Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Amino Acids, SulfurStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Neutral Ceramidase: A ceramidase subtype that is active at neutral pH. It is found at high levels within the SMALL INTESTINE and in the BRAIN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 188.8.131.52.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein PrecursorsChickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 184.108.40.206.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Thermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 220.127.116.11.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Effect of tranexamic acid and delta-aminovaleric acid on lipoprotein(a) metabolism in transgenic mice. (1/45)The assembly of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a two-step process which involves the interaction of kringle-4 (K-IV) domains in apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) with Lys groups in apoB-100. Lys analogues such as tranexamic acid (TXA) or delta-aminovaleric acid (delta-AVA) proved to prevent the Lp(a) assembly in vitro. In order to study the in vivo effect of Lys analogues, transgenic apo(a) or Lp(a) mice were treated with TXA or delta-AVA and plasma levels of free and low density lipoprotein bound apo(a) were measured. In parallel experiments, McA-RH 7777 cells, stably transfected with apo(a), were also treated with these substances and apo(a) secretion was followed. Treatment of transgenic mice with Lys analogues caused a doubling of plasma Lp(a) levels, while the ratio of free:apoB-100 bound apo(a) remained unchanged. In transgenic apo(a) mice a 1. 5-fold increase in plasma apo(a) levels was noticed. TXA significantly increased Lp(a) half-life from 6 h to 8 h. Incubation of McA-RH 7777 cells with Lys analogues resulted in an up to 1. 4-fold increase in apo(a) in the medium. The amount of intracellular low molecular weight apo(a) precursor remained unchanged. We hypothesize that Lys analogues increase plasma Lp(a) levels by increasing the dissociation of cell bound apo(a) in combination with reducing Lp(a) catabolism. (+info)
Distribution volume of 3-O-methyl-6. (2/45)The distribution volume (DV) of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) in the cerebellum recently has been linked using positron emission tomography (PET) to plasma large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentrations in monkeys. In this article the authors provide additional experimental support for this relation by directly measuring the DV as the steady-state tissue to plasma radioactivity ratio in rats using a labeled LNAA analog 3-O-methyl-6-[F-18]FDOPA (OMFD), a compound that has no known specific enzyme or receptor interactions in brain tissue. The measured DV for OMFD (tissue OMFD concentration/plasma OMFD concentration) was found to be inversely related to plasma LNAA concentrations. The relation (DV = 1.5-0.00094*[LNAA], R--2 = 0.79) resulted in an 8% DV decrease per 100 nmol/mL plasma LNAA increase within the observed range of 330 to 510 nmol/mL. This was similar to recent noninvasive observations with FDOPA PET in vervet monkeys and with 6-[F-18]Fluoro-m-tyrosine PET in squirrel monkeys. The OMFD striatum to cerebellum (Str/Cb) ratio was greater than 1.0 for all measurements, averaging 1.09 +/- 0.04, and was approximately equal to the Str/Cb LNAA ratio of 1.12 +/- 0.05. This current study verifies the variation of DV of OMFD or FDOPA as a function of plasma LNAA concentrations and suggests the possibility of using OMFD for measuring cerebral LNAA noninvasively with PET. (+info)
Evidence for the transport of neutral as well as cationic amino acids by ATA3, a novel and liver-specific subtype of amino acid transport system A. (3/45)We report here on the cloning and functional characterization of the third subtype of amino acid transport system A, designated ATA3 (amino acid transporter A3), from a human liver cell line. This transporter consists of 547 amino acids and is structurally related to the members of the glutamine transporter family. The human ATA3 (hATA3) exhibits 88% identity in amino acid sequence with rat ATA3. The gene coding for hATA3 contains 16 exons and is located on human chromosome 12q13. It is expressed almost exclusively in the liver. hATA3 mediates the transport of neutral amino acids including alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB), the model substrate for system A, in a Na(+)-coupled manner and the transport of cationic amino acids in a Na(+)-independent manner. The affinity of hATA3 for cationic amino acids is higher than for neutral amino acids. The transport function of hATA3 is thus similar to that of system y(+)L. The ability of hATA3 to transport cationic amino acids with high affinity is unique among the members of the glutamine transporter family. hATA1 and hATA2, the other two known members of the system A subfamily, show little affinity toward cationic amino acids. hATA3 also differs from hATA1 and hATA2 in exhibiting low affinity for MeAIB. Since liver does not express any of the previously known high-affinity cationic amino acid transporters, ATA3 is likely to provide the major route for the uptake of arginine in this tissue. (+info)
Identification and characterization of a lysosomal transporter for small neutral amino acids. (4/45)In eukaryotic cells, lysosomes represent a major site for macromolecule degradation. Hydrolysis products are eventually exported from this acidic organelle into the cytosol through specific transporters. Impairment of this process at either the hydrolysis or the efflux step is responsible of several lysosomal storage diseases. However, most lysosomal transporters, although biochemically characterized, remain unknown at the molecular level. In this study, we report the molecular and functional characterization of a lysosomal amino acid transporter (LYAAT-1), remotely related to a family of H+-coupled plasma membrane and synaptic vesicle amino acid transporters. LYAAT-1 is expressed in most rat tissues, with highest levels in the brain where it is present in neurons. Upon overexpression in COS-7 cells, the recombinant protein mediates the accumulation of neutral amino acids, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid, l-alanine, and l-proline, through an H+/amino acid symport. Confocal microscopy on brain sections revealed that this transporter colocalizes with cathepsin D, an established lysosomal marker. LYAAT-1 thus appears as a lysosomal transporter that actively exports neutral amino acids from lysosomes by chemiosmotic coupling to the H+-ATPase of these organelles. Homology searching in eukaryotic genomes suggests that LYAAT-1 defines a subgroup of lysosomal transporters in the amino acid/auxin permease family. (+info)
L-type amino acid transporters in two intestinal epithelial cell lines function as exchangers with neutral amino acids. (5/45)The present study examined the functional characteristics of the inward [(14)C]-L-leucine transporter in two intestinal epithelial cell lines (human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6). The uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine was largely promoted through an energy-dependent and sodium-insensitive transporter, although a minor component of [(14)C]-L-leucine uptake ( approximately 15%) required extracellular sodium. [(14)C] -L-leucine uptake was insensitive to N-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, but competitively inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). Both L- and D-neutral amino acids, but not acidic and basic amino acids, markedly inhibited [(14)C]-L-leucine accumulation. The efflux of [(14)C]-L-leucine was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by L-leucine and BCH, but not by L-arginine. In IEC-6 cells, but not in Caco-2 cells, the uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine at acidic pH (5.0 and 5.4) was greater (P < 0.05) than at pH 7.4. In conclusion, it is likely that system B(0) might be responsible for the sodium-dependent uptake of L-leucine in Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells, whereas sodium-independent uptake of L-leucine may include system LAT1, whose activation results in transstimulation of L-leucine outward transfer. (+info)
Site-directed mutagenesis of tyrosine 118 within the central constriction site of the LamB (Maltoporin) channel of Escherichia coli. I. Effect on ion transport. (6/45)The three-dimensional structure of the malto-oligosaccharide-specific LamB-channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from x-ray crystallography. The central constriction of the channel formed by the external loop 3 is controlled by a tyrosine residue (Y118). Y118 was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis by ten other amino acids (alanine, isoleucine, asparagine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane) including neutral ones, negatively and positively charged amino acids to study the effect of their size, hydrophobicity, and charge on ion transport through LamB. The mutant proteins were purified to homogeneity. They were reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes and single-channel conductance and ion selectivity were measured to get insight into the mechanism of ion transport through LamB. The mutation of Y118 to any other nonaromatic amino acid led to a substantial increase of the single-channel conductance by more than a factor of six at maximum. The highest effect was observed for Y118D. Additionally, a nonlinear relationship between the salt concentration in the aqueous phase and the channel conductance was observed for this mutant, indicating strong discrete charge effects on ion conductance. For all other mutants, with the exception of Y118R, linear relationships were found between single-channel conductance and bulk aqueous concentration. The individual hydrophobicity indices of the amino acids introduced inside the central constriction of the LamB channel had a somewhat smaller effect on the single-channel conductance as compared with the effect of their size and charge. (+info)
Transient state kinetic investigation of 5-aminolevulinate synthase reaction mechanism. (7/45)5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first, and regulatory, step of the heme biosynthetic pathway in nonplant eukaryotes and some bacteria. 5-Aminolevulinate synthase is a dimeric protein having an ordered kinetic mechanism with glycine binding before succinyl-CoA and with aminolevulinate release after CoA and carbon dioxide. Rapid scanning stopped-flow absorption spectrophotometry in conjunction with multiple turnover chemical quenched-flow kinetic analyses and a newly developed CoA detection method were used to examine the ALAS catalytic reaction and identify the rate-determining step. The reaction of glycine with ALAS follows a three-step kinetic process, ascribed to the formation of the Michaelis complex and the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-glycine aldimine, followed by the abstraction of the glycine pro-R proton from the external aldimine. Significantly, the rate associated with this third step (k(3) = 0.002 s(-1)) is consistent with the rate determined for the ALAS-catalyzed removal of tritium from [2-(3)H(2)]glycine. Succinyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA increased the rate of glycine proton removal approximately 250,000- and 10-fold, respectively, supporting our previous proposal that the physiological substrate, succinyl-CoA, promotes a protein conformational change, which accelerates the conversion of the external aldimine into the initial quinonoid intermediate (Hunter, G. A., and Ferreira, G. C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 12222-12228). Rapid scanning stopped-flow and quenched-flow kinetic analyses of the ALAS reaction under single turnover conditions lend evidence for two quinonoid reaction intermediates and a model of the ALAS kinetic mechanism in which product release is at least the partially rate-limiting step. Finally, the carbonyl and carboxylate groups of 5-aminolevulinate play a major protein-interacting role by inducing a conformational change in ALAS and, thus, possibly modulating product release. (+info)
Functional properties and cellular distribution of the system A glutamine transporter SNAT1 support specialized roles in central neurons. (8/45)Glutamine, the preferred precursor for neurotransmitter glutamate and GABA, is likely to be the principal substrate for the neuronal System A transporter SNAT1 in vivo. We explored the functional properties of SNAT1 (the product of the rat Slc38a1 gene) by measuring radiotracer uptake and currents associated with SNAT1 expression in Xenopus oocytes and determined the neuronal-phenotypic and cellular distribution of SNAT1 by confocal laser-scanning microscopy alongside other markers. We found that SNAT1 mediates transport of small, neutral, aliphatic amino acids including glutamine (K0.5 approximately 0.3 mm), alanine, and the System A-specific analogue 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate. Amino acid transport is driven by the Na+ electrochemical gradient. The voltage-dependent binding of Na+ precedes that of the amino acid in a simultaneous transport mechanism. Li+ (but not H+) can substitute for Na+ but results in reduced Vmax. In the absence of amino acid, SNAT1 mediates Na+-dependent presteady-state currents (Qmax approximately 9 nC) and a nonsaturable cation leak with selectivity Na+, Li+ >> H+, K+. Simultaneous flux and current measurements indicate coupling stoichiometry of 1 Na+ per 1 amino acid. SNAT1 protein was detected in somata and proximal dendrites but not nerve terminals of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons throughout the adult CNS. We did not detect SNAT1 expression in astrocytes but detected its expression on the luminal membranes of the ependyma. The functional properties and cellular distribution of SNAT1 support a primary role for SNAT1 in glutamine transport serving the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in central neurons. Localization of SNAT1 to certain dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and cholinergic motoneurons suggests that SNAT1 may play additional specialized roles, providing metabolic fuel (via alpha-ketoglutarate) or precursors (cysteine, glycine) for glutathione synthesis. (+info)
Complexation of 5-aminovaleric acid zwitterions in aqueous/methanol solution by heterotopic tri-cationic receptors - Organic &...
Heterotopic tri-cationic receptors based on 4,10,16-triaza-18-crown-6 are capable of efficient and selective binding of the zwitterionic form of 5-aminovaleric acid (5-AVA) in aqueous/methanol solution. The cooperative participation of both cation and anion binding domains of this receptor in 5-AVA complexat Supramolecular chemistry in OBC
Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in rats: dissociation between transport and insulin...
The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu has remained unexplained. In the present study a decrease in the plasma concentration of Ile, Val, Phe, Tyr, Met, Ala, Pro and Gly was observed after the intraperitoneal injection of Leu to weanling rats. Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except Pro and Gly. An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non-insulinogenic transport system L analogue. Diazoxide suppressed the Leu-induced decreases in plasma and muscle intracellular concentrations of Ile and Val as well as of Pro in plasma. An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of diazoxide. All the above changes were statistically significant. Hence insulin probably mediates Leu ...
INCREASE IN LARGE NEUTRAL AMINO ACID TRANSPORT INTO BRAIN BY INSULIN
Evidence that the large neutral amino acid L-valine decreases electrically-evoked release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus in vivo. -...
L-Valine competes with tryptophan for transport into the brain and has previously been shown to decrease brain 5-HT synthesis. In the present study, the effect of L-valine on electrically evoked hippocampal 5-HT release was determined in the anaesthetized rat using microdialysis. In control animals two electrical stimulations of the dorsal raphe nucleus 120 min apart (S1 and S2, respectively) released similar amounts of 5-HT. In contrast, in animals which received L-valine (200 mg/kg) between stimulations, S2 released a significantly smaller amount of 5-HT than did S1, although basal 5-HT release was unchanged. The data demonstrate that L-valine decreases the electrically-evoked release of 5-HT in hippocampus in vivo.
tryp - Wiktionary
SLC7A8 / LAT2 - TA500513 | acris-antibodies.com
NTT Security Launches Security Services for Industrial Control Systems | Realtid.se - Kapitalmarknad, finansiering,...
YASTEST Cyber-defense for critical infrastructure including factories, plants, utilities & hospitals TOKYO, Sept. 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- NTT Security Corporation (Head Office: Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo; CEO: Jun Sawada), the specialized security company of NTT Group, has launched "IT/OT Integrated Security Services". The new services will be taken to market globally through the NTT Group companies, Dimension Data, NTT Communications and NTT DATA, forming part of its suite of integrated services to enable successful digital transformation initiatives for its clients.. Companies are increasingly working towards IT/OT (Operational Technology) alignment. OT systems, when connected to the internet, streamline business operations by advanced supply chain management, realization of mass customization and improvement of customer experience as well as find new intelligence employing IoT (the Internet of Things) and Big Data analytics. As a result, IT/OT convergence is exposing everything, including ...
CADA to 5AVA - Bacterial production of 5-aminovalerate from cadaverine
Limitation of natural sources, especially of fossil resources, for base material that is currently used to produce polyamides and related composites together with the increasing demand of these products, promotes the search for renewable sources of the base material. Fermentation by genetically engineered bacteria gains increasing interest as one of these possible sources. Cadaverine is a biogenic amine that can be produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum from the amino acid lysine by heterologous expression of a lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli. Overexpression of the patA and patD genes from Escherichia coli in Corynebacterium glutamicum enables the latter to further metabolize cadaverine to 5 aminovalerate (5AVA), which is a potential base material for the production of nylon 5 and a C5 platform for the synthesis of base materials for other polyamides. Commercial Opportunities Chemical industry is facing an increasing demand on polyamides and related composites, whereas in contrast the ...
Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...
Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
The H+-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 acts as a high-capacity, absorptive route for small neutral amino acids, such as GABA, and many orally active analogs across the brush-border membrane of the small intestine (Thwaites et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2003; Anderson et al., 2004; Abbot et al., 2006; Metzner et al., 2006; Thwaites and Anderson, 2007a; Larsen et al., 2009). PAT1 can also be considered a novel intestinal transporter of the heme precursor ALA, which is used extensively in photodynamic therapy. PAT1 has a relatively low affinity for ALA (Km 10.4 mM) (Fig. 1A) compared with GABA (Km 1.1 mM), but the affinity is within the range of that for other naturally occurring PAT1 substrates such as glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, and taurine (Km ∼2-10 mM) (Thwaites et al., 1995; Boll et al., 2002; Metzner et al., 2006; Anderson et al., 2009).. During photodynamic therapy, ALA is typically given orally in the range of 10 to 60 mg/kg b.wt., in small amounts of fluid, either as a bolus or in ...
Determination of molecular weight of neutral amino acids with chloramine-T - [email protected]
The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.
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Na+-dependent system A-like transporter, System A2 or ATA2 (transports neutral amino acids with decreasing affinity in the order: MeAIB, Ala, Gly, Ser, Pro, Met, Asn, Gln, Thr, Leu and Phe). The neuronal system A2 has been reported to transport Asn and Gln with higher affinity than for other neutral amino acids. [ATA2 is stored in the Golgi network and released by insulin stimulus in adipocytes (Hatanaka et al., 2006a).] Its levels are regulated by ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-2, which causes endocytotic sequestration and proteosomal degradation (Hatanaka et al., 2006b). SNAT2 also functions as a mammalian amino acid transceptor (transporter/receptor), acting in an autoregulatory gene expression pathway (Hyde et al., 2007). It also mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). Also transports homocysteine (Tsitsiou et al., 2009 ...
NTT Com to Deploy 400G Optical Transmission System in Data Centers for Network Connection
NTT to slash capital spending in '99 | The Japan Times
6月, 2008 | 林檎園
Reactive oxygen species modulate Na<sup>+</sup>-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 expression in piglet pulmonary...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive oxygen species modulate Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 expression in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. AU - Dikalova, Anna E.. AU - Aschner, Judy L.. AU - Zhang, Yongmei. AU - Kaplowitz, Mark R.. AU - Fike, Candice D.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - We have previously shown that Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from newborn piglets. Specifically, the ability to increase NO production in response to the L-arginine-NO precursor L-citrulline is dependent on SNAT1 expression. Elucidating factors that regulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs could provide new insights and therapeutic targets relevant to NO production. Our major goals were to determine if reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs from newborn piglets and to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and uncoupled endothelial NO synthase, enzymatic sources of ROS, ...
KetoVOLVE > About >...
KetoVOLVE™ products combine several aspects of the Ketogenic diet, namely the classical and MCT oil diet. KetoVOLVE is formulated to be as clinically effective as possible. To this end, it contains specifically selected ingredients that contribute both nutritionally and clinically. For example, the protein selected is whey protein, which is a nutritionally complete protein containing levels of essential amino acids at levels that meet or exceed human dietary requirements. From a biochemical perspective, the whey protein is high in large neutral amino acids (LNAA). Among the LNAAs, there is a subgroup called branched chain amino acids that have liver support functionality and help stabilise ketosis ...
The importance of serine metabolism in cancer | JCB
As discussed earlier, cells can acquire serine by either synthesizing it internally or importing serine from the environment. Serine is a small, neutral amino acid and, as such, can be transported by one of three systems. Two of the systems are sodium dependent: the alanine/serine/cysteine/threonine transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 (encoded by SLC1A4 and SLC1A5, respectively) and the system A transporters SAT1 and SAT2 (encoded by SLC38A1 and SLC38A2, respectively). The third is a family of neutral amino acid antiporters, the alanine/serine/cysteine transporter (ASC) system (El-Hattab, 2016). These antiporters are of particular interest because they are active even at steady state, so that for instance, one molecule of intracellular serine can be exchanged for one molecule of extracellular serine. Normally this process goes unnoticed, but a recent study (DeNicola et al., 2015) points out that it can complicate interpretation of heavy isotope-labeling experiments by setting up an exchange flux ...
Brain Serotonin Content: Physiological Regulation by Plasma Neutral Amino Acids | Science
NTT DoCoMo Brings First Android Phone to Japan | WIRED
Japanese telecom carrier NTT DoCoMo has introduced the first cellphone in Japan to run Googles Android mobile operating system. The phone called HT-03A is expected to be introduced in June or July, said the company. It is part of NTT DoCoMos summer line-up of 18 new devices. The Japanese cellphone running Android OS comes nearly \[…\]
MobileTechReview Forum, News and Reviews: Sony Ericsson Introduces the Xperia SO-O1B (X10) with NTT DOCOMO in Japan
Sony Ericsson today announced it will launch the Xperia (SO-01B) with NTT DOCOMO in Japan in April 2010. The Xperia runs on 1GHz CPU, has a4" touch screen, a 8.1 megapixel camera and built-in WiFi and Bluetooth. The phone builds on top of the Open OS Android platform and features Sony Ericssons own Mediascape and Timescape UI. More info ...
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Public sector solutions. NTT DATA provides systems and services designed to make national government and regional societies safe, convenient and prosperous. Back-Office Operations for Central and Local Regional Governments. Accounting and Finance Management for Central and Local Regional Governments.
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Re: [HACKERS] Declarative partitioning - another take
The last statement is trying create subpartitions by range (b + a), which contains a partition key from ancestor partition key but is not exactly same as that. In fact it contains some extra columns other than the ancestor partition key columns. Why do we want to prohibit such cases? On Thu, Sep 15, 2016 at 2:23 PM, Amit Langote ,[email protected], wrote: , , Hi , , On 2016/09/09 17:55, Amit Langote wrote: ,, On 2016/09/06 22:04, Amit Langote wrote: ,,, Will fix. ,, ,, Here is an updated set of patches. , , An email from Rajkumar somehow managed to break out of this thread. , Quoting his message below so that I dont end up replying with patches on , two different threads. , , On 2016/09/14 16:58, Rajkumar Raghuwanshi wrote: ,, I have Continued with testing declarative partitioning with the latest ,, patch. Got some more observation, given below , , Thanks a lot for testing. , ,, -- Observation 1 : Getting overlap error with START with EXCLUSIVE in range ,, partition. ,, ,, create ...
Tryptophan concentrations in rat brain. Failure to correlate with free serum tryptophan or its ratio to the sum of other serum...
Groups of rats were deprived of food overnight and then given free access to diets designed to raise (carbohydrate) or lower (carbohydrate and large neutral amino acids) brain tryptophan concentrations. Similar diets were supplemented with 40% fat and fed to other groups. All animals were killed 2h after food presentation. Sera from animals fed carbohydrate plus fat contained 2.5 times as much free tryptophan concentrations did not differ. Similarly, sera from rats fed on carbohydrate, large neutral amino acids, and 40% fat contained 5 times as much free tryptophan as those from rats given this meal without fat, but brain tryptophan concentrations increased by only 26%. Correlations were made between brain tryptophan and (1) free serum tryptophan, (2) the ratio of free serum tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids in serum that compete with it for uptake into the brain, (3) total serum tryptophan or (4) the ratio of total serum tryptophan to the sum of its circulating ...
Human Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag), Recombinant | ABIN1320502
TCDB » Human MTPs
Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. PMID: 9878049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of ...
Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter (SLC1/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific...
RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
The large neutral amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan are precursors of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin and their availability in the brain may influence neurotransmission. Disturbed neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems are implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).. The primary aim of this study is to outline the findings/evidence from different investigations in vitro, concerning aberrant amino acid (tyrosine, tryptophan and alanine) transport in fibroblasts obtained from patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, bipolar-I disorder, autism and ADHD disorders.. The outlines of the findings presented in this study provide evidence that amino acids, tyrosine and tryptophan are strongly involved in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism and ADHD.. ...
Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. | Pharmacological Reviews
Studies performed during the past decade have shown that the rates at which certain neurons produce and release their neurotransmitters can be affected by precursor availability, and thus by the changes in plasma composition that occur after ingestion of the precursors in purified form or as constituents of foods. Thus, tryptophan administration or a plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids, thereby raising brain tryptophan levels, increasing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase, and accelerating the synthesis and release of serotonin. Tyrosine administration or a high-protein meal similarly elevates brain tyrosine and can accelerate catecholamine synthesis in the CNS and sympathoadrenal cells, while the consumption of lecithin or choline increases brain choline levels and neuronal acetylcholine synthesis. The physiologic and biochemical mechanisms that must exist in order for nutrient consumption to affect neurotransmitte synthesis have been characterized and ...
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DermIS - Hartnup´s Syndrome (information on the diagnosis)
Rare hereditary recessive disorder characterized by a pellagrous rash, cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation and renal aminoaciduria due to a defect in the cellular transport of neutral amino acids. The cutaneous signs precede the neurological manifestations. The rash is dry, scaly and well marginated, affecting the light-exposed areas. After exposure to sunlight the skin reddens and an exsudate may occur.. ...
... is a small neutral alkyne produced by a number of Streptomyces species, first discovered by Suzuki and colleagues in 1958. Cellocidin has a broad antibacterial, antifungal and antitumor profile due to its ability to react with endogenous thiols like cysteine and glutathione. Cellocidin occurs as a weak active in many bioassays using actinomycete crude extracts and is thus a useful standard for chemical and bioassay dereplication ...
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Alterations in the Activity of Placental Amino Acid Transporters in Pregnancies Complicated by Diabetes | Diabetes
This is the first study to assess the transport of neutral amino acids in both polarized plasma membranes of the placental transporting epithelium isolated from pregnancies complicated by GDM or type 1 diabetes with and without accelerated fetal growth as well as from pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth despite apparently normal glucose metabolism. The transport of amino acids across MVMs is a secondary active process and represents the rate-limiting step in transplacental transfer of amino acids (36). System A is a Na+-dependent transporter mediating the uptake of neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and glutamine. In the current article, we demonstrate that amino acid transport mediated by system A is markedly increased in the syncytiotrophoblast MVM in association with diabetes during pregnancy. We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM into the syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm, which may increase the delivery of amino acids to ...
Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the naturally occurring precursor amino acid for dopamine and the main therapeutic agent for neurologic disorders due to dopamine depletion, such as Parkinsons disease. Levodopa absorption in small intestine has been suggested to be mediated by the large neutral amino acids transport machinery, but the identity of the involved transporters is unknown. Clinically, co-administration of levodopa and dietary amino acids is avoided to decrease competition for transport in intestine and at the blood brain barrier. Levodopa is routinely co-administered with levodopa metabolism inhibitors (dopa decarboxylase and cathechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors) that share structural similarity with levodopa. In this systematic study involving Xenopus laevis oocytes and MDCK epithelia expression systems and ex vivo preparations from wild type and knockout mice, we identified the neutral and dibasic amino acids exchanger (antiporter) b0,+AT-rBAT (SLC7A9-SLC3A1) as the luminal intestinal ...
Complexes of DNA Bases and Watson−Crick Base Pairs with Small Neutral Gold Clusters
Neutral molecules transported by a Porin channelsb Ionophoresc Simple diffusion
Bonding: What to Expect, What to Do | House Rabbit Society
Circling & chasing. Be sure they are in a SMALL, neutral area such as a bathroom or penned area. Stop the chasing. Place them side by side. Try feeding them treats together. Try car rides in a box together. Sometimes loud noises or being sprayed with a water bottle are enough to make the chasing stop. A little dab of peanut butter on each others head may instigate grooming.. True aggressive fighting. Separate buns and try again later. Try taking them for a car ride together in a box and back to a neutral place. Supervise closely. Check for wounds. Try another rabbit if this aggressive fighting persists. Call an HRS volunteer.. Ignoring each other. As long as they are not fighting, this is a good thing! If they are coexisting in their neutral space, this is typical and a good start. They will begin to sit closer, sleep near each other and eat together shortly. Leave them in a small neutral space a bit longer. Try to wait for a little grooming.. Grooming. This is GREAT! Their relationship will ...
Japanese mobile phone giant NTT DoCoMo eyes British acquisition | ZDNet
DoCoMo and KPN Telecom in talks to buy 35 percent of British wireless venture of Hong Kong conglomerate Hutchison Whampoa.TOKYO, 6 July 2000 (MaxisNet) - Japanese mobile phone giant NTT DoCoMo and its European partner look set to buy part of a British company with a next-generation wireless license in a bid to make its cutting-edge technology a global standard.
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Gabapentin - WikiProjectMed
Gabapentin is absorbed from the intestines by an active transport process mediated via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5), a transporter for amino acids such as L-leucine and L-phenylalanine. Very few (less than 10 drugs) are known to be transported by this transporter. Gabapentin is transported solely by the LAT1, and the LAT1 is easily saturable, so the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin are dose-dependent, with diminished bioavailability and delayed peak levels at higher doses. Gabapentin enacarbil is transported not by the LAT1 but by the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), and no saturation of bioavailability has been observed with the drug up to a dose of 2,800 mg. The oral bioavailability of gabapentin is approximately 80% at 100 mg administered three times daily once every 8 hours, but decreases to 60% at 300 mg, 47% at 400 mg, 34% at 800 mg, 33% at 1,200 mg, and 27% at ...
Phenylketonuria: a 21 st century perspective | Nature Reviews Endocrinology
Patients with phenylketonuria develop almost normally if diagnosed neonatally and treated by diet; however, executive dysfunction remains. This Review discusses the disorders diagnosis, the outcome of traditional treatment by dietary restriction and outlines new treatment possibilities, including tetrahydrobiopterin and other chaperone proteins, enzymatic treatment, large neutral amino acid supplementation and possibly gene therapy. Phenylketonuria is the most prevalent inherited defect in amino acid metabolism. Owing to mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, the essential amino acid phenylalanine cannot be hydroxylated to tyrosine and blood and tissue concentrations of phenylalanine increase. Untreated, phenylketonuria causes severe mental retardation, epilepsy and behavioral problems. The combined effect of neonatal screening and treatment has, however, meant that phenylketonuria is now a biochemical rather than a clinical diagnosis. Treatment consists of stringent
The transport of S-cysteine conjugates was studied in the kidney cell line, LLC-PK1, using the nephrotoxin, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (L-DCVC), as the model compound. The saturable uptake of this conjugate did not require sodium and was selectively inhibited by the amino acid transport system L-specific substrate, 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid, as well as a variety of other S-cysteine conjugates and neutral amino acids with large, nonpolar side chains. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of both low and high affinity transport systems with Km values that differed by 25-fold. Although these uptake systems showed no discernible differences in substrate specificity, the low affinity transport was more sensitive to trans-stimulation. L-DCVC uptake in subconfluent cultures was about 3-fold that of confluent cells, suggesting either adaptive regulation to cell growth or polarization of transport to the basolateral membrane. L-DCVC toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells was inhibited in the ...
Stuck in Neutral Summary - eNotes.com
"Hydrophobic amino acids". Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. ... Figure 2: Cystine (shown here in its neutral form), two cysteines bound together by a disulfide bond ... and glutamic acid. While glutamic acid is usually sufficient because amino acid nitrogen is recycled through glutamate as an ... Cysteine (symbol Cys or C; /ˈsɪstiiːn/) is a semiessential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH ...
"Hydrophobic amino acids". Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. ... Figure 2: Cystine (shown here in its neutral form), two cysteines bound together by a disulfide bond. ... so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine ... Cysteine (symbol Cys or C; /ˈsɪstiiːn/) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH ...
... neutral amino acid (LNAA). LNAAs compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the large neutral amino acid ... The fact that CGMP is a peptide ensures that the absorption rate of its amino acids is prolonged compared to free amino acids ... The enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase normally converts the amino acid phenylalanine into the amino acid tyrosine. If this ... 541 This enzyme is necessary to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) to the amino acid tyrosine (Tyr). When PAH ...
"Use of Alloc-amino acids in solid-phase peptide synthesis. Tandem deprotection-coupling reactions using neutral conditions". ... Peptides can be chemically synthesized by coupling the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino ... A typical coupling reaction with these amino acids are performed at lower temperatures than the other 18 natural amino acids. A ... The Boc group is removed with acid, such as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). This forms a positively charged amino group in the ...
... is an N-trimethylated amino acid. This quaternary ammonium exists as the zwitterion at neutral pH. Strong ... Trimethylglycine (TMG) is an amino acid derivative that occurs in plants. Trimethylglycine was the first betaine discovered; ... a compound which is naturally generated during deamination of the essential amino acid methionine. Despite its natural ... The same homocysteine-to-methionine result could be achieved by supplementing with folic acid and vitamin B12, methionine then ...
"Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National ... corresponds either to one of the twenty possible amino acids in a protein or an instruction to end the amino acid sequence; ... Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide chains, each of which is composed of a sequence of amino acids, and the DNA ... The nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA is used to create an amino acid sequence in protein; this translation between ...
Examples of zwitterions include amino acids, many metabolites, peptides, and proteins. Usually, non-dissolved salts at standard ... Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic. Zwitterions contain an anionic centre and a cationic centre in ... nitric acid) Nitrite NO− 2 (nitrous acid) Oxide O2− Phosphate PO3− 4 (phosphoric acid) Sulfate SO2− 4 (sulfuric acid) Salts are ... carbonic acid) Chloride Cl− (hydrochloric acid) Citrate HOC(COO− )(CH 2COO− ) 2 (citric acid) Cyanide C≡N− (hydrocyanic acid) ...
Neutral amino acid transporter A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A4 gene. In melanocytic cells SLC1A4 gene ... Zerangue N, Kavanaugh MP (Dec 1996). "ASCT-1 is a neutral amino acid exchanger with chloride channel activity". J Biol Chem. ... Marin M, Tailor CS, Nouri A, Kabat D (2000). "Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter type 1 is an auxiliary receptor ... Pinilla J, Barber A, Lostao MP (2002). "Active transport of alanine by the neutral amino-acid exchanger ASCT1". Can. J. Physiol ...
"Identification and characterization of a lysosomal transporter for small neutral amino acids". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98 (13 ... 2004). "H+/amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) is the imino acid carrier: An intestinal nutrient/drug transporter in human and rat ... Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC36A1 gene. This gene encodes a member ... Boll M, Foltz M, Rubio-Aliaga I, Daniel H (2004). "A cluster of proton/amino acid transporter genes in the human and mouse ...
There is an equal distribution of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and neutral amino acids. Near the C-terminus there is a positively ... It has six cysteine residues which form three disulphide bonds, between the specific amino acid locations 2&16, 19&21 and 15&28 ... The toxin consists of 31 amino acids (ACSRAGENCYKSGRCCDGLYCKAYVVTCYKP). This sequence forms a peptide with a molecular weight ...
... is synthesized as a pre-proenzyme consisting of a signal peptide 28 amino acids long, a pro-peptide 204 amino acids ... amylosacchariticus neutral protease". Eur. J. Biochem. 64 (1): 243-247. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1976.tb10293.x. PMID 819262. ... In particular a phenylalanine (F) at amino acid position 63 and a proline (P) at amino acid position 69 contribute ... Changing these amino acids to threonine (T) and alanine (A) respectively in a less stable thermolysin-like proteinase produced ...
Bernd Michael Rode
"Prebiotic formation of amino acids in a neutral atmosphere by electric discharge"; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, pp. 1886- ... Jakschitz, Thomas; Fitz, Daniel; Rode, Bernd Michael (2012); "The origin of first peptides on earth: from amino acids to ... Schwendinger, M. G.; Rode, Bend M. (1990); "Copper-Catalyzed Amino Acid Condensation in Water - A Simple Possible Way of ... from amino acids to homochiral biomolecules"; In: Genesis - In The Beginning, Joseph Seckbach (Eds.), ISBN 978-94-007-2940-7, ...
Solute carrier family 6 member 15 (SLC6A15) also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT2 (B0AT2)' ... Zaia KA, Reimer RJ (Mar 2009). "Synaptic Vesicle Protein NTT4/XT1 (SLC6A17) Catalyzes Na+-coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... neutral amino acid transporter)". Farmer MK, Robbins MJ, Medhurst AD, Campbell DA, Ellington K, Duckworth M, Brown AM, ... is a Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (B0AT2)". The Biochemical Journal. 393 (Pt 1): 421-30. doi:10.1042/BJ20051273 ...
... amino acid sequences and DNA sequences. Proteins with the same three-dimensional structure need not have identical amino acid ... Selectively neutral similaritiesEdit. Similarities which have no adaptive relevance cannot be explained by convergent evolution ... that code redundantly for the same amino acid. Since many species use the same codon at the same place to specify an amino acid ... Had the amino acid sequences come from different ancestors, they would have been coded for by any of the redundant codons, and ...
The prototype of a protein disulfide bond is the two-amino-acid peptide cystine, which is composed of two cysteine amino acids ... Figure 3. Cystine is composed of two cysteines linked by a disulfide bond (shown here in its neutral form). ... Over 90% of the dry weight of hair comprises proteins called keratins, which have a high disulfide content, from the amino acid ... This small protein, essential in all known organisms, contains two cysteine amino acid residues in a vicinal arrangement (i.e ...
Homoserine/threonine resistance transporter
The transport reaction presumably catalyzed by members of the RhtB family is: amino acid (in) + nH+ (out) ⇌ amino acid (out) + ... The leucine exporter homologue (YeaS or LeuE; TC# 2.A.76.1.5) exports leucine and several other neutral, hydrophobic amino ... Aleshin, V. V.; Zakataeva, N. P.; Livshits, V. A. (1999-04-01). "A new family of amino-acid-efflux proteins". Trends in ... "The novel transmembrane Escherichia coli proteins involved in the amino acid efflux". FEBS Letters. 452 (3): 228-232. doi: ...
2009). "Orphan transporter SLC6A18 is renal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT3". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (30): 19953-60. doi: ... Bröer S (2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-86. doi: ... The SLC6 family of proteins, which includes SLC6A18, acts as specific transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, and ...
Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ... neutral amino acid transporter Bo from a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 ( ...
vulgaris) in the nineteenth century. It is a small N-trimethylated amino acid, existing in zwitterionic form at neutral pH. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3957-8. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3957. PMC 146979. PMID 9380524.. ... ɪn/) in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as a quaternary ...
The format these mutations are given in are the amino acid that is supposed to be there, the amino acid number, and then the ... C20orf96 has a neutral charge, with no additional positive, negative, or mixed charge clusters. NetPhos predicts 10 serine ... The unusual amounts of amino acids are found as alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, and glutamine. Glutamic acid and glutamine ... At the end of the sequence, there is also a small, four amino acid beta-strand. There are no known crystal structures for this ...
Nuclear localization sequence
... and showed amino acid features common to all three. The role of neutral and acidic amino acids was shown for the first time in ... two clusters of basic amino acids, separated by a spacer of about 10 amino acids. Both signals are recognized by importin α. ... "Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localisation signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids". Curr. Biol. ... This PY-NLS motif, so named because of the proline-tyrosine amino acid pairing in it, allows the protein to bind to Importin β2 ...
A neutral mutation is a mutation that occurs in an amino acid codon that results in the use of a different, but chemically ... Amino acid substitution (e.g., D111E) - The first letter is the one letter code of the wild-type amino acid, the number is the ... Nonsense mutations are represented with an X for the second amino acid (e.g. D111X). Amino acid deletion (e.g., ΔF508) - The ... amino acid. Missense mutations, which code for a different amino acid. Nonsense mutations, which code for a stop codon and can ...
"Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 ... The predictions of neutral theory, based on genetic drift, do not fit recent data on whole genomes well: these data suggest ... In 1968 Motoo Kimura rekindled the debate with his neutral theory of molecular evolution which claims that most of the changes ... neutral, or detrimental to reproductive success. The effect of genetic drift is larger in small populations, and smaller in ...
β1 and β2 are interchangeable but differ slightly in amino acid composition. The γ complex contains 135 amino acid residues ... The β complex is neutral and can be separated into two isoforms. ... The α and β complex consist of 120 amino acid residues which are cross linked by 7 disulfide bridges. The alpha subunit is very ... It is very acidic due to 4 sialic acid residues, which might be important for complex formation. The gamma subunit also seems ...
"Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... For example, all living cells use the same basic set of nucleotides and amino acids. The development of molecular genetics has ... The neutral theory of molecular evolution proposed that most evolutionary changes are the result of the fixation of neutral ... Kreitman, Martin (August 1996). "The neutral theory is dead. Long live the neutral theory". BioEssays. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley ...
A high-protein diet can overcome the deficient transport of neutral amino acids in most patients. Poor nutrition leads to more ... The defective gene controls the absorption of certain amino acids from the intestine and the reabsorption of those amino acids ... Nicotinamide is necessary for neutral amino acid transporter production in the proximal renal tubules found in the kidney, and ... SLC6A19 is a sodium-dependent and chloride-independent neutral amino acid transporter, expressed predominately in the kidneys ...
De novo peptide sequencing
For interpretation, first, look for single amino acid immonium ions (H2N+=CHR2). Corresponding immonium ions for amino acids ... Arg-containing ions generate neutral molecular loss of ammonia (-17). Neutral loss of ammonia from Arg leads to fragment ions ( ... as well as single amino acids that have equal mass to b2-ions. The mass of b2-ion = mass of two amino acid residues + 1. ... is observed in fragment with RKNQ amino acids in it. Loss of water (-18 Da) can be observed in fragment with STED amino acids ...
Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... They have neutral buoyancy and drift through the water with the fins extended. They can also contract their arms and ... Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... of the Fisherman's Wife), in which an ama diver is sexually intertwined with a large and a small octopus. The print ...
Iron will bond with an amino acid produced by the kōji to produce off flavors and a yellowish color. Manganese, when exposed to ... Now +3 is considered neutral.. *Seimai-buai (精米歩合) is the rice polishing ratio, the percentage of weight remaining after ... As the proportion of amino acids rises, the sake tastes more savory. This number is determined by titration of the sake with a ... aldehydes and amino acids, among other unknown factors. Tōji. Tōji (杜氏) is the job title of the sake brewer, named ...
Coomassie Brilliant Blue
Through a study done at the University of Albany, it was shown that the ability of the Coomassie dye to target amino acids with ... In neutral media (pH 7), only the nitrogen atom of the diphenylamine moiety carries a positive charge and the blue dye molecule ... This provides a simpler method for fingerprint analysis by reducing the number of amino acids needed to be analyzed from 23 to ... A protein sample is added to a solution of the dye in phosphoric acid and ethanol. Under the acid conditions the dye is ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... This class of biofuels includes electrofuels and photobiological solar fuels. Some of these fuels are carbon-neutral. ... Biofuels are in theory carbon-neutral because the carbon dioxide that is absorbed by the plants is equal to the carbon dioxide ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ...
Amino acid. Codons. Compressed Amino acid. Codons. Compressed Ala / A GCU, GCC, GCA, GCG GCN Leu / L UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, ... Neutral theory of molecular evolution. References. *^ a b c d e f g Watson JD, Baker TA, Bell SP, Gann A, Levine M, ... the amino acid glutamic acid is specified by GAA and GAG codons (difference in the third position); the amino acid leucine is ... Only two amino acids are specified by a single codon each. One of these is the amino-acid methionine, specified by the codon ...
فهرست یهودیان برنده جایزه نوبل - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... the prediction of the weak neutral current" ... concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" ... his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid- ...
... and differences with previous cDNA and amino acid sequences". DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.85. ... Acid alpha-glucosidase, also called α-1,4-glucosidase and acid maltase, is an enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168) that helps to break ... Different forms of acid alpha-glucosidase are obtained by proteolytic processing. Defects in this gene are the cause of ... "Entrez Gene: GAA glucosidase, alpha; acid (Pompe disease, glycogen storage disease type II)".. ...
... ting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... The choice of alkaline over neutral transfer methods, however, is often empirical and may result in equivalent results.[ ... If some of the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb, then prior to blotting, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute ... in an alkaline environment may improve binding of the negatively charged thymine residues of DNA to a positively charged amino ...
6-(N-ethyl-N-(5-isobutoxy-4-isopropyl-2-(E)-styrylphenyl)amino)nicotinic acid ... "Sebaceous glands in acne patients express high levels of neutral endopeptidase". Experimental Dermatology. 11 (3): 241-7. doi: ... Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid and sold under the brand name Accutane among others, is a medication primarily ... 2Z,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraenoic acid ...
پرتو کیهانی - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
The ubiquitin protein itself is 76 amino acids long and was named due to its ubiquitous nature, as it has a highly conserved ... Wilk S, Orlowski M (November 1980). "Cation-sensitive neutral endopeptidase: isolation and specificity of the bovine pituitary ... The mechanism for unfolding of globular proteins is necessarily general, but somewhat dependent on the amino acid sequence. ... The degradation process yields peptides of about seven to eight amino acids long, which can then be further degraded into ...
Amino acid sequence of sweet protein curculin adapted from Swiss-Prot biological database of protein sequences. ... In the same way, monovalent ions (such as Na+ and Cl−) have no effect in solutions with either neutral or acidic pH. ... Sweetness was also observed with other acids such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and acetic acid. ... The mature monomers each consist of a sequence of 114 amino acids, weighing 12.5 kDa (curculin 1) and 12.7 kDa (curculin 2), ...
Hidrogen bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"1H NMR studies of deuterated ribonuclease HI selectively labeled with protonated amino acids". Journal of Biomolecular NMR. 2 ( ... Helm, H.; et.al., Coupling of Bound States to Continuum States in Neutral Triatomic Hydrogen (PDF), Germany: Department of ... "Surveys for z , 3 Damped Lyman-alpha Absorption Systems: the Evolution of Neutral Gas". Astrophysical Journal. 543: 552-576 ...
a source of amino acids and nitrogen (e.g., beef, yeast extract) *This is an undefined medium because the amino-acid source ... such as neutral red, phenol red, eosin y, or methylene blue) added to the medium to visibly indicate the defining ... Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by ... Supplementary minimal media are minimal media that also contains a single selected agent, usually an amino acid or a sugar. ...
... which corresponds to a temperature at which HNC would already have been destroyed by neutral-neutral reactions. ... Conjugate acid Hydrocyanonium Conjugate base Cyanide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ... and it is destroyed primarily through ion-neutral reactions with H+. 3 and C+. Rate calculations were done at 3.16 × 10 ...
... s range in size from 12 to 80 amino acid residues and have a wide range of structures. Most cathelicidins are ... Even larger cathelicidin peptides (39-80 amino acid residues) are also present. These larger cathelicidins display repetitive ... although amino acid residues thought to be important in such protease inhibition are usually lacking. ... linear peptides with 23-37 amino acid residues, and fold into amphipathic α-helices. Additionally cathelicidins may also be ...
Human digestive system
... amino acids and fatty acids into the bloodstream. The circular folds also slow the passage of food giving more time for ... which protects the acid-sensitive vitamin from the acidic stomach contents. Once in the more neutral duodenum, pancreatic ... The liver can also synthesise glucose from certain amino acids. Its digestive functions are largely involved with the breaking ... Gastric acid (informally gastric juice), produced in the stomach plays a vital role in the digestive process, and mainly ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2
"Mutation of three critical amino acids of the N-terminal domain of IGF-binding protein-3 essential for high affinity IGF ... The MeSH definition reads: "A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the ... "Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein 5 forms an alternative ternary complex with IGFs and the acid-labile subunit" ...
Histone proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of ... The acetylation event converts the positively charged amine group on the side chain into a neutral amide linkage. This removes ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. ... The SET domain is a 130-amino acid sequence involved in modulating gene activities. This domain has been demonstrated to bind ...
Ergotoxine group (valine as the amino acid attached to the ergoline moiety, at R2 below) *Ergocristine *IUPAC name: Ergotaman-3 ... Lysergic acid amides. Main article: Lysergamides. *Ergine (LSA, D-lysergic acid amide, LAA, LA-111) *IUPAC name: 9,10- ... This structure consists of proline and two other α-amino acids, linked in an unusual cyclol formation ,N-C(OH), with the ... There are 3 main classes of ergoline derivatives, the water-soluble amides of lysergic acid, the water-insoluble ergopeptines ( ...
... derived from the related proteinogenic L-amino acid glutamic acid. Theanine is an analog of this amino acid, and its primary ... acid racemization in aqueous media is a well-established chemical process promoted by elevated temperature and non-neutral pH ... is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular ... Not to be confused with threonine, a distinct amino acid, or theine, an archaic synonym of caffeine. ...
The amino acid sequence and arrangement of their residues that occur within the active site, the position where the substrate ... Depending on their amino acid sequence and tertiary structures, cellulases are divided into clans and families. ... The reaction was terminated by the addition of 3 ml dinitrosalicylic acid reagent. Absorbance was read at 540 nm. ...
Male rats - Adjudin (analogue of indazole-carboxylic acid), induces reversible germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium ... the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel Rabbi Shlomo Amar issued a ruling stating that it is permissible to have companion animals ... Please help improve it by integrating both sides into a more neutral presentation, or remove this template if you feel that ...
... and some amino acids. Hypoxia can result from a failure at any stage in the delivery of oxygen to cells. This can include ... electrons will be shifted to pyruvic acid in the process of lactic acid fermentation. This temporary measure (anaerobic ... Lactic acid build up (in tissues and blood) is a sign of inadequate mitochondrial oxygenation, which may be due to hypoxemia, ...
Mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate carrier
May 2010). "Use of sustainable chemistry to produce an acyl amino acid surfactant". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 86 (5): 1387- ... Fatty acid esters of polyhydroxy compounds. Fatty acid esters of glycerol. *Glycerol monostearate ... Fatty acid ethoxylates. Fatty acid ethoxylates are a class of very versatile surfactants, which combine in a single ... Shown in red - choline and phosphate group; black - glycerol; green - monounsaturated fatty acid; blue - saturated fatty acid. ...
INCREASE IN LARGE NEUTRAL AMINO ACID TRANSPORT INTO BRAIN BY INSULIN
Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in rats: dissociation between transport and insulin...
Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in rats: dissociation between transport and insulin- ... 8 Leucine and tissue distribution of bulky and small neutral amino acids in cts.pdf (3.193Mb) ... The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu ... Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except ...
Evidence that the large neutral amino acid L-valine decreases electrically-evoked release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus in vivo. -...
SLC7A8 / LAT2 - TA500513 | acris-antibodies.com
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine ... L-type amino acid transporter 2, Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2, Solute carrier family 7 member 8. ... Plays an essential role in the reabsorption of neutral amino acids from the epithelial cells to the bloodstream in the kidney. ... Plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when ...
tryp - Wiktionary
All large neutral amino acids, including tryp, showed significant postprandial increases. The ratio of total tryp to the sum of ... Through biochemical analysis of the tryp A protein, it was shown that each of the 16 mutants resulted in an amino acid ... these neutral amino acids did not change in response to eating. ...
Brain Serotonin Content: Physiological Regulation by Plasma Neutral Amino Acids | Science
A one-gate elevator mechanism for the human neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 | Nature Communications
How the human Alanine Serine Cysteine Transporter 2 (ASCT2) binds its substrates, neutral amino acids, and releases them on the ... is a neutral amino acid exchanger that belongs to the solute carrier family 1 (SLC1A). SLC1A structures have revealed an ... which in mammals consists of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1-EAAT5 (SLC1A1-3, 6-7) and the neutral amino acid ... to a cysteine in EAAT3 has been shown to abolish acidic amino-acid transport and instead introduced neutral amino-acid ...
Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids. - PubMed -...
... is a single cluster of basic amino acids (PKKKRKV132; single-letter code, the basic amino acids are shown in bold; [4,5]), ... Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids.. Makkerh JP1 ... Contrary to conventional views, neutral and even acidic amino acids can play crucial roles in NLSs. ... The nucleoplasmin NLS requires two essential clusters of basic amino acids, separated by a mutation-tolerant spacer ( ...
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 - DrugBank
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. Details. Name. Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. ... Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0010207,Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 ... Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood- ... amino acid transmembrane transport / amino acid transport / blood coagulation / cation transmembrane transport / cell ...
6TMS neutral amino acid transporter family - Wikipedia
The generalized reaction catalyzed by SnatA is: Amino acid (in) → Amino acid (out) MarC is encoded by a gene at the multiple ... The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family (TC# 2.A.95) is a family of transporters belonging to the Lysine Exporter ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.95 The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid ... A gene encoding a small neutral amino acid transporter was cloned from the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon ...
SLC7A8 - Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC7A8 gene & protein
Plays an essential role in the reabsorption of neutral amino acids from the epithelial cells to the bloodstream in the kidney. ... Plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when ... Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine ... high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, ...
SLC1A5 - Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC1A5 gene & protein
It accepts as substrates all neutral amino acids, including glutamine, asparagine, and branched-chain and aromatic amino acids ... and cationic amino acids (PubMed:8702519, PubMed:29872227). Through binding of the fusogenic protein syncytin-1/ERVW-1 may ... Sodium-dependent amino acids transporter that has a broad substrate specificity, with a preference for zwitterionic amino acids ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0)Add BLAST. 541. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
Transamination of neutral amino acids and 2-keto acids in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria.
... activities catalyzing the reactions between L-glutamate and L-glutamine and the aliphatic ketomonocarboxylic acids 2- ... 0/Glutamates; 0/Hexanoic Acids; 0/Keto Acids; 2492-75-3/alpha-ketocaproic acid; 56-85-9/Glutamine; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid; 61-90 ... Glutamic Acid. Glutamine / metabolism*. Hexanoic Acids / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / enzymology*. Keto Acids / ... Previous Document: Self-association mode of a flavoenzyme D-amino acid oxidase from hog kidney. II. Stoichiometry of ho.... ...
The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.
... accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, ... Amino Acid Transport System A / physiology*. Amino Acids, Neutral / metabolism*. Biological Transport. Cell Membrane / ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System A; 0/Amino Acids, Neutral; 0/Hypertonic Solutions; 0/RNA, Small Interfering; 0/SLC38A2 protein, ...
Reversed diurnal variation in depression: associations with a differential antidepressant response, tryptophan:large neutral...
... large neutral amino acid ratio and serotonin transporter polymorphisms - Volume 35 Issue 4 - PETER R. JOYCE, RICHARD J. PORTER ... large neutral amino acid ratio and serotonin transporter polymorphisms. * PETER R. JOYCE (a1), RICHARD J. PORTER (a1), ROGER T ... large neutral amino acid ratio and had different allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in the promoter region of the ...
Tyrosine supplementation in phenylketonuria: diurnal blood tyrosine levels and presumptive brain influx of tyrosine and other...
... and all free amino acids were measured every 6 hours. Brain influxes of tyrosine and other large neutral amino acids were ... The calculated brain influxes of all other large neutral amino acids except tryptophan were 20% to 40% of normal before and ... diurnal blood tyrosine levels and presumptive brain influx of tyrosine and other large neutral amino acids J Pediatr. 2001 Sep; ... after tyrosine supplementation in treated PKU and calculate brain influxes of tyrosine and other large neutral amino acids ...
CiNii 論文 - Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter Inhibited by the Volatile...
Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter Inhibited by the Volatile Anesthetic, Halothane, in Megakaryocytes * * SHIMADA ... The regulation of neutral amino acid transport in mammalian cells SHOTWELL MA ... On the strategy of kinetic discrimination of amino acid transport systems CHRISTENSEN H. ...
topology and parameter file for neutral amino acid - CHARMM forums
Questions Parameter Set Discussion topology and parameter file for neutral amino acid. ... I am trying to simulate a neutral (not in zwitter ion form) asparatic acid in water. The structure is:. COOH. ,. CH2. , COOH-C- ... Hello everyone, I need to model neutral arginine (i.e. protonated H should not be with NH group) , But could not find any thing ... Hello everyone, I need to model neutral arginine (i.e. protonated H should not be with NH group) , But could not find any thing ...
Impacts of Birth Weight on Plasma, Liver and Skeletal Muscle Neutral Amino Acid Profiles and Intestinal Amino Acid Transporters...
Frontiers | Functional Polarity of Microvascular Brain Endothelial Cells Supported by Neurovascular Unit Computational Model of...
The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential ... The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential ... both Na+-independent large neutral amino acid antiporters, and B0AT2 (SLC6A15), a Na+-dependent large neutral amino acid ... Keywords: blood brain barrier, neurovascular unit, amino acid transporter, large neutral amino acid, SLC7A5/LAT1 ...
Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3 (HMDBP03036)
Amino acid transport and metabolism. Specific Function. Sodium-dependent amino acid/proton antiporter. Mediates electrogenic ... Showing Protein Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3 (HMDBP03036). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... May mediate amino acid transport in either direction under physiological conditions. May play a role in nitrogen metabolism and ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3 MEAPLQTEMVELVPNGKHSEGLLPVITPMAGNQRVEDPARSCMEGKSFLQKSPSKEPHFT ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral
... neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral ... neutral in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Amino acid transport systems ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... neutral. (redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ...
Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual...
Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ... Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ... Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ... Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...
... cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids. Fischer, Wolf‐N.; ... Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids. Low and high ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids." The Plant Journal ...
Electrical Evidence for Different Mechanisms of Uptake for Basic, Neutral, and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles | 10.1104...
... and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands ... and basic amino acids. We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that accumulation ... and basic amino acids. We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that accumulation ... and Acidic Amino Acids... Thomas B. Kinraide and Bud Etherton 1980-06-01 00:00:00 The application of neutral or acidic amino ...
Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids - Zurich Open...
Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids ... Download PDF Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids. Item ... Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids. Journal of the ... Reabsorption of amino acids (AAs) across the renal proximal tubule is crucial for intracellular and whole organism AA ...
Human Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag), Recombinant | ABIN1320502
Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ... Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) (AA... Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 ... Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * ... Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) (AA 326-414), (partial) protein (GST tag) ...
Complex Mixture of Acids, Bases, Amino Acids, and Neutral Compounds | SIELC
Complex Mixture of Acids, Bases, Amino Acids, and Neutral Compounds. *Home. *Complex Mixture of Acids, Bases, Amino Acids, and ... Amino Acids. Benzoic Acid. Benzonitrile. Benzylamine. Mandelic Acid. Organic Acids. Phenylalanine. Pyridine. Toluene. Tyrosine ... Primesep 100 separates a mixture of amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine), organic acids (benzoic acid, mandelic acid), amines ... Amino acid. Analyzing Compounds. Tyrosine, phenylalanine, Benzoic acid, mandelic acid, Benzylamine, Pyridine, Benzonitrile, ...
The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. - Department...
... to the sum of the plasma concentrations of other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) was calculated in 26 chronic, in-patient ... The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. ... The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. ... The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. ...
Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter (SLC1/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific...
Neutral macrocycles and their interactions with amino acids and amines. Thermodynamic, electrochemical and structural studies...
... and D-amino acids with these ligands in this solvent with corresponding data previously reported for DL- amino acids and the ... An increase in the solubility data for the amino acid complexes relative to the free amino acids has been found, as a result of ... The first part of this work deals with the interactions of amino acids and neutral macrocyclic ligands (18-crown-6 and cryptand ... Neutral macrocycles and their interactions with amino acids and amines. Thermodynamic, electrochemical and structural studies ...
Determining the effect of the ratio of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids on the growth performance of finishing pigs
Keywords: Swine; Amino acids; Large neutral amino acids; Lysine; Tryptophan; Finishing pig ... Determining the effect of the ratio of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids on the growth performance of finishing pigs. K- ... Determining the effect of the ratio of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids on the growth performance of finishing pigs. ... determine the effect of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan to large neutral amino acids (LNAA) ratio on growth ...
The Effect of Ethanol on the Transport of a Neutral Amino Acid in the Perfused Whole Human Placenta
... acids across the human placenta was studied in the dual perfusion apparatus using a non-metabolizable α-amino isobutyric acid ( ... The effect of ethanol on the transport of amino ... The neutral amino acid, -amino isobutyric acid (AIB), has been ... Placental Amino Acid Uptake. III. Transport Systems for Neutral Amino Acid Acids. American Journal of Physiology, 230, 706-710 ... concentrations of amino acids in fetal plasma are greater than in maternal plasma, 2) placental transfer of amino acids against ...
"Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates L-ci" by Anna Dikalova, Angela Fagiana et al.
Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) are involved in the transport of L-citrulline into pulmonary arterial ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) are involved in the transport of L-citrulline into pulmonary arterial ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates L-citrulline transport and nitric oxide (NO) signaling in ... Amino Acid Transport System A--physiology; Citrulline--metabolism; Endothelial Cells; Nitric Oxide--metabolism; Pulmonary ...
Large neutral amino acidsTransportersTryptophanPhenylalanineProteinsAlanineLAT1TyrosineGlycineLysineCotransport of neutral amino acidsBasic aminoLeucineFree amino acidsSeveral amino acidsRenalDibasic amino acidsAminesAcidicTransmembraneGlutamateSLC6A19OrganicZwitterionicConcentrationsLNAAsAromaticProteinIntracellularMetabolismHplcSerineHydrophobic aminoHuman neutral amino acidIonsNutrientsMediateAminoaciduriaNitrogenPancreaticAntiporterMetabolicTripeptidesCommon amino acidsMajor amino acidsSequenceSingle-amino-acid substitutionSodiumPolarGlutamineAsparticLargeTransporter familyCompoundsMolecular WeightTransport of neutralGeneSynthesisHydrogenProtonConcentration
Large neutral amino acids1
- The Alanine Serine Cysteine Transporter 2 (ASCT2) belongs to the solute carrier family 1 (SLC1A) of transporters, which in mammals consists of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1-EAAT5 (SLC1A1-3, 6-7) and the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1-ASCT2 (SLC1A4-5) 1 . (nature.com)
- The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family (TC# 2.A.95) is a family of transporters belonging to the Lysine Exporter (LysE) Superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
- Moreover, through a complex array of exchange fluxes, involving other amino acid transporters, and of metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of glutamate from glutamine, SNAT2 activity influences the cell content of most amino acids, thus determining the overall size and the composition of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
- The NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 which may regulate its extracellular levels in the CNS. (aspetjournals.org)
- AAPs are distantly related to plasma membrane amino acid transport systems N and A and to vesicular transporters such as VGAT from mammals. (deepdyve.com)
- AAP3 and AAP5 are the only transporters mediating efficient transport of the basic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
- Thus, the physiologic roles of basolateral transporters of neutral AAs, such as the antiporter LAT2/CD98hc (SLC7A8/SLC3A2), a heterodimer that exports most neutral AAs, and the uniporter TAT1 (SLC16A10), which exports only aromatic AAs, remain unclear. (uzh.ch)
- The LAT2/CD98hc and TAT1 transporters functionally cooperate , and yLAT1/CD98hc may compensate for the loss of LAT2/CD98hc and TAT1, functioning as a neutral AA exporter at the expense of some urinary loss of cationic AAs. (uzh.ch)
- Cooperative and compensatory mechanisms of AA transporters may explain the lack of basolateral neutral aminoacidurias in humans. (uzh.ch)
- Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) are involved in the transport of L-citrulline into pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs). (gwu.edu)
- Amino acid transporters play essential roles in the uptake of nutrients, production of energy, chemical metabolism, detoxification, and neurotransmitter cycling. (nih.gov)
- The mammalian solute carrier family 1 contains five high affinity, Na + -dependent glutamate transporters and two structurally related Na + -dependent, neutral amino acid transporters. (vtt.fi)
- Mammalian glutamate transporters take up 1 L-Glu, L-Asp, or D-Asp molecule along with 3 Na + and 1 H + , in exchange for 1 K + , whereas the neutral amino acid transporters instead mediate Na + -dependent exchange of small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Cys and Thr. (vtt.fi)
- Oddly enough, a Na+-reliant drip anion conductance with comparable properties once was reported for the related excitatory amino acidity transporters (EAATs), recommending that this drip anion conductance is usually highly conserved inside the EAAT proteins family. (bioinbrief.com)
- A characteristic practical feature of excitatory amino acidity transporters is usually their glutamate-gated anion conductance (Wadiche 1995). (bioinbrief.com)
- We report here association studies of schizophrenia with SLC1A4, SLC1A5 encoding neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1, ASCT2, and SLC6A5, SLC6A9 encoding glycine transporters GLYT2, GLYT1, respectively. (cdc.gov)
- T cells responded to antigen by upregulating expression of many amino-acid transporters, but a single System L ('leucine-preferring system') transporter, Slc7a5, mediated uptake of LNAAs in activated T cells. (nih.gov)
- Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. (frontiersin.org)
- Amino acid transporters (AATs) function in long distance amino acid transport and are essential participants in the resource allocation processes that support plant growth, development, and responses to pathogen and abiotic stresses ( Tegeder, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The APC family is further grouped into cationic amino acid transporters (CATs), amino acid/choline transporters (ACTs) and polyamine H + -symporters (PHSs) subfamilies ( Tegeder, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. (drugbank.ca)
- Those with reversed diurnal variation had a poorer response to a serotonergic antidepressant, were less likely to have bipolar II disorder, had a higher tryptophan:large neutral amino acid ratio and had different allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter. (cambridge.org)
- The calculated brain influxes of all other large neutral amino acids except tryptophan were 20% to 40% of normal before and with tyrosine supplementation. (nih.gov)
- Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
- One particular amino acid transported by B 0 AT1, tryptophan, is needed to produce vitamin B3 (also known as niacin). (medlineplus.gov)
- Plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine were measured every 2 hours, and all free amino acids were measured every 6 hours. (nih.gov)
- The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. (ox.ac.uk)
- The ratio of the plasma concentration of phenylalanine (PA) to the sum of the plasma concentrations of other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) was calculated in 26 chronic, in-patient schizophrenics who met diagnostic criteria for tardive dyskinesia and 22 patients who did not. (ox.ac.uk)
- Teixobactin contains a (2 S , 4 S ) enduracididine ( L - allo -End), an N -methyl- D -phenylalanine and three other D -amino-acid residues. (nature.com)
- The investigated stationary phases were modified by the following amino acids: phenylalanine, leucine, alanine, glycine, and aspartic acid. (springer.com)
- These results confirm previous in vitro studies on phenylalanine and lysine in CF, and demonstrate a defect in active absorption of neutral non-polar amino acids in pancreatic insufficiency [PI]. (who.int)
- The prodrug with phenylalanine derivative as the promoiety had both higher affinity for LAT1 and better brain uptake properties than those with an alkyl amino acid -mimicking promoiety. (springer.com)
- This deficiency leads to a buildup of an essential amino acid called phenylalanine (Phe) in the blood and tissues because PAH is required for the conversion of Phe into tyrosine, a neutral amino acid. (ahrq.gov)
- Perhaps the most critical nutrients for fetal development are the amino acids, since they are the building blocks of the body's proteins. (scirp.org)
- However, the uptake capacity of the above-mentioned transport proteins was relatively smaller in the embryonic kidney compared with the adult human kidney, which may explain, at least partly, the phenomenon of physiologic amino aciduria in neonates. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
- How do amino acids form the intricate polypeptide chains found in proteins? (study.com)
- One interesting fact about aspartic acid is that it's very active, catalytically, in proteins, and that carboxylic acid side chain is usually missing that hydrogen at biological pH, so it's a negative amino acid. (study.com)
- Strings of amino acids make up proteins, of which there are countless varieties. (encyclopedia.com)
- Of the 20 amino acids required for manufacturing the proteins the human body needs, the body itself produces only 12, meaning that we have to meet our requirements for the other eight through nutrition. (encyclopedia.com)
- As a result, affected individuals are not able to use these amino acids to produce other substances, such as vitamins and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- In the body, these amino acids are used in the production of many other substances, including vitamins and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- Amino acids are a group of 21 different molecules which, when bonded in sequence, make up proteins . (conservapedia.com)
- There are around 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids which polymerise by condensation polymerisation to form all known polypeptides (which form the primary structure of proteins ) in biological organisms during gene translation . (conservapedia.com)
- Some organisms contain atypical amino acids in their proteins, such as the D-amino acids, selenocystine or pyrolysine. (conservapedia.com)
- All living organisms use exclusively L optical isomers of amino acids for they proteins. (conservapedia.com)
- Since thermodynamic stability is a global property of proteins that has to be conserved during evolution, the selective pressure at a given site of a protein sequence depends on the amino acids present at other sites. (biomedcentral.com)
- An essential amino acid , commonly found at the active/ catalytic site in proteins and enzymes . (everything2.com)
- Amino acids are critical to humans, since they form the proteins that are the building blocks for many body tissues, including muscles. (encyclopedia.com)
- The human Alanine Serine Cysteine Transporter 2 (ASCT2) is a neutral amino acid exchanger that belongs to the solute carrier family 1 (SLC1A). (nature.com)
- As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high transmembrane gradients and constitute major components of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
- The protein encoded by this gene is a sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter for alanine, serine, cysteine, and threonine. (nih.gov)
- The transport characteristics of amino acids in primary cell cultures from the proximal tubule of human adults (AHKE cells) were examined, using alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and beta-alanine as representatives of alpha- and beta-amino acids, respectively. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
- By contrast, the influx of beta-alanine was only drastically reduced by beta-amino acids, whereas the inhibition by neutral alpha-amino acids was relatively low. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
- Nor did L-arginine and L-aspartic acid affect the uptake of beta-alanine into AHKE cells. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
- The neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 catalyses uncoupled anion flux over the cell membrane in the current presence of transported substrates, such as for example alanine. (bioinbrief.com)
- The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. (tcdb.org)
- Another amino acid called alanine may be combined with glutamine. (encyclopedia.com)
- Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. (springer.com)
- The objective of this research was to investigate the presence of an Na + -independent, large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1, on rabbit corneal epithelium and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
- Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) was performed on total RNA from rabbit cornea, SIRC cells, and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
- 2.A.3.8.7 y+LAT1 (transports neutral amino acids (i.e. (tcdb.org)
- Join glycine, a special amino acid, as she sizes up the other amino acids. (study.com)
- And on the carbon, in between the amine group and the carboxylic acid carbon, there is typically a sidechain attached, except in glycine. (study.com)
- My name is glycine, and I'm an amino acid. (study.com)
- All of the amino acids in the human body, except glycine, are either right-hand or left-hand versions of the same molecule, meaning that in some amino acids the positions of the carboxyl group and the R -group are switched. (encyclopedia.com)
- All α-amino acids except glycine CH 2 (NH 2 )COOH and proline are complex enough to have the two optical isomers that are mirror images of each other (L and R). This is because they have four different groups around the alpha carbon, forming a chiral centre . (conservapedia.com)
- Amino acid analysis that does not account for lysine recovered from acid hydrolysis of Maillard products may overestimate the amount of digestible lysine in a sample. (thepigsite.com)
- The analyzed concentrations of some amino acids decreased with increasing heat treatment, with the greatest decreases for lysine and arginine. (thepigsite.com)
Cotransport of neutral amino acids2
- Uncharged forms of acidic and basic amino acids are cotransported with one proton. (deepdyve.com)
- In vivo competition shows that the capability to transport basic amino acids in planta might be overruled by excess amides and acidic amino acids in the apoplasm. (deepdyve.com)
- The basic amino acids depolarized the cell membrane strongly, but the repolarizations were weak or absent. (deepdyve.com)
- The depolarizations induced by the basic amino acids were weakly sensitive to manipulations of the extracellular and intracellular pH. (deepdyve.com)
- These experiments support the co-transport theory but suggest somewhat different mechanisms for the transport of the neutral, acidic, and basic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
- The permanently protonated basic amino acids appear not to be co-transported with an additional proton. (deepdyve.com)
- The most strongly basic amino acid . (everything2.com)
- transports basic amino acids (i.e. (tcdb.org)
- Mediates blood-to-retina L-leucine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier which in turn may play a key role in maintaining large neutral amino acids as well as neurotransmitters in the neural retina. (drugbank.ca)
- High rates of transamination of 2-ketoglutarate were observed in the pancreatic B-cell mitochondria with the branched-chain amino acids L-leucine and L-valine, but not with L-norleucine. (biomedsearch.com)
- In connection with the ability of L-leucine to activate glutamate dehydrogenase, this high activity of the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria may provide an explanation for the insulin secretory potency of this amino acid. (biomedsearch.com)
Free amino acids1
- Solubilities and Gibbs energies of solution of several amino acids and their complexes with 18-crown-6 in acetonitrile, as well as of some amino acid ester salts in chloroform have been determined at 298.15 K. An increase in the solubility data for the amino acid complexes relative to the free amino acids has been found, as a result of the interactions of the guest molecules with the macrocyclic ligands. (surrey.ac.uk)
Several amino acids3
- Several amino acids induced distinct but diminished depolarizations in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol or cyanide, but the repolarizations were generally eliminated. (deepdyve.com)
- The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu has remained unexplained. (ucr.ac.cr)
- Primary is specific to one amino acid while secondary involves several amino acids. (studystack.com)
- Renal transport of neutral amino acids. (biochemj.org)
- Reabsorption of amino acids (AAs) across the renal proximal tubule is crucial for intracellular and whole organism AA homeostasis. (uzh.ch)
- MIM:234500), an autosomal recessive abnormality of renal and gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport characterised by increased urinary and intestinal excretion of neutral amino acids. (reactome.org)
- The level of amino acids within the plasma are above the renal threshold and therefore spill into the urine. (studystack.com)
- Mutations in the SLC6A19 gene, which encodes the SLC6A19 (B 0 AT1) neutral amino acid transporter, causes a failure of the transport of neutral (ie, monoaminomonocarboxylic) amino acids in the small intestine and the renal tubules. (medscape.com)
Dibasic amino acids1
- Neutral macrocycles and their interactions with amino acids and amines. (surrey.ac.uk)
- A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. (pnas.org)
- In a previous study, preserved dried samples produced by Miller using a lesser-known volcanic apparatus were found to contain a wide variety of amino acids and amines, including ornithine, homoserine, methylamine, and ethylamine, many of which had not been reported previously in spark discharge experiments ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids. (nih.gov)
- Here, we report that constructs containing an inactive basic cluster downstream of the bipartite signal of nucleoplasmin can be directed to the nucleus by flanking them with specific neutral and acidic residues taken from the signal reported for c-Myc. (nih.gov)
- Contrary to conventional views, neutral and even acidic amino acids can play crucial roles in NLSs. (nih.gov)
- Frommer, Wolf B. 2002-03-01 00:00:00 Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. (deepdyve.com)
- This property is due to an overall higher affinity of AAP6 for neutral and acidic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
- In agreement, a yeast mutant deficient in acidic amino acid uptake at low aspartate concentrations was complemented only by AAP6. (deepdyve.com)
- Taken together, the AAPs transport neutral, acidic and cationic amino acids, including the major transport forms, i.e. glutamine, asparagine and glutamate. (deepdyve.com)
- Thomas B. Kinraide and Bud Etherton 1980-06-01 00:00:00 The application of neutral or acidic amino acids to oat coleptiles induced transient depolarizations of the membrane potentials. (deepdyve.com)
- The acidic amino acids appear to be accumulated by a similar mechanism except that the transport of each molecule may be associated with a cation in addition to a single proton. (deepdyve.com)
- The application of neutral or acidic amino acids to oat coleptiles induced transient depolarizations of the membrane potentials. (deepdyve.com)
- Due to the acidic carboxylic acid group and the alkaline amine group on amino acids they can form ions with themselves called zwitterions . (conservapedia.com)
- High aminotransferase activities catalyzing the reactions between L-glutamate and L-glutamine and the aliphatic ketomonocarboxylic acids 2-ketoisocaproate, 2-ketocaproate, and 2-ketoisovalerate were observed in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria. (biomedsearch.com)
- While maximal rates of transamination with L-glutamate were observed in the presence of micromolar concentrations of keto acid, maximal rates of transamination with L-glutamine were recorded only in the presence of millimolar concentrations of keto acid. (biomedsearch.com)
- Since B-cell mitochondria are well supplied with L-glutamate and L-glutamine, 2-ketoglutarate generation in the presence of these two neutral 2-keto acids may be an important prerequisite for their insulin secretory potency. (biomedsearch.com)
- Thus the actual apoplasmic concentration of amino acids and the pH will determine what is transported in vivo, i.e. major amino acids such as glutamine, asparagine, and glutamate will be mobilized preferentially. (deepdyve.com)
- A cDNA was isolated from human brain that encodes an amino acid sequence 34-39% identical to previously published glutamate transporter sequences. (umt.edu)
- SLC6A19 encodes the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 and mediates the uptake of neutral amino acids across the plasma membrane accompanied by uptake of a sodium ion. (reactome.org)
- Bröer S. The role of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19) in Hartnup disorder and protein nutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
- SLC6A19 is a sodium-dependent and chloride-independent neutral amino acid transporter, expressed predominately in the kidneys and intestine. (medscape.com)
- In an animal model of Hartnup disorder, mice lacking SLC6A19 (B 0 AT1) transporter general neutral aminoaciduria were observed, as well as the decreased body weight, demonstrating the essential role of epithelial amino acid uptake in optimal growth and bodyweight regulation. (medscape.com)
- As amino acids represent a large fraction of cell organic osmolytes, changes of SNAT2 activity are followed by modifications in both cell amino acids and cell volume. (biomedsearch.com)
- The second part of this thesis concerns the interactions of calixarene macrocycles with organic solvents (neutral species). (surrey.ac.uk)
- Amino acids are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and (in some cases) sulfur bonded in characteristic formations. (encyclopedia.com)
- Amino acids are organic compounds, meaning that they contain carbon and hydrogen bonded to each other. (encyclopedia.com)
- They consist of an organic side chain bonded to an amine and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) group (hence the name amino acid ). (conservapedia.com)
- Due to the two charges on zwitterions, there is a much stronger intermolecular attraction between the ions, raising the melting point of an amino acid far above the melting point of organic compounds with similar molecular mass and numbers of electrons . (conservapedia.com)
- Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Neuroscience . (genecards.org)
- Increasing proton concentrations strongly activate transport of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
- The method is tunable and peak order can be changed significantly by adjusting acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid concentrations. (sielc.com)
- Amino acid concentrations in plasma were determined before and 30, 60 and 180 min after the consumption of aspartame. (elsevier.com)
- Plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids were modified under acute conditions. (elsevier.com)
- In contrast, after subacute treatment no significant differences in plasma or brain amino acid concentrations or in brain monoamine concentrations were observed. (elsevier.com)
- Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except Pro and Gly. (ucr.ac.cr)
- Canola meal subjected to moist heat has reduced amino acid concentrations and lower digestibility of crude protein and all amino acids, according to research form the Hans H. Stein Monogastric Nutrition Laboratory at the University of Illinois. (thepigsite.com)
- Concentrations of acid detergent fibre (ADF), (NDF), lignin, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) increased as time of heating increased. (thepigsite.com)
- During a pregnancy, the placenta has higher concentrations of amino acids, including Phe. (ahrq.gov)
- Here we show that the intracellular supply of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) in T cells was regulated by pathogens and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). (nih.gov)
- 13 Such supplementation could include large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), which primarily decrease the Phe concentration in the brain by competing with Phe for transport across the blood-brain barrier. (ahrq.gov)
- Compared with mice lacking only TAT1 or LAT2, dKO LAT2-TAT1 mice lost larger amounts of aromatic and other neutral AAs in their urine due to a tubular reabsorption defect. (uzh.ch)
- Inhibition studies with different synthetic and natural amino acids showed a broad spectrum affinity to neutral amino acids regardless of their different side chains including branched or aromatic, indicating that the $Na^+$ -dependent cycloleucine uptake in OK cells is mediated by System $B^o$ or System $B^o$ -like transporter rather than the classical System A or ASC. (ndsl.kr)
- The cloned gene, snatA, encodes a protein of 216 amino acid residues, SnatA (TC# 2.A.95.1.4), with six membrane-spanning segments (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
- The other unit consists of an operon, marRAB, encoding (1) the MarR repressor which binds marO and negatively regulates marRAB expression, (2) MarA, a transcriptional activator that activates expression of other genes such as acrAB (encoding the principal E. coli multidrug efflux pump of the RND superfamily (TC #2.A.6.2)) and the mar regulon itself, and (3) MarB, a small protein of 71 amino acyl residues of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
- Biochemical studies give evidence that protein calorie malnutrition impairs the energy metabolism in the cells by interfering with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and enzymes involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. (scirp.org)
- The 50S ribosomal subunit contains three methylated neutral amino acids: N-monomethylalanine, N-monomethylmethionine, and an as yet unidentified methylated amino acid found in protein L11. (mysciencework.com)
- Thus protein L33 from this E. coli K strain has heterogeneity in its N-terminal amino acid and can start with either N-monomethylalanine or N-monomethylmethionine. (mysciencework.com)
- Because the brain Trp levels are regulated by its ratio to large neutral amino acids (Trp:LNAA) in circulation, this study elucidated whether diets of various protein sources that contain different Trp:LNAA affect depression- and anxiety-like behaviours in C57BL/6J mice under short-day conditions (SD). (cambridge.org)
- Hartnup disease is a condition caused by the body's inability to absorb certain protein building blocks (amino acids) from the diet. (medlineplus.gov)
- The function of this protein is to transport certain amino acids into cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- On the effect of protein conformation diversity in discriminating among neutral and disease related single amino acid substitutions. (unab.cl)
- Computational methods are available to predict the effect of single amino acid substitutions (SASs) on protein stability based on a single folded structure. (unab.cl)
- In this work we investigated how protein conformational diversity can affect the discrimination of neutral and disease related SASs based on protein stability estimations. (unab.cl)
- The existence of different conformers for a given protein introduces great variability in the estimation of the protein stability (ΔΔG) after a single amino acid substitution (SAS) as computed with FoldX. (unab.cl)
- Indeed, in 35% of our protein set at least one SAS can be described as stabilizing, destabilizing or neutral when a cutoff value of ±2 kcal/mol is adopted for discriminating neutral from perturbing SASs. (unab.cl)
- However, when the ΔΔG variability among conformers is taken into account, the correlation among the perturbation of protein stability and the corresponding disease or neutral phenotype increases as compared with the same analysis on single protein structures. (unab.cl)
- Our results suggest that the consideration of conformational diversity can improve the discrimination of neutral and disease related protein SASs based on the evaluation of the corresponding Gibbs free energy change. (unab.cl)
- It reproduces quantitatively the results of Structurally Constrained Neutral (SCN) simulations of protein evolution in which the stability of the native state is explicitly computed and conserved. (biomedcentral.com)
- We then compare the predicted site-specific amino acid distributions with those sampled from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). (biomedcentral.com)
- The effective selection process that we propose reproduces well amino acid distributions as observed in the protein sequences in the PDB. (biomedcentral.com)
- Protein sequences are considered either unviable or equivalent (neutral). (biomedcentral.com)
- An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of heat damage on the digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in canola meal fed to growing pigs. (thepigsite.com)
- Canola meal was the only source of crude protein and amino acids in the diets. (thepigsite.com)
- A nitrogen-free diet was used to determine the endogenous losses of crude protein and amino acids. (thepigsite.com)
- Ileal digesta were collected after a five-day adjustment period to the diets, and analysed to determine values for apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in each batch of canola meal. (thepigsite.com)
- Here we present cryo-EM structures of full-length human ACE2, in the presence of a neutral amino acid transporter B 0 AT1, with or without the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2, both at an overall resolution of 2.9 Å, with a local resolution of 3.5 Å at the ACE2-RBD interface. (rcsb.org)
- In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
- The comparison between 9 home-made amino acid- and peptide-silica stationary phases in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) systems has been presented. (springer.com)
- Both a protoplast amino acid uptake assay and HPLC analysis indicated that more basic (Lys, Arg) and neutral (Val, Ala) amino acids were transported and accumulated in the OE lines than in the wild type, but the opposite was observed in the RNAi lines. (plantphysiol.org)
Human neutral amino acid1
- May function in the transport of amino acids at the blood-brain barrier and in the supply of maternal nutrients to the fetus through the placenta. (uniprot.org)
- As fundamental nutrients, amino acids are important for rice ( Oryza sativa ) growth and development. (plantphysiol.org)
- 2-4 In addition to the low-Phe diet, many patients take amino acid supplements, vitamins, and minerals daily to replace other essential amino acids and nutrients absent from the restricted diet. (ahrq.gov)
- 2) Generally Arginine remains in protonated form but I want to make neutral Arginine in which among three nitrogen in biguanidine group should contain hydrogen in such a way that it be neutral as a whole (i.e. one less hydrogen than protonated form). (charmm.org)
- At biological pH, the hydrogen on my carboxylic acid goes away, and the nitrogen gets an extra hydrogen. (study.com)
- In the amino group, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to each other and then to nitrogen, whereas the carboxyl group has two separate oxygen atoms strung between a carbon atom and a hydrogen atom. (encyclopedia.com)
- Zwitterions form from amino acids when the hydrogen from the carboxylic acid group (-COO H ) dissociates from the molecule and forms a dative covalent bond with the nitrogen in the amine group (- N H 2 ). (conservapedia.com)
- Inhibition studies were conducted in the presence of other l - and d -amino acids and metabolic inhibitors, such as ouabain and sodium azide, and in the absence of sodium to delineate the mechanism of uptake and transport. (arvojournals.org)
- Although classified as a non essential amino acid , in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic diseases or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes . (wikipedia.org)
Common amino acids2
Major amino acids1
- The performed research assisted in the evaluation of the relation between the chemical properties of bonded amino acid sequence and their role in the retention mechanism. (springer.com)
- Depending on the immobilized sequence of amino acids, these materials exhibit diversified application targets. (springer.com)
- Another cautionary illustration of amino acids' power is the gamut of diseases (most notably, sickle cell anemia) that impair or claim the lives of those whose amino acids are out of sequence or malfunctioning. (encyclopedia.com)
- Functions as a sodium-dependent amino acid transporter. (uniprot.org)
- Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
- Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates L-ci" by Anna Dikalova, Angela Fagiana et al. (gwu.edu)
- http://leah4sci.com/aminoacids presents: Amino Acids Component two - Hydrophobic Neutral Non-Polar Amino Acids. (phoenixchem.net)
- Now, I think that makes me pretty special, and the reason that it makes me special is that I can be both a polar amino acid and a non-polar amino acid. (study.com)
- I think I'll go check out some polar amino acids. (study.com)
- ASCT2 plays a role in cancer cell growth by providing glutamine as an alternative carbon source for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, for fatty-acid production, and by contributing to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) 11 . (nature.com)
- In healthy individuals, glutamine is a neutral, nonessential amino acid . (encyclopedia.com)
- Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in our bodies. (encyclopedia.com)
- I know that glutamine is unstable, so I will be supplementing that, but I don't know for other amino acids. (protocol-online.org)
- Competition experiments revealed that all the neutral amino acids tested reduced the uptake of AIB, whereas there was no effect of taurine, L-aspartic acid, and L-arginine. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
- Hmm, let's check out this one: aspartic acid. (study.com)
- Looks an awful lot like aspartic acid, except it has three carbons. (study.com)
- Similar in structure to aspartic acid . (everything2.com)
- The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. (frontiersin.org)
- Evidence that the large neutral amino acid L-valine decreases electrically-evoked release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
- The AAT gene family in plants includes the amino acid/auxin permease (AAAP) family and the amino acid-polyamine-choline (APC) transporter family, which belong to the APC transporter superfamily. (frontiersin.org)
- "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family. (tcdb.org)
- Rai, K. M. Lokanatha and Umesha, K. B. and Yathirajan, H. S. (1999) Determination of molecular weight of neutral amino acids with chloramine-T. JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 76 (3). (uni-mysore.ac.in)
- A simple titrimetric method for the determination of molecular weight of neutral amino acids is described. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
Transport of neutral1
- A gene encoding a small neutral amino acid transporter was cloned from the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sp. (wikipedia.org)
- The generalized reaction catalyzed by SnatA is: Amino acid (in) → Amino acid (out) MarC is encoded by a gene at the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus. (wikipedia.org)
- We offer a portfolio of diverse carbohydrate-based products and highly active in custom synthesis and contract manufacture of oligosaccharides, glycosaminoglycans, glycoamino acids, glycopeptides, carbohydrates with functionalized linkers/spacers and a wide variety of synthetic building blocks. (protocol-online.org)
- This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordial environments. (pnas.org)
- The basic structure of an amino-acid molecule consists of a carbon atom bonded to an amino group (-NH 2 ), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom, and a fourth group that differs from one amino acid to another and often is referred to as the- R group or the side chain. (encyclopedia.com)
- Likewise the carbon, hydrogen, amino group, and carboxyl group in an amino acid are more or less constant. (encyclopedia.com)
- Thus AAP6 may serve a different role either in cooperating with the lower affinity systems to acquire amino acids in the low concentration range, as a system responsible for aspartate transport or as an uptake system from the xylem. (deepdyve.com)
- Under these conditions, which mimic realistic aspartame consumption, aspartame had no significant effect on plasma concentration of any amino acid. (elsevier.com)
- The production of canola meal involves a step in which the meal is treated with steam for 35 to 50 minutes at temperatures from 95 to 115°C. The application of heat and moisture to feedstuffs results in the Maillard reaction, which reduces the concentration and digestibility of amino acids. (thepigsite.com)
- Another objective of the experiment was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of standardised ileal digestible (SID) amino acids in canola meal. (thepigsite.com)