Dicarboxylic AcidsAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cycloleucine: An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.MalatesSuccinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Reye Syndrome: A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pipecolic AcidsProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.TartratesDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.MaleatesSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Quisqualic Acid: An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bicyclo CompoundsOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Heptanes: Seven-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.GlutaratesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Tyrosine Phenol-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC 4.1.99.2.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Amino Acids, DiaminoDiazonium CompoundsGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Cyclic S-OxidesGene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Picolinic AcidsAmino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Renal Aminoacidurias: A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.D-Aspartate Oxidase: An FAD-dependent peroxisomal flavoenzyme, this catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-ASPARTATE to OXALOACETATE and AMMONIA using oxygen as electron acceptor.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.CyclopropanesTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.D-Aspartic Acid: The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.MalonatesPlant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.EstersChymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Citrobacter freundii: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.ResorcinolsSerine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (1/185)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Basolateral sorting of furin in MDCK cells requires a phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with an acidic amino acid cluster. (2/185)

Furin is a subtilisin-related endoprotease which processes a wide range of bioactive proteins. Furin is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where proteolytic activation of many precursor proteins takes place. A significant fraction of furin, however, cycles among the TGN, the plasma membrane, and endosomes, indicating that the accumulation in the TGN reflects a dynamic localization process. The cytosolic domain of furin is necessary and sufficient for TGN localization, and two signals are responsible for retrieval of furin to the TGN. A tyrosine-based (YKGL) motif mediates internalization of furin from the cell surface into endosomes. An acidic cluster that is part of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites (SDSEEDE) is then responsible for retrieval of furin from endosomes to the TGN. In addition, the acidic EEDE sequence also mediates endocytic activity. Here, we analyzed the sorting of furin in polarized epithelial cells. We show that furin is delivered to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells, from where a significant fraction of the protein can return to the TGN. A phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with the acidic EEDE cluster is required for basolateral sorting and constitutes a novel signal regulating intracellular traffic of furin.  (+info)

Role of reductase domain cluster 1 acidic residues in neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Characterization of the FMN-FREE enzyme. (3/185)

The nNOS reductase domain is homologous to cytochrome P450 reductase, which contains two conserved clusters of acidic residues in its FMN module that play varied roles in its electron transfer reactions. To study the role of nNOS reductase domain cluster 1 acidic residues, we mutated two conserved acidic (Asp(918) and Glu(919)) and one conserved aromatic residue (Phe(892)), and investigated the effect of each mutation on flavin binding, conformational change, electron transfer reactions, calmodulin regulation, and catalytic activities. Each mutation destabilized FMN binding without significantly affecting other aspects including substrate, cofactor or calmodulin binding, or catalytic activities upon FMN reconstitution, indicating the mutational effect was restricted to the FMN module. Characterization of the FMN-depleted mutants showed that bound FMN was essential for reduction of the nNOS heme or cytochrome c, but not for ferricyanide or dichlorophenolindolphenol, and established that the electron transfer path in nNOS is NADPH to FAD to FMN to heme. Steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic analysis revealed a novel role for bound FMN in suppressing FAD reduction by NADPH. The suppression could be relieved either by FMN removal or calmodulin binding. Calmodulin binding induced a conformational change that was restricted to the FMN module. This increased the rate of FMN reduction and triggered electron transfer to the heme. We propose that the FMN module of nNOS is the key positive or negative regulator of electron transfer at all points in nNOS. This distinguishes nNOS from other related flavoproteins, and helps explain the mechanism of calmodulin regulation.  (+info)

Group I, II, and III mGluR compounds affect rhythm generation in the gastric circuit of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion. (4/185)

We have studied the effects of group I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists on rhythm generation by the gastric circuit of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. All mGluR agonists and some antagonists we tested in this study had clear and distinct effects on gastric rhythm generation when superfused over combined oscillating or blocked silent STG preparations. A consistent difference between group I agonists and group II and III agonists was that group I agonists acted excitatory. The group I-specific agonists L-quisqualic acid and (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, as well as the nonspecific agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid accelerated ongoing rhythms and could induce gastric rhythms in silent preparations. The group II agonist (2S,1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I) and the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) slowed down or completely blocked ongoing gastric rhythms and were without detectable effect on silent preparations. The action of L-CCG-I was blocked partially by the group-II-specific antagonist, (RS)-1-amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid [(RS)APICA], and the group-III-specific antagonist (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine completely blocked the action of L-AP4. Besides its antagonistic action, the group-II-specific antagonist (RS)APICA had a remarkably strong apparent inverse agonist action when applied alone on oscillating preparations. The action of all drugs was dose dependent and reversible, although recovery was not always complete. In our experiments, the effects of none of the mGluR-specific agonists were antagonized or amplified by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-specific antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, excluding the contamination of responses to mGluR agonists by nonspecific cross-reactivity with NMDA receptors. Picrotoxin did not prevent the inhibitory action of L-CCG-I and L-AP4. We conclude that mGluRs, probably similar to those belonging to groups I, II, and III described in mammals, may play a role as modulators of gastric circuit rhythm generation in vivo.  (+info)

Cocaine and kindling alter the sensitivity of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the central amygdala. (5/185)

G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are being implicated in various forms of neuroplasticity and CNS disorders. This study examined whether the sensitivities of mGluR agonists are modulated in a distinct fashion in different models of synaptic plasticity, specifically, kindling and chronic cocaine treatment. The influence of kindling and chronic cocaine exposure in vivo was examined in vitro on the modulation of synaptic transmission by group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of central amygdala (CeA) neurons. Synaptic transmission was evoked by electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral amygdaloid pathway (VAP) afferents in brain slices from control rats and from rats treated with cocaine or exposed to three to five stage-five kindled seizures. This study shows that after chemical stimulation with chronic cocaine exposure or after electrical stimulation with kindling the receptor sensitivities for mGluR agonists are altered in opposite ways. In slices from control rats, group II agonists, (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG1) and (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), depressed neurotransmission more potently at the BLA-CeA than at the VAP-CeA synapse while group III agonist, L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (LAP4), depressed neurotransmission more potently at the VAP-CeA synapse than at the BLA-CeA. These agonist actions were not seen (were absent) in amygdala neurons from chronic cocaine-treated animals. In contrast, after kindling, concentration response relationships for LCCG1 and LAP4 were shifted to the left, suggesting that sensitivity to these agonists is increased. Except at high concentrations, LCCG1, LY354740, and LAP4 neither induced membrane currents nor changed current-voltage relationships. Loss of mGluR inhibition with chronic cocaine treatment may contribute to counter-adaptive changes including anxiety and depression in cocaine withdrawal. Drugs that restore the inhibitory effects of group II and III mGluRs may be novel tools in the treatment of cocaine dependence. The enhanced sensitivity to group II and III mGluR agonists in kindling is similar to that recorded at the lateral to BLA synapse in the amygdala where they reduce epileptiform bursting. These findings suggest that drugs modifying mGluRs may prove useful in the treatment of cocaine withdrawal or epilepsy.  (+info)

Slow synaptic inhibition mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of GIRK channels. (6/185)

Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory actions whereas metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mediate a variety of slower effects. For example, mGluRs can mediate presynaptic inhibition, postsynaptic excitation, or, more rarely, postsynaptic inhibition. We previously described an unusually slow form of postsynaptic inhibition in one class of projection neuron in the song-control nucleus HVc of the songbird forebrain. These neurons, which participate in a circuit that is essential for vocal learning, exhibit an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) that lasts several seconds. Only a portion of this slow IPSP is mediated by GABA(B) receptors. Since these cells are strongly hyperpolarized by agonists of mGluRs, we used intracellular recording from brain slices to investigate the mechanism of this hyperpolarization and to determine whether mGluRs contribute to the slow synaptic inhibition. We report that mGluRs hyperpolarize these HVc neurons by activating G protein-coupled, inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. MGluR antagonists blocked this response and the slow synaptic inhibition. Thus, glutamate can combine with GABA to mediate slow synaptic inhibition by activating GIRK channels in the CNS.  (+info)

Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the rat amygdala. (7/185)

An animal model most sensitive for measuring anticipatory anxiety is fear conditioning, which is expressed by an enduring increase in synaptic strength in the amygdala. A converse view predicts that agents that induce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the amygdala may be useful in the amelioration of stress disorders. In the present study, we show that activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR II) by (2S,3S, 4S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl) glycine (l-ccg) induces an LTD in the basolateral amygdala neurons. The effect was concentration-dependent with a maximal inhibition of approximately 30%. The induction of l-CCG LTD required concurrent synaptic activity, required presynaptic but not postsynaptic Ca(2+) increases, and was independent of NMDA receptors. l-CCG LTD was associated with an increase in the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation and was not occluded by low-frequency stimulation-induced LTD, suggesting that these two forms of LTD did not share a common underlying mechanism. After eliciting LTD with l-CCG, application of isoproterenol increased the synaptic responses back to its original baseline, demonstrating that chemically depressed synapses could be potentiated by another chemical. A selective PKA inhibitor, KT 5720, by its own caused a depression of synaptic transmission and blocked l-CCG LTD, presumably by mimicking and thereby occluding any further depression. Together, these results suggest that l-CCG LTD is induced by presynaptically mGluR II-mediated inhibition of Ca(2+)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase, resulting in a decrease in cAMP formation and PKA activation, which leads to a long-lasting decrease in transmitter release.  (+info)

cAMP-dependent presynaptic regulation of spontaneous glycinergic IPSCs in mechanically dissociated rat spinal cord neurons. (8/185)

Spontaneous miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat sacral dorsal commissural nucleus (SDCN) neurons attached with intact glycinergic presynaptic nerve terminals and evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) in the slice preparation were investigated using nystatin-perforated patch and conventional whole cell recording modes under the voltage-clamp conditions. Trans-ACPD (tACPD) reversibly reduced the mIPSC frequency without affecting the mean amplitude. The effect was mimicked by a specific metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) II subtype agonist, (2S, 1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclo propyl) glycine (L-CCG-I), and a specific mGluRIII subtype agonist, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4). These inhibitory effects on mIPSC frequency were blocked by the specific antagonists for mGluRII, alpha-methyl-1-(2S, 1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclo propyl) glycine and (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine. In the slice preparation, eIPSC amplitude and mIPSC frequency were decreased reversibly by L-CCG-I (10(-6) M) and L-AP4 (10(-6) M). In K(+)-free or K(+)-free external solution with Ba(2+) and Cs(+), Ca(2+)-free or Cd(2+) external solution, the inhibitory effect of tACPD on mIPSC frequency was unaltered. Forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP significantly increased presynaptic glycine release, and prevented the inhibitory action of tACPD on mIPSC frequency. Sp-cAMP, however, did not prevent the inhibitory action of tACPD on mIPSC frequency. It was concluded that the activation of mGluRs inhibits glycine release by reducing the action of cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

Dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) is an inhibitor of prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We investigated the effect of DMOG on the outcome after permanent and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (p/tMCAO) in the rat. Before and after pMCAO, rats were treated with 40 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg DMOG, or vehicle, and with 40 mg/kg or vehicle after tMCAO. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to assess infarct evolution and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Both doses significantly reduced infarct volumes, but only 40 mg/kg improved the behavior after 24 hours of pMCAO. Animals receiving 40 mg/kg were more likely to maintain rCBF values above 30% from the contralateral hemisphere within 24 hours of pMCAO. DMOG after tMCAO significantly reduced the infarct volumes and improved behavior at 24 hours and 8 days and also improved the rCBF after 24 hours. A consistent and significant upregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of
The hydroxylation of selected proline residues by prolylhydroxylase (E.C. 1.14.11.2) is a crucial posttranslational event in the biosynthesis of collagen, an important protein of the connective tissues. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) offers additional stability to the unique triple-helical conformation of collagen, which in turn is necessary for the functional viability of the protein, at physiological temperatures. -- Earlier studies on the substrate specificity of prolylhydroxylase have been intriguing. It was proposed earlier that prolylhydroxylase recognized the folded β-turn conformation, formed at the Pro-Gly segments in the nascent procollagen chains (Brahmachari and Ananthanarayanan, 1979). The present thesis involves the further elucidation of conformational aspects of proline hydroxylation in vitro, using chicken prolylhydroxylase and Pro-containing synthetic peptides. -- Pure prolylhydroxylase was obtained from 13-day old chicken embryos using established procedures. Pro-containing linear ...
IN THIS FINAL REPORT ARE DESCRIBED THE MAIN RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED OUT SINCE 1951. The investigations dealt with the metabolism of the dicarboxylic amino acids, glutamic and aspartic acids, and some of their metabolic derivatives, such as glutamine, asparagine, glutathione, and other peptides. Since various glutamic acid derivatives have been claimed to be breakdown products of histidine metabolism the enzymatic degradation of histidine was studied and a labile intermediate isolated and identified. The identification of formamidinoglutaric acid as a labile intermediate in enzymatic histidine breakdown led to an elucidation of the catabolic pathway of histidine and to a study of the mechanism of synthesis of histidine in bacteria. Another aspect of interest in glutamic acid metabolism led to the discovery of two enzymes which catalyze the exchange of the amide groups of free glutamine (glutamotransferase) and of protein bound glutamine (transglutaminase). Parallel with these studies,
A on proteasome mediated degradation of HIF one, FaDu cells have been treated with MSA Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and proteasome inhibitor N L leucyl N L leucinamide, alone and in combination, as well as the HIF one protein degree was determined by western blot evaluation. The effect of MG132 around the degrad ation of HIF one in RC2 cells was established by treating cells with MSA and MG132 alone and in combin ation concurrently and pretreatment of MG132 one h before treating with MSA for 8 h. Protein extracts were prepared from the cells and applied for identifying HIF one expres sion by western blot. PHDs inhibition by dimethyloxallyl glycine PHDs action inhibitor, DMOG was made use of to deal with cells with and without the need of MSA to determine the HIF 1 degrad ation results of MSA. FaDu which usually do not express HIF one beneath normoxic culture circumstances were taken care of separately with 0.. 5 mM DMOG alone and in blend with MSA for 18 24 h. Cells were processed for ...
Acid-extrusion by active transport is important in metabolically active cancer cells, where it removes excess intracellular acid and sets the intracellular resting pH. Hypoxia is a major trigger of adaptive responses in cancer, but its effect on acid-extrusion remains unclear. We studied pH-regulation under normoxia and hypoxia in eight cancer cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A, HT29, HT1080, MiaPaca2, HeLa) using the pH-sensitive fluorophore, cSNARF-1. Hypoxia responses were triggered by pre-incubation in low O(2) or with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). By selective pharmacological inhibition or transport-substrate removal, acid-extrusion flux was dissected into components due to Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) and Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport. In half of the cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A), acid-extrusion on NHE was the dominant flux during an acid load, and in all of these, bar one (MDA-MB-468), NHE-flux was reduced following
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Chondrocytes have to withstand considerable hypoxic conditions within the avascular articular cartilage. The present study investigated the effects of inhibiting or stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by 2-methoxyestradiol or dimethyloxaloylglycine on the progression of osteoarthritis in murine knee joints. 2-Methoxyestradiol was injected six times over a period of 2 weeks into the left knee joint of Balb/C mice. Joints were assessed by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, 3 weeks and 12 weeks following the first injection. Dimethyloxaloylglycine, an inhibitor of HIF-degrading prolyl-hydroxylases, was injected into the left knee joints of STR/ORT mice once a week over the entire period of 12 weeks. Right knee joints that received a saline solution served as controls. In addition, the effects of dimethyloxaloylglycine on HIF-1 target gene expression and on collagen metabolism were analyzed in vitro. Injection of 2-methoxyestradiol led to osteoarthritic changes in the treated knee
Browse decades of harmonized childhood cancer data and discover how this multi-species repository accelerates the search for cures.
Parkinsons Disease is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, genetics, cellular, molecular and neurophysiology, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinsons disease.
Buy LY 379268 (CAS 191471-52-0), a water soluble systemically active group II mGluR agonist. Join researchers using high quality LY 379268 from Abcam and…
TABLE-US-00008 TABLE VIII No. R5 R L 265 --H 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 266 --H 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 267 --H 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 268 --H 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 269 --H 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 270 --H 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 271 --H 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 272 --H 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 273 --H 4-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 274 --CH3 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 275 --CH3 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 276 --CH3 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 277 --CH3 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 278 --CH3 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 279 --CH3 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 280 --CH3 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 281 --CH3 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 282 --CH3 4-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 283 --CH2CH3 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 284 --CH2CH3 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 285 --CH2CH3 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 286 --CH2CH3 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 287 --CH2CH3 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 288 --CH2CH3 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 289 --CH2CH3 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 290 --CH2CH3 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 291 ...
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of vision due to rod and cone degeneration. Evidence suggests that an inappropriate oxygen level could contribute to its pathogenesis. Rod cell death could increase oxygen concentration, reduce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) and contribute to cone cell death. The purposes of this study were: 1) to analyze the temporal profile of HIF-1α, its downstream effectors VEGF, endothelin-1 (ET-1), iNOS, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and neuroinflammation in retinas of the murine model of rd10 (retinal degeneration 10) mice with RP; 2) to study oxygen bioavailability in these retinas; and 3) to investigate how stabilizing HIF-1α proteins with dimethyloxaloglycine (DMOG), a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, affects retinal degeneration, neuroinflammation, and antioxidant response in rd10 mice ...
1. A compound of the formula (I) ##STR00139## in which R1 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00140## where * represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, A in each individual occurrence represents C--R4 or N, where at most two ring members A represent N at the same time, and E in each individual occurrence represents C--R5 or N, where at most two ring members E represent N at the same time, R2 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00141## where # represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, G in each individual occurrence represents C--R6 or N, J represents O, S or N--R7, L in each individual occurrence represents C--R8 or N, where at most two ring members L represent N at the same time, and M in each individual occurrence represents C--R9 or N, where in total one or two ring members M represent N, where R4, R6, R8 and R9 are identical or different and in each individual case independently of one another represent hydrogen or a ...
10,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,f]oxepine-4,6-dicarboxylic acid - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
This study investigated the effects of 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (IOX3), a selective small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, on mouse brains subject to transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Male, 8- to 12-week-old C57/B6 mice were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) either immediately or 24 h after receiving IOX3. Mice receiving IOX3 at 20 mg/kg 24 h prior to the MCAO had better neuroscores and smaller blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and infarct volumes than mice receiving the vehicle, whereas those having IOX3 at 60 mg/kg showed no significant changes. IOX3 treatment immediately before MCAO was not neuroprotective. IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α, and increased EPO expression in mouse brains. In an in vitro BBB model (RBE4 cell line), IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α and delocalized ZO-1. Pre-treating IOX3 on RBE4 cells 24 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation had a protective effect on endothelial barrier
This study investigated the effects of 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (IOX3), a selective small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, on mouse brains subject to transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Male, 8- to 12-week-old C57/B6 mice were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) either immediately or 24 h after receiving IOX3. Mice receiving IOX3 at 20 mg/kg 24 h prior to the MCAO had better neuroscores and smaller blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and infarct volumes than mice receiving the vehicle, whereas those having IOX3 at 60 mg/kg showed no significant changes. IOX3 treatment immediately before MCAO was not neuroprotective. IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α, and increased EPO expression in mouse brains. In an in vitro BBB model (RBE4 cell line), IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α and delocalized ZO-1. Pre-treating IOX3 on RBE4 cells 24 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation had a protective effect on endothelial barrier ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- The name of the drug is FG-2216, and its designed to stimulate production of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) in dialysis patients. In fact, its the worlds first oral drug for the treatment of kidney disease-related anemia; its a hypoxia inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) that stabilizes the "master switch," which normally tells the body to produce EPO in response to low oxygen levels.. Anemia, one of the more common blood disorders, is caused by low production of EPO, which has been assumed to result from damage to the kidney cells that produce EPO.. "Our study clearly shows that this may not be the case, and that the kidneys of patients on dialysis retain significant ability to produce erythropoietin," which Wanja M. Bernhardt, MD, Department of Nephrology, University hospital Erlangen, Germany, was quoted as saying. "Renal anemia seems to result from disturbed regulation rather than lost production capacity of the hormone.. Treatment with FG-2216 ...
cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid 5445-51-2 MSDS report, cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid MSDS safety technical specifications search, cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid safety information specifications ect.
Arogenate dehydratases (ADTs) perform the final step of phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthesis in plants. As one of twenty protein-coding amino acids, Phe is essential in all living organisms, and in plants it is also a precursor ...
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Researchers have developed an in vitromodel to mimic hemorrhagic stroke using hemin, which induces cell death in various neuronal cell types that is rescued by PHD inhibitors.
In the present study, we tested the possibility that, in addition to HIF-α down-regulation, the functional inactivation of HIF-α also contributes to the YC-1-induced deregulation of hypoxia-induced genes. In brief, YC-1 stimulated FIH binding to HIF-α CAD, which in turn prevented p300 binding to CAD and led to the functional repression of HIF. The mechanisms underlying HIF inhibition by YC-1 are summarized in Supplementary Fig. S2.5. FIH was first identified as a HIF-1α CAD-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening (25), and its function has been extensively investigated. FIH is an enzyme that hydroxylates the Asn803 residue in HIF-1α and which belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily (26, 27). Like other dioxygenases, FIH requires O2, Fe2+, and 2-oxoglutarate for its enzymatic action. Furthermore, the DMOG used in this study is known to inhibit FIH by competing with 2-oxoglutarate (27, 28). The action of FIH and its X-ray crystal structure are well ...
Name: Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid CA Name: 1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid Molecular Structure: Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid,1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid,CAS 605-70-9,216.19,C12H8O4 Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid,1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid,CAS 605-70-9,216.19,C12H8O4 Molecular Formula:C12H8O4 Molecular Weight: 216.19 CAS Registry Number: 605-70-9
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Interneurons are critical for proper neural network function and can activate Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes. However, the impact of the interneuron-astrocyte signaling into neuronal network operation remains unknown. Using the simplest hippocampal Astrocyte-Neuron network, i.e., GABAergic interneuron, pyramidal neuron, single CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapse, and astrocytes, we found that interneuron-astrocyte signaling dynamically affected excitatory neurotransmission in an activity- and time-dependent manner, and determined the sign (inhibition vs potentiation) of the GABA-mediated effects. While synaptic inhibition was mediated by GABAA receptors, potentiation involved astrocyte GABAB receptors, astrocytic glutamate release, and presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. Using conditional astrocyte-specific GABAB receptor (Gabbr1) knockout mice, we confirmed the glial source of the interneuron-induced potentiation, and demonstrated the involvement of astrocytes in hippocampal theta and gamma ...
Wound healing in tissues and organs is characterized by hypoxia. However, the effect of hypoxia on wound healing is not well understood. On one hand, hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis and tissue remodeling for healing; on the other hand, lack of oxygen may adversely affect parenchymal cells to prevent the repair of the wound. In this study, we have used cell culture models to examine the effect of hypoxia on wound healing in renal tubular cells. The results demonstrate that wound healing is impaired in hypoxic cells. Mechanistically, GSK3β/β-catenin signaling, but not HIF-1, seems to contribute to the wound-healing defect.. A renoprotective role of HIF has been suggested during acute kidney injury. Hill et al. (2008) showed that pharmacological activation of HIF by DMOG protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Weidemann et al. (2008) further showed that hypoxic preconditioning protected renal tubular cells against cisplatin injury by inducing HIF. The preconditioning effect ...
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Vilskersts Reinis; Vigante Brigita; Neidere Zaiga; Krauze Aivars; Domracheva Ilona; Shestakova Irina; Duburs Gunars; Dambrova Maija; Bisenieks Egils; Velena Astrida. 2,6-dimethyl-4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid propyloxyalkyl esters. LV14662, 20.06.2013 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of N1-substituted analogues of (2R,4R)-4-amino-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid as agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. AU - Mukhopadhyaya, Jayanta Kumar. AU - Kozikowski, Alan P.. AU - Grajkowska, Ewa. AU - Pshenichkin, Sergey. AU - Wroblewski, Jarda T.. PY - 2001/7/23. Y1 - 2001/7/23. N2 - The chemical synthesis of a series of N1-substituted derivatives of (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid [(2R,4R)-APDC] as constrained analogues of γ-substituted glutamic acids is described. Appropriate substitution of the N1-position results in agonist, partial agonist, or antagonist activity at mGluR2, mGluR3, and/or mGluR6.. AB - The chemical synthesis of a series of N1-substituted derivatives of (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid [(2R,4R)-APDC] as constrained analogues of γ-substituted glutamic acids is described. Appropriate substitution of the N1-position results in agonist, partial agonist, or ...
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5-[3-[[[[3-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-oxomethyl]hydrazinylidene]methyl]-2,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolyl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid - Ontology Browser - Rat Genome Database
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Disclosed is an optimized process and apparatus for more efficiently and economically producing aromatic discarboxylic acids. The process reduces costs associated with hydrogenation by forming a final composite product containing unhydrogenated acid particles.
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A novel method for producing a diallyl ester of an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, particularly a diallyl ester of an aromatic symmetrical dicarboxylic acid by ester-exchange of a dialkyl ester of the aromatic dicarboxylic acid with allyl alcohol in the co-presence of two kinds of catalysts is disclosed.The obtained diallyl ester of an aromatic dicarboxylic acid according to the present invention is excellent in transmissivity.
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CAS NO:627877-90-1; Chemical name:1H-Indole-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-, diphenylester, (3S)- ; physical and chemical property of 627877-90-1, 1H-Indole-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-, diphenylester, (3S)- is provided by ChemNet.com
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Relatively unreactive organic reagents should be collected in container A. If halogenated, they should be collected in container B. For solid residues use container C ...
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3, encoded by GRM2 and GRM3) are implicated in hippocampal function and cognition, and in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological and behavioral studies with group II mGluR agonists and antagonists have produced complex results. Here, we studied hippocampus-dependent memory in GRM2/3 double knockout (GRM2/3-/-) mice in an iterative sequence of experiments. We found that they were impaired on appetitively motivated spatial reference and working memory tasks, and on a spatial novelty preference task that relies on animals exploratory drive, but were unimpaired on aversively motivated spatial memory paradigms. GRM2/3-/-mice also performed normally on an appetitively motivated, non-spatial, visual discrimination task. These results likely reflect an interaction between GRM2/3 genotype and the arousal-inducing properties of the experimental paradigm. The deficit seen on appetitive
But "star" branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino ...
... producing the amino acid arginine and dicarboxylic acid fumarate. Located in liver cytosol, ASL is the fourth enzyme of the ... Within the superfamily, ASL is most closely related to δ-crystallin in amino acid sequence and in protein fold structure. There ... These two isoforms conserve 69% and 71% of the ASL amino acid sequence, respectively, but only the δII isoform retains the same ... ISBN 0-470-12930-1. Chakraborty AR, Davidson A, Howell PL (February 1999). "Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved ...
... which catalyses the same reaction but is active only toward dicarboxylic D-amino acids. In DAO, a conserved histidine has been ... DAO D-amino-acid dehydrogenase D-amino acid oxidase D-aspartate oxidase Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Sarcosine oxidase ... D-amino-acid dehydrogenase EC 1.4.99.1, D-aspartate oxidase EC 1.4.3.1. D-amino acid oxidase EC 1.4.3.3 (DAMOX or DAO) is an ... FAD flavoenzyme that catalyses the oxidation of neutral and basic D-amino acids into their corresponding keto acids. DAOs have ...
"Dipeptides as effective prodrugs of the unnatural amino acid (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), ... 2-amino)propionyl]aminobicyclo[3.1.0.]hexen-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY544344) in rats and dogs: assessment of first-pass ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268)". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 331 (3): 1126-36. doi:10.1124/jpet.109.160598. PMID 19755662. Helton ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740): a potent, selective, and orally active group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist ...
Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in ... EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as ... SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. ... Excitatory amino acid transporter Glutamate transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106688 - ...
... and molecular modeling of heterobicyclic amino acids related to (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid ( ... 4-amino-2-sulfonylbicyclo[3.1.0]-hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY404039)". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268)". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 331 (3): 1126-36. doi:10.1124/jpet.109.160598. PMID 19755662. ...
Ammonium is then converted into amino acids like glutamine and asparagine before it is exported to the plant. In return, the ... principally as the dicarboxylic acids malate and succinate) as a carbon and energy source. However, because several unrelated ... The legume-rhizobium symbiosis is a classic example of mutualism-rhizobia supply ammonia or amino acids to the plant and in ... plant supplies the bacteria with carbohydrates in the form of organic acids. The plant also provides the bacteroid oxygen for ...
... and molecular modeling of heterobicyclic amino acids related to (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid ( ... 2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039): a potent and orally active group II mGluR antagonist with ... 2-amino-3-hydroxy-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid-HYDIA". ChemMedChem. 3 (2): 323-35. doi:10.1002/cmdc.200700226. ... and pharmacokinetics of 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives as potent and selective ...
Most nylons are made from the reaction of a dicarboxylic acid with a diamine (e.g. PA66) or a lactam or amino acid with itself ... Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid): Castor oil → ricinoleic acid → sebacic acid. *Dodecanedioic acid: Butadiene → ... ricinoleic acid → methylricinoleate → methyl-11-undecenoate → undecenoic acid → 11-undecenoic acid → 11-bromoundecanoic acid → ... One number after "PA" or "Nylon" indicates a homopolymer which is monadic or based on one amino acid (minus H2O) as monomer: PA ...
Edson, N.L., "Ketogenesis-antiketogenesis: Ketogenesis from amino-acids". Biochemical Journal, 1935. 29: p. 2498-505. Edson, N. ... Edson, N.L., "Ketogenesis-antiketogenesis: Metabolism of aldehydes and dicarboxylic acids". Biochemical Journal, 1936. 30.: p. ... Two papers were co-authored with Krebs, on the micro-determination of uric acid and on the avian synthesis of uric acid; one ... J., . 30: 2319-32.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov PMID 16746295] Edson N.L., Krebs H.A. and Model A. 1936 The synthesis of uric acid in ...
... fatty acids (most often oleic acid and stearic acid), dicarboxylic acids) and sometimes amino acids. Some milder fluxes also ... formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and dicarboxylic, e.g. oxalic acid, malonic acid, sebacic acid) Solder fluxes are ... A mixture of organic acids (resin acids, predominantly abietic acid, with pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, neoabietic acid, ... Inorganic Acid) - rosin activated with inorganic acids (usually hydrochloric acid or phosphoric acid), highest activities, ...
Most nylons are made from the reaction of a dicarboxylic acid with a diamine (e.g. PA66) or a lactam or amino acid with itself ... adipic acid Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid): Castor oil → ricinoleic acid → sebacic acid Terephthalic acid: Crude oil → p- ... ricinoleic acid → methylricinoleate → methyl-11-undecenoate → undecenoic acid → 11-undecenoic acid → 11-bromoundecanoic acid → ... xylene → terephthalic acid Isophthalic acid: Crude oil → m-xylene → isophthalic acid Tetramethylene diamine (putrescine) Crude ...
In dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, the anionic amino acid transporter, EAAT3, cannot bring glutamate and aspartate across ... This affects a diseased individual's amino acid pool, as they will have to spend additional resources to replenish the amino ... Enterocytes in the intestines break up peptides into residual amino acids where they would normally use charge-specific amino ... protein digestion and absorption are key to establishing and maintaining amino acid pools. In the case of dicarboxylic ...
Acid as well as the transfer of an amine group from glutamine to form glutamic acid and 2-amino-2-desoxyisochorismic acid (ADIC ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (HHPDC).[20] The product of this reaction, HHPDC, is unstable and spontaneously undergoes oxidative ... shikimic acid → chorismic acid → phenazine-1-carboxylic acid → 5-methylphenazine-1-carboxylic acid betaine → pyocyanin[6]. The ... Pyocyanin biosynthesis begins with the synthesis of the phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) core.[19] In this reaction the enzyme ...
Derivatives of pimelic acid are involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid called lysine. Pimelic acid is one CH 2 unit ... Dicarboxylic acid Pimelic acid has been synthesized from cyclohexanone and from salicylic acid. In the former route, the ... It is the final member of the mnemonic used to aid recollection of the order of the first six dicarboxylic acids using their ... Diaminopimelic acid CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 83rd ed. p.8-52 "Pimelic Acid". Organic Syntheses. 11: 42. 1931. doi: ...
... among those dicarboxylic acids play an essential role in many biological behaviors. Many of those diprotic acids are amino ... which are called dicarboxylic acids) and inorganic diprotic acids. Chromic acid (H2CrO4) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) are two of ... Dicarboxylic acids have a general molecular formula HOOC-R-COOH. A diprotic acid molecular dissociates in water and other ... Sulfuric acid, a diprotic acid, is the most widely used acid in industry, which is also the most-produced industrial chemical ...
Other examples of dicarboxylic acids include aspartic acid and glutamic acid, two amino acids in the human body. General ... In general, dicarboxylic acids show similar chemical behavior and reactivity to monocarboxylic acids. Dicarboxylic acids are ... C22 and C23 dicarboxylic acids obtained from the sumac tree (Rhus sp.). A large survey of the dicarboxylic acids present in ... "A Novel Fluorescent Dicarboxylic Acid, (Z)-1,7-Nonadecadiene-2,3-dicarboxylic Acid, Produced by White-Rot Fungus Ceriporiopsis ...
... (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine ... and other amino acids. Lesions in the pallidum can suppress effects of quinolinic acid in monkeys injected with quinolinic acid ... Quinolinic acid is a downstream product of the kynurenine pathway, which metabolizes the amino acid tryptophan. It acts as an ... kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HANA). Quinolinic acid's neuroactive and ...
Hypermethioninemia Hyperlysinemias Nonketotic hyperglycinemia Propionic acidemia Hyperprolinemia Cystinuria Dicarboxylic ... Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism are metabolic disorders which impair the synthesis and degradation of amino acids. ...
EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as ... Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene.[5][6] ... Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in ... amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • high-affinity glutamate transmembrane transporter activity. • chloride ...
These compounds are polyene dicarboxylic acids that include both lipophilic and polar amino acids. They were extracted from the ...
... is the organic compound with the formula C3H6(COOH)2 . Although the related "linear" dicarboxylic acids adipic ... Glutaric acid is naturally produced in the body during the metabolism of some amino acids, including lysine and tryptophan. ... Uvitonic acid is obtained by the action of ammonia on pyrotartaric acid. Glutaric acid may cause irritation to the skin and ... DOI 10.1002/14356007.a01_305 Glutaric acid, cameochemicals.com Calculator: Water and solute activities in aqueous glutaric acid ...
... (3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) is a naturally occurring sulfur amino acid metabolite ... In Sulfur Amino Acids: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects, Alan R. Liss Inc., pp. 355-364. ^ Cavallini, D.; Ricci, G.; Dupre, S ... which normally condenses the amino acids homocysteine and serine to form cystathionine. In an alternate pathway, cysteine and ... Sulfur-containing cyclic ketimines and imino acids. A novel family of endogenous products in search for a role. European ...
6-dicarboxylic acid". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123: 9459-9460. doi:10.1021/ja011243. PMID 11562236. Laursen, J.B.; Nielsen, J. (2004 ... 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase (EC 2.6.1.86, ADIC synthase, 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate synthase, SgcD) is an enzyme with ... 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
2-amino-3-hydroxy-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid-HYDIA". Chemmedchem 3 (2): 323-35. PMID 18058780. doi:10.1002/cmdc ... 1S,2R,3R,5R,6S)-2-amino-3-hidroksibiciklo[3.1.0]heksan-2,6-dikarboksilna kiselina. ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... In the Ruzicka cyclization, cyclic ketones are prepared from dicarboxylic acids.. *In the Nef reaction, ketones form by ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ... Acids as weak as pyridinium cation (as found in pyridinium tosylate) with a pKa of 5.2 are able to serve as catalysts in this ...
8-tetracyanoquinodimethane were obtained by the condensation of the acid dichlorides of furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid and... ... The corresponding amino esters and their complexes with 7,7,8, ... The corresponding amino esters and their complexes with 7,7,8,8 ... 5-dicarboxylic acid and tetrahydrothiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid with 8-hydroxy- and 5,7-dibromo-8-hydroxyquinolines. Almost ... Ester Organic Chemistry Antimicrobial Activity Dicarboxylic Acid Dichloride Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh ...
Glutamic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 1. target. DB00142. Glutamic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 2. target ... L-Aspartic Acid. Adenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 2. target. DB00128. L-Aspartic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 3. ... Glutamic Acid. Excitatory amino acid transporter 4. target. DB00142. Glutamic Acid. Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial. ... Glutamic Acid. GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]. target. DB00142. Glutamic Acid. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase ...
... amino]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
... amino-4-chloro-phenyl)sulfamoyl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
2-dicarboxylic acid , C10H9NO6 , CID 16062593 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate. Salvatore DANIELLO, Patrizia ... Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision. ... Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate ... Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate ...
5-dicarboxylic acid 3-ethyl ester 5-methyl ester; CAS Number: 632291-73-7; Linear Formula: C8H10N2O4S; find Chemcia Scientific ... 4-Amino-isothiazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid 3-ethyl ester 5-methyl ester. ... Home > C12H316CEE5B 4-Amino-isothiazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid 3-ethyl ester 5-methyl ester ...
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The chemical compounds studied include dicarboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars and polyols. These data provide a comprehensive ... dicarboxylic acids, alkyl-substituents, sugars and amino acids Aleksandra Marsh1, Rachael E. H. Miles1, Grazia Rovelli. 1, ... Abstract. Hygroscopicity data for 36 organic compounds, including amino acids, organic acids, alcohols and sugars, are ... dicarboxylic acids, alkyl-substituents, sugars and amino acids, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5583-5599, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp- ...
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Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. / Eronen, Aleksi E. K.; Mannistö, Jere K.; Moslova, Karina; ... Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. Aleksi E. K. Eronen, Jere K. Mannistö, Karina Moslova, Martin ... Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. I: Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2020 ; Vol. 85, Nr. 9. s. ... Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2020 maj 1;85(9):5799-5806. ...
Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. / Eronen, Aleksi E. K.; Mannistö, Jere K.; Moslova, Karina; ... Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. Aleksi E. K. Eronen, Jere K. Mannistö, Karina Moslova, Martin ... Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2020 touko 1;85(9):5799-5806. ... Synthesis of Diaryl Hydroxyl Dicarboxylic Acids from Amino Acids. Julkaisussa: Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2020 ; Vuosikerta ...
Prediction : 2s7r-5-amino-3-keto-2-methyl-7-phenyl-7h-thiazolo32-apyridine-68-dicarboxylic-acid-diethyl-ester - albumin. Your ... benzoic-acid-3-anilino-4-bromo-5-keto-2h-furan-2-yl-ester-albumin.html ... 2356-tetrafluoro-4-23456-pentafluorophenoxybenzoic-acid-ethyl-ester-albumin.html. *4-3-4-cyano-2356-tetrafluoro-phenoxy-2456- ...
Prediction : 2r7s-5-amino-7-24-dichlorophenyl-3-keto-2-methyl-7h-thiazolo32-apyridine-68-dicarboxylic-acid-diethyl-ester - ... 4-13-diketo-5-methyl-isoindolin-2-ylbutyric-acid-3-3-thienyl-124-oxadiazol-5-ylmethyl-ester-albumin.html ... 4-13-diketo-5-methyl-isoindolin-2-ylbutyric-acid-1r-1-3-nitrophenylethyl-ester-albumin.html ...
4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity ... The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid ... 4-dicarboxylic acid imides with residues of biogenic sulfur-containing α-amino acids and study their anti-hypoxic activity. ... Using a three-component one-pot reaction of isatin with sulfur-containing α-amino acids and maleimides a number of new spiro- ...
3-amino-4,6-dihydro-6,6-dimethyl-, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl) 1-ethyl ester;718632-47-4;ABP010972.Active Biopharma Corp ... Cat.No.ABP010972 Chemical NamePyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 3-amino-4,6-dihydro-6,6-dimethyl-, 5-(1,1- ... Chemical Name : Pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 3-amino-4,6-dihydro-6,6-dimethyl-, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl) 1-ethyl ... Enquiry ABP010972 , Pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 3-amino-4,6-dihydro-6,6-dimethyl-, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl) 1- ...
Synthesis of N1-substituted analogues of (2R,4R)-4-amino-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid as agonists, partial agonists, and ... Synthesis of N1-substituted analogues of (2R,4R)-4-amino-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid as agonists, partial agonists, and ... Synthesis of N1-substituted analogues of (2R,4R)-4-amino-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid as agonists, partial agonists, and ... T1 - Synthesis of N1-substituted analogues of (2R,4R)-4-amino-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid as agonists, partial agonists, ...
2-amino(3,4-~3~h_2_)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (C8H11NO4) from the PQR. ... 1R,2S,5R,6R)-2-Amino(3,4-~3~H_2_)Bicyclo[3.1.0]Hexane-2,6-Dicarboxylic Acid ... 1s,4s,5r,6r)-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid. ...
4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity ...
dicarboxylic acid transport Source: UniProtKB ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review articles ... Excitatory amino acid transporter 5Add BLAST. 560. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Cluster: Excitatory amino acid transporter 5. 114. O00341-2. UPI00072DC882. UPI0003EE14F2. UPI000B50C8BC. UPI0007196E62. ... Cluster: Excitatory amino acid transporter 5. 441. O00341-2. UPI00072DC882. UPI0003EE14F2. UPI000B50C8BC. UPI0007196E62. ...
5-[(3-nitrobenzyl)amino]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid. C15 H12 N2 O6. OJGIZUUIUXRITB-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... amino]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid]. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4KIW/pdb ...
... of lower alkyl esters of N-benzoyl-N-chlorophenyl-2-amino-lower alkanoic acids and 3-lower alkyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazinone-(4)-2 ... substituted dicarboxylic acids and their salts, esters and amides substituted dihydrobenzofuranyl sulfonates ... Herbicide mixture of lower alkyl esters of N-benzoyl-N-chlorophenyl-2-amino-lower alkanoic acids and 3-lower alkyl-2,1,3- ... substituted aliphatic carboxylic acids and their salts, esters and amides substituted aromatic carboxylic acids and their salts ...
4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid. BHA. butylated hydroxyanisole. BMM. bone marrow-derived macrophage. Cer. ceramide. ... oleic acid. PA. palmitic acid. ROS. reactive oxygen species. SA. stearic acid. sFA. saturated FA. siRNA. small interfering RNA ... palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA)]) are more lipotoxic than unsaturated FAs (uFAs [e.g., oleic acid (OA) and linoleic ... Adipose Fatty Acid Binding Protein Promotes Saturated Fatty Acid-Induced Macrophage Cell Death through Enhancing Ceramide ...
m-Carboxyphenyl-L-alanine: a dicarboxylic aromatic amino acid from iris bulbs. ... Synthesis and x-ray analysis of cis-3,4-methylene-L-proline, the new natural amino acid from horse chestnuts, and of its trans ... Effect of diet on the occurrence of S-methylcysteine and the free amino acid pattern in insect blood. ... Effects of glutathione and thioglycollic acid on acid-production by Lactobacillus arabinosus in presence of atabrine. ...
Aminoacid derivatives of dicarboxylic acids as flavor ingredients. WO2004078302A1. 28 Feb 2004. 16 Sep 2004. Symrise Gmbh & Co ... ascorbic acids and its salts, alpha-hydroxy acids (for example citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid) and their ... acetic acid monoglycerides (E 472a), lactic acid monoglycerides (E 472b), citric acid monoglycerides (E 472c), tartaric acid ... such as for example butyric acid, acetic acid, methylbutyric acid, caproic acid; alcohols (saturated and unsaturated), such as ...
  • In the NR1-based NR2 models, there were only four subunit-specific amino acid residues exposed to the ligand-binding pocket (and six in the GluR2-based models). (aspetjournals.org)
  • We conclude that TM 3 and 4 contain amino acid residues that are important determinants of substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency in NaDC1. (labome.org)
  • Phototriggerable peptidomimetic inhibitors of the enzyme M. tuberculosis ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) were obtained by incorporation of a stilbene based amino acid moiety into oligopeptides between 3-9 residues long ( Paper I ). Interstrand hydrogen bond probability in the E and Z forms of the peptidomimetics was used as a tool for predicting conformational preferences. (diva-portal.org)
  • they possess a five-motif amino acid sequence signature, and conserved dicarboxylic amino acid residues are probably elements of the glycosyl transferase catalytic center. (asm.org)
  • Glutamic Acid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Glutamic Acid" by people in this website by year, and whether "Glutamic Acid" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Glutamic Acid" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Antisera to glutamic acid decarboxylase, choline acetyltransferase, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide stained 22 +/- 2, 2.3 +/- 0.3, and 2.4 +/- 0.2% of all neurons, respectively, suggesting that different neuronal classes survived roughly in proportion to their number in vivo. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mutations resulting in a lack of expression of the SLC1A1 gene, a member of the solute carrier family, are found to cause development of dicarboxylic aminoaciduria in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • N -methyl D -aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory, in part by dynamically regulating the trafficking of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA) receptors via NMDAR channel-mediated Ca 2+ transport into dendritic spines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results provide evidence that corticocollicular neurons in culture express both NMDA-type and non-NMDA receptors for excitatory amino acids. (jneurosci.org)
  • TspO has an unusually high content of l -tryptophan and other aromatic amino acids and is characterized by a high degree of homology to the 18-kDa outer membrane component (pk18) of the mammalian mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors (MBRs). (pnas.org)
  • Rather, the binding of nutrients to receptors located in the spore's inner membrane triggers subsequent events including (i) the release of monovalent ions, (ii) the release of the spore core's large depot of divalent cations bound to pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid [DPA]), and (iii) hydrolysis of the spore's peptidoglycan cortex. (asm.org)
  • As generally admitted the properties of most natural occurring biopolymers (e.g., starch, poly (lactic acid), PHAs. (scirp.org)
  • Her potassium was 6.3 mEq/L, and lactic acid level was 8.3 mmol/L. She was also hypertensive without apparent etiology. (aappublications.org)
  • In general, our protocol exhibited excellent functional group tolerance in the protection of alcohols containing alkoxy, keto, amino, as well as halo substituents in good to excellent yields. (diva-portal.org)
  • When HY is an amino compound, NH 2 -R 3 , the carbonyl donor is transpeptidated and the product of enzyme deacylation is R 1 -CO-NH-R 3 . (asm.org)
  • Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-a plant-wide heightened state of defense following localized exposure to a pathogen-is characterized by increased salicylic acid (SA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and elevated expression of pathogenesis-related genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Pretreatment for the determination of phthalic acid, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in human serum or plasma, and the determination of these compounds in blood products by high-performance liquid chromatography was studied. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Adipic Acid - Adipic acid commonly appears as a white crystalline powder that melts at 152 degrees Celsius. (fsu.edu)
  • Adipic acid is sometimes used in the food industry as well, especially as an ingredient in gelatins that facilitates quick setting and the maintenance of quality. (fsu.edu)
  • The monofunctional penicillin-binding dd -peptidases and penicillin-hydrolyzing serine β-lactamases diverged from a common ancestor by the acquisition of structural changes in the polypeptide chain while retaining the same folding, three-motif amino acid sequence signature, serine-assisted catalytic mechanism, and active-site topology. (asm.org)
  • v) The amino acid sequence changes in GerB*s reduce these receptor variants' requirement for GerK and cogerminants in their response to l -amino acids. (asm.org)
  • In the early phase cells shift to a starvation mode, including gluconeogenic growth, activation of fatty acid degradation, and downregulation of translation. (asm.org)
  • A highly efficient and convenient triflic acid (TfOH) catalyzed protocol for the protection of various functionalized alcohols in CH 2 Cl 2 at ambient temperature using tris (trimethylsilyl)silyl- N,N -dimethyl-methaneamide (hypersilylamide) 1 as the protecting reagent is developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Carboxylate ions are resonance-stabilized , and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols . (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms that independently control or modulate Ure2p in response to ammonium and Nil2p activity in response to amino acids have not been elucidated. (asm.org)
  • Our company is specialized exporter, manufacturer and supplier of 2-Keto-3-phenylpropionic acid sodium salt in China. (trader-china.com)
  • The -oic acid nomenclature detail is based on the name of the previously-known chemical benzoic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important chemical feature for a diprotic acid molecule is its ability to deprotonate two protons in two sequential steps during dissociation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An amino acid is a carbon atom with a hydrogen atom, an organic acid {COOH}, an amino group {NH2}, and one other chemical group attached. (everything2.com)
  • The other chemical group is what gives each amino acid its specific properties. (everything2.com)
  • Medically well known examples of the extreme damage from these two factors and chemical classes, are "Guam Parkinson disease," and "Prince Edward Island shell fish: Domoic Acid" poisoning, both of which have caused extreme neurological disease epidemics in Guam (And all around the World's Oceans), and Prince Edward Island, with lifelong neural sequelae, and also additional disease generations, occurring in those epidemic's victims! (laleva.org)
  • Weerachayaphorn J, Pajor A. Identification of transport pathways for citric acid cycle intermediates in the human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2. (labome.org)
  • The stoichiometries of the reactions and the connections between them are known, which provides us with a metabolic map of respiration that includes glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the citric acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain ( mETC ), ATP synthase, and several other surrounding reactions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Micromolar concentrations of piracetam, aniracetam, and oxiracetam enhanced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells. (nih.gov)
  • Although it seems clear that saturated FAs (sFA [e.g., palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA)]) are more lipotoxic than unsaturated FAs (uFAs [e.g., oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA)]) to various types of cells, whether and how they are transported and metabolized in macrophages to induce chronic inflammation in obesity is unclear ( 14 - 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The majority of other AAP family members are low-capacity, high-affinity amino acid permeases, each exhibiting characteristic narrow substrate specificities ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Amino acid analysis by precolumn derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-L-alanine amide (Marfey agent). (uzh.ch)
  • Two GerB variants (termed GerB*s) that were previously isolated by their ability to trigger spore germination in response to d -alanine do not respond to d -alanine but respond to the same l -amino acids that stimulate germination via GerB plus GerK and GFK. (asm.org)
  • vi) GerK binds glucose, GerB interacts with fructose in addition to l -amino acids, and GerA interacts only with l -valine, l -alanine, and its analogs. (asm.org)
  • vii) The amino acid binding sites in GerA and GerB are different, even though both respond to l -alanine. (asm.org)