Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Amino Acids, SulfurStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Neutral Ceramidase: A ceramidase subtype that is active at neutral pH. It is found at high levels within the SMALL INTESTINE and in the BRAIN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein PrecursorsChickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Thermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 3.4.24.27.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Effect of tranexamic acid and delta-aminovaleric acid on lipoprotein(a) metabolism in transgenic mice. (1/45)

The assembly of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a two-step process which involves the interaction of kringle-4 (K-IV) domains in apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) with Lys groups in apoB-100. Lys analogues such as tranexamic acid (TXA) or delta-aminovaleric acid (delta-AVA) proved to prevent the Lp(a) assembly in vitro. In order to study the in vivo effect of Lys analogues, transgenic apo(a) or Lp(a) mice were treated with TXA or delta-AVA and plasma levels of free and low density lipoprotein bound apo(a) were measured. In parallel experiments, McA-RH 7777 cells, stably transfected with apo(a), were also treated with these substances and apo(a) secretion was followed. Treatment of transgenic mice with Lys analogues caused a doubling of plasma Lp(a) levels, while the ratio of free:apoB-100 bound apo(a) remained unchanged. In transgenic apo(a) mice a 1. 5-fold increase in plasma apo(a) levels was noticed. TXA significantly increased Lp(a) half-life from 6 h to 8 h. Incubation of McA-RH 7777 cells with Lys analogues resulted in an up to 1. 4-fold increase in apo(a) in the medium. The amount of intracellular low molecular weight apo(a) precursor remained unchanged. We hypothesize that Lys analogues increase plasma Lp(a) levels by increasing the dissociation of cell bound apo(a) in combination with reducing Lp(a) catabolism.  (+info)

Distribution volume of 3-O-methyl-6. (2/45)

The distribution volume (DV) of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) in the cerebellum recently has been linked using positron emission tomography (PET) to plasma large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentrations in monkeys. In this article the authors provide additional experimental support for this relation by directly measuring the DV as the steady-state tissue to plasma radioactivity ratio in rats using a labeled LNAA analog 3-O-methyl-6-[F-18]FDOPA (OMFD), a compound that has no known specific enzyme or receptor interactions in brain tissue. The measured DV for OMFD (tissue OMFD concentration/plasma OMFD concentration) was found to be inversely related to plasma LNAA concentrations. The relation (DV = 1.5-0.00094*[LNAA], R--2 = 0.79) resulted in an 8% DV decrease per 100 nmol/mL plasma LNAA increase within the observed range of 330 to 510 nmol/mL. This was similar to recent noninvasive observations with FDOPA PET in vervet monkeys and with 6-[F-18]Fluoro-m-tyrosine PET in squirrel monkeys. The OMFD striatum to cerebellum (Str/Cb) ratio was greater than 1.0 for all measurements, averaging 1.09 +/- 0.04, and was approximately equal to the Str/Cb LNAA ratio of 1.12 +/- 0.05. This current study verifies the variation of DV of OMFD or FDOPA as a function of plasma LNAA concentrations and suggests the possibility of using OMFD for measuring cerebral LNAA noninvasively with PET.  (+info)

Evidence for the transport of neutral as well as cationic amino acids by ATA3, a novel and liver-specific subtype of amino acid transport system A. (3/45)

We report here on the cloning and functional characterization of the third subtype of amino acid transport system A, designated ATA3 (amino acid transporter A3), from a human liver cell line. This transporter consists of 547 amino acids and is structurally related to the members of the glutamine transporter family. The human ATA3 (hATA3) exhibits 88% identity in amino acid sequence with rat ATA3. The gene coding for hATA3 contains 16 exons and is located on human chromosome 12q13. It is expressed almost exclusively in the liver. hATA3 mediates the transport of neutral amino acids including alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (MeAIB), the model substrate for system A, in a Na(+)-coupled manner and the transport of cationic amino acids in a Na(+)-independent manner. The affinity of hATA3 for cationic amino acids is higher than for neutral amino acids. The transport function of hATA3 is thus similar to that of system y(+)L. The ability of hATA3 to transport cationic amino acids with high affinity is unique among the members of the glutamine transporter family. hATA1 and hATA2, the other two known members of the system A subfamily, show little affinity toward cationic amino acids. hATA3 also differs from hATA1 and hATA2 in exhibiting low affinity for MeAIB. Since liver does not express any of the previously known high-affinity cationic amino acid transporters, ATA3 is likely to provide the major route for the uptake of arginine in this tissue.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a lysosomal transporter for small neutral amino acids. (4/45)

In eukaryotic cells, lysosomes represent a major site for macromolecule degradation. Hydrolysis products are eventually exported from this acidic organelle into the cytosol through specific transporters. Impairment of this process at either the hydrolysis or the efflux step is responsible of several lysosomal storage diseases. However, most lysosomal transporters, although biochemically characterized, remain unknown at the molecular level. In this study, we report the molecular and functional characterization of a lysosomal amino acid transporter (LYAAT-1), remotely related to a family of H+-coupled plasma membrane and synaptic vesicle amino acid transporters. LYAAT-1 is expressed in most rat tissues, with highest levels in the brain where it is present in neurons. Upon overexpression in COS-7 cells, the recombinant protein mediates the accumulation of neutral amino acids, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid, l-alanine, and l-proline, through an H+/amino acid symport. Confocal microscopy on brain sections revealed that this transporter colocalizes with cathepsin D, an established lysosomal marker. LYAAT-1 thus appears as a lysosomal transporter that actively exports neutral amino acids from lysosomes by chemiosmotic coupling to the H+-ATPase of these organelles. Homology searching in eukaryotic genomes suggests that LYAAT-1 defines a subgroup of lysosomal transporters in the amino acid/auxin permease family.  (+info)

L-type amino acid transporters in two intestinal epithelial cell lines function as exchangers with neutral amino acids. (5/45)

The present study examined the functional characteristics of the inward [(14)C]-L-leucine transporter in two intestinal epithelial cell lines (human Caco-2 and rat IEC-6). The uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine was largely promoted through an energy-dependent and sodium-insensitive transporter, although a minor component of [(14)C]-L-leucine uptake ( approximately 15%) required extracellular sodium. [(14)C] -L-leucine uptake was insensitive to N-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, but competitively inhibited by 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). Both L- and D-neutral amino acids, but not acidic and basic amino acids, markedly inhibited [(14)C]-L-leucine accumulation. The efflux of [(14)C]-L-leucine was markedly increased (P < 0.05) by L-leucine and BCH, but not by L-arginine. In IEC-6 cells, but not in Caco-2 cells, the uptake of [(14)C]-L-leucine at acidic pH (5.0 and 5.4) was greater (P < 0.05) than at pH 7.4. In conclusion, it is likely that system B(0) might be responsible for the sodium-dependent uptake of L-leucine in Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells, whereas sodium-independent uptake of L-leucine may include system LAT1, whose activation results in transstimulation of L-leucine outward transfer.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of tyrosine 118 within the central constriction site of the LamB (Maltoporin) channel of Escherichia coli. I. Effect on ion transport. (6/45)

The three-dimensional structure of the malto-oligosaccharide-specific LamB-channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from x-ray crystallography. The central constriction of the channel formed by the external loop 3 is controlled by a tyrosine residue (Y118). Y118 was replaced by site-directed mutagenesis by ten other amino acids (alanine, isoleucine, asparagine, serine, cysteine, aspartic acid, arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane) including neutral ones, negatively and positively charged amino acids to study the effect of their size, hydrophobicity, and charge on ion transport through LamB. The mutant proteins were purified to homogeneity. They were reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes and single-channel conductance and ion selectivity were measured to get insight into the mechanism of ion transport through LamB. The mutation of Y118 to any other nonaromatic amino acid led to a substantial increase of the single-channel conductance by more than a factor of six at maximum. The highest effect was observed for Y118D. Additionally, a nonlinear relationship between the salt concentration in the aqueous phase and the channel conductance was observed for this mutant, indicating strong discrete charge effects on ion conductance. For all other mutants, with the exception of Y118R, linear relationships were found between single-channel conductance and bulk aqueous concentration. The individual hydrophobicity indices of the amino acids introduced inside the central constriction of the LamB channel had a somewhat smaller effect on the single-channel conductance as compared with the effect of their size and charge.  (+info)

Transient state kinetic investigation of 5-aminolevulinate synthase reaction mechanism. (7/45)

5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first, and regulatory, step of the heme biosynthetic pathway in nonplant eukaryotes and some bacteria. 5-Aminolevulinate synthase is a dimeric protein having an ordered kinetic mechanism with glycine binding before succinyl-CoA and with aminolevulinate release after CoA and carbon dioxide. Rapid scanning stopped-flow absorption spectrophotometry in conjunction with multiple turnover chemical quenched-flow kinetic analyses and a newly developed CoA detection method were used to examine the ALAS catalytic reaction and identify the rate-determining step. The reaction of glycine with ALAS follows a three-step kinetic process, ascribed to the formation of the Michaelis complex and the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-glycine aldimine, followed by the abstraction of the glycine pro-R proton from the external aldimine. Significantly, the rate associated with this third step (k(3) = 0.002 s(-1)) is consistent with the rate determined for the ALAS-catalyzed removal of tritium from [2-(3)H(2)]glycine. Succinyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA increased the rate of glycine proton removal approximately 250,000- and 10-fold, respectively, supporting our previous proposal that the physiological substrate, succinyl-CoA, promotes a protein conformational change, which accelerates the conversion of the external aldimine into the initial quinonoid intermediate (Hunter, G. A., and Ferreira, G. C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 12222-12228). Rapid scanning stopped-flow and quenched-flow kinetic analyses of the ALAS reaction under single turnover conditions lend evidence for two quinonoid reaction intermediates and a model of the ALAS kinetic mechanism in which product release is at least the partially rate-limiting step. Finally, the carbonyl and carboxylate groups of 5-aminolevulinate play a major protein-interacting role by inducing a conformational change in ALAS and, thus, possibly modulating product release.  (+info)

Functional properties and cellular distribution of the system A glutamine transporter SNAT1 support specialized roles in central neurons. (8/45)

Glutamine, the preferred precursor for neurotransmitter glutamate and GABA, is likely to be the principal substrate for the neuronal System A transporter SNAT1 in vivo. We explored the functional properties of SNAT1 (the product of the rat Slc38a1 gene) by measuring radiotracer uptake and currents associated with SNAT1 expression in Xenopus oocytes and determined the neuronal-phenotypic and cellular distribution of SNAT1 by confocal laser-scanning microscopy alongside other markers. We found that SNAT1 mediates transport of small, neutral, aliphatic amino acids including glutamine (K0.5 approximately 0.3 mm), alanine, and the System A-specific analogue 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate. Amino acid transport is driven by the Na+ electrochemical gradient. The voltage-dependent binding of Na+ precedes that of the amino acid in a simultaneous transport mechanism. Li+ (but not H+) can substitute for Na+ but results in reduced Vmax. In the absence of amino acid, SNAT1 mediates Na+-dependent presteady-state currents (Qmax approximately 9 nC) and a nonsaturable cation leak with selectivity Na+, Li+ >> H+, K+. Simultaneous flux and current measurements indicate coupling stoichiometry of 1 Na+ per 1 amino acid. SNAT1 protein was detected in somata and proximal dendrites but not nerve terminals of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons throughout the adult CNS. We did not detect SNAT1 expression in astrocytes but detected its expression on the luminal membranes of the ependyma. The functional properties and cellular distribution of SNAT1 support a primary role for SNAT1 in glutamine transport serving the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in central neurons. Localization of SNAT1 to certain dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and cholinergic motoneurons suggests that SNAT1 may play additional specialized roles, providing metabolic fuel (via alpha-ketoglutarate) or precursors (cysteine, glycine) for glutathione synthesis.  (+info)

*6TMS neutral amino acid transporter family

The generalized reaction catalyzed by SnatA is: Amino acid (in) → Amino acid (out) MarC is encoded by a gene at the multiple ... The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family (TC# 2.A.95) is a family of transporters belonging to the Lysine Exporter ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.95 The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid ... A gene encoding a small neutral amino acid transporter was cloned from the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon ...

*Amino acid transporter

Branched Chain Amino Acid Exporter (LIV-E) Family TC# 2.A.95 - 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family TC# 2.A.118 - ... Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... Putative Amino Acid Permease (PAAP) Family (1) high affinity glutamate and neutral amino acid transporter (3) heavy subunits of ... proton-coupled amino acid transporter (38) System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory ...

*Penicillium waksmanii

ISBN 3-642-23394-5. Q. Ashton Acton (2013). Neutral Amino Acids-Advances in Research and Application. ScholarlyEditions. ISBN 1 ...

*D-amino acid oxidase

The enzyme is most active toward neutral D-amino acids, and not active toward acidic D-amino acids. DAAO is a candidate ... DAO DAOA-AS1 D-amino acid dehydrogenase D-amino acid oxidase activator D-aspartate oxidase Diamine oxidase D-Amino-Acid Oxidase ... It is not present in plants or in bacteria which instead use D-amino acid dehydrogenase. Its function is to oxidize D-amino ... this is then hydrolysed to yield ammonia and the corresponding a-keto acid." Recently, mammalian D-amino acid oxidase has been ...

*SLC6A15

Solute carrier family 6 member 15 (SLC6A15) also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT2 (B0AT2)' ... Zaia KA, Reimer RJ (Mar 2009). "Synaptic Vesicle Protein NTT4/XT1 (SLC6A17) Catalyzes Na+-coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... neutral amino acid transporter)". Farmer MK, Robbins MJ, Medhurst AD, Campbell DA, Ellington K, Duckworth M, Brown AM, ... is a Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (B0AT2)". The Biochemical Journal. 393 (Pt 1): 421-30. doi:10.1042/BJ20051273 ...

*SLC1A4

Neutral amino acid transporter A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A4 gene. In melanocytic cells SLC1A4 gene ... Zerangue N, Kavanaugh MP (Dec 1996). "ASCT-1 is a neutral amino acid exchanger with chloride channel activity". J Biol Chem. ... Marin M, Tailor CS, Nouri A, Kabat D (2000). "Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter type 1 is an auxiliary receptor ... Pinilla J, Barber A, Lostao MP (2002). "Active transport of alanine by the neutral amino-acid exchanger ASCT1". Can. J. Physiol ...

*SLC36A1

"Identification and characterization of a lysosomal transporter for small neutral amino acids". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98 (13 ... 2004). "H+/amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) is the imino acid carrier: An intestinal nutrient/drug transporter in human and rat ... Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC36A1 gene. This gene encodes a member ... Boll M, Foltz M, Rubio-Aliaga I, Daniel H (2004). "A cluster of proton/amino acid transporter genes in the human and mouse ...

*Covalitoxin-II

There is an equal distribution of hydrophilic, hydrophobic and neutral amino acids. Near the C-terminus there is a positively ... It has six cysteine residues which form three disulphide bonds, between the specific amino acid locations 2&16, 19&21 and 15&28 ... The toxin consists of 31 amino acids (ACSRAGENCYKSGRCCDGLYCKAYVVTCYKP). This sequence forms a peptide with a molecular weight ...

*Bernd Michael Rode

"Prebiotic formation of amino acids in a neutral atmosphere by electric discharge"; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, pp. 1886- ... Jakschitz, Thomas; Fitz, Daniel; Rode, Bernd Michael (2012); "The origin of first peptides on earth: from amino acids to ... Schwendinger, M. G.; Rode, Bend M. (1990); "Copper-Catalyzed Amino Acid Condensation in Water - A Simple Possible Way of ... from amino acids to homochiral biomolecules"; In: Genesis - In The Beginning, Joseph Seckbach (Eds.), ISBN 978-94-007-2940-7, ...

*SLC6A18

2009). "Orphan transporter SLC6A18 is renal neutral amino acid transporter B0AT3". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (30): 19953-60. doi: ... Bröer S (2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-86. doi: ... The SLC6 family of proteins, which includes SLC6A18, acts as specific transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, and ...

*SLC1A5

Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ... neutral amino acid transporter Bo from a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 ( ...

*Behavior mutation

"Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National ... These changes are largely deleterious, having a negative effect on fitness; however, they can also be neutral and even ...

*Mutation

A neutral mutation is a mutation that occurs in an amino acid codon that results in the use of a different, but chemically ... Amino acid substitution (e.g., D111E) - The first letter is the one letter code of the wild-type amino acid, the number is the ... Nonsense mutations are represented with an X for the second amino acid (e.g. D111X). Amino acid deletion (e.g., ΔF508) - The ... amino acid. Missense mutations, which code for a different amino acid. Nonsense mutations, which code for a stop codon and can ...

*Genetics

"Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National ... corresponds either to one of the twenty possible amino acids in a protein or an instruction to end the amino acid sequence; ... Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide chains, each of which is composed of a sequence of amino acids, and the DNA ... The nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA is used to create an amino acid sequence in protein; this translation between ...

*Microevolution

"Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 ... The predictions of neutral theory, based on genetic drift, do not fit recent data on whole genomes well: these data suggest ... In 1968 Motoo Kimura rekindled the debate with his neutral theory of molecular evolution which claims that most of the changes ... neutral, or detrimental to reproductive success. The effect of genetic drift is larger in small populations, and smaller in ...

*Evolution

"Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... For example, all living cells use the same basic set of nucleotides and amino acids. The development of molecular genetics has ... The neutral theory of molecular evolution proposed that most evolutionary changes are the result of the fixation of neutral ... Kreitman, Martin (August 1996). "The neutral theory is dead. Long live the neutral theory". BioEssays. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley ...

*Homoserine/threonine resistance transporter

The transport reaction presumably catalyzed by members of the RhtB family is: amino acid (in) + nH+ (out) ⇌ amino acid (out) + ... The leucine exporter homologue (YeaS or LeuE; TC# 2.A.76.1.5) exports leucine and several other neutral, hydrophobic amino ... Aleshin, V. V.; Zakataeva, N. P.; Livshits, V. A. (1999-04-01). "A new family of amino-acid-efflux proteins". Trends in ... "The novel transmembrane Escherichia coli proteins involved in the amino acid efflux". FEBS Letters. 452 (3): 228-232. doi: ...

*Glutamate aspartate transporter

Kanai Y, Hediger MA (2004). "The glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter family SLC1: molecular, physiological and ... 1995). "The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic ... Dunlop J, Lou Z, McIlvain HB (1999). "Properties of excitatory amino acid transport in the human U373 astrocytoma cell line". ... Ralphe JC, Segar JL, Schutte BC, Scholz TD (2004). "Localization and function of the brain excitatory amino acid transporter ...

*Hsp70

SBD contains a groove with an affinity for neutral, hydrophobic amino acid residues. The groove is long enough to interact with ... the substrate binding domain of Hsp70 recognizes sequences of hydrophobic amino acid residues, and interacts with them. This ...

*Solute carrier family

Mackenzie B, Erickson JD (2004). "Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family". ... cationic amino acid transporter/glycoprotein-associatedcationic amino acid transporters (SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A3, SLC7A4) ... Kanai Y, Hediger MA (2004). "The glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter family SLC1: molecular, physiological and ... sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter(SLC38A1, SLC38A2, SLC38A3, SLC38A4, SLC38A5, SLC38A6, SLC38A7, SLC38A8, SLC38A9, ...

*Nuclear localization sequence

... and showed amino acid features common to all three. The role of neutral and acidic amino acids was shown for the first time in ... two clusters of basic amino acids, separated by a spacer of about 10 amino acids. Both signals are recognized by importin α. ... "Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localisation signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids". Curr. Biol. ... This PY-NLS motif, so named because of the proline-tyrosine amino acid pairing in it, allows the protein to bind to Importin β2 ...

*SLC3A2

Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Amino Acid ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... SLC3A2 comprises the heavy subunit of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) that is also known as CD98 (cluster of ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ...

*CD98

Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Amino Acid ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ...

*Hartnup disease

A high-protein diet can overcome the deficient transport of neutral amino acids in most patients. Poor nutrition leads to more ... The defective gene controls the absorption of certain amino acids from the intestine and the reabsorption of those amino acids ... Nicotinamide is necessary for neutral amino acid transporter production in the proximal renal tubules found in the kidney, and ... SLC6A19 is a sodium-dependent and chloride-independent neutral amino acid transporter, expressed predominately in the kidneys ...

*4-Chlorokynurenine

... penetrates the blood-brain barrier via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1. In the central nervous ... Most of its therapeutic potential is believed to occur via 7-chlorokynurenic acid which inhibits the glycine co-agonist site of ... 4-Chlorokynurenine is prodrug of 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), which in turn is a halogenated derivative of L-kynurenine ... Another metabolite, 4-chloro-3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid, inhibits the enzyme 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxidase, which provides a ...

*NOX4

Schwarzer C, Machen TE, Illek B, Fischer H (2004). "NADPH oxidase-dependent acid production in airway epithelial cells". J. ... Nox-dependent reactive oxygen species modulation by amino endoperoxides can induce apoptosis in high Nox4-expressing cancer ... immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 induces apoptosis in human primary neurons through redox-regulated activation of neutral ... "Nox4-dependent ROS modulation by amino endoperoxides to induce apoptosis in cancer cells". Cell Death Dis. 4: e552. doi:10.1038 ...
The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu has remained unexplained. In the present study a decrease in the plasma concentration of Ile, Val, Phe, Tyr, Met, Ala, Pro and Gly was observed after the intraperitoneal injection of Leu to weanling rats. Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except Pro and Gly. An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non-insulinogenic transport system L analogue. Diazoxide suppressed the Leu-induced decreases in plasma and muscle intracellular concentrations of Ile and Val as well as of Pro in plasma. An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of diazoxide. All the above changes were statistically significant. Hence insulin probably mediates Leu ...
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L-Valine competes with tryptophan for transport into the brain and has previously been shown to decrease brain 5-HT synthesis. In the present study, the effect of L-valine on electrically evoked hippocampal 5-HT release was determined in the anaesthetized rat using microdialysis. In control animals two electrical stimulations of the dorsal raphe nucleus 120 min apart (S1 and S2, respectively) released similar amounts of 5-HT. In contrast, in animals which received L-valine (200 mg/kg) between stimulations, S2 released a significantly smaller amount of 5-HT than did S1, although basal 5-HT release was unchanged. The data demonstrate that L-valine decreases the electrically-evoked release of 5-HT in hippocampus in vivo.
All large neutral amino acids, including tryp, showed significant postprandial increases. The ratio of total tryp to the sum of these neutral amino acids did not change in response to eating. ...
SLC7A8 / LAT2, 0.1 ml. Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc.
YASTEST Cyber-defense for critical infrastructure including factories, plants, utilities & hospitals TOKYO, Sept. 20, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- NTT Security Corporation (Head Office: Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo; CEO: Jun Sawada), the specialized security company of NTT Group, has launched "IT/OT Integrated Security Services". The new services will be taken to market globally through the NTT Group companies, Dimension Data, NTT Communications and NTT DATA, forming part of its suite of integrated services to enable successful digital transformation initiatives for its clients.. Companies are increasingly working towards IT/OT (Operational Technology) alignment. OT systems, when connected to the internet, streamline business operations by advanced supply chain management, realization of mass customization and improvement of customer experience as well as find new intelligence employing IoT (the Internet of Things) and Big Data analytics. As a result, IT/OT convergence is exposing everything, including ...
Limitation of natural sources, especially of fossil resources, for base material that is currently used to produce polyamides and related composites together with the increasing demand of these products, promotes the search for renewable sources of the base material. Fermentation by genetically engineered bacteria gains increasing interest as one of these possible sources. Cadaverine is a biogenic amine that can be produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum from the amino acid lysine by heterologous expression of a lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli. Overexpression of the patA and patD genes from Escherichia coli in Corynebacterium glutamicum enables the latter to further metabolize cadaverine to 5 aminovalerate (5AVA), which is a potential base material for the production of nylon 5 and a C5 platform for the synthesis of base materials for other polyamides. Commercial Opportunities Chemical industry is facing an increasing demand on polyamides and related composites, whereas in contrast the ...
Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
The H+-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 acts as a high-capacity, absorptive route for small neutral amino acids, such as GABA, and many orally active analogs across the brush-border membrane of the small intestine (Thwaites et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2003; Anderson et al., 2004; Abbot et al., 2006; Metzner et al., 2006; Thwaites and Anderson, 2007a; Larsen et al., 2009). PAT1 can also be considered a novel intestinal transporter of the heme precursor ALA, which is used extensively in photodynamic therapy. PAT1 has a relatively low affinity for ALA (Km 10.4 mM) (Fig. 1A) compared with GABA (Km 1.1 mM), but the affinity is within the range of that for other naturally occurring PAT1 substrates such as glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, and taurine (Km ∼2-10 mM) (Thwaites et al., 1995; Boll et al., 2002; Metzner et al., 2006; Anderson et al., 2009).. During photodynamic therapy, ALA is typically given orally in the range of 10 to 60 mg/kg b.wt., in small amounts of fluid, either as a bolus or in ...
Rai, K. M. Lokanatha and Umesha, K. B. and Yathirajan, H. S. (1999) Determination of molecular weight of neutral amino acids with chloramine-T. JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 76 (3). pp. 170-171. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
Na+-dependent system A-like transporter, System A2 or ATA2 (transports neutral amino acids with decreasing affinity in the order: MeAIB, Ala, Gly, Ser, Pro, Met, Asn, Gln, Thr, Leu and Phe). The neuronal system A2 has been reported to transport Asn and Gln with higher affinity than for other neutral amino acids. [ATA2 is stored in the Golgi network and released by insulin stimulus in adipocytes (Hatanaka et al., 2006a).] Its levels are regulated by ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-2, which causes endocytotic sequestration and proteosomal degradation (Hatanaka et al., 2006b). SNAT2 also functions as a mammalian amino acid transceptor (transporter/receptor), acting in an autoregulatory gene expression pathway (Hyde et al., 2007). It also mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). Also transports homocysteine (Tsitsiou et al., 2009 ...
NTT Communications Corporation, the ICT solutions and international communications business within the NTT Group, announced today that they will begin deploying an ultra-large-capacity, space-saving and energy-saving 400Gbps (400G) optical transmission system in data centers for network connection.
NTTドコモの中村維夫社長は6月13日,iPhoneの販売契約に関する本誌の質問に対し「(国内の販売契約は)排他ではないと聞いている」と,契約獲得を続行する方針を示唆した。「できれば1番目に欲しかった」として,先行された悔しさをにじませるとともに,2番目の獲得を目指す方向性を示した。 ...
KetoVOLVE™ products combine several aspects of the Ketogenic diet, namely the classical and MCT oil diet. KetoVOLVE is formulated to be as clinically effective as possible. To this end, it contains specifically selected ingredients that contribute both nutritionally and clinically. For example, the protein selected is whey protein, which is a nutritionally complete protein containing levels of essential amino acids at levels that meet or exceed human dietary requirements. From a biochemical perspective, the whey protein is high in large neutral amino acids (LNAA). Among the LNAAs, there is a subgroup called branched chain amino acids that have liver support functionality and help stabilise ketosis ...
As discussed earlier, cells can acquire serine by either synthesizing it internally or importing serine from the environment. Serine is a small, neutral amino acid and, as such, can be transported by one of three systems. Two of the systems are sodium dependent: the alanine/serine/cysteine/threonine transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 (encoded by SLC1A4 and SLC1A5, respectively) and the system A transporters SAT1 and SAT2 (encoded by SLC38A1 and SLC38A2, respectively). The third is a family of neutral amino acid antiporters, the alanine/serine/cysteine transporter (ASC) system (El-Hattab, 2016). These antiporters are of particular interest because they are active even at steady state, so that for instance, one molecule of intracellular serine can be exchanged for one molecule of extracellular serine. Normally this process goes unnoticed, but a recent study (DeNicola et al., 2015) points out that it can complicate interpretation of heavy isotope-labeling experiments by setting up an exchange flux ...
Japanese telecom carrier NTT DoCoMo has introduced the first cellphone in Japan to run Googles Android mobile operating system. The phone called HT-03A is expected to be introduced in June or July, said the company. It is part of NTT DoCoMos summer line-up of 18 new devices. The Japanese cellphone running Android OS comes nearly \[…\]
Sony Ericsson today announced it will launch the Xperia (SO-01B) with NTT DOCOMO in Japan in April 2010. The Xperia runs on 1GHz CPU, has a4" touch screen, a 8.1 megapixel camera and built-in WiFi and Bluetooth. The phone builds on top of the Open OS Android platform and features Sony Ericssons own Mediascape and Timescape UI. More info ...
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Groups of rats were deprived of food overnight and then given free access to diets designed to raise (carbohydrate) or lower (carbohydrate and large neutral amino acids) brain tryptophan concentrations. Similar diets were supplemented with 40% fat and fed to other groups. All animals were killed 2h after food presentation. Sera from animals fed carbohydrate plus fat contained 2.5 times as much free tryptophan concentrations did not differ. Similarly, sera from rats fed on carbohydrate, large neutral amino acids, and 40% fat contained 5 times as much free tryptophan as those from rats given this meal without fat, but brain tryptophan concentrations increased by only 26%. Correlations were made between brain tryptophan and (1) free serum tryptophan, (2) the ratio of free serum tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids in serum that compete with it for uptake into the brain, (3) total serum tryptophan or (4) the ratio of total serum tryptophan to the sum of its circulating ...
Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. PMID: 9878049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of ...
RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
The large neutral amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan are precursors of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin and their availability in the brain may influence neurotransmission. Disturbed neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems are implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).. The primary aim of this study is to outline the findings/evidence from different investigations in vitro, concerning aberrant amino acid (tyrosine, tryptophan and alanine) transport in fibroblasts obtained from patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, bipolar-I disorder, autism and ADHD disorders.. The outlines of the findings presented in this study provide evidence that amino acids, tyrosine and tryptophan are strongly involved in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism and ADHD.. ...
Studies performed during the past decade have shown that the rates at which certain neurons produce and release their neurotransmitters can be affected by precursor availability, and thus by the changes in plasma composition that occur after ingestion of the precursors in purified form or as constituents of foods. Thus, tryptophan administration or a plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids, thereby raising brain tryptophan levels, increasing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase, and accelerating the synthesis and release of serotonin. Tyrosine administration or a high-protein meal similarly elevates brain tyrosine and can accelerate catecholamine synthesis in the CNS and sympathoadrenal cells, while the consumption of lecithin or choline increases brain choline levels and neuronal acetylcholine synthesis. The physiologic and biochemical mechanisms that must exist in order for nutrient consumption to affect neurotransmitte synthesis have been characterized and ...
IT and telecom services provider NTT Communications Corporation (NTT Com), has launched the international data network services in India through its affiliate
Rare hereditary recessive disorder characterized by a pellagrous rash, cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation and renal aminoaciduria due to a defect in the cellular transport of neutral amino acids. The cutaneous signs precede the neurological manifestations. The rash is dry, scaly and well marginated, affecting the light-exposed areas. After exposure to sunlight the skin reddens and an exsudate may occur.. ...
... is a small neutral alkyne produced by a number of Streptomyces species, first discovered by Suzuki and colleagues in 1958. Cellocidin has a broad antibacterial, antifungal and antitumor profile due to its ability to react with endogenous thiols like cysteine and glutathione. Cellocidin occurs as a weak active in many bioassays using actinomycete crude extracts and is thus a useful standard for chemical and bioassay dereplication ...
Being fluent in both IT and business, NTT DATA leverages AI and Intelligent Automation to accelerate business automation. We are aiming for automation in all IT processes from data centers to end users and from the cloud to applications. NTT DATA will leverage every available advanced technology to apply the benefits of Intelligent Automation to every one of your business processes.. ...
Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the naturally occurring precursor amino acid for dopamine and the main therapeutic agent for neurologic disorders due to dopamine depletion, such as Parkinsons disease. Levodopa absorption in small intestine has been suggested to be mediated by the large neutral amino acids transport machinery, but the identity of the involved transporters is unknown. Clinically, co-administration of levodopa and dietary amino acids is avoided to decrease competition for transport in intestine and at the blood brain barrier. Levodopa is routinely co-administered with levodopa metabolism inhibitors (dopa decarboxylase and cathechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors) that share structural similarity with levodopa. In this systematic study involving Xenopus laevis oocytes and MDCK epithelia expression systems and ex vivo preparations from wild type and knockout mice, we identified the neutral and dibasic amino acids exchanger (antiporter) b0,+AT-rBAT (SLC7A9-SLC3A1) as the luminal intestinal ...
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... Absence of charge over molecules (Uncharged/Neutral molecules) favours their transport by simple diffusion. Small neutral molecules are usually transported freely across plasma membranes by simple dif
Circling & chasing. Be sure they are in a SMALL, neutral area such as a bathroom or penned area. Stop the chasing. Place them side by side. Try feeding them treats together. Try car rides in a box together. Sometimes loud noises or being sprayed with a water bottle are enough to make the chasing stop. A little dab of peanut butter on each others head may instigate grooming.. True aggressive fighting. Separate buns and try again later. Try taking them for a car ride together in a box and back to a neutral place. Supervise closely. Check for wounds. Try another rabbit if this aggressive fighting persists. Call an HRS volunteer.. Ignoring each other. As long as they are not fighting, this is a good thing! If they are coexisting in their neutral space, this is typical and a good start. They will begin to sit closer, sleep near each other and eat together shortly. Leave them in a small neutral space a bit longer. Try to wait for a little grooming.. Grooming. This is GREAT! Their relationship will ...
DoCoMo and KPN Telecom in talks to buy 35 percent of British wireless venture of Hong Kong conglomerate Hutchison Whampoa.TOKYO, 6 July 2000 (MaxisNet) - Japanese mobile phone giant NTT DoCoMo and its European partner look set to buy part of a British company with a next-generation wireless license in a bid to make its cutting-edge technology a global standard.
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Monday, July 15, 1974 V 1 V% World Has Some Time Left; Finishing Off Dying Cult of Ecodootfj, t.. ntt. * I t r-« i_. »t . n . ri Q1* A fr ft n 1 nnm* n «A««*l n 4l n « w* * i-r It t tin virxj-JtinAi-J Wit f\nr\ •••! •fittttti. Edition of Carrol Daily Times Herald
Eye of the Frog writes Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. and its subsidiary NTT DoCoMo Inc. have developed a device that attaches to your PDA which uses the bodys conductivity to transmit data at an amazing 10 megabits per second....
The transport of S-cysteine conjugates was studied in the kidney cell line, LLC-PK1, using the nephrotoxin, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (L-DCVC), as the model compound. The saturable uptake of this conjugate did not require sodium and was selectively inhibited by the amino acid transport system L-specific substrate, 2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid, as well as a variety of other S-cysteine conjugates and neutral amino acids with large, nonpolar side chains. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of both low and high affinity transport systems with Km values that differed by 25-fold. Although these uptake systems showed no discernible differences in substrate specificity, the low affinity transport was more sensitive to trans-stimulation. L-DCVC uptake in subconfluent cultures was about 3-fold that of confluent cells, suggesting either adaptive regulation to cell growth or polarization of transport to the basolateral membrane. L-DCVC toxicity in LLC-PK1 cells was inhibited in the ...
The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. Uptake of phenylalanine as well as of glucose by the two types of membrane vesicles was found to be Na+-dependent, electrogenic and stereospecific. Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 ...
For many years, NTT DOCOMO has worked hand-in-hand with Fujitsu to upgrade ALADIN, which is essential for expanding DOCOMOs business and services.
Mitak lupa kalau yang menularkan HIV kepada PSK justru laki-laki dewasa yang dalam kehidupan sehari-hari bisa sebagai seorang sumai. Selanjutnya ada pula laki-laki yang tertular HIV dari PSK yang mengidap HIV/AIDS. Laki-laki ini juga dalam kehidupan sehari-hari bisa sebagai seorang sumai. ...
Amino acids represent a strong signal that positively regulates mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007). It was recently shown that leucine, an essential amino acid required for mTORC1 activation, is transported into cells in a glutamine-dependent fashion (Nicklin et al., 2009). Glutamine, which is imported into cells through SLC1A5 [solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter) member 5], is exchanged to import leucine via a heterodimeric system composed of SLC7A5 [antiport solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system, member 5] and SLC3A2 [solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2]. The mechanism by which intracellular amino acids then signal to mTORC1 remained obscure for many years. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is known to be independent of TSC1/2, because the mTORC1 pathway remains sensitive to amino acid deprivation in cells that lack TSC1 or TSC2 (Nobukuni et al., 2005). Some studies have ...
The Alanine-Serine-Cysteine transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5) is a membrane protein that transports neutral amino acids into cells in exchange for outward movement of intracellular amino acids. ASCT2 is highly expressed in peripheral tissues such as the lung and intestines where it contributes to the homeostasis of intracellular concentrations of neutral amino acids. ASCT2 also plays an important role in the development of a variety of cancers such as melanoma by transporting amino acid nutrients such as glutamine into the proliferating tumors. Therefore, ASCT2 is a key drug target with potentially great pharmacological importance. Here, we identify seven ASCT2 ligands by computational modeling and experimental testing. In particular, we construct homology models based on crystallographic structures of the aspartate transporter Glt(Ph) in two different conformations. Optimization of the models binding sites for protein-ligand complementarity reveals new putative pockets that can be targeted via structure
The following are press releases issued during the past month.. Information is current as of the date of issue of the individual press release ...
The following are press releases issued during the past month.. Information is current as of the date of issue of the individual press release ...
Optical Dephasing And Orientational Relaxation Of Wannier-Excitons And Free-Carriers In Gaas And Gaas/Alxga1-Xas Quantum-Wells ...
Lukas should have received special attention from the local health workers long ago. But regrettably, the family could not take him to a Posyandu (an integrated health post). His father needed to give all his attention to the family business and his mother is currently working as a domestic assistant in Malaysia. All the while, Lukas condition worsened ...
Baclofen, 3-amino-propylphosphonic acid (3-APPA), and beta-phenyl-GABA (BPG), each reduced the frequency of spontaneous paroxysmal discharges in rat neocortical slices maintained in Mg2+-free medium, reversibly antagonised by phaclofen and 4-amino-butylphosphonic acid (4-ABPA). At lower concentrations, not influencing the discharges, both 3-APPA and BPG also reversibly antagonised this action of baclofen. However, des-chloro-phaclofen was inactive. Thus, phaclofen and 4-ABPA are GABAB-receptor antagonists in neocortex, whereas both 3-APPA and BPG have partial agonist/antagonist activity at cortical GABAB-receptors.
Expression of SLC6A15 (FLJ10316, hv7-3, NTT73, SBAT1, V7-3) in human tissue. Overview of the antibody staining with HPA008609 in immunohistochemistry
Jun Kondo, Naoki Ishitani, Makoto Takahashi, NTT FACILITIES, INC. / Tomohiro Katayama, Masaki Shinozaki, NITTO KOGYO Corporation/ Nichibei Co., Ltd. ...
Clin Drug Investig. 2009;29(5):325-37. doi: 10.2165/00044011-200929050-00005. Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt

Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual...Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual...

Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ... Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ... Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ... Inhibitors of the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 are effective in in vivo models of schizophrenia and visual ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2018/08/31/jpet.118.251116

Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...

LAT1 interacts preferentially with large neutral amino acids, whereas its affinity for short chain neutral amino acids is ... 44 45 Ubiquitously expressed LAT2 transports not only large neutral amino acids but also small neutral amino acids. 46 47 LAT1 ... a large neutral amino acid, was used as a model substrate to investigate the functional presence of a large neutral amino acid ... l-Isomers of large neutral amino acids Phe and Tyr inhibited transport significantly, whereas small neutral amino acids, ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2181705

Ligand Discovery for the Alanine-Serine-Cysteine Transporter (ASCT2, S by Colas Claire, Christof Grewer et al."Ligand Discovery for the Alanine-Serine-Cysteine Transporter (ASCT2, S" by Colas Claire, Christof Grewer et al.

... such as the lung and intestines where it contributes to the homeostasis of intracellular concentrations of neutral amino acids ... ASCT2 also plays an important role in the development of a variety of cancers such as melanoma by transporting amino acid ... Our results improve our understanding of how substrate specificity is determined in amino acid transporters, as well as provide ... is a membrane protein that transports neutral amino acids into cells in exchange for outward movement of intracellular amino ...
more infohttps://orb.binghamton.edu/chem_fac/5/

A one-gate elevator mechanism for the human neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 | Nature CommunicationsA one-gate elevator mechanism for the human neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 | Nature Communications

How the human Alanine Serine Cysteine Transporter 2 (ASCT2) binds its substrates, neutral amino acids, and releases them on the ... is a neutral amino acid exchanger that belongs to the solute carrier family 1 (SLC1A). SLC1A structures have revealed an ... which in mammals consists of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1-EAAT5 (SLC1A1-3, 6-7) and the neutral amino acid ... to a cysteine in EAAT3 has been shown to abolish acidic amino-acid transport and instead introduced neutral amino-acid ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11363-x?error=cookies_not_supported&code=6ca0b2b7-7d9c-46cf-bd75-d3162b4a6138

Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids.  - PubMed -...Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids. - PubMed -...

... is a single cluster of basic amino acids (PKKKRKV132; single-letter code, the basic amino acids are shown in bold; [4,5]), ... Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids.. Makkerh JP1 ... Contrary to conventional views, neutral and even acidic amino acids can play crucial roles in NLSs. ... The nucleoplasmin NLS requires two essential clusters of basic amino acids, separated by a mutation-tolerant spacer ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8805337?dopt=Abstract

SLC1A5 - Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC1A5 gene & proteinSLC1A5 - Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC1A5 gene & protein

It accepts as substrates all neutral amino acids, including glutamine, asparagine, and branched-chain and aromatic amino acids ... and cationic amino acids (PubMed:8702519, PubMed:29872227). Through binding of the fusogenic protein syncytin-1/ERVW-1 may ... Sodium-dependent amino acids transporter that has a broad substrate specificity, with a preference for zwitterionic amino acids ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0)Add BLAST. 541. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q15758

Transamination of neutral amino acids and 2-keto acids in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria.Transamination of neutral amino acids and 2-keto acids in pancreatic B-cell mitochondria.

... activities catalyzing the reactions between L-glutamate and L-glutamine and the aliphatic ketomonocarboxylic acids 2- ... 0/Glutamates; 0/Hexanoic Acids; 0/Keto Acids; 2492-75-3/alpha-ketocaproic acid; 56-85-9/Glutamine; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid; 61-90 ... Glutamic Acid. Glutamine / metabolism*. Hexanoic Acids / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / enzymology*. Keto Acids / ... Previous Document: Self-association mode of a flavoenzyme D-amino acid oxidase from hog kidney. II. Stoichiometry of ho.... ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Transamination-neutral-amino-acids-2/2864344.html

SLC7A8 - Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC7A8 gene & proteinSLC7A8 - Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2 - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC7A8 gene & protein

Plays an essential role in the reabsorption of neutral amino acids from the epithelial cells to the bloodstream in the kidney. ... Plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when ... Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine ... high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9UHI5

The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation.

... accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, ... Amino Acid Transport System A / physiology*. Amino Acids, Neutral / metabolism*. Biological Transport. Cell Membrane / ... 0/Amino Acid Transport System A; 0/Amino Acids, Neutral; 0/Hypertonic Solutions; 0/RNA, Small Interfering; 0/SLC38A2 protein, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/role-neutral-amino-acid-transporter/16734764.html

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3 (HMDBP03036)Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3 (HMDBP03036)

Amino acid transport and metabolism. Specific Function. Sodium-dependent amino acid/proton antiporter. Mediates electrogenic ... Showing Protein Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3 (HMDBP03036). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... May mediate amino acid transport in either direction under physiological conditions. May play a role in nitrogen metabolism and ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3 MEAPLQTEMVELVPNGKHSEGLLPVITPMAGNQRVEDPARSCMEGKSFLQKSPSKEPHFT ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP03036

Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutralAmino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral

... neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral ... neutral in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Amino acid transport systems ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... neutral. (redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Amino+acid+transport+systems%2C+neutral

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter Inhibited by the Volatile...CiNii 論文 - Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter Inhibited by the Volatile...

Sodium-Coupled Neutral Amino Acid Cotransporter Inhibited by the Volatile Anesthetic, Halothane, in Megakaryocytes * * SHIMADA ... The regulation of neutral amino acid transport in mammalian cells SHOTWELL MA ... On the strategy of kinetic discrimination of amino acid transport systems CHRISTENSEN H. ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008296561

Reversed diurnal variation in depression: associations with a differential antidepressant response, tryptophan:large neutral...Reversed diurnal variation in depression: associations with a differential antidepressant response, tryptophan:large neutral...

... large neutral amino acid ratio and serotonin transporter polymorphisms - Volume 35 Issue 4 - PETER R. JOYCE, RICHARD J. PORTER ... large neutral amino acid ratio and serotonin transporter polymorphisms. * PETER R. JOYCE (a1), RICHARD J. PORTER (a1), ROGER T ... large neutral amino acid ratio and had different allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in the promoter region of the ...
more infohttps://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/psychological-medicine/article/reversed-diurnal-variation-in-depression-associations-with-a-differential-antidepressant-response-tryptophanlarge-neutral-amino-acid-ratio-and-serotonin-transporter-polymorphisms/580400EC942720FFE0FAED4AF65FEC6C

6TMS neutral amino acid transporter family - Wikipedia6TMS neutral amino acid transporter family - Wikipedia

The generalized reaction catalyzed by SnatA is: Amino acid (in) → Amino acid (out) MarC is encoded by a gene at the multiple ... The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family (TC# 2.A.95) is a family of transporters belonging to the Lysine Exporter ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.95 The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid ... A gene encoding a small neutral amino acid transporter was cloned from the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6TMS_neutral_amino_acid_transporter_family

Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems |...

Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/220/1/15

Frontiers | Functional Polarity of Microvascular Brain Endothelial Cells Supported by Neurovascular Unit Computational Model of...Frontiers | Functional Polarity of Microvascular Brain Endothelial Cells Supported by Neurovascular Unit Computational Model of...

The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential ... The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential ... both Na+-independent large neutral amino acid antiporters, and B0AT2 (SLC6A15), a Na+-dependent large neutral amino acid ... Keywords: blood brain barrier, neurovascular unit, amino acid transporter, large neutral amino acid, SLC7A5/LAT1 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.00171/full

Human Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag), Recombinant | ABIN1320502Human Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag), Recombinant | ABIN1320502

Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ... Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) (AA... Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 ... Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * ... Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) (AA 326-414), (partial) protein (GST tag) ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/protein/1320502/Solute+Carrier+Family+6+Neutral+Amino+Acid+Transporter,+Member+19+SLC6A19+AA+326-414,+partial+protein+GST+tag/

Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...

... cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids. Fischer, Wolf‐N.; ... Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids. Low and high ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids." The Plant Journal ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/low-and-high-affinity-amino-acid-h-cotransporters-for-cellular-import-TUIiOJTXJp

Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids  - Zurich Open...Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids - Zurich Open...

Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids ... Download PDF Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids. Item ... Cooperation of Antiporter LAT2/CD98hc with Uniporter TAT1 for Renal Reabsorption of Neutral Amino Acids. Journal of the ... Reabsorption of amino acids (AAs) across the renal proximal tubule is crucial for intracellular and whole organism AA ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/151069/

Electrical Evidence for Different Mechanisms of Uptake for Basic, Neutral, and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles | 10.1104...Electrical Evidence for Different Mechanisms of Uptake for Basic, Neutral, and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles | 10.1104...

... and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands ... and basic amino acids. We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that accumulation ... and basic amino acids. We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that accumulation ... and Acidic Amino Acids... Thomas B. Kinraide and Bud Etherton 1980-06-01 00:00:00 The application of neutral or acidic amino ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/american-society-of-plant-biologist/electrical-evidence-for-different-mechanisms-of-uptake-for-basic-FZoVXHSei9?impressionId=5dd484230d147&i_medium=docview&i_campaign=references&i_source=references

Characterization of methylated neutral amino acids from Escher...Characterization of methylated neutral amino acids from Escher...

The methylated neutral amino acids from both 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits ... Characterization of methylated neutral amino acids from Escherichia coli ribosomes.: ... Characterization of methylated neutral amino acids from Escherichia coli ribosomes.. Authors * F N Chang ... The methylated neutral amino acids from both 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits of an Escherichia coli K strain were characterized ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/characterization-of-methylated-neutral-amino-acids-from-escherichia-coli-ribosomes

Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter (SLC1/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific...Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter (SLC1/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific...

Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter (SLC1/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific ... Phylogenetic analysis of the vertebrate excitatory/neutral amino acid transporter (SLC1/EAAT) family reveals lineage specific ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/41720/

The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. - Department...The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. - Department...

... to the sum of the plasma concentrations of other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) was calculated in 26 chronic, in-patient ... The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. ... The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. ... The ratio of plasma phenylalanine to other large neutral amino acids is not a risk factor for tardive dyskinesia. ...
more infohttps://www.psych.ox.ac.uk/publications/165396
  • ASCT2 plays a role in cancer cell growth by providing glutamine as an alternative carbon source for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, for fatty-acid production, and by contributing to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) 11 . (nature.com)
  • The cloned gene, snatA, encodes a protein of 216 amino acid residues, SnatA (TC# 2.A.95.1.4), with six membrane-spanning segments (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The other unit consists of an operon, marRAB, encoding (1) the MarR repressor which binds marO and negatively regulates marRAB expression, (2) MarA, a transcriptional activator that activates expression of other genes such as acrAB (encoding the principal E. coli multidrug efflux pump of the RND superfamily (TC #2.A.6.2)) and the mar regulon itself, and (3) MarB, a small protein of 71 amino acyl residues of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 50S ribosomal subunit contains three methylated neutral amino acids: N-monomethylalanine, N-monomethylmethionine, and an as yet unidentified methylated amino acid found in protein L11. (mysciencework.com)
  • Thus protein L33 from this E. coli K strain has heterogeneity in its N-terminal amino acid and can start with either N-monomethylalanine or N-monomethylmethionine. (mysciencework.com)
  • Biochemical studies give evidence that protein calorie malnutrition impairs the energy metabolism in the cells by interfering with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and enzymes involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. (scirp.org)
  • An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with mice lacking only TAT1 or LAT2, dKO LAT2-TAT1 mice lost larger amounts of aromatic and other neutral AAs in their urine due to a tubular reabsorption defect. (uzh.ch)
  • The depolarizations are considered to reflect H + -amino acid co-transport, and the spontaneous repolarizations are believed to be caused by subsequent electrogenic H + extrusion. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we report that constructs containing an inactive basic cluster downstream of the bipartite signal of nucleoplasmin can be directed to the nucleus by flanking them with specific neutral and acidic residues taken from the signal reported for c-Myc. (nih.gov)
  • Since all AAPs are differentially expressed, different tissues may be supplied with a different spectrum of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • The depolarizations induced by the other amino acids, in contrast, were more strongly affected by the pH changes. (deepdyve.com)