "Is the filaggrin-histidine-urocanic acid pathway essential for stratum corneum acidification?". The Journal of Investigative ...
... which is mixed with water and acidified to form selenous acid (oxidation step). Selenous acid is bubbled with sulfur dioxide ( ... From about three billion years ago, prokaryotic selenoprotein families drive the evolution of selenocysteine, an amino acid. ... Selenous acid can also be made directly by oxidizing elemental selenium with nitric acid: 3 Se + 4 HNO3 + H2O → 3 H2SeO3 + 4 NO ... In living systems, selenium is found in the amino acids selenomethionine, selenocysteine, and methylselenocysteine. In these ...
Reaction of α-amino acids in aqueous solution with COS or with CO and H2S generates a peptide cycle wherein dipeptides, ... Reaction of pyruvic acid or other α-keto acids with ammonia in the presence of ferrous hydroxide or in the presence of ferrous ... Huber, Claudia; Günter Wächtershäuser (2006-10-27). "α-Hydroxy and α-Amino Acids Under Possible Hadean, Volcanic Origin-of-Life ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(02)02863-0. Huber, Claudia; Günter Wächtershäuser (1998-07-31). "Peptides by Activation of Amino Acids ...
"In vivo contribution of amino acid sulfur to cartilage proteoglycan sulfation". The Biochemical Journal. 398 (3): 509-14. doi: ...
The other sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, cannot form disulfide bonds. A disulfide bond is typically denoted by ... The prototype of a protein disulfide bond is the two-amino-acid peptide cystine, which is composed of two cysteine amino acids ... Over 90% of the dry weight of hair comprises proteins called keratins, which have a high disulfide content, from the amino acid ... This small protein, essential in all known organisms, contains two cysteine amino acid residues in a vicinal arrangement (i.e ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... In the case of aryl-alkyl ketones, with sulfur and an amine give amides in the Willgerodt reaction ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ... Acids as weak as pyridinium cation (as found in pyridinium tosylate) with a pKa of 5.2 are able to serve as catalysts in this ...
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... It was determined to have 712 carbon, 1,130 hydrogen, 243 oxygen, two sulfur atoms, and at least one iron atom. This gave ...
"Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ... the enzyme responsible for converting the amino acid tyrosine to the skin pigment melanin, and is used to treat acne-associated ... Salicylic acid[edit]. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... lactic acid, salicylic acid, Jessner's solution, or a lower concentration (20%) of trichloroacetic acid. These peels only ...
Chirality is easily incorporated by using 2-amino alcohols prepared by the reduction of amino acids; which are both optically ... Thiazoline: where the oxygen is replaced by sulphur. Other pages *Aminorex a drug bearing an oxazoline ring ... From acid chlorides[edit]. A routine route to oxazolines entails reactions of acyl chlorides with 2-amino alcohols. Thionyl ... Aminomethyl propanol is the classical precursor to oxazolines using acid chloride method.[12] As applied to fatty acids, the ...
S)-2-Amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid ...
... dari asid nitrid dan sulfur (satu-satunya acid yang diketahui pada orang zaman silam adalah vinegar), dari alkali, dari garam ... al-anbiq al-ama), aludel (al-uthal), goblets (qadah), flasks (qarura atau quwarir), flask air mawar (ma wariyya), cauldron ( ... Asid Nitrid dan sulfur, alkali, the garam merkuri, antimony, dan bismuth: Dipisahkan oleh Geber.[10] ... Mineral asid: Mineral asid-asid nitrid, asid sulfur, dan asid hydrochloric- pertama kali dipisahkan oleh Geber.[19] ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body.[citation needed] Together these eleven chemical ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral.[36] ... Ashmead, H. DeWayne (1993). The Roles of Amino Acid Chelates in Animal Nutrition. Westwood: Noyes Publications.. ...
... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102]. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ... In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds release this element from rocks, making it available to ... Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... acetic acid or formic acid are used as alternative electron acceptors by methanogens. These reactions are common in gut- ...
... because the proteins consist of amino acids; some are hydrophilic (attracted to water) and some are hydrophobic (repelled by ... The copper in the bowl assists in creating a tighter bond in reactive sulfur items such as egg whites. The bond created is so ... tight that the sulfurs are prevented from reacting with any other material. A silver-plated bowl has the same result as the ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting product is a straight-chain hydrocarbon with a high cetane number, low in aromatics and sulfur and does not ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, ...
... fatty acids (most often oleic acid and stearic acid), dicarboxylic acids) and sometimes amino acids. Some milder fluxes also ... Carbon monoxide and halogen gases (for example carbon tetrafluoride, sulfur hexafluoride, or dichlorodifluoromethane) require ... organic acids (monocarboxylic, e.g. formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and dicarboxylic, e.g. oxalic acid, malonic acid ... A mixture of organic acids (resin acids, predominantly abietic acid, with pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, neoabietic acid, ...
... then pouring the mixture into hydrochloric acid. The magnesium silicide reacts with the acid to produce silane gas, which burns ... Sulfur monoxide. *Titanium oxide. Triatomic. *Aluminium(I) hydroxide. *Aluminium isocyanide. *Amino radical ... It is a colourless, pyrophoric, toxic gas with a sharp, repulsive smell, somewhat similar to that of acetic acid.[5] Silane is ... In all cases, these substances react with Brønsted-Lowry acids to produce some type of hydride of silicon that is dependent on ...
6-(N-ethyl-N-(5-isobutoxy-4-isopropyl-2-(E)-styrylphenyl)amino)nicotinic acid ... Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid and sold under the brand name Accutane among others, is a medication primarily ... 2Z,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid ... Jones H, Blanc D, Cunliffe WJ (November 1980). "13-cis retinoic acid and acne". Lancet. 2 (8203): 1048-9. doi:10.1016/S0140- ...
... as all ingested SOD is broken down into amino acids before being absorbed. However, ingestion of SOD bound to wheat proteins ... Aconitase is one of several iron-sulfur-containing (de)hydratases in metabolic pathways shown to be inactivated by superoxide.[ ... and their active sites contain the same type and arrangement of amino acid side-chains. They are usually dimers, but ... superoxide inactivates the citric acid cycle enzyme aconitase, can poison energy metabolism, and releases potentially toxic ...
Sulfur-35 (87.5 days). *Sulfur-38 (2.84 hours). *Chlorine-34 m (32 minutes) ... Isocyanic acid. *Isothiocyanic acid. *Ketenyl. *Methylene amidogen. *Methyl radical. *Propynylidyne. *Protonated carbon dioxide ...
Amino acid-RNA ligation. The ability to conjugate an amino acid to the 3'-end of an RNA in order to use its chemical groups or ... The iron-sulfur world theory proposes that simple metabolic processes developed before genetic materials did, and these energy- ... As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino-acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... as no amino acid molecules lie within 18Å of the enzyme's active site,[15] and, when the majority of the amino acids in the ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... and some sulfur, they also may contain iron, copper, phosphorus, or zinc. ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ... Such artificial flavours include methyl salicylate which creates the wintergreen odor and lactic acid which gives milk a tart ...
Amino acid-derived. Major excitatory/inhibitory systems. Glutamate system. *Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate) ...
a source of amino acids and nitrogen (e.g., beef, yeast extract) *This is an undefined medium because the amino-acid source ... and sulfur to allow the bacteria to synthesize protein and nucleic acids ... Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by ... Supplementary minimal media are minimal media that also contains a single selected agent, usually an amino acid or a sugar. ...
Conjugate acid Hydrocyanonium Conjugate base Cyanide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... Sulfur monohydride. *Sulfur monoxide. *Titanium oxide. Triatomic. *Aluminium hydroxide. *Aluminium isocyanide. *Amino radical ...
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[47] ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[72] ... "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[23] ...
Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the ... In July 2019, a scientific study of Kidd Mine in Canada discovered sulfur-breathing organisms which live 7900 feet below the ... Citric acid cycle. Main article: Citric acid cycle. This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ...
Taurine is a non-protein sulfur amino acid that is found in high concentrations in human milk. It has been shown to have ... The GABAB antagonist CGP-35348 (3-amino-propyl-(diethoxymethyl) phosphinic acid) has been used in Aldh5a1-/- mice with strong ... Under normal conditions, SSADH works with the enzyme GABA transaminase to convert GABA to succinic acid. Succinic acid can then ... and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainite receptor. High levels of GHB have been shown to ...
Some fermented products that contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) include: vegetables such as pickled vegetables,[19] kimchi,[19] ... Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may affect Helicobacter pylori infections (which may cause peptic ulcers) in adults ... "Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria" (PDF). Report of ... Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH (2004). "The Depletion of Sodium Nitrite by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi". Journal of ...
... constitute a natural class of organic compounds that contain sulfur and nitrogen and are derived from glucose and an amino acid ... Natural diversity from a few amino acidsEdit. About 132 different glucosinolates are known to occur naturally in plants. They ... Most glucosinolates are actually derived from chain-elongated homologues of these amino acids, e.g. glucoraphanin is derived ... are synthesized from certain amino acids: So-called aliphatic glucosinolates derived from mainly methionine, but also alanine, ...
... beyond the twenty canonical amino acids found in nature, to include an unnatural amino acid as well. The unnatural amino acid ... 6.2: Carbon-Sulfur. *Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... the tRNA with the amino acid. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing ... and redox-active amino acids.[14] Another use is introducing amino acids bearing reactive functional groups for chemically ...
Amino Acids into Nitriles by Oxidative Decarboxylation with Trichloroisocyanuric Acid". Synthetic Communications. 34 (19): 3449 ... Typical reagents for this transformation are triethylamine/sulfur dioxide, zeolites, or sulfuryl chloride. Exploiting this ... α-Amino acids form nitriles and carbon dioxide via various means of oxidative decarboxylation.[22][23] Henry Drysdale Dakin ... NH2 and then carboxylic acids RCOOH. The hydrolysis of nitriles to carboxylic acids is efficient. In acid or base, the balanced ...
The catalytic domain of PRMTs consists of a SAM binding domain and substrate binding domain (about 310 amino acids in total).[5 ... The lysine chain then makes a nucleophilic attack on the methyl group on the sulfur atom of the SAM molecule, transferring the ... The structures involved in methyltransferase activity are the SET domain (composed of approximately 130 amino acids), the pre- ... Next, a nearby tyrosine residue deprotonates the ε-amino group of the lysine residue.[10] ...
The amino acids which bind the iron ion to the transferrin are identical for both lobes; two tyrosines, one histidine, and one ... In humans, transferrin consists of a polypeptide chain containing 679 amino acids and two carbohydrate chains. The protein is ... each monomer consists of 760 amino acids. It enables ligand bonding to the transferrin, as each monomer can bind to one or two ... Transcriptional regulation of transferrin is upregulated by retinoic acid.[20] ...
... or it is transferred to a keto acid (in Cys or Met transamination). Many areas of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism need ... Metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids.. Stipanuk MH.. Abstract. Met metabolism occurs primarily by activation of Met to ... Future work should consider the role of extrahepatic tissues in amino acid metabolism as well as species differences in the ... Cys (which may be formed from the sulfur of Met and the carbons of serine via the transsulfuration pathway) appears to be ...
Sulfur Amino Acids, Energy Metabolism and Obesity (STAY). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Sulfur amino acid restriction, energy metabolism and obesity: a study protocol of an 8-week randomized controlled dietary ... The primary objective of the trial is to establish the effects of dietary sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction on body weight, ... Fatty acids, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ApoA1, ApoB. *Changes in plasma makers of ...
Decreased sulphur aminoacid intake in ulcerative colitis. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Administration, OralAdultAgedAmino Acids, SulfurAnti-Inflammatory AgentsBiopsyColitis, UlcerativeColonColonoscopyDefecation ... Decreased sulphur aminoacid intake in ulcerative colitis.. Lancet. 1998 May 23; 351(9115):1555.Lct ... Roediger, W. E. (1998). Decreased sulphur aminoacid intake in ulcerative colitis. Lancet (London, England), 351(9115), 1555. ...
Liu SM, Masters DG (2003) Amino acid utilization for wool production. In: DMello JPF (ed) Amino acids in animal nutrition, 2nd ... Quantitative trait loci controlling sulfur containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, in soybean seeds. *D. R. Panthee1. ... Panthee, D.R., Pantalone, V.R., Sams, C.E. et al. Quantitative trait loci controlling sulfur containing amino acids, methionine ... However, a major limitation of soy proteins is their deficiency in sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine (Met) and cysteine ...
This Annals issue explores the effects of dietary and sulfur amino acid restriction on health span, aging, and disease ... Special Issue: Diet, Sulfur Amino Acids, and Health Span. Edited by Edited by Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ... Scholarly papers exploring the effects of dietary and sulfur amino acid restriction on health span, aging, and disease ... restriction of the sulfur amino acid methionine. To provide an opportunity for leaders in the field of aging and dietary ...
2.1.8 Acid hydrolysis troubleshooting. Several amino acids are affected by improper hydrolysis. For example:. *Low yields of me ... HYDROLYSIS METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF SULFUR-CONTAINING AMINO ACIDS (CYSTEINE, CYSTINE, AND METHIONINE). ... In this section, we focus on acid hydrolysis by HCl, which is the most common method used in preparing amino acid samples. ... The quantitation of cysteine (Cys) in protein samples is complicated by the instability of this amino acid in standard acid ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in sulfur amino acid transport pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
Significant decreases in seven transcripts occurred in the sulfur amino acid (SAA) biosynthetic pathway and the iron-sulfur ... Decreased expression of genes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism in frataxin-deficient cells Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Jul 15; ... Amino acid analysis confirmed the defect in SAA metabolism: homocystine, cysteine, cystathionine and serine were significantly ... iron-sulfur cluster assembler, iron-storage protein, antioxidant and stimulator of oxidative phosphorylation. We analyzed gene ...
Table 2: Weight change and feed intake of rats fed diets differing in sulfur amino acid content. ...
Sulphur amino acids and immunity. Prof Sammy Aggrey (University of Georgia, USA) one of the Rhodimet Research Grant laureate ... made an update on recent researches on sulphur amino acids and immunity. Indeed, methionine deficiency showed a strong impact ... gathering scientists and nutritionists to share research progresses on sulphur amino acids. "We have decided to focus our 2015 ... He further illustrated what proteogenomic studies can reveal on amino acid, redox balance and feed efficiency benefits. Then, ...
Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. Studies were designed to test whether ... ad libitum water and sulfur amino acid intake same as the fructose group). Hepatic and plasma thiol-disulfide antioxidant ... inadequate sulfur amino acid intake was not the cause of this oxidative stress. ... liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by decreased ad libitum solid food intake with associated inadequate sulfur amino acid ...
When fatty acids were added to the system, cystine was oxidized to its thiosulfinate ester. When the fatty acid-cystine ratio ... No oxidation of cystine occurred unless either a fatty acid, volatile organic acid, or ethanol was added. Under the conditions ... Oxidation of the sulfur amino acids by autoxidizing lipids was studied in a model system consisting of an amino acid dispersed ... Oxidation of the sulfur amino acids by autoxidizing lipids was studied in a model system consisting of an amino acid dispersed ...
Pathway Analysis of Sulfur Containing Amino Acids. To learn about the control mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of sulfur ... Amino Acid and Sulfur Metabolism. Sulfur is together with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium a plant macronutrient and a ... To learn about the control mechanisms involved in sulfur-containing amino acid biosynthesis, we are isolating and studying the ... Cysteine and methionine are two essential amino acids which contain sulfur. We are also looking at interconnections between ...
The Role of Lysine and Sulfur Amino Acids in Canine Nutrition. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... The Role of Lysine and Sulfur Amino Acids in Canine Nutrition. Hirakawa, Diane Aiko Sue ... It was judged that 50% of the disparity in requirements between the intact-protein and crystalline amino acid diet was caused ... In studies with lysine, growth performance was maximized when lysine constituted 0.70% of a crystalline amino acid diet or 0.80 ...
... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection. ... Sulfur amino acid utilization by growing steers. Campbell, C.G.; St Jean, G.; Titgemeyer, Evan C. ... sulfur amino acid requirements of growing steers. In trial 1, six ruminally cannulated steers (352 lb) were used to determine ... Amino acids other than methionine were infused into the abomasum to ensure that they did not limit steer performance. Nitrogen ...
A study of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ... A study of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues. GE Gaull, MK Gaitonde ...
Accumulation of Sulphur-Containing Amino Acids Including Cysteine-Homocysteine in Patients on Maintenance Haemodialysis D. E. L ... amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid, cysteine-homocysteine mixed disulphide, haemodialysis, homocysteine, homocystinuria, ... 1. Plasma sulphur-containing amino acids were measured in 19 patients with renal failure on chronic haemodialysis and in 22 ... D. E. L. Wilcken, Vatsala J. Gupta, S. G. Reddy; Accumulation of Sulphur-Containing Amino Acids Including Cysteine-Homocysteine ...
These results indicate feather meal can provide a portion of the sulfur amino acids lacking in meat and bone meal. However, ... One-hundred twenty individually fed steer calves were used to evaluate feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids. ... These results indicate feather meal can provide a portion of the sulfur amino acids lacking in meat and bone meal. However, ... One-hundred twenty individually fed steer calves were used to evaluate feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids. ...
Thong, Kam-Wah (1986) Biochemistry of sulphur-containing amino acids in trichomonads. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. ...
Levels of cysteine and methionine in developing seeds have an inverse relationship with the non-protein sulfur amino acid S- ... the quality of bean protein is limited because of sub optimal levels of essential sulfur amino acids: methionine and cysteine. ... One of the strategies to improve protein quality in bean is to redirect sulfur from S-methylCys and g-Glu-S-methylCys to the ... Joshi, Jaya, "Deciphering Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism in Developing Seeds of Common Bean" (2017). Electronic Thesis and ...
Catabolism of amino acids, including sulfur-containing amino acids, by lactic acid bacteria is a major contributor to the ... Sulfur-containing amino acids, namely, methionine, are precursors of aroma-active volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as ... which transfer the amino acid amino group to an α-keto acid, while the elimination reaction-based pathway is catalyzed by the ... Catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids plays an important role in the development of cheese flavor. During ripening, ...
... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection. ... Evaluation of the total sulfur amino acid requirement of finishing pigs. Loughmiller, J.A.; Smith, J.W.II; Bergstrom, J.R.; ... used to evaluate the effects of increasing total sulfur amino acid (TSAA):lysine ratios on growth performance and carcass ... Keywords: Swine; Finishing pigs; Methionine; Amino acids. Conference: Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 21, 1996. Starting ...
New 2H-Azirin-3-amines as Synthons for Sulfur-Heterocyclic α-Amino Acids. Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related ... Download PDF New 2H-Azirin-3-amines as Synthons for Sulfur-Heterocyclic α-Amino Acids. Item availability may be restricted. ... New 2H-Azirin-3-amines as Synthons for Sulfur-Heterocyclic α-Amino Acids ... were prepared and successfully used for the synthesis of oligopeptides containing sulfur-heterocyclic α-amino acids via the ...
Ontogeny of amino acid transport and the renal adaptive response to altered dietary sulfur amino acid intake ... Methionine to cystine ratio in the total sulfur amino acid requirements and sulfur amino acid metabolism using labelled amino ... Amino acid balance and food intake: effect of different dietary amino acid patterns on the plasma amino acid pattern of rats. ... Ontogeny of amino acid transport and the renal adaptive response to altered dietary sulfur amino acid intake. Chesney, R.; ...
Binding of inorganic mercury at biological sites crystal structures of mercuric ion complexes with sulfur amino acids ... Crystal structures of two forms of L-histidine acetate and a comparative study of the amino acid complexes of acetic acid. ... Crystal structures of the complexes of L-arginine and L-histidine with glutaric acid and a comparative study of amino acid- ... Platinum complexes as tools for sulfur amino acids investigation in enzyme active sites. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 59(2 ...
Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives (Mus musculus) * Sulfur amino acid metabolism (Mus musculus) ...
How does fish metamorphosis affect aromatic amino acid metabolism?. Amino Acids. 2009;36(2):177-83. doi:10.1007/s00726-008-0045 ... Physiological importance and metabolism of aromatic and sulphur amino acids during fish ontogeny. ... Can dietary aromatic amino acid supplementation be beneficial during fish metamorphosis?. Aquaculture. 2010;310(1-2):200 - 205 ... Ler mais acerca de Can dietary aromatic amino acid supplementation be beneficial during fish metamorphosis? ...
... sulfured, stewed in details, quantity how high or low Histidine (His or H) α-amino acid nutrient content it has. ... α-amino acid is present in Peaches, dehydrated (low-moisture), ... sulfured, stewed. HISTIDINE - His or H This amino acid is ... Amount of Histidine (His or H) α-amino acid in Peaches, dehydrated (low-moisture), sulfured, stewed. Back to products complete ... α-amino acid nutrient can be found in Peaches, dehydrated (low-moisture), sulfured, stewed. Calculate and convert the amounts. ...
Diet, sulphur amino acids, and health span : Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science Symposium 2015 / [edited by ... OFAS), "Diet, Sulfur Amino Acids, and Healthspan," held in Tarrytown, New York, September 20&22, 2015. ... restriction of the sulfur amino acid methionine. To provide an opportunity for leaders in the field of aging and dietary ... Sulfur Amino Acids, and Healthspan, on September 21 and 22, 2015, in Tarrytown, New York. This Annals volume presents a ...
Functional relationship between metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion ... Presentation] Adaptive responses against essential amino acid deficiency in mice2014. *. Author(s). 鎌田祥太郎、山本隼也、上條健太、落合崇人、森田珠子、吉 ... Journal Article] Dietary deprivation of each essential amino acid induces differential systemic adaptive responses in mice.2014 ... Journal Article] Reactive Sulfur Species-Mediated Activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 Pathway by 1,2-Naphthoquinone through
  • Metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Many areas of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism need further study. (nih.gov)
  • Future work should consider the role of extrahepatic tissues in amino acid metabolism as well as species differences in the relative roles of various pathways in the metabolism of Met and Cys. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid analysis confirmed the defect in SAA metabolism: homocystine, cysteine, cystathionine and serine were significantly decreased in frataxin-deficient cell extracts and mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • We are also looking at interconnections between sulfur metabolism and other plant nutrients. (mpg.de)
  • In our studies of plant sulfur metabolism, we use two mutually supporting approaches as the basis of our research portfolio. (mpg.de)
  • The second is a non-biased approach in which functional genomics is used to work out how sulfur metabolism is embedded and controlled within the whole plant system. (mpg.de)
  • Recently, we embarked on a course to study sulfur metabolism in a holistic way, rather than focusing on single pathways as such. (mpg.de)
  • By applying functional genomic tools like transcript, metabolite, and protein profiling in our analysis of transgenic potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) and of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , we are heading for a better understanding of the sulfur metabolism network in plants. (mpg.de)
  • The main thrust of our research recently shifted to analysing sulfur metabolism networks. (mpg.de)
  • Our long-term goal is to imbed sulfur metabolism in a broader context such as carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic networks, which will occur through close collaborations with external and in house research groups. (mpg.de)
  • Pinto W, Figueira L, Dinis MTeresa, Aragão C . How does fish metamorphosis affect aromatic amino acid metabolism? . (ualg.pt)
  • Benefits to metabolism and health have also been shown for specific amino acid restriction, for example, restriction of the sulfur amino acid methionine. (princeton.edu)
  • Impaired sulfur-amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress in nonalcoholic fatty liver are alleviated by betaine supplementation in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A subcategory obtained sulfur amino acids organizes methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys), which not scarcely make up proteins but also stall for time along make do many roles in metabolism and healthiness. (piwip.com)
  • a subcategory called sulfur amino acids plays integral roles in metabolism. (naturalawakenings.com)
  • Metabolome analyses assisted by liquid chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry revealed marked alterations in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism: amounts of methionine and cysteine were significantly elevated concurrently with a decrease in the ratio between S- adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine, suggesting expansion of the remethylation cycle and acceleration of methyl donation. (elsevier.com)
  • Some non-protein building amino acids have been well-researched from the standpoint of metabolism, but less well investigated from the standpoint of food. (whfoods.org)
  • It appears to be difficult to circumvent the regulatory aspects of sulfur metabolism, which is controlled at many levels, without damage to plant growth. (pnas.org)
  • Managing sulphur metabolism in plants. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Categorization of IEM can be simply made on the basis of the affected metabolic network: fatty acids oxidation disorders, protein/amino acids metabolism disorders, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, lysosomal storage diseases, peroxisomal disorders, and mitochondrial diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • This chapter will overview amino acid metabolism-related inherited disorders and amino acid analysis for the diagnosis and routine monitoring of this category of IEMs. (intechopen.com)
  • Amino acids disorders (also called aminoacidopathies) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism diseases, caused by the inherited defects in pathways involved in amino acids metabolism. (intechopen.com)
  • As a result of mutation, the inherited defect is reflected downstream as a lack or a partial biological activity of enzymes involved in amino acids metabolism. (intechopen.com)
  • In: Hell R, Dahl C, Knaff D, Leustek T (eds) Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic organisms. (springer.com)
  • Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • updating of the sulfur metabolism pathway. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Crassulacean acid metabolism. (unimi.it)
  • Despite being a good source of protein and dietary fibre, the quality of bean protein is limited because of sub optimal levels of essential sulfur amino acids: methionine and cysteine. (uwo.ca)
  • Aside from methionine and cysteine being most popularly known, other commonly known sulfur-containing amino acids include homocysteine and taurine. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • The sulphur amino acids of particular relevance here are methionine and cysteine. (karelsavry.us)
  • Sulfur assimilation may limit the pool of methionine and cysteine available for incorporation into zeins, the major seed storage proteins in maize. (pnas.org)
  • Sulfur is a component of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, and is required for protein synthesis. (soybeanresearchinfo.com)
  • However, a major limitation of soy proteins is their deficiency in sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys). (springer.com)
  • Also, the rate or extent of hydrolysis varies across the amino acids present in proteins, necessitating time-course studies of the hydrolysis process and proper validation of the overall methods. (waters.com)
  • Methionine is the initiating amino acid in the synthesis of virtually all eukaryotic proteins … [and if] exposed, are susceptible to oxidative damage. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • Although cysteine and methionine are the primary sulfur-containing amino acids due to being two of the 22 common amino acids that are incorporated within proteins, both taurine and homocysteine are also important for physiological function. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • Expression of heterologous methionine-rich proteins to increase the overall sulfur amino acid content of soybean seeds has been only marginally successful, presumably due to low accumulation of transgenes in soybeans or due to gene silencing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that sulfur availability, not proteome rebalancing, is needed for high-level accumulation of heterologous methionine-rich proteins in soybean seeds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Even though soybeans are an excellent source of high quality protein, the sulfur amino acid content of soybean seed proteins is not optimal for the formulation of animal feed. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is an essential element for human life and combines with so many other nutrients including amino acids (building blocks for proteins), metals (sulfur clears them out of the body), vitamins, and even makes our skin, hair, and nails strong. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Proteins are broken down into amino acids. (wordpress.com)
  • In proteins, 2 mol of cysteine may undergo oxidation to form a disulphide bridge, yielding another sulphur amino acid, cystine. (karelsavry.us)
  • Amino acids are the edifice impediments of all proteins in the viscosity. (piwip.com)
  • With tens of thousands of proteins in our body-and all of them constructed from amino acids-the protein-related role of amino acids is definitely critical in support of our health (and especially the health of our immune system). (whfoods.org)
  • There are tens of thousands of unique proteins in our body, and every one of these proteins is constructed from amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • This relationship between amino acids and proteins has been the driving force behind nutritional research on these fascinating nutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • Amino acids that are used to make proteins are referred to as "proteinogenic" amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • In addition to these 20 core amino acids, there are three additional amino acids that can be used by our bodies to make proteins. (whfoods.org)
  • Researchers estimate that an additional 750-1,000 amino acids are present in living things and are routinely used for a wide variety of purposes not related to the building of proteins. (whfoods.org)
  • This overall increase in the expression of the S-rich zeins describes a facet of regulation of these proteins under enhanced sulfur assimilation. (pnas.org)
  • The amount of nitrogen incorporated proteins (N-protein) was strongly decreased as sulphur availability while the amount of sulphur incorporated into proteins (S-protein) was not affected. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • relationship between S-sulphate and S-amino acid was observed whereas the increase of N-amino acids is closely associated with decrease of N-proteins. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These are essential amino acids that trigger the production of proteins in the muscles. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Furthermore, amino acids derived from the dietary proteins serve as energy source since while catabolized in our body, amino acids form organic acids that can replenish Krebs cycle and ammonia that eliminates through urea cycle [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In the liver, acetaminophen is converted into a new compound that covalently binds to proteins at an amino acid called cysteine. (news-medical.net)
  • Proteins are polymers of multiple monomer units called amino acid, which have many different functional groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • More than 500 amino acids exist in nature, but the proteins in all species, from bacteria to humans, consist mainly of only 20 called the essential amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2-amino acids, also known as alpha-amino acids, are a specific type of amino acid that makes up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Proteins are linear polymers formed by linking the a-carboxyl group of one amino acid to the a-amino group of another amino acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Thus, the 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility. (wikibooks.org)
  • The chemical properties of the amino acids of proteins determine the biological activity of the protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition, proteins contain within their amino acid sequences the necessary information to determine how that protein will fold into a three dimensional structure, and the stability of the resulting structure. (wikibooks.org)
  • There are twenty major amino acids which make up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Today, of course, we know that most proteins from both plants and animals are " complete proteins " (meaning they contain all of the essential amino acids we need). (forksoverknives.com)
  • 1 However, people sometimes use the term "low quality" to refer to plant proteins because they typically have a lower proportion of these essential amino acids as compared to animal proteins. (forksoverknives.com)
  • When we ingest proteins that have a higher proportion of the essential amino acids (which is a characteristic of animal protein), it results in our bodies producing higher levels of the hormone insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). (forksoverknives.com)
  • The bonded sulfur atoms form a disulfide bridge, a principal factor in the shape and function of skeletal and connective tissue proteins and in the great stability of structural proteins such as keratin . (britannica.com)
  • In the form of proteins, amino acid residues form the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles and other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond their role as residues in proteins, amino acids participate in a number of processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include the 22 proteinogenic ("protein-building") amino acids, which combine into peptide chains ("polypeptides") to form the building blocks of a vast array of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-formylmethionine (which is often the initial amino acid of proteins in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts) is generally considered as a form of methionine rather than as a separate proteinogenic amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Codon-tRNA combinations not found in nature can also be used to "expand" the genetic code and form novel proteins known as alloproteins incorporating non-proteinogenic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins were found to yield amino acids after enzymatic digestion or acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of the nitrogen of Met that is incorporated into polyamines, the nitrogen of Met or Cys is incorporated into urea after it is released as ammonium [in the reactions catalyzed by cystathionase with either cystathionine (from Met) or cystine (from Cys) as substrate] or it is transferred to a keto acid (in Cys or Met transamination). (nih.gov)
  • Additional subsections cover alternative hydrolysis procedures for the analysis of special samples containing amino acids that are not compatible with standard acid (HCl) hydrolysis techniques: tryptophan and cysteine/cystine. (waters.com)
  • When fatty acids were added to the system, cystine was oxidized to its thiosulfinate ester. (usgs.gov)
  • When the fatty acid-cystine ratio was 1:2, oxidation of cystine was a maximum. (usgs.gov)
  • No oxidation of cystine occurred unless either a fatty acid, volatile organic acid, or ethanol was added. (usgs.gov)
  • Excess dietary cystine superimposed on a methionine-deficient diet manifested as an amino acid imbalance. (illinois.edu)
  • Urinary excretion of taurine, inorganic sulfate and ammonia increased in puppies fed supplemental levels of methionine, hydroxy methionine free acid or cystine. (illinois.edu)
  • The sulfydril groups of two cysteine residues can be oxidized to form the double amino acid cystine, and this is the predominant form of the amino acid in extracellular fluid. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Some of these amino acids such as cysteine, methionine, and cystine contain sulfur. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Cysteine and cystine can be made, but an adequate supply of sulfur is needed. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Its toxicity was mitigated by sulphur containing amino acids (cystine and cysteine), however, methionine could not mitigate the cobalt toxicity at all. (bvsalud.org)
  • An experiment was performed to ascertain whether factors other than dietary copper, specifically the sulfur amino acids cystine and methionine, affect the extent and nature of copper deprivation signs. (usda.gov)
  • Cysteine and methionine are two essential amino acids which contain sulfur. (mpg.de)
  • Levels of cysteine and methionine in developing seeds have an inverse relationship with the non-protein sulfur amino acid S -methyl-cysteine ( S- methylCys) and dipeptide g-glutamyl- S -methyl-cysteine (g-Glu- S -methylCys). (uwo.ca)
  • Selenium can replace sulfur in some cysteine and methionine residues, particularly when selenium intake is high. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Both cysteine and methionine are nonpolar as well as hydrophobic, with methionine being extremely hydrophobic as far as amino acids go. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • S is present in numerous pivotal structural and functional compounds such as the amino acids cysteine and methionine, non-protein thiols (glutathione), sulpholipids, vitamins and cofactors, cell wall constituents. (springer.com)
  • Growing Pointer puppies were used in experiments designed to delineate the dietary requirements for lysine and sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA). (illinois.edu)
  • In studies with lysine, growth performance was maximized when lysine constituted 0.70% of a crystalline amino acid diet or 0.80% of an intact-protein based diet consisting of a mixture of corn gluten meal, sesame meal and meat and bone meal. (illinois.edu)
  • It was judged that 50% of the disparity in requirements between the intact-protein and crystalline amino acid diet was caused by lysine bioavailability factors and 50% by other factors. (illinois.edu)
  • used to evaluate the effects of increasing total sulfur amino acid (TSAA):lysine ratios on growth performance and carcass characteristics. (k-state.edu)
  • In an attempt to establish whether a lysine to sulphur amino acid relationship existed in the feed of laying hens. (journals.co.za)
  • Aspartic and glutamic acid are referred to as acidic amino acids while arginine, histidine, and lysine are basic. (dietspotlight.com)
  • This conversion happens to all glucogenic amino acids except lysine and leucine. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Amino Plex provides a blend of sulphur amino acids with lysine. (health-emporium.co.uk)
  • Inorganic sulfate is taken up through plant roots and, via cysteine biosynthesis, incorporated as organic sulfur. (mpg.de)
  • Our investigations focus on fundamental questions about cysteine (cys) and methionine (met) biosynthesis and on the possibility of engineering crop plants enriched in these sulfur-containing amino acids. (mpg.de)
  • To learn about the control mechanisms involved in sulfur-containing amino acid biosynthesis, we are isolating and studying the involved genes and their promoters. (mpg.de)
  • Genes involved in biosynthesis of vitamins were enriched among those up-regulated in the mixed-culture fermentation, while genes related with the uptake and biosynthesis of amino acids were enriched among those more expressed in the single-culture. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemical pathways involved sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
  • In animals, biosynthesis begins with the amino acid serine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis and physiological roles of nitrogen-containing compounds (alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, and nonprotein amino acids). (unimi.it)
  • The pathways for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids are much more complex than those for the nonessential ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • During ripening, cystathionine β-lyase (CBL) is believed to contribute to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide. (asm.org)
  • Catabolism of amino acids, including sulfur-containing amino acids, by lactic acid bacteria is a major contributor to the development of flavor compounds in cheese during ripening ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Sulfur-containing amino acids, namely, methionine, are precursors of aroma-active volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide ( 12 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • There are two different microbial pathways potentially leading to amino acid conversion into flavor compounds: one is initiated by a transamination reaction while the other is initiated by an elimination reaction ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • These are available in the body as organic compounds that act as protein building blocks or free amino acids. (dietspotlight.com)
  • S -Methyl-L-cysteine and S -ethyl-L-cysteine were taken up rapidly for a short period, and part of the sulphur of these compounds was then released into the medium. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Oxidation of Some Biologically Active and Related Sulfur Containing Compounds α-Mercapto-α-Amino Acids and Dehydro Amino Acids. (elsevier.com)
  • Potent chemo-preventive effects have been demonstrated in various in vivo and in vitro models for sulphur-containing compounds found in naturally occurring products, such as, onions and garlic ( 19 , 20 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The 3 factors that cause bad breath - 1) Anaerobic oral bacteria 2) Smelly sulfur compounds 3) Tongue film. (animated-teeth.com)
  • 85 to 90% of all bad breath cases are due to stinky volatile sulfur compounds (VSC's) produced by anaerobic oral bacteria living in the film buildup on the person's tongue. (animated-teeth.com)
  • As it happens, the waste products produced by some types of oral bacteria are smelly sulfur compounds. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Some of the foulest smells you know are caused by sulfur compounds. (animated-teeth.com)
  • The compounds listed above are the big three sulfur compounds typically associated with bad breath. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nine proteinogenic amino acids are called "essential" for humans because they cannot be produced from other compounds by the human body and so must be taken in as food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider the 20 most common amino acids shown in Fig. (bartleby.com)
  • The last of the 20 common amino acids to be discovered was threonine in 1935 by William Cumming Rose, who also determined the essential amino acids and established the minimum daily requirements of all amino acids for optimal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine also acts as a reducing agent within the cell, both as the free amino acid and in the form of the antioxidant tripeptide glutathione. (barnardhealth.us)
  • One of the most important places to find sulfur in the human body is in the glutathione molecule. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Cysteine is an important amino acid for the building of glutathione mentioned above. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The complex roles of glutathione and sulfur amino acids in human health glutathione l glutamyl l cysteinylglycine gsh is a major antioxidant acting as a free radical scavenger that protects the cell from reactive oxygen species ros. (oshkimaadziig.org)
  • With more than 2000 scientific references this book providesfood scientists nutritionists biochemists food technologistschemists molecular biologists and public health professionalswith a comprehensive and up to date examination of glutathione andsulfur amino acids in human health and disease. (oshkimaadziig.org)
  • Imsande J, Schmidt JM (1998) Effect of n source during soybean pod filling on nitrogen and sulfur assimilation and remobilization. (springer.com)
  • Sulfur is together with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium a plant macronutrient and a crucial element affecting plant growth, plant performance and yield. (mpg.de)
  • So why is sulfur in amino acids since most aminos are made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen? (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • Few studies have assessed the sulphur mobilization in the source-sink relationship, very little is known about the regulatory mechanism in interaction between sulphur and nitrogen during the short-term sulphur deficiency. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The amount of sulphur in sulphate (S-sulphate) was significantly decreased by 25.8% in S-deprivation condition, compare to control, but not nitrogen in nitrate (N-nitrate). (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The markedly increase of sulphur and nitrogen incorporated amino acids (S-amino acids and N-amino acids) was observed in both S-deficiency and S-deprivation treatments. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Effect of mineral sulphur availability on nitrogen and sulphur uptake and remobilization during the vegetative growth of Brassica napus L. Journal of Experiment Botany. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Role of Oacetyl-L-serine in the coordinated regulation of the expression of a soybean seed storage-protein gene by sulfur and nitrogen nutrition. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen are the main elements that make up amino acids although the side chain may feature a variety of other elements. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus are found in phospholipids and nucleic acids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of JN discuss a number of these sulfur-containing amino acids-methionine, cysteine, taurine, homocysteine, and the lesser known S-adenosylmethionine. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • Homocysteine and taurine are similar to amino acids, contain sulfur, and are very important molecules in human biochemistry. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The importance of homocysteine in human health has recently been recognized following demonstrations of elevated plasma levels of the amino acid in patients with coronary, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (karelsavry.us)
  • The sulfur is derived from methionine , which is converted to homocysteine through the intermediate S-adenosylmethionine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Homocysteine may be converted back to methionine or into another amino acid, cysteine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Then, the key antioxidant potential supported by selenoproteins through the selenocysteine amino acid (SeCys) was presented by Dr Mickaël Briens, (Expert Micronutrients and antioxidants, Adisseo, France). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The three additional protein-building amino acids are selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, and N-formylmethionine. (whfoods.org)
  • In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine (and selenocysteine) have R chirality, because of the presence of sulfur (resp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the basic set of twenty amino acids (not counting selenocysteine), humans cannot synthesize eight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary objective of the trial is to establish the effects of dietary sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction on body weight, body composition and energy expenditure in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers wish rather been fired in dietary sulfur amino acid warranty since the 1990s, when tests began to depict healthiness promotes in animals fed Met-restricted abstains. (piwip.com)
  • There were no other fooling unresponsive effects of dietary sulfur amino acid comestibles in the studies. (piwip.com)
  • Richie is now have charge of the first tensely authority over be nourishing reflect on of dietary sulfur amino acid qualification in benevolent fields, which may nourishment more be at the tiller evidence of curtail benefits. (piwip.com)
  • Dietary sulfur amino acids are theme in protein-containing foods, so delimiting them isn't casually. (piwip.com)
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has long been considered one such toxin candidate, and dietary sulfur along with the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were considered the primary determinants of H 2 S production and clinical course of UC. (mdpi.com)
  • The metabolic milieu in the lumen of the colon, however, is the result of a multitude of factors beyond dietary sulfur intake and SRB abundance. (mdpi.com)
  • Rose cabbage also contains some vitamin C for your eyes and folic acid for your memory. (google.com)
  • Indole-3 carbinols, vitamin C, folic acid. (google.com)
  • Cys (which may be formed from the sulfur of Met and the carbons of serine via the transsulfuration pathway) appears to be converted to taurine and CO2 primarily by the cysteinesulfinate pathway, and to sulfate and pyruvate primarily by desulfuration pathways in which a reduced form of sulfur with a relatively long biological half-life appears to be an intermediate. (nih.gov)
  • These are all L-stereoisomers ("left-handed" isomers), although a few D-amino acids ("right-handed") occur in bacterial envelopes, as a neuromodulator (D-serine), and in some antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the amino acids arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, histidine, proline, serine, and tyrosine are considered conditionally essential, meaning they are not normally required in the diet but must be supplied exogenously to specific populations that do not synthesize it in adequate amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biochemistry, amino acids which have the amine group attached to the (alpha-) carbon atom next to the carboxyl group have particular importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, substituting oxygen for sulfur-causing oxidation-in sulfur-containing amino acids (including in the more rare S-adenosylmethionine) can have effects in methionine residues where the surface is exposed, causing an oxidation-reduction cycle, imparing the activity of "methionine sulfoxide reductase and the subsequent accumulation of methionine sulfoxide residues [that] are associated with age-related diseases, neurodegeneration, and shorter lifespan. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • d) measuring the φ, ψ angles of the expanding amino acid residues. (google.com)
  • 7. The method of predicting a tertiary structure as set forth in claim 1 wherein step (c) comprises expanding the amino acid residues of said polypeptide chain one at a time. (google.com)
  • 9. The method of predicting a tertiary structure as set forth in claim 1 wherein step (c) comprises expanding the amino acid residues of said polypeptide chain simultaneously. (google.com)
  • To synthesize spiro-2-oxindole derivatives of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid imides with residues of biogenic sulfur-containing α-amino acids and study their anti-hypoxic activity. (edu.ua)
  • Effect of two sulfur-containing amino acids, taurine and hypotaurine in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) sperm cryopreservation. (ualg.pt)
  • 75% of you have already taken them: Branch-Chained Amino Acids (BCAAs) and the sulfur-amino acid taurine. (blogspot.com)
  • Lastly taurine, as one of the more remarkable sulfur-containing amino acids, has very high concentrations within muscle tissues and utilizes a wide variety of functions. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • It is also one of the most necessary sulfur-containing amino acids for cats and results retinal degeneration in kittens if the mothers are not fed a taurine-rich diet. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • Sulfur is a required macronutrient, sulfur uptake and assimilation are crucial determinants in how quickly plants grow and cope with various stresses, and therefore, in how well crops yield. (mpg.de)
  • Sulphur Supply Level Effects on the Assimilation of Nitrate and Sulphate into Amino Acids and Protein in Forage Rape (Brassica napus L. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Sulphur Transport and Assimilation in Plants in the Postgenomic Era. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Sulfur assimilation. (unimi.it)
  • abstract = "Sulfur-containing amino acids were found to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated [3H]phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat cortical slices. (elsevier.com)
  • Glycine and alanine are example of amino acid which consist of amino and carboxyl group. (bartleby.com)
  • Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements, 188(4):441-445. (uzh.ch)
  • Sulphur is one of the main components of algal cells, with a cell quota typically very similar to that of phosphorus. (springer.com)
  • Phosphoric acid, also called orthophosphoric acid, (H3PO4), the most important oxygen acid of phosphorus, used to make phosphate salts for fertilizers. (britannica.com)
  • 28. Give a chemical formula for each compound: a. sulfur trioxide b. phosphorus pentachloride c. carbon disulfi. (bartleby.com)
  • Pinto W, Rodrigues V, Dinis MTeresa, Aragão C . Can dietary aromatic amino acid supplementation be beneficial during fish metamorphosis? . (ualg.pt)
  • However, you will find recommended food sources for different types of amino acids (including branched chain, sulfur-containing, aromatic, and others) in the Summary of Food Sources section of this article. (whfoods.org)
  • Like other natural proteinogenic amino acids cysteine has (L) chirality in the older D/L notation based on homology to D and L glyceraldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty of the proteinogenic amino acids are encoded directly by triplet codons in the genetic code and are known as "standard" amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many important proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids have biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers from Japan have developed a new polysulfide donor: a chemical compound composed of chains of sulfur atoms that can artificially increase reactive sulfur species (chemically reactive molecules containing sulfur) in cells and tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • The remaining chiral amino acids, having lighter atoms in that position, have S chirality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is Heart Disease from a Sulfur Deficiency? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Sulphur deficiency has become widespread over the past several decades in most of the agricultural area. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Allocation of sulphur within oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves in response to sulphur deficiency. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Plant responses to sulphur deficiency and the genetic manipulation of sulphate transporters to improve S-utilization efficiency. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Studies protract ining people footle associated sulfur amino acids with on the awakened body albatross, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorder and cancer, advocating that limiting Met and Cys could guard against these tailors. (piwip.com)
  • All primary amino acids disorders ( Table 1 ) follow an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance which means that the mutation caused a metabolic block is present in the genetic material of both parents. (intechopen.com)
  • Low-grade metabolic acidosis, consecutive to excessive catabolism of sulfur amino acids and a high dietary Na:K ratio, is a common feature of Western food habits. (edu.au)
  • Although classified as a non essential amino acid , in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic diseases or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary sodium chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid-producing diet. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the amino acids are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to understand the role and mechanism of CBL in the production of VSCs from sulfur-containing amino acids/derivatives, namely, methionine, cysteine, and cystathionine, using genetic variants of L. helveticus CNRZ 32 in a model system. (asm.org)
  • This study aimed to examine distribution of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S)-generating enzymes, and metabolomic alterations in sulfur-containing amino acids in rat testes exposed to stressors. (elsevier.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the PCR product resembled not only cysteine synthase sequences from prokaryotes and eukaryotes but also eukaryotic cystathionine β-synthase sequences. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 matched both cysteine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase sequences in GenBank, but its size favoured assignment as a cystathionine β-synthase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The generation of free amino acids from an intact protein or peptide is a critical step in the production of useful, accurate amino acid analysis data. (waters.com)
  • To enable this generation, it is necessary to break down or hydrolyze a protein/peptide to its individual amino acid constituents. (waters.com)
  • Amino acids are essential for the overall development of the body since they are building blocks of protein joined together by peptide bonds. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Primary structure of protein consists of long chain of amino acid linked to each other through peptide bond. (bartleby.com)
  • Phenol is added to the acid that is used for the hydrolysis, to act as an oxygen scavenger. (waters.com)
  • Because, says JN, oxygen and sulfur both belong to 'Group 6' of the Periodic Table of Elements, so are "capable of making similar covalent linkages" with a critical difference that sulfur has a low electronegativity (oxygen has the second lowest electronegativity). (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • So if oxygen replaces the sulfur it would "result in a much less hydrophobic amino acid. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • MSM contains organic Sulfur, that is involved in transporting oxygen across your cell membranes. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • More Sulfur means more oxygen. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • GaiaThera Opti-MSM is an Excellent Source of Organic Sulfur The primary function of Sulfur from MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) is transporting oxygen across your cell membranes. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Determine, under different quantities, how much of Histidine (His or H) α-amino acid nutrient can be found in Peaches, dehydrated (low-moisture), sulfured, stewed . (traditionaloven.com)
  • For example, humans can only synthesize 11 of the 20 standard amino acids (a.k.a. non-essential amino acid), and in time of accelerated growth, histidine can be considered an essential amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the human brain, glutamate (standard glutamic acid) and gamma-aminobutyric acid ("GABA", nonstandard gamma-amino acid) are, respectively, the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the authors at the Journal of Nutrition (JN), the "difference accounts for some of the distinctive properties of the sulfur-containing amino acids. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • If you are starting to conclude that amino acids are somewhat like a jigsaw puzzle with many pieces that can be difficult to fit together into a coherent picture, then you are arriving at the same conclusion as many nutrition researchers! (whfoods.org)
  • The results of the 2019 tests revealed that all five test conditions caused small, statistically insignificant increases in leaf chlorophyll content, plant growth, plant sulfur nutrition and seed yield on both low-sulfur and medium-sulfur soils. (soybeanresearchinfo.com)
  • Because of their biological significance, amino acids are important in nutrition and are commonly used in nutritional supplements, fertilizers, feed, and food technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most amino acids are synthesized from α-ketoacids, and later transaminated from another amino acid, usually glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2018, two soybean trials were conducted on low-sulfur fertility fields at Jackson and Milan, Tennessee, with the support of the Tennessee Soybean Promotion Board. (soybeanresearchinfo.com)
  • Application of 20 lb. sulfur/acre via fertigation at R3 resulted in the lowest linolenic but highest oleic level at Milan in 2018, which suggests that only sulfur application at late growing season is beneficial for oleic. (soybeanresearchinfo.com)
  • So all in all, sufur-containing amino acids are necessary for proper health of both animals and humans in the proper biological functioning and growth, as well being associated with some diseases and anti-aging and neurological issues. (aminoacidinformation.com)
  • Monogastric animals including humans are unable to synthesize essential amino acids and are dependent on their feed/food to meet the essential amino acid requirements. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxidation of the sulfur amino acids by autoxidizing lipids was studied in a model system consisting of an amino acid dispersed in cold-pressed, molecularly distilled menhaden oil (20-80% w/w). (usgs.gov)
  • Amino acids ( Figure 1 ) play multiple important roles in our body: they are basic structural protein units and precursors of neurotransmitters, porphyrins, and nitric oxide. (intechopen.com)
  • These results demonstrate that several sulfur-containing amino acids, some of which have been proposed to be endogenous excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, effectively modulate the response to norepinephrine of the phosphoinositide second messenger system in rat brain. (elsevier.com)
  • α-ketoacid + glutamate ⇄ amino acid + α-ketoglutarate Glutamate itself is formed by amination of α-ketoglutarate: α-ketoglutarate + NH+ 4 ⇄ glutamate The α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis (synthesis of glutamate, glutamine, proline and arginine) begins with α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Citric Acid Cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weight change and feed intake of rats fed diets differing in sulfur amino acid content. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies were designed to test whether oxidative stress in fructose-sweetened liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by decreased ad libitum solid food intake with associated inadequate sulfur amino acid intake. (mdpi.com)
  • C57BL6 mice were grouped as: control ( ad libitum water), fructose ( ad libitum 30% fructose-sweetened liquid), glucose ( ad libitum 30% glucose-sweetened water) and pair-fed ( ad libitum water and sulfur amino acid intake same as the fructose group). (mdpi.com)
  • however, inadequate sulfur amino acid intake was not the cause of this oxidative stress. (mdpi.com)
  • Amino acids are molecules which contain both a carboxylic acid and an amine group. (wikibooks.org)
  • It is formed from the amino acids cysteine, glutamine , and glycine. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Because the only essential sulfur amino acid missing in this mixture is methionine, it is chemically synthesized and added separately, increasing the cost of major food supply. (pnas.org)
  • The list below shows all 20 of these core protein-building amino acids in alphabetical order. (whfoods.org)
  • Within our genes can be found direct instructions for making all 20 of these core protein-building amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • What's perhaps most surprising about these 23 protein-building amino acids is the fact that they only account for about 2% of all amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • We expect non-protein building amino acids to become the subject of increased research attention in future studies on foods and meal planning. (whfoods.org)
  • After the extensive review, scientists are able to identify two types of amino acids: proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic. (dietspotlight.com)
  • When you want to classify amino acids, you have to consider their pH, polarity, form of side chain, location, and structure of the function group. (dietspotlight.com)
  • The general structure of amino acids consist of an amino group, a carboxylic group and a variable R side chain that has a major effect on solubility and polarity. (intechopen.com)
  • On the other hand, hydrophilic amino acids tend to interact in the aqueous environment due to polarity. (wikibooks.org)
  • Alpha-lipoic acid contains a sulfur molecule and also does some amazing things in the body (4) such as lowering oxidative stress, lowers blood sugar by improving insulin function, chelation, and lowers blood pressure by improving endothelial function. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This Annals volume presents a collection of papers stemming from this symposium, exploring the effects of dietary and sulfur amino acid restriction on health span, aging, and disease progression, from the molecular to the phylogenic level. (princeton.edu)
  • Organic sulfur sources were also evaluated as urinary acidifying agents for Pointer puppies fed a corn-soy-meat and bone meal diet. (illinois.edu)
  • In the course of this investigation, two experimental purified diets were developed and tested: a crystalline L-amino acid diet and a methionine-fortified casein diet. (illinois.edu)
  • Diet, sulphur amino acids, and health span : Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science Symposium 2015 / [edited by Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences editorial staff]. (princeton.edu)
  • To provide an opportunity for leaders in the field of aging and dietary restriction to share current research and plan future investigations, the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science (OFAS) sponsored the symposium Diet, Sulfur Amino Acids, and Healthspan, on September 21 and 22, 2015, in Tarrytown, New York. (princeton.edu)
  • This collection of papers was invited from speakers at the second biennial symposium of the Orentreich Foundation for the Advancement of Science, Inc. (OFAS), "Diet, Sulfur Amino Acids, and Healthspan," held in Tarrytown, New York, September 20&22, 2015. (princeton.edu)
  • There are non-essential amino acids that our bodies can produce, and essential amino acids that we must get from our diet. (wordpress.com)
  • A plant-based diet low in such sulfur amino acid foods as meat, dairy, nuts and soy may be key to lowering the risk of heart disease, concludes a study from the Penn State University College of Medicine. (naturalawakenings.com)
  • When making nutritional recommendations for our everyday diet, health scientists have expressed much more confidence in estimating our total protein needs than in estimating our need for individual amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Other amino acids can be regenerated into ketones, which is essential to the brain in case you abstain from food or have a diet that is low in carbohydrates. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Potassium salts counteract an acidogenic high-sulfur amino acid diet. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Amino acids that must be obtained from the diet are called essential amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catabolism of the methyl group and sulfur atom of Met ultimately appears to be dependent upon the transmethylation-transsulfuration pathway because the MTA formed as the co-product of polyamine synthesis is efficiently recycled to Met. (nih.gov)
  • Catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids plays an important role in the development of cheese flavor. (asm.org)
  • However, the role of CBL in the generation of VSCs from the catabolism of specific sulfur-containing amino acids is not well characterized. (asm.org)
  • The first is a targeted, pathway-oriented approach aimed at understanding pathway architecture and coordination, and the regulation of the sulfur-containing metabolites as such. (mpg.de)
  • Therefore, amino acids disorders are biochemically characterized by abnormal levels of single or several amino acids and their downstream plasma and/or urine metabolites ( Tables 2 - 6 ). (intechopen.com)
  • George AA, de Lumen BO (1991) A novel methionine-rich protein in soybean seed: Identification, amino acid composition, and n-terminal sequence. (springer.com)
  • However, there is little information available about the impact of sulfur fertilization on soybean seed protein and amino acid content. (soybeanresearchinfo.com)
  • Effects of feeding diets differing in sulfur amino acid levels on the abundance of 4EBP1 and eIF4E protein and mRNA in liver of rats. (hindawi.com)
  • Plant food potassium salts have a balancing effect on acid-base status and digestive fermentation in rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Amino group of one amino acid linked to carboxyl group of 2 n d amino acid and linear chain is created to produce a polypeptide structure. (bartleby.com)
  • Sadly, most diets are deficient in sulfur rich foods like grass fed beef, garlic , onion, and quality eggs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Given most diets are deficient in sulfur, could this be a major factor in atherosclerosis ? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Researchers correlated diets and blood biomarkers of more than 11,000 participants from a national study and found people that ate foods containing fewer sulfur amino acids tended to have a decreased risk for cardiometabolic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes. (naturalawakenings.com)
  • SUMMARY A study of the accumulation by a brewer's yeast of six sulphur-containing amino acids labelled with sulphur-35 showed several distinct patterns of uptake. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The role of CBL and catabolic pathways responsible for VSC formation from sulfur amino acids/derivatives has not been well characterized in Lactobacillus spp. (asm.org)
  • Crystal structure analyses of 3 Hg2+-S aminoacid complexes relevant to the toxicology of Hg2+ revealed polar, polymeric structures with chloride, S and carboxylate bridges which are absent in the corresponding methylmercury derivatives. (eurekamag.com)
  • April 4th - New research led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health has identified numerous genes that influence how cells respond to saturated fatty acids. (harvard.edu)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids that slim you give clear thoughts and kisses inflammatory conditions away. (google.com)
  • The roles of the essential fatty acids include forming parts of cell membranes. (bartleby.com)
  • The pathways for the synthesis of nonessential amino acids are quite simple. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five hypotheses for frataxin's mitochondrial function have been generated, largely from work in non-human cells: iron transporter, iron-sulfur cluster assembler, iron-storage protein, antioxidant and stimulator of oxidative phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Sulfur is one of the top 10 most abundant nutrients in the body. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • No group of nutrients is more challenging to describe than amino acids! (whfoods.org)
  • While some people may take this group for granted and assume that it involves interesting but unnecessary details related to protein, and while others may imagine it as a very specialized area related to body building and physical performance, amino acids are actually spotlight nutrients that all of us would do well to consider when making routine food choices. (whfoods.org)
  • The translocation of nutrients as well as their storage in our bodies also relies heavily on amino acids. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Changes in other neutral and acidic amino acids were similar to those reported in chronic renal insufficiency. (portlandpress.com)
  • In amino acid, the carboxyl group is more acidic than the carboxylic acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Amino acids can be broadly hydrophobic and hydrophilic , depending on the chemical properties of the R group side chain. (wikibooks.org)
  • In an aqueous environment, the hydrophobic amino acids are unable to participate in hydrogen bonding. (wikibooks.org)
  • For this reason, there is need to understand why amino acids are important, how they are broken down by enzymes, their benefits, and side effects. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Significant decreases in seven transcripts occurred in the sulfur amino acid (SAA) biosynthetic pathway and the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) biosynthetic pathway to which it is connected. (nih.gov)
  • Fundamental knowledge of pathway regulation has been obtained as well as an improvement of the nutritional quality of a crop plant: Nutritional quality is largely determined by methionine, which is often the most limited of the essential amino acids. (mpg.de)
  • The transamination pathway is catalyzed by aminotransferases, which transfer the amino acid amino group to an α-keto acid, while the elimination reaction-based pathway is catalyzed by the activity of amino acid lyases which cleave amino acid side chains ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Amino acids are the structural unit of polypeptide molecule which consists of a carboxyl group at one end and amino group on other end. (bartleby.com)
  • Interpret and draw the structure of 5 amino acids, general amino acid and R group in each structure of amino acid should be circled. (bartleby.com)
  • Association of Vitamin B12, Folate, and Sulfur Amino Acids With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IMPORTANCE: Vitamin B12, folate, and sulfur amino acids may be modifiable risk factors for structural brain changes that precede clinical dementia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of circulating levels of vitamin B12, red blood cell folate, and sulfur amino acids with the rate of total brain volume loss and the change in white matter hyperintensity volume as measured by fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in older adults. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A transamination reaction takes place in the synthesis of most amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is one of the initial regulations of the α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is subject to regulatory control of the Citric Acid Cycle as well as mass action dependent on the concentrations of reactants involved due to the reversible nature of the transamination and glutamate dehydrogenase reactions. (wikipedia.org)