Amino Acids, SulfurImidesDicarboxylic AcidsSpiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.PyrrolidinesSuccinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments and thus effect whitening.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Echinochloa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Guam: An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)New Brunswick: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Methanomicrobiales: An order of anaerobic, highly specialized methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Its organisms are nonmotile or motile, with cells occurring as coccoid bodies, pseudosarcina, or rods. Families include METHANOMICROBIACEAE, Methanocorpusculaceae, and Methanospirillaceae.Metastrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (1/185)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Basolateral sorting of furin in MDCK cells requires a phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with an acidic amino acid cluster. (2/185)

Furin is a subtilisin-related endoprotease which processes a wide range of bioactive proteins. Furin is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where proteolytic activation of many precursor proteins takes place. A significant fraction of furin, however, cycles among the TGN, the plasma membrane, and endosomes, indicating that the accumulation in the TGN reflects a dynamic localization process. The cytosolic domain of furin is necessary and sufficient for TGN localization, and two signals are responsible for retrieval of furin to the TGN. A tyrosine-based (YKGL) motif mediates internalization of furin from the cell surface into endosomes. An acidic cluster that is part of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites (SDSEEDE) is then responsible for retrieval of furin from endosomes to the TGN. In addition, the acidic EEDE sequence also mediates endocytic activity. Here, we analyzed the sorting of furin in polarized epithelial cells. We show that furin is delivered to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells, from where a significant fraction of the protein can return to the TGN. A phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with the acidic EEDE cluster is required for basolateral sorting and constitutes a novel signal regulating intracellular traffic of furin.  (+info)

Role of reductase domain cluster 1 acidic residues in neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Characterization of the FMN-FREE enzyme. (3/185)

The nNOS reductase domain is homologous to cytochrome P450 reductase, which contains two conserved clusters of acidic residues in its FMN module that play varied roles in its electron transfer reactions. To study the role of nNOS reductase domain cluster 1 acidic residues, we mutated two conserved acidic (Asp(918) and Glu(919)) and one conserved aromatic residue (Phe(892)), and investigated the effect of each mutation on flavin binding, conformational change, electron transfer reactions, calmodulin regulation, and catalytic activities. Each mutation destabilized FMN binding without significantly affecting other aspects including substrate, cofactor or calmodulin binding, or catalytic activities upon FMN reconstitution, indicating the mutational effect was restricted to the FMN module. Characterization of the FMN-depleted mutants showed that bound FMN was essential for reduction of the nNOS heme or cytochrome c, but not for ferricyanide or dichlorophenolindolphenol, and established that the electron transfer path in nNOS is NADPH to FAD to FMN to heme. Steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic analysis revealed a novel role for bound FMN in suppressing FAD reduction by NADPH. The suppression could be relieved either by FMN removal or calmodulin binding. Calmodulin binding induced a conformational change that was restricted to the FMN module. This increased the rate of FMN reduction and triggered electron transfer to the heme. We propose that the FMN module of nNOS is the key positive or negative regulator of electron transfer at all points in nNOS. This distinguishes nNOS from other related flavoproteins, and helps explain the mechanism of calmodulin regulation.  (+info)

Group I, II, and III mGluR compounds affect rhythm generation in the gastric circuit of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion. (4/185)

We have studied the effects of group I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists on rhythm generation by the gastric circuit of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. All mGluR agonists and some antagonists we tested in this study had clear and distinct effects on gastric rhythm generation when superfused over combined oscillating or blocked silent STG preparations. A consistent difference between group I agonists and group II and III agonists was that group I agonists acted excitatory. The group I-specific agonists L-quisqualic acid and (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, as well as the nonspecific agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid accelerated ongoing rhythms and could induce gastric rhythms in silent preparations. The group II agonist (2S,1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I) and the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) slowed down or completely blocked ongoing gastric rhythms and were without detectable effect on silent preparations. The action of L-CCG-I was blocked partially by the group-II-specific antagonist, (RS)-1-amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid [(RS)APICA], and the group-III-specific antagonist (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine completely blocked the action of L-AP4. Besides its antagonistic action, the group-II-specific antagonist (RS)APICA had a remarkably strong apparent inverse agonist action when applied alone on oscillating preparations. The action of all drugs was dose dependent and reversible, although recovery was not always complete. In our experiments, the effects of none of the mGluR-specific agonists were antagonized or amplified by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-specific antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, excluding the contamination of responses to mGluR agonists by nonspecific cross-reactivity with NMDA receptors. Picrotoxin did not prevent the inhibitory action of L-CCG-I and L-AP4. We conclude that mGluRs, probably similar to those belonging to groups I, II, and III described in mammals, may play a role as modulators of gastric circuit rhythm generation in vivo.  (+info)

Cocaine and kindling alter the sensitivity of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the central amygdala. (5/185)

G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are being implicated in various forms of neuroplasticity and CNS disorders. This study examined whether the sensitivities of mGluR agonists are modulated in a distinct fashion in different models of synaptic plasticity, specifically, kindling and chronic cocaine treatment. The influence of kindling and chronic cocaine exposure in vivo was examined in vitro on the modulation of synaptic transmission by group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of central amygdala (CeA) neurons. Synaptic transmission was evoked by electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral amygdaloid pathway (VAP) afferents in brain slices from control rats and from rats treated with cocaine or exposed to three to five stage-five kindled seizures. This study shows that after chemical stimulation with chronic cocaine exposure or after electrical stimulation with kindling the receptor sensitivities for mGluR agonists are altered in opposite ways. In slices from control rats, group II agonists, (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG1) and (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), depressed neurotransmission more potently at the BLA-CeA than at the VAP-CeA synapse while group III agonist, L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (LAP4), depressed neurotransmission more potently at the VAP-CeA synapse than at the BLA-CeA. These agonist actions were not seen (were absent) in amygdala neurons from chronic cocaine-treated animals. In contrast, after kindling, concentration response relationships for LCCG1 and LAP4 were shifted to the left, suggesting that sensitivity to these agonists is increased. Except at high concentrations, LCCG1, LY354740, and LAP4 neither induced membrane currents nor changed current-voltage relationships. Loss of mGluR inhibition with chronic cocaine treatment may contribute to counter-adaptive changes including anxiety and depression in cocaine withdrawal. Drugs that restore the inhibitory effects of group II and III mGluRs may be novel tools in the treatment of cocaine dependence. The enhanced sensitivity to group II and III mGluR agonists in kindling is similar to that recorded at the lateral to BLA synapse in the amygdala where they reduce epileptiform bursting. These findings suggest that drugs modifying mGluRs may prove useful in the treatment of cocaine withdrawal or epilepsy.  (+info)

Slow synaptic inhibition mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of GIRK channels. (6/185)

Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory actions whereas metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mediate a variety of slower effects. For example, mGluRs can mediate presynaptic inhibition, postsynaptic excitation, or, more rarely, postsynaptic inhibition. We previously described an unusually slow form of postsynaptic inhibition in one class of projection neuron in the song-control nucleus HVc of the songbird forebrain. These neurons, which participate in a circuit that is essential for vocal learning, exhibit an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) that lasts several seconds. Only a portion of this slow IPSP is mediated by GABA(B) receptors. Since these cells are strongly hyperpolarized by agonists of mGluRs, we used intracellular recording from brain slices to investigate the mechanism of this hyperpolarization and to determine whether mGluRs contribute to the slow synaptic inhibition. We report that mGluRs hyperpolarize these HVc neurons by activating G protein-coupled, inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. MGluR antagonists blocked this response and the slow synaptic inhibition. Thus, glutamate can combine with GABA to mediate slow synaptic inhibition by activating GIRK channels in the CNS.  (+info)

Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the rat amygdala. (7/185)

An animal model most sensitive for measuring anticipatory anxiety is fear conditioning, which is expressed by an enduring increase in synaptic strength in the amygdala. A converse view predicts that agents that induce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the amygdala may be useful in the amelioration of stress disorders. In the present study, we show that activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR II) by (2S,3S, 4S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl) glycine (l-ccg) induces an LTD in the basolateral amygdala neurons. The effect was concentration-dependent with a maximal inhibition of approximately 30%. The induction of l-CCG LTD required concurrent synaptic activity, required presynaptic but not postsynaptic Ca(2+) increases, and was independent of NMDA receptors. l-CCG LTD was associated with an increase in the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation and was not occluded by low-frequency stimulation-induced LTD, suggesting that these two forms of LTD did not share a common underlying mechanism. After eliciting LTD with l-CCG, application of isoproterenol increased the synaptic responses back to its original baseline, demonstrating that chemically depressed synapses could be potentiated by another chemical. A selective PKA inhibitor, KT 5720, by its own caused a depression of synaptic transmission and blocked l-CCG LTD, presumably by mimicking and thereby occluding any further depression. Together, these results suggest that l-CCG LTD is induced by presynaptically mGluR II-mediated inhibition of Ca(2+)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase, resulting in a decrease in cAMP formation and PKA activation, which leads to a long-lasting decrease in transmitter release.  (+info)

cAMP-dependent presynaptic regulation of spontaneous glycinergic IPSCs in mechanically dissociated rat spinal cord neurons. (8/185)

Spontaneous miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat sacral dorsal commissural nucleus (SDCN) neurons attached with intact glycinergic presynaptic nerve terminals and evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) in the slice preparation were investigated using nystatin-perforated patch and conventional whole cell recording modes under the voltage-clamp conditions. Trans-ACPD (tACPD) reversibly reduced the mIPSC frequency without affecting the mean amplitude. The effect was mimicked by a specific metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) II subtype agonist, (2S, 1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclo propyl) glycine (L-CCG-I), and a specific mGluRIII subtype agonist, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4). These inhibitory effects on mIPSC frequency were blocked by the specific antagonists for mGluRII, alpha-methyl-1-(2S, 1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclo propyl) glycine and (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine. In the slice preparation, eIPSC amplitude and mIPSC frequency were decreased reversibly by L-CCG-I (10(-6) M) and L-AP4 (10(-6) M). In K(+)-free or K(+)-free external solution with Ba(2+) and Cs(+), Ca(2+)-free or Cd(2+) external solution, the inhibitory effect of tACPD on mIPSC frequency was unaltered. Forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP significantly increased presynaptic glycine release, and prevented the inhibitory action of tACPD on mIPSC frequency. Sp-cAMP, however, did not prevent the inhibitory action of tACPD on mIPSC frequency. It was concluded that the activation of mGluRs inhibits glycine release by reducing the action of cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

*Dicarboxylic acid

Other examples of dicarboxylic acids include aspartic acid and glutamic acid, two amino acids in the human body. General ... In general, dicarboxylic acids show similar chemical behavior and reactivity to monocarboxylic acids. Dicarboxylic acids are ... C22 and C23 dicarboxylic acids obtained from the sumac tree (Rhus sp.). A large survey of the dicarboxylic acids present in ... "A Novel Fluorescent Dicarboxylic Acid, (Z)-1,7-Nonadecadiene-2,3-dicarboxylic Acid, Produced by White-Rot Fungus Ceriporiopsis ...

*Dicarboxylic aminoaciduria

In dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, the anionic amino acid transporter, EAAT3, cannot bring glutamate and aspartate across ... This affects a diseased individual's amino acid pool, as they will have to spend additional resources to replenish the amino ... Enterocytes in the intestines break up peptides into residual amino acids where they would normally use charge-specific amino ... protein digestion and absorption are key to establishing and maintaining amino acid pools. In the case of dicarboxylic ...

*Argininosuccinate lyase

... producing the amino acid arginine and dicarboxylic acid fumarate. Located in liver cytosol, ASL is the fourth enzyme of the ... Within the superfamily, ASL is most closely related to δ-crystallin in amino acid sequence and in protein fold structure. There ... These two isoforms conserve 69% and 71% of the ASL amino acid sequence, respectively, but only the δII isoform retains the same ... ISBN 0-470-12930-1. Chakraborty AR, Davidson A, Howell PL (February 1999). "Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved ...

*FAD dependent oxidoreductase family

... which catalyses the same reaction but is active only toward dicarboxylic D-amino acids. In DAO, a conserved histidine has been ... DAO D-amino-acid dehydrogenase D-amino acid oxidase D-aspartate oxidase Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Sarcosine oxidase ... D-amino-acid dehydrogenase EC 1.4.99.1, D-aspartate oxidase EC 1.4.3.1. D-amino acid oxidase EC 1.4.3.3 (DAMOX or DAO) is an ... FAD flavoenzyme that catalyses the oxidation of neutral and basic D-amino acids into their corresponding keto acids. DAOs have ...

*Eglumegad

"Dipeptides as effective prodrugs of the unnatural amino acid (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), ... 2-amino)propionyl]aminobicyclo[3.1.0.]hexen-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY544344) in rats and dogs: assessment of first-pass ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268)". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 331 (3): 1126-36. doi:10.1124/jpet.109.160598. PMID 19755662. Helton ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740): a potent, selective, and orally active group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist ...

*Congenital disorders of amino acid metabolism

Hypermethioninemia Hyperlysinemias Nonketotic hyperglycinemia Propionic acidemia Hyperprolinemia Cystinuria Dicarboxylic ... Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism are metabolic disorders which impair the synthesis and degradation of amino acids. ...

*LY-379,268

... and molecular modeling of heterobicyclic amino acids related to (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid ( ... 4-amino-2-sulfonylbicyclo[3.1.0]-hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY404039)". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268)". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 331 (3): 1126-36. doi:10.1124/jpet.109.160598. PMID 19755662. ...

*Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3

... and molecular modeling of heterobicyclic amino acids related to (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid ( ... 2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039): a potent and orally active group II mGluR antagonist with ... 2-amino-3-hydroxy-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid-HYDIA". ChemMedChem. 3 (2): 323-35. doi:10.1002/cmdc.200700226. ... and pharmacokinetics of 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives as potent and selective ...

*Rhizobia

Ammonium is then converted into amino acids like glutamine and asparagine before it is exported to the plant. In return, the ... principally as the dicarboxylic acids malate and succinate) as a carbon and energy source. However, because several unrelated ... The legume-rhizobium symbiosis is a classic example of mutualism-rhizobia supply ammonia or amino acids to the plant and in ... plant supplies the bacteria with carbohydrates in the form of organic acids. The plant also provides the bacteroid oxygen for ...

*Pimelic acid

Derivatives of pimelic acid are involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid called lysine. Pimelic acid is one CH 2 unit ... Dicarboxylic acid Pimelic acid has been synthesized from cyclohexanone and from salicylic acid. In the former route, the ... It is the final member of the mnemonic used to aid recollection of the order of the first six dicarboxylic acids using their ... Diaminopimelic acid CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 83rd ed. p.8-52 "Pimelic Acid". Organic Syntheses. 11: 42. 1931. doi: ...

*Flux (metallurgy)

... fatty acids (most often oleic acid and stearic acid), dicarboxylic acids) and sometimes amino acids. Some milder fluxes also ... formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and dicarboxylic, e.g. oxalic acid, malonic acid, sebacic acid) Solder fluxes are ... A mixture of organic acids (resin acids, predominantly abietic acid, with pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, neoabietic acid, ... Inorganic Acid) - rosin activated with inorganic acids (usually hydrochloric acid or phosphoric acid), highest activities, ...

*Diprotic acid

... among those dicarboxylic acids play an essential role in many biological behaviors. Many of those diprotic acids are amino ... which are called dicarboxylic acids) and inorganic diprotic acids. Chromic acid (H2CrO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) are two of ... Dicarboxylic acids have a general molecular formula HOOC-R-COOH. A diprotic acid molecular dissociates in water and other ... Sulfuric acid, a diprotic acid, is the most widely used acid in industry, which is also the most-produced industrial chemical ...

*Branching (polymer chemistry)

But "star" branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino ...

*SLC1A1

Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in ... EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as ... SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. ... Excitatory amino acid transporter Glutamate transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106688 - ...

*Nylon

Most nylons are made from the reaction of a dicarboxylic acid with a diamine (e.g. PA66) or a lactam or amino acid with itself ... adipic acid Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid): Castor oil → ricinoleic acid → sebacic acid Terephthalic acid: Crude oil → p- ... ricinoleic acid → methylricinoleate → methyl-11-undecenoate → undecenoic acid → 11-undecenoic acid → 11-bromoundecanoic acid → ... xylene → terephthalic acid Isophthalic acid: Crude oil → m-xylene → isophthalic acid Tetramethylene diamine (putrescine) Crude ...

*Norman Lowther Edson

Edson, N.L., "Ketogenesis-antiketogenesis: Ketogenesis from amino-acids". Biochemical Journal, 1935. 29: p. 2498-505. Edson, N. ... Edson, N.L., "Ketogenesis-antiketogenesis: Metabolism of aldehydes and dicarboxylic acids". Biochemical Journal, 1936. 30.: p. ... Two papers were co-authored with Krebs, on the micro-determination of uric acid and on the avian synthesis of uric acid; one ... J., . 30: 2319-32.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov PMID 16746295] Edson N.L., Krebs H.A. and Model A. 1936 The synthesis of uric acid in ...

*Quinolinic acid

... (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine ... and other amino acids. Lesions in the pallidum can suppress effects of quinolinic acid in monkeys injected with quinolinic acid ... Quinolinic acid is a downstream product of the kynurenine pathway, which metabolizes the amino acid tryptophan. It acts as an ... kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HANA). Quinolinic acid's neuroactive and ...

*Boletocrocin

These compounds are polyene dicarboxylic acids that include both lipophilic and polar amino acids. They were extracted from the ...

*Glutaric acid

... is the organic compound with the formula C3H6(COOH)2 . Although the related "linear" dicarboxylic acids adipic ... Glutaric acid is naturally produced in the body during the metabolism of some amino acids, including lysine and tryptophan. ... Uvitonic acid is obtained by the action of ammonia on pyrotartaric acid. Glutaric acid may cause irritation to the skin and ... DOI 10.1002/14356007.a01_305 Glutaric acid, cameochemicals.com Calculator: Water and solute activities in aqueous glutaric acid ...

*Lanthionine Ketimine

... (3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) is a naturally occurring sulfur amino acid metabolite ... In Sulfur Amino Acids: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects, Alan R. Liss Inc., pp. 355-364. ^ Cavallini, D.; Ricci, G.; Dupre, S ... which normally condenses the amino acids homocysteine and serine to form cystathionine. In an alternate pathway, cysteine and ... Sulfur-containing cyclic ketimines and imino acids. A novel family of endogenous products in search for a role. European ...

*2-Amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase

6-dicarboxylic acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123: 9459-9460. doi:10.1021/ja011243. PMID 11562236. Laursen, J.B.; Nielsen, J. (2004 ... 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase (EC 2.6.1.86, ADIC synthase, 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate synthase, SgcD) is an enzyme with ... 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...

*Iminodiacetic acid

... is a dicarboxylic acid amine (the nitrogen atom forms a secondary amino group, not an imino group as the name suggests). The ... Iminodiacetic acid is an important intermediate in one of the two main industrial processes used to manufacture the herbicide ... Several technetium-99m complexes are used in cholescintigraphy scans (also known as hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scans) to ... Iminodiacetic acid, HN(CH2CO2H)2, often abbreviated to IDA, ... complexes than the tetradentate ligand nitrilotriacetic acid. ...

*MGS-0039

2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039): a potent and orally active group II mGluR antagonist with ... and pharmacokinetics of 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives as potent and selective ...

*HYDIA

2-amino-3-hydroxy-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid-HYDIA". Chemmedchem. 3 (2): 323-35. doi:10.1002/cmdc.200700226. ...

*Gluconeogenesis

From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from ... The glyoxylate cycle produces four-carbon dicarboxylic acids that can enter gluconeogenesis. In 1995, researchers identified ... Other glucogenic amino acids as well as all citric acid cycle intermediates, the latter through conversion to oxaloacetate, can ... Amino Acid Degradation and Synthesis". Biochemistry (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & ...

*Methylene cyclopropyl acetic acid

... a rare and potentially toxic amino acid, chemically related to the common amino acid lysine. (Hypoglycin is found in the unripe ... There is increased urinary excretion of dicarboxylic acids, due to omega oxidation that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. ... Dihydrosterculic acid is the major carbocyclic fatty acid in the seed oils of Litchi chinensis. It is a cyclopropene fatty acid ... Biochem J 1962;82:385-9. PMC 1243468 "Natural alicyclic fatty acids, section:Cyclopropane and Cyclopropene Fatty Acids from ...
Glutamic acid (Glu) and aspartic acid (Asp) are dicarboxylic amino acids and are negatively charged at physiological pH. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism and serves as metabolic fuel in the body. It is also the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system and it is believed to be involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory retention...The present study was designed to investigate an enzymatic route for synthesis of aspartate and glutamate homo-oligopeptides. Synthesis route involved the use of a readily available proteolytic enzyme papain that has been used for synthesis of non-polar and basic amino acid peptides--Abstract, leaf iii.
IN THIS FINAL REPORT ARE DESCRIBED THE MAIN RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED OUT SINCE 1951. The investigations dealt with the metabolism of the dicarboxylic amino acids, glutamic and aspartic acids, and some of their metabolic derivatives, such as glutamine, asparagine, glutathione, and other peptides. Since various glutamic acid derivatives have been claimed to be breakdown products of histidine metabolism the enzymatic degradation of histidine was studied and a labile intermediate isolated and identified. The identification of formamidinoglutaric acid as a labile intermediate in enzymatic histidine breakdown led to an elucidation of the catabolic pathway of histidine and to a study of the mechanism of synthesis of histidine in bacteria. Another aspect of interest in glutamic acid metabolism led to the discovery of two enzymes which catalyze the exchange of the amide groups of free glutamine (glutamotransferase) and of protein bound glutamine (transglutaminase). Parallel with these studies,
Given the similar effects of dmPGE2 and DMOG on HIF1α, we investigated if DMOG similarly affects HSPC function. Pulse exposure of lineageneg BMC dose-dependently increased HIF1α protein expression (Figure 1C) with a concomitant dose-response increase in CXCR4 levels on Sca-1+ c-kit+ lineageneg (SKL) cells (Figure 1D). Functionally, DMOG pulse exposure also enhanced SKL migration to SDF-1 comparable to dmPGE2 (Figure 1E). In a congenic in vivo homing model, treatment of BMCs with DMOG enhanced SKL cell homing equivalent to dmPGE2 (Figure 1F). As we reported for PGE2,6 enhanced homing of SKL cells by DMOG was completely blocked by the selective CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 (Figure 1G). In a limiting dilution, head-to-head congenic transplant model, DMOG treatment of BMC before transplantation significantly increased peripheral blood chimerism at 6 months after transplantation compared with vehicle-treated cells (Figure1H), with no differences in lineage reconstitution between recipient, vehicle, and ...
Acid-extrusion by active transport is important in metabolically active cancer cells, where it removes excess intracellular acid and sets the intracellular resting pH. Hypoxia is a major trigger of adaptive responses in cancer, but its effect on acid-extrusion remains unclear. We studied pH-regulation under normoxia and hypoxia in eight cancer cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A, HT29, HT1080, MiaPaca2, HeLa) using the pH-sensitive fluorophore, cSNARF-1. Hypoxia responses were triggered by pre-incubation in low O(2) or with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). By selective pharmacological inhibition or transport-substrate removal, acid-extrusion flux was dissected into components due to Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) and Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport. In half of the cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A), acid-extrusion on NHE was the dominant flux during an acid load, and in all of these, bar one (MDA-MB-468), NHE-flux was reduced following
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Parkinsons Disease is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, genetics, cellular, molecular and neurophysiology, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinsons disease.
Buy LY 379268 (CAS 191471-52-0), a water soluble systemically active group II mGluR agonist. Join researchers using high quality LY 379268 from Abcam and…
TABLE-US-00008 TABLE VIII No. R5 R L 265 --H 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 266 --H 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 267 --H 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 268 --H 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 269 --H 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 270 --H 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 271 --H 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 272 --H 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 273 --H 4-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 274 --CH3 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 275 --CH3 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 276 --CH3 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 277 --CH3 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 278 --CH3 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 279 --CH3 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 280 --CH3 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 281 --CH3 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 282 --CH3 4-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 283 --CH2CH3 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 284 --CH2CH3 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 285 --CH2CH3 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 286 --CH2CH3 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 287 --CH2CH3 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 288 --CH2CH3 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 289 --CH2CH3 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 290 --CH2CH3 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 291 ...
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of vision due to rod and cone degeneration. Evidence suggests that an inappropriate oxygen level could contribute to its pathogenesis. Rod cell death could increase oxygen concentration, reduce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) and contribute to cone cell death. The purposes of this study were: 1) to analyze the temporal profile of HIF-1α, its downstream effectors VEGF, endothelin-1 (ET-1), iNOS, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and neuroinflammation in retinas of the murine model of rd10 (retinal degeneration 10) mice with RP; 2) to study oxygen bioavailability in these retinas; and 3) to investigate how stabilizing HIF-1α proteins with dimethyloxaloglycine (DMOG), a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, affects retinal degeneration, neuroinflammation, and antioxidant response in rd10 mice ...
1. A compound of the formula (I) ##STR00139## in which R1 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00140## where * represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, A in each individual occurrence represents C--R4 or N, where at most two ring members A represent N at the same time, and E in each individual occurrence represents C--R5 or N, where at most two ring members E represent N at the same time, R2 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00141## where # represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, G in each individual occurrence represents C--R6 or N, J represents O, S or N--R7, L in each individual occurrence represents C--R8 or N, where at most two ring members L represent N at the same time, and M in each individual occurrence represents C--R9 or N, where in total one or two ring members M represent N, where R4, R6, R8 and R9 are identical or different and in each individual case independently of one another represent hydrogen or a ...
Focus Biomolecules is a supplier of Anisomycin, Trichostatin A, Latrunculin a, IBMX, DMOG, 1400W, ampk activators, pde inhibitors and many other biomolecules for research. From the industry experience they set out to refine the practices of small molecule based life sciences companies and eliminate the challenges too often found by customers.. ...
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Abstract: Binding of iron with the molecule of prolyl hydroxylase was studied using 59Fe. The label was administered into one-day-old rats and within 36 hours the enzyme was isolated from skin. After the final step of purification (DEAE cellulose) 59Fe was not found in fractions of prolyl hydroxylase. The purity of the enzyme preparations was controlled by polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The data obtained suggest that Fe ions are not inherent in the enzyme molecule ...
10,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,f]oxepine-4,6-dicarboxylic acid - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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This study investigated the effects of 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (IOX3), a selective small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, on mouse brains subject to transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Male, 8- to 12-week-old C57/B6 mice were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) either immediately or 24 h after receiving IOX3. Mice receiving IOX3 at 20 mg/kg 24 h prior to the MCAO had better neuroscores and smaller blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and infarct volumes than mice receiving the vehicle, whereas those having IOX3 at 60 mg/kg showed no significant changes. IOX3 treatment immediately before MCAO was not neuroprotective. IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α, and increased EPO expression in mouse brains. In an in vitro BBB model (RBE4 cell line), IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α and delocalized ZO-1. Pre-treating IOX3 on RBE4 cells 24 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation had a protective effect on endothelial barrier ...
This study investigated the effects of 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (IOX3), a selective small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, on mouse brains subject to transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Male, 8- to 12-week-old C57/B6 mice were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) either immediately or 24 h after receiving IOX3. Mice receiving IOX3 at 20 mg/kg 24 h prior to the MCAO had better neuroscores and smaller blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and infarct volumes than mice receiving the vehicle, whereas those having IOX3 at 60 mg/kg showed no significant changes. IOX3 treatment immediately before MCAO was not neuroprotective. IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α, and increased EPO expression in mouse brains. In an in vitro BBB model (RBE4 cell line), IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α and delocalized ZO-1. Pre-treating IOX3 on RBE4 cells 24 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation had a protective effect on endothelial barrier
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- The name of the drug is FG-2216, and its designed to stimulate production of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) in dialysis patients. In fact, its the worlds first oral drug for the treatment of kidney disease-related anemia; its a hypoxia inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) that stabilizes the "master switch," which normally tells the body to produce EPO in response to low oxygen levels.. Anemia, one of the more common blood disorders, is caused by low production of EPO, which has been assumed to result from damage to the kidney cells that produce EPO.. "Our study clearly shows that this may not be the case, and that the kidneys of patients on dialysis retain significant ability to produce erythropoietin," which Wanja M. Bernhardt, MD, Department of Nephrology, University hospital Erlangen, Germany, was quoted as saying. "Renal anemia seems to result from disturbed regulation rather than lost production capacity of the hormone.. Treatment with FG-2216 ...
cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid 5445-51-2 MSDS report, cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid MSDS safety technical specifications search, cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid safety information specifications ect.
Chelidamic acid (4-Hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) - CAS-RN:[138-60-3] - 1,4-Dihydro-4-oxo-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid hydrate; 1,4-Dihydro-4-oxo-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid hydrate; E4
Arogenate dehydratases (ADTs) perform the final step of phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthesis in plants. As one of twenty protein-coding amino acids, Phe is essential in all living organisms, and in plants it is also a precursor ...
Comprehensive supplier list for L-Tyrosine,L-asparaginyl-L-asparaginyl-L-glutaminyl-L-leucyl-L-valyl-L-alanylglycyl-,L-Tyrosine,L-asparaginyl-L-isoleucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-L-alanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-prolyl-L-glutaminyl-L-isoleucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-tryptophyl-L-isoleucyl-
Name: Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid CA Name: 1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid Molecular Structure: Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid,1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid,CAS 605-70-9,216.19,C12H8O4 Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid,1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid,CAS 605-70-9,216.19,C12H8O4 Molecular Formula:C12H8O4 Molecular Weight: 216.19 CAS Registry Number: 605-70-9
China P-Phthalic Acid (PTA, CAS No 100-21-0), Find details about China P-Phthalic Acid, Benzene-1 4-Dicarboxylic Acid from P-Phthalic Acid (PTA, CAS No 100-21-0) - Henan Xingfa Bio-Technology Co., Ltd.
L-Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized by the body. It can be used to regulate mood and stimulate the nervous system. Its a...
Interneurons are critical for proper neural network function and can activate Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes. However, the impact of the interneuron-astrocyte signaling into neuronal network operation remains unknown. Using the simplest hippocampal Astrocyte-Neuron network, i.e., GABAergic interneuron, pyramidal neuron, single CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapse, and astrocytes, we found that interneuron-astrocyte signaling dynamically affected excitatory neurotransmission in an activity- and time-dependent manner, and determined the sign (inhibition vs potentiation) of the GABA-mediated effects. While synaptic inhibition was mediated by GABAA receptors, potentiation involved astrocyte GABAB receptors, astrocytic glutamate release, and presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. Using conditional astrocyte-specific GABAB receptor (Gabbr1) knockout mice, we confirmed the glial source of the interneuron-induced potentiation, and demonstrated the involvement of astrocytes in hippocampal theta and gamma ...
Rapontigenina es un estilbenoide. Se puede aislar de Vitis coignetiae o de Gnetum cleistostachyum.[2]​ Muestra acción en las células de cáncer de próstata.[3]​ Se ha demostrado que inhibe el citocromo humano P450 1A1,[4]​ una enzima implicada en la biotransformación de una serie de compuestos cancerígenos e inmunotóxicos. Inyectado en ratas, rapontigenina muestra una rápida glucuronidación y una pobre biodisponibilidad.[5]​ Número CAS Stilbenes from Gnetum cleistostachyum. Yao Chun-Suo, Lin Mao, LIiu Xin and Wang Ying-Hong, Huaxue xuebao, 2003, volume 61, no 8, pages 1331-1334, INIST-15332136 Jung, D. B.; Lee, H. J.; Jeong, S. J.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, E. O.; Kim, Y. C.; Ahn, K. S.; Chen, C. Y.; Kim, S. H. (2011). "Rhapontigenin inhibited hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha accumulation and angiogenesis in hypoxic PC-3 prostate cancer cells". Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 34 (6): 850-855. doi:10.1248/bpb.34.850. PMID 21628883. Chun, Y. J.; Ryu, S. Y.; Jeong, T. C.; Kim, M. Y. ...
Wound healing in tissues and organs is characterized by hypoxia. However, the effect of hypoxia on wound healing is not well understood. On one hand, hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis and tissue remodeling for healing; on the other hand, lack of oxygen may adversely affect parenchymal cells to prevent the repair of the wound. In this study, we have used cell culture models to examine the effect of hypoxia on wound healing in renal tubular cells. The results demonstrate that wound healing is impaired in hypoxic cells. Mechanistically, GSK3β/β-catenin signaling, but not HIF-1, seems to contribute to the wound-healing defect.. A renoprotective role of HIF has been suggested during acute kidney injury. Hill et al. (2008) showed that pharmacological activation of HIF by DMOG protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Weidemann et al. (2008) further showed that hypoxic preconditioning protected renal tubular cells against cisplatin injury by inducing HIF. The preconditioning effect ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4,7-bis(3-chloro-2-sulfophenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (C26H14Cl2N2O10S2) from the PQR.
Vilskersts Reinis; Vigante Brigita; Neidere Zaiga; Krauze Aivars; Domracheva Ilona; Shestakova Irina; Duburs Gunars; Dambrova Maija; Bisenieks Egils; Velena Astrida. 2,6-dimethyl-4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid propyloxyalkyl esters. LV14662, 20.06.2013 ...
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Molbase Encyclopedia provides furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (3238-40-2) basic information, physical and chemical properties, safety information, toxicity, customs data, synthetic routes, maps, MSDS, generation methods and uses, and its upstream and downstream products, find furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid introduction, on the Molbase Encyclopedia!
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Disclosed is an optimized process and apparatus for more efficiently and economically producing aromatic discarboxylic acids. The process reduces costs associated with hydrogenation by forming a final composite product containing unhydrogenated acid particles.
... adjective, Chemistry. 1. sulfo. sulfonic sul·fon·ic (sŭl-fŏnĭk) adj. Of or relating to the chemical group SO2OH.
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A novel method for producing a diallyl ester of an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, particularly a diallyl ester of an aromatic symmetrical dicarboxylic acid by ester-exchange of a dialkyl ester of the aromatic dicarboxylic acid with allyl alcohol in the co-presence of two kinds of catalysts is disclosed.The obtained diallyl ester of an aromatic dicarboxylic acid according to the present invention is excellent in transmissivity.
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CAS NO:627877-90-1; Chemical name:1H-Indole-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-, diphenylester, (3S)- ; physical and chemical property of 627877-90-1, 1H-Indole-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-, diphenylester, (3S)- is provided by ChemNet.com
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Transaminase with broad substrate specificity. Has transaminase activity towards aminoadipate, kynurenine, methionine and glutamate. Shows activity also towards tryptophan, aspartate and hydroxykynurenine. Accepts a variety of oxo-acids as amino-group acceptors, with a preference for 2-oxoglutarate, 2-oxocaproic acid, phenylpyruvate and alpha-oxo-gamma-methiol butyric acid. Can also use glyoxylate as amino-group acceptor (in vitro).
Here we report on pyramidal and reticulospinal excitation in forelimb motoneurons in the adult mouse using intracellular recordings in vivo. The results have been obtained in BALB/C mice, which were anesthetized with midazolam fentanyl/fluanison. In contrast to the rat, only weak and infrequent pyramidal excitation could be evoked with a minimal trisynaptic linkage. Disynaptic reticulospinal excitation could always be evoked, as well as monosynaptic excitation from the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The results suggest that the reticulospinal pathway in the mouse is important in voluntary motor control of the forelimbs and that the role of the corticospinal tract might be different in mouse compared with rat. Our study provides an opening for studying the effect of genetic manipulation on specified descending systems in the mouse in vivo.. ...
After MI in rats, systolic function declines and the LV cavity dilates significantly, and these changes progress over time. We noted improved systolic performance after P4H inhibition. This improvement was quite dramatic and was sustained from week 1 to week 4, suggesting that fibrosis in the noninfarcted myocardium after MI contributes to LV dysfunction.. The early increase in LV cavity dimension in MI-control animals in this study is consistent with previous studies.19,20 In contrast, the MI-FG041-treated animals had an altered pattern of LV dilatation with less progressive cavity dilatation. This finding should be contrasted with previously published work. Specifically, Zhao and others6,21 suggested that collagen matrix disruption is a primary factor involved in LV dilatation during ischemic cardiomyopathy, whereas Rohde et al22 showed that MMP inhibition, which preserved extracellular collagen, decreased early dilatation of the LV after MI in mice. In addition, a number of studies using ACE ...
Fully activated innate immune cells are required for effective responses to infection, but their prompt deactivation and removal are essential for limiting tissue damage. Here, we have identified a critical role for the prolyl hydroxylase enzyme Phd2 in maintaining the balance between appropriate, predominantly neutrophil-mediated pathogen clearance and resolution of the innate immune response. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific loss of Phd2 resulted in an exaggerated inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumonia, with increases in neutrophil motility, functional capacity, and survival. These enhanced neutrophil responses were dependent upon increases in glycolytic flux and glycogen stores. Systemic administration of a HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor replicated the Phd2-deficient phenotype of delayed inflammation resolution. Together, these data identify Phd2 as the dominant HIF-hydroxylase in neutrophils under normoxic conditions and link intrinsic regulation of glycolysis and glycogen ...
Dicarboxylic acid cycle definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
1E5Q: Crystal Structure of Saccharopine Reductase from Magnaporthe Grisea, an Enzyme of the Alpha-Aminoadipate Pathway of Lysine Biosynthesis
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L-Tyrosine. Amino acid needed to maintain a healthy nervous system. Particularly mood and mental function, but also adrenal and thyroid. Available at healthyonline NZ.
L-Tyrosine product Name L-Tyrosine Synonyms 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine; H-Tyr-OH; L-tyrosine,99+% (98% ee/glc); L-tyrosine free base cell cultu ...
The present invention relates to a novel 2-hydroxy-naphthalene-3,6-dicarboxylic acid derivative. The compound is useful as a raw material for dyes, pigments, photosensitive materials and the like.
HIF阻害剤(経路に合図することの標的を妨げる)がいろいろな分析のために使われて、いくつかは臨床試験に入りました。そして、それは新しいガン療法です。

Aspartames extreme, and highly fatal: Carcinognesis! - La Leva di Archimede (ENG)Aspartame's extreme, and highly fatal: Carcinognesis! - La Leva di Archimede (ENG)

2. Because the Aspartic acid is a dicarboxylic amino acid, (and therefore a powerful neural excitoxin!) Aspartame then will ... The Aspartame "dicarboxlic amino acid neural excito toxicity" is also molecularly maximized, when given the two factors ... formic acid,carbon monoxide toxic axis. This entire toxic axis is the only way methanol, from Aspartame, can be at all ... Domoic Acid" poisoning, both of which have caused extreme neurological disease epidemics in Guam (And all around the Worlds ...
more infohttp://www.laleva.org/eng/2006/05/aspartames_extreme_and_highly_fatal_carcinognesis.html

Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic - DrugBankAmino Acids, Dicarboxylic - DrugBank

Glutamic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 1. target. DB00142. Glutamic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2. target ... L-Aspartic Acid. Adenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 2. target. DB00128. L-Aspartic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 3. ... Glutamic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 4. target. DB00142. Glutamic Acid. Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial. ... Glutamic Acid. GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]. target. DB00142. Glutamic Acid. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT000288

Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate | Biochemical JournalCephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate | Biochemical Journal

Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate. Salvatore DANIELLO, Patrizia ... Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision. ... Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate ... Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/386/2/331

ACP - Influence of organic compound functionality on aerosol hygroscopicity: dicarboxylic acids, alkyl-substituents, sugars and...ACP - Influence of organic compound functionality on aerosol hygroscopicity: dicarboxylic acids, alkyl-substituents, sugars and...

The chemical compounds studied include dicarboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars and polyols. These data provide a comprehensive ... dicarboxylic acids, alkyl-substituents, sugars and amino acids Aleksandra Marsh1, Rachael E. H. Miles1, Grazia Rovelli. 1, ... Abstract. Hygroscopicity data for 36 organic compounds, including amino acids, organic acids, alcohols and sugars, are ... dicarboxylic acids, alkyl-substituents, sugars and amino acids, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5583-5599, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp- ...
more infohttps://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/5583/2017/

Amino esters of heterocyclic dicarboxylic acids | SpringerLinkAmino esters of heterocyclic dicarboxylic acids | SpringerLink

8-tetracyanoquinodimethane were obtained by the condensation of the acid dichlorides of furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid and... ... The corresponding amino esters and their complexes with 7,7,8, ... The corresponding amino esters and their complexes with 7,7,8,8 ... 5-dicarboxylic acid and tetrahydrothiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid with 8-hydroxy- and 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinolines. Almost ... Ester Organic Chemistry Antimicrobial Activity Dicarboxylic Acid Dichloride Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00477431

The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid...The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid...

4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity ... The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid ... 4-dicarboxylic acid imides with residues of biogenic sulfur-containing α-amino acids and study their anti-hypoxic activity. ... Using a three-component one-pot reaction of isatin with sulfur-containing α-amino acids and maleimides a number of new spiro- ...
more infohttp://ophcj.nuph.edu.ua/article/view/ophcj.17.914

CAS No.199802-16-9,1-Cyclopentene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid,
2-amino-4,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)-3-cyano-, diethyl ester,
(3R,4R,5R)...CAS No.199802-16-9,1-Cyclopentene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2-amino-4,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)-3-cyano-, diethyl ester, (3R,4R,5R)...

where to buy 199802-16-9(1-Cyclopentene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2-amino-4,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)-3-cyano-, diethyl ester, (3R,4R, ... 3-dicarboxylic acid, 2-amino-4,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)-3-cyano-, diethyl ester, (3R,4R,5R)-rel-) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, ... 3-dicarboxylic acid, 2-amino-4,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)-3-cyano-, diethyl ester, (3R,4R,5R)-rel-) for price inquiry. ... 1-Cyclopentene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2-amino-4,5-bis(4-bromophenyl)-3-cyano-, diethyl ester, (3R,4R,5R)-rel- ...
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5-[(3-amino-4-chloro-phenyl)sulfamoyl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid5-[(3-amino-4-chloro-phenyl)sulfamoyl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid

... amino-4-chloro-phenyl)sulfamoyl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid more infohttps://scitoys.com/scichem/jqp048/4185751.html

4-[2-[(1-carboxy-3-methylsulfinyl-propyl)amino]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid4-[2-[(1-carboxy-3-methylsulfinyl-propyl)amino]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid

... amino]ethenyl]-2,3-dihydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid more infohttps://sci-toys.com/scichem/jqp056/441625.html

8.   Albert Baird Hastings | Biographical Memoirs: V.63 | The National Academies Press8. Albert Baird Hastings | Biographical Memoirs: V.63 | The National Academies Press

The in vitro turnover of dicarboxylic amino acids in liver slice proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 168:771-72. ... Studies of the acid-base balance of the blood. II. A nomogram for the calculation of acid-base data for blood. J. Biol. Chem. ... Studies of the acid-base balance of the blood. III. Variations in the acid-base balance of the blood in normal individuals. J. ... Studies of the acid-base balance of the blood. I. A microtechnique for the determination of the acid-base balance of the blood ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/4560/chapter/11

Patent WO2008046895A1 - Substituted bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-carboxylic acid amides and derivatives ... - Google PatentsPatent WO2008046895A1 - Substituted bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-carboxylic acid amides and derivatives ... - Google Patents

Aminoacid derivatives of dicarboxylic acids as flavor ingredients. WO2004078302A1. 28 Feb 2004. 16 Sep 2004. Symrise Gmbh & Co ... ascorbic acids and its salts, alpha-hydroxy acids (for example citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid) and their ... acetic acid monoglycerides (E 472a), lactic acid monoglycerides (E 472b), citric acid monoglycerides (E 472c), tartaric acid ... such as for example butyric acid, acetic acid, methylbutyric acid, caproic acid; alcohols (saturated and unsaturated), such as ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.mx/patents/WO2008046895A1?cl=en

IRREVERRE F[au] - PubMed - NCBIIRREVERRE F[au] - PubMed - NCBI

m-Carboxyphenyl-L-alanine: a dicarboxylic aromatic amino acid from iris bulbs. ... Synthesis and x-ray analysis of cis-3,4-methylene-L-proline, the new natural amino acid from horse chestnuts, and of its trans ... Effect of diet on the occurrence of S-methylcysteine and the free amino acid pattern in insect blood. ... Effects of glutathione and thioglycollic acid on acid-production by Lactobacillus arabinosus in presence of atabrine. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=IRREVERRE+F%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

The Concept of Fitness in Leishmania | SpringerLinkThe Concept of Fitness in Leishmania | SpringerLink

Effect of aliphatic, monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic, heterocyclic and sulphur-containing amino acids on Leishmania spp. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1387-99.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:1895-901.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:4305-12.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-74186-4_15

The kindled amygdala model of epilepsy: anticonvulsant action of amino acid antagonists. | DocphinThe kindled amygdala model of epilepsy: anticonvulsant action of amino acid antagonists. | Docphin

... anticonvulsant action of amino acid antagonists. , Brain research , 9/19/1983 ... Antagonists of excitatory amino acids (omega-phosphono-alpha-amino dicarboxylic acids) effectively antagonized both the ... The kindled amygdala model of epilepsy: anticonvulsant action of amino acid antagonists. D W Peterson J F Collins H F Bradford ... Other amino acids, including aspartate, showed no significant changes at this time. Aspartate, threonine and serine showed ...
more infohttps://www.docphin.com/research/article-detail/14447529/PubMedID-6138123/The-kindled-amygdala-model-of-epilepsy-anticonvulsant-action-of-amino-acid-antagonists

2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - Semantic Scholar2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - Semantic Scholar

2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, an antagonist of excitation caused by dicarboxylic amino acids with a selective action on N ... 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid. Known as: 2-amino-7-phosphoheptanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, 2-amino-7-phosphono-, (+-)-, AP-7 ... Effect of 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid on regional brain amino acid levels in fed and fasted rodents. ... Pretreatment of rats with the excitatory amino acid antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (2-APH; 0.5 mmol/kg, i.p… ( ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic-acid/411145

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

Dicarboxylic acid over dicarboxylic amino acid preferring EAAT3 homologue of 483 aas (Wang et al. 2013). ... DAACS family amino acid uptake system, All0342, possibly an acidic amino acid transporter, that also catalyzes amino acid ... Insulin-activated amino acid (serine, alanine, glutamate and others):Na+ symporter. Also transports homocysteine (Jiang et al ... Broad-specificity amino acid:Na+ symporter, LAT1, M7V1, RDR, RDRC or SLC1A5 (transports most neutral, zwitterionic and dibasic ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=2.A.23.3

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

Dicarboxylic acid over dicarboxylic amino acid preferring EAAT3 homologue of 483 aas (Wang et al. 2013). ... DAACS family amino acid uptake system, All0342, possibly an acidic amino acid transporter, that also catalyzes amino acid ... Insulin-activated amino acid (serine, alanine, glutamate and others):Na+ symporter. Also transports homocysteine (Jiang et al ... Broad-specificity amino acid:Na+ symporter, LAT1, M7V1, RDR, RDRC or SLC1A5 (transports most neutral, zwitterionic and dibasic ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=2.A.23.1

Robert Fisher, MD, PhD | Stanford Medicine ProfilesRobert Fisher, MD, PhD | Stanford Medicine Profiles

DICARBOXYLIC AMINO-ACIDS BLOCK EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN HIPPOCAMPAL SLICE EPILEPSIA FFRENCHMULLEN, J. M., Murphy, T. H., Coyle ... INTRODUCTION TO THE EXCITATORY AMINO-ACID SYSTEM STUDY GROUP ON THE ROLE OF EXCITATORY AMINO ACID TOXICITY IN EPILEPSY Fisher, ... NEURONAL DAMAGE AND EPILEPSY - BASIC AND CLINICAL INTERFACE STUDY GROUP ON THE ROLE OF EXCITATORY AMINO ACID TOXICITY IN ... During the amino acid (AA)-induced block of epileptiform activity, there was no significant change in resting membrane ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/robert-fisher

BIOL125 - Nervous System - Flashcards in University BiologyBIOL125 - Nervous System - Flashcards in University Biology

Which amino acids are excitatory and which are inhibitory? Dicarboxylic amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) are excitatory and ... Are amino acids present at a higher or lower concentration in the CNS than other body tissues? ...
more infohttps://getrevising.co.uk/revision-tests/biol125-lecture-1-1?game_type=flashcards

Christen, P<...Christen, P<...

Mouratou, B; Kasper, P; Gehring, H; Christen, P (1999). Conversion of tyrosine phenol-lyase to dicarboxylic amino acid beta- ... Kochhar, S; Mouratou, B; Christen, P (2009). Amino acid analysis by precolumn derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5- ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/view/authors_for_linking_in_citation/Christen=3AP=3A=3A.html

Evaluation of Protein Translocation into Eukaryotic Cells by Yersinia pestis | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEvaluation of Protein Translocation into Eukaryotic Cells by Yersinia pestis | Springer for Research & Development

Brubaker RR (2005) Influence of Na(+), dicarboxylic amino acids, and pH in modulating the low-calcium response of Yersinia ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-981-10-7947-4_17

1-Aspartic Acid | definition of 1-Aspartic Acid by Medical dictionary1-Aspartic Acid | definition of 1-Aspartic Acid by Medical dictionary

1-Aspartic Acid explanation free. What is 1-Aspartic Acid? Meaning of 1-Aspartic Acid medical term. What does 1-Aspartic Acid ... Looking for online definition of 1-Aspartic Acid in the Medical Dictionary? ... The ISOELECTRIC POINT of aspartic acid is 2.8.. aspartic acid. a nonessential dicarboxylic amino acid, widely distributed in ... aspartic acid. [ah-spahr´tik] a dibasic amino acid, one of the nonessential amino acids, widely distributed in proteins and ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/1-Aspartic+Acid

Frontiers | Cj1199 Affect the Development of Erythromycin Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni through Regulation of Leucine...Frontiers | Cj1199 Affect the Development of Erythromycin Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni through Regulation of Leucine...

These genes were mainly involved in leucine biosynthesis, amino acid transport and periplasmic/membrane structure. Compared to ... These genes were mainly involved in leucine biosynthesis, amino acid transport and periplasmic/membrane structure. Compared to ... peb1A deficient mutants cannot grow on dicarboxylic amino acids which were the major nitrogen source (Leon-Kempis Mdel et al., ... Glutamine regulates amino acid utilization by intestinal bacteria. Amino Acids 45, 501-512. doi: 10.1007/s00726-012-1264-4 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00016/full
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the relatively hydrophilic Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prodrugs, mono and di-valine esters (THC-Val and THC-Val-Val) and the amino acid (valine)-dicarboxylic acid (hemisuccinate) ester (THC-Val-HS), with respect to ocular penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Contained in oral contraceptives to reduce the risk of neural tube defects arising from folic acid deficiency for pregnant women who conceived during use or shortly after the discontinuation of the product. (drugbank.ca)
  • The Aspartame "dicarboxlic amino acid neural excito toxicity" is also molecularly maximized, when given the two factors entioned above, (which also maximize the methyl alcohol toxic axis toxicity. (laleva.org)
  • Pidolic acid and sodium pidolic acid are, however, used to some extent in skin and hair conditioning agents owing to their humectant characteristics [F (drugbank.ca)
  • Here, we validate and benchmark the CK-EDB for the homologous series of straight-chain dicarboxylic acids (oxalic-pimelic) with measurements in better agreement with Universal Quasichemical Functional Group Activity Coefficients (UNIFAC) predictions than the original data used to parametrise UNIFAC. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • These two isoforms conserve 69% and 71% of the ASL amino acid sequence, respectively, but only the δII isoform retains the same enzymatic activity as ASL. (wikipedia.org)
  • This affects a diseased individual's amino acid pool, as they will have to spend additional resources to replenish the amino acids which would have otherwise been present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis and x-ray analysis of cis-3,4-methylene-L-proline, the new natural amino acid from horse chestnuts, and of its trans isomer. (nih.gov)
  • For example, species of Lactobacillus live in the human vagina and derive nutrients from the environment while producing acid to prevent the overgrowth of other organisms. (answersingenesis.org)
  • There is currently no clinically approved and/or marketed medicine that relies upon pidolic acid as an active ingredient for any formal therapeutic indication. (drugbank.ca)