Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Seven-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein. The enzyme also forms pyruvate from D-tyrosine, L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, L-serine, and D-serine, although at a slower rate. EC
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.
An FAD-dependent peroxisomal flavoenzyme, this catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-ASPARTATE to OXALOACETATE and AMMONIA using oxygen as electron acceptor.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (1/185)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Basolateral sorting of furin in MDCK cells requires a phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with an acidic amino acid cluster. (2/185)

Furin is a subtilisin-related endoprotease which processes a wide range of bioactive proteins. Furin is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where proteolytic activation of many precursor proteins takes place. A significant fraction of furin, however, cycles among the TGN, the plasma membrane, and endosomes, indicating that the accumulation in the TGN reflects a dynamic localization process. The cytosolic domain of furin is necessary and sufficient for TGN localization, and two signals are responsible for retrieval of furin to the TGN. A tyrosine-based (YKGL) motif mediates internalization of furin from the cell surface into endosomes. An acidic cluster that is part of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites (SDSEEDE) is then responsible for retrieval of furin from endosomes to the TGN. In addition, the acidic EEDE sequence also mediates endocytic activity. Here, we analyzed the sorting of furin in polarized epithelial cells. We show that furin is delivered to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells, from where a significant fraction of the protein can return to the TGN. A phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with the acidic EEDE cluster is required for basolateral sorting and constitutes a novel signal regulating intracellular traffic of furin.  (+info)

Role of reductase domain cluster 1 acidic residues in neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Characterization of the FMN-FREE enzyme. (3/185)

The nNOS reductase domain is homologous to cytochrome P450 reductase, which contains two conserved clusters of acidic residues in its FMN module that play varied roles in its electron transfer reactions. To study the role of nNOS reductase domain cluster 1 acidic residues, we mutated two conserved acidic (Asp(918) and Glu(919)) and one conserved aromatic residue (Phe(892)), and investigated the effect of each mutation on flavin binding, conformational change, electron transfer reactions, calmodulin regulation, and catalytic activities. Each mutation destabilized FMN binding without significantly affecting other aspects including substrate, cofactor or calmodulin binding, or catalytic activities upon FMN reconstitution, indicating the mutational effect was restricted to the FMN module. Characterization of the FMN-depleted mutants showed that bound FMN was essential for reduction of the nNOS heme or cytochrome c, but not for ferricyanide or dichlorophenolindolphenol, and established that the electron transfer path in nNOS is NADPH to FAD to FMN to heme. Steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic analysis revealed a novel role for bound FMN in suppressing FAD reduction by NADPH. The suppression could be relieved either by FMN removal or calmodulin binding. Calmodulin binding induced a conformational change that was restricted to the FMN module. This increased the rate of FMN reduction and triggered electron transfer to the heme. We propose that the FMN module of nNOS is the key positive or negative regulator of electron transfer at all points in nNOS. This distinguishes nNOS from other related flavoproteins, and helps explain the mechanism of calmodulin regulation.  (+info)

Group I, II, and III mGluR compounds affect rhythm generation in the gastric circuit of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion. (4/185)

We have studied the effects of group I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists on rhythm generation by the gastric circuit of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. All mGluR agonists and some antagonists we tested in this study had clear and distinct effects on gastric rhythm generation when superfused over combined oscillating or blocked silent STG preparations. A consistent difference between group I agonists and group II and III agonists was that group I agonists acted excitatory. The group I-specific agonists L-quisqualic acid and (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, as well as the nonspecific agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid accelerated ongoing rhythms and could induce gastric rhythms in silent preparations. The group II agonist (2S,1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I) and the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) slowed down or completely blocked ongoing gastric rhythms and were without detectable effect on silent preparations. The action of L-CCG-I was blocked partially by the group-II-specific antagonist, (RS)-1-amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid [(RS)APICA], and the group-III-specific antagonist (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine completely blocked the action of L-AP4. Besides its antagonistic action, the group-II-specific antagonist (RS)APICA had a remarkably strong apparent inverse agonist action when applied alone on oscillating preparations. The action of all drugs was dose dependent and reversible, although recovery was not always complete. In our experiments, the effects of none of the mGluR-specific agonists were antagonized or amplified by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-specific antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, excluding the contamination of responses to mGluR agonists by nonspecific cross-reactivity with NMDA receptors. Picrotoxin did not prevent the inhibitory action of L-CCG-I and L-AP4. We conclude that mGluRs, probably similar to those belonging to groups I, II, and III described in mammals, may play a role as modulators of gastric circuit rhythm generation in vivo.  (+info)

Cocaine and kindling alter the sensitivity of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the central amygdala. (5/185)

G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are being implicated in various forms of neuroplasticity and CNS disorders. This study examined whether the sensitivities of mGluR agonists are modulated in a distinct fashion in different models of synaptic plasticity, specifically, kindling and chronic cocaine treatment. The influence of kindling and chronic cocaine exposure in vivo was examined in vitro on the modulation of synaptic transmission by group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of central amygdala (CeA) neurons. Synaptic transmission was evoked by electrical stimulation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventral amygdaloid pathway (VAP) afferents in brain slices from control rats and from rats treated with cocaine or exposed to three to five stage-five kindled seizures. This study shows that after chemical stimulation with chronic cocaine exposure or after electrical stimulation with kindling the receptor sensitivities for mGluR agonists are altered in opposite ways. In slices from control rats, group II agonists, (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG1) and (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), depressed neurotransmission more potently at the BLA-CeA than at the VAP-CeA synapse while group III agonist, L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (LAP4), depressed neurotransmission more potently at the VAP-CeA synapse than at the BLA-CeA. These agonist actions were not seen (were absent) in amygdala neurons from chronic cocaine-treated animals. In contrast, after kindling, concentration response relationships for LCCG1 and LAP4 were shifted to the left, suggesting that sensitivity to these agonists is increased. Except at high concentrations, LCCG1, LY354740, and LAP4 neither induced membrane currents nor changed current-voltage relationships. Loss of mGluR inhibition with chronic cocaine treatment may contribute to counter-adaptive changes including anxiety and depression in cocaine withdrawal. Drugs that restore the inhibitory effects of group II and III mGluRs may be novel tools in the treatment of cocaine dependence. The enhanced sensitivity to group II and III mGluR agonists in kindling is similar to that recorded at the lateral to BLA synapse in the amygdala where they reduce epileptiform bursting. These findings suggest that drugs modifying mGluRs may prove useful in the treatment of cocaine withdrawal or epilepsy.  (+info)

Slow synaptic inhibition mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of GIRK channels. (6/185)

Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory actions whereas metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) mediate a variety of slower effects. For example, mGluRs can mediate presynaptic inhibition, postsynaptic excitation, or, more rarely, postsynaptic inhibition. We previously described an unusually slow form of postsynaptic inhibition in one class of projection neuron in the song-control nucleus HVc of the songbird forebrain. These neurons, which participate in a circuit that is essential for vocal learning, exhibit an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) that lasts several seconds. Only a portion of this slow IPSP is mediated by GABA(B) receptors. Since these cells are strongly hyperpolarized by agonists of mGluRs, we used intracellular recording from brain slices to investigate the mechanism of this hyperpolarization and to determine whether mGluRs contribute to the slow synaptic inhibition. We report that mGluRs hyperpolarize these HVc neurons by activating G protein-coupled, inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. MGluR antagonists blocked this response and the slow synaptic inhibition. Thus, glutamate can combine with GABA to mediate slow synaptic inhibition by activating GIRK channels in the CNS.  (+info)

Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the rat amygdala. (7/185)

An animal model most sensitive for measuring anticipatory anxiety is fear conditioning, which is expressed by an enduring increase in synaptic strength in the amygdala. A converse view predicts that agents that induce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy in the amygdala may be useful in the amelioration of stress disorders. In the present study, we show that activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR II) by (2S,3S, 4S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl) glycine (l-ccg) induces an LTD in the basolateral amygdala neurons. The effect was concentration-dependent with a maximal inhibition of approximately 30%. The induction of l-CCG LTD required concurrent synaptic activity, required presynaptic but not postsynaptic Ca(2+) increases, and was independent of NMDA receptors. l-CCG LTD was associated with an increase in the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation and was not occluded by low-frequency stimulation-induced LTD, suggesting that these two forms of LTD did not share a common underlying mechanism. After eliciting LTD with l-CCG, application of isoproterenol increased the synaptic responses back to its original baseline, demonstrating that chemically depressed synapses could be potentiated by another chemical. A selective PKA inhibitor, KT 5720, by its own caused a depression of synaptic transmission and blocked l-CCG LTD, presumably by mimicking and thereby occluding any further depression. Together, these results suggest that l-CCG LTD is induced by presynaptically mGluR II-mediated inhibition of Ca(2+)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase, resulting in a decrease in cAMP formation and PKA activation, which leads to a long-lasting decrease in transmitter release.  (+info)

cAMP-dependent presynaptic regulation of spontaneous glycinergic IPSCs in mechanically dissociated rat spinal cord neurons. (8/185)

Spontaneous miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat sacral dorsal commissural nucleus (SDCN) neurons attached with intact glycinergic presynaptic nerve terminals and evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) in the slice preparation were investigated using nystatin-perforated patch and conventional whole cell recording modes under the voltage-clamp conditions. Trans-ACPD (tACPD) reversibly reduced the mIPSC frequency without affecting the mean amplitude. The effect was mimicked by a specific metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) II subtype agonist, (2S, 1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclo propyl) glycine (L-CCG-I), and a specific mGluRIII subtype agonist, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4). These inhibitory effects on mIPSC frequency were blocked by the specific antagonists for mGluRII, alpha-methyl-1-(2S, 1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclo propyl) glycine and (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine. In the slice preparation, eIPSC amplitude and mIPSC frequency were decreased reversibly by L-CCG-I (10(-6) M) and L-AP4 (10(-6) M). In K(+)-free or K(+)-free external solution with Ba(2+) and Cs(+), Ca(2+)-free or Cd(2+) external solution, the inhibitory effect of tACPD on mIPSC frequency was unaltered. Forskolin and 8-Br-cAMP significantly increased presynaptic glycine release, and prevented the inhibitory action of tACPD on mIPSC frequency. Sp-cAMP, however, did not prevent the inhibitory action of tACPD on mIPSC frequency. It was concluded that the activation of mGluRs inhibits glycine release by reducing the action of cAMP/PKA pathway.  (+info)

Dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) is an inhibitor of prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We investigated the effect of DMOG on the outcome after permanent and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (p/tMCAO) in the rat. Before and after pMCAO, rats were treated with 40 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg DMOG, or vehicle, and with 40 mg/kg or vehicle after tMCAO. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to assess infarct evolution and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Both doses significantly reduced infarct volumes, but only 40 mg/kg improved the behavior after 24 hours of pMCAO. Animals receiving 40 mg/kg were more likely to maintain rCBF values above 30% from the contralateral hemisphere within 24 hours of pMCAO. DMOG after tMCAO significantly reduced the infarct volumes and improved behavior at 24 hours and 8 days and also improved the rCBF after 24 hours. A consistent and significant upregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of
The hydroxylation of selected proline residues by prolylhydroxylase (E.C. is a crucial posttranslational event in the biosynthesis of collagen, an important protein of the connective tissues. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) offers additional stability to the unique triple-helical conformation of collagen, which in turn is necessary for the functional viability of the protein, at physiological temperatures. -- Earlier studies on the substrate specificity of prolylhydroxylase have been intriguing. It was proposed earlier that prolylhydroxylase recognized the folded β-turn conformation, formed at the Pro-Gly segments in the nascent procollagen chains (Brahmachari and Ananthanarayanan, 1979). The present thesis involves the further elucidation of conformational aspects of proline hydroxylation in vitro, using chicken prolylhydroxylase and Pro-containing synthetic peptides. -- Pure prolylhydroxylase was obtained from 13-day old chicken embryos using established procedures. Pro-containing linear ...
IN THIS FINAL REPORT ARE DESCRIBED THE MAIN RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED OUT SINCE 1951. The investigations dealt with the metabolism of the dicarboxylic amino acids, glutamic and aspartic acids, and some of their metabolic derivatives, such as glutamine, asparagine, glutathione, and other peptides. Since various glutamic acid derivatives have been claimed to be breakdown products of histidine metabolism the enzymatic degradation of histidine was studied and a labile intermediate isolated and identified. The identification of formamidinoglutaric acid as a labile intermediate in enzymatic histidine breakdown led to an elucidation of the catabolic pathway of histidine and to a study of the mechanism of synthesis of histidine in bacteria. Another aspect of interest in glutamic acid metabolism led to the discovery of two enzymes which catalyze the exchange of the amide groups of free glutamine (glutamotransferase) and of protein bound glutamine (transglutaminase). Parallel with these studies,
A on proteasome mediated degradation of HIF one, FaDu cells have been treated with MSA Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and proteasome inhibitor N L leucyl N L leucinamide, alone and in combination, as well as the HIF one protein degree was determined by western blot evaluation. The effect of MG132 around the degrad ation of HIF one in RC2 cells was established by treating cells with MSA and MG132 alone and in combin ation concurrently and pretreatment of MG132 one h before treating with MSA for 8 h. Protein extracts were prepared from the cells and applied for identifying HIF one expres sion by western blot. PHDs inhibition by dimethyloxallyl glycine PHDs action inhibitor, DMOG was made use of to deal with cells with and without the need of MSA to determine the HIF 1 degrad ation results of MSA. FaDu which usually do not express HIF one beneath normoxic culture circumstances were taken care of separately with 0.. 5 mM DMOG alone and in blend with MSA for 18 24 h. Cells were processed for ...
Acid-extrusion by active transport is important in metabolically active cancer cells, where it removes excess intracellular acid and sets the intracellular resting pH. Hypoxia is a major trigger of adaptive responses in cancer, but its effect on acid-extrusion remains unclear. We studied pH-regulation under normoxia and hypoxia in eight cancer cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A, HT29, HT1080, MiaPaca2, HeLa) using the pH-sensitive fluorophore, cSNARF-1. Hypoxia responses were triggered by pre-incubation in low O(2) or with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). By selective pharmacological inhibition or transport-substrate removal, acid-extrusion flux was dissected into components due to Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) and Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport. In half of the cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A), acid-extrusion on NHE was the dominant flux during an acid load, and in all of these, bar one (MDA-MB-468), NHE-flux was reduced following is a certified Green Company, supplying a wide variety of chemicals, tools, accessories, lab equipment, safety equipment, safety supplies, and chemical information. We supply chemicals in pre-set sizes or will custom package to fit your needs and minimize environmental impacts.
Chondrocytes have to withstand considerable hypoxic conditions within the avascular articular cartilage. The present study investigated the effects of inhibiting or stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by 2-methoxyestradiol or dimethyloxaloylglycine on the progression of osteoarthritis in murine knee joints. 2-Methoxyestradiol was injected six times over a period of 2 weeks into the left knee joint of Balb/C mice. Joints were assessed by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, 3 weeks and 12 weeks following the first injection. Dimethyloxaloylglycine, an inhibitor of HIF-degrading prolyl-hydroxylases, was injected into the left knee joints of STR/ORT mice once a week over the entire period of 12 weeks. Right knee joints that received a saline solution served as controls. In addition, the effects of dimethyloxaloylglycine on HIF-1 target gene expression and on collagen metabolism were analyzed in vitro. Injection of 2-methoxyestradiol led to osteoarthritic changes in the treated knee
Browse decades of harmonized childhood cancer data and discover how this multi-species repository accelerates the search for cures.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reverse Biomimetic Synthesis of L-Arogenate and its Stabilized Analogues from L-Tyrosine. AU - Eagling, Louise. AU - Leonard, Daniel J. AU - Schwarz, Maria. AU - Urruzuno, Inaki. AU - Boden, Grace K. AU - Wailes, J. Steven. AU - Ward, John W.. AU - Clayden, Jonathan P. PY - 2021/7/12. Y1 - 2021/7/12. N2 - L-Arogenate (also known as L-pretyrosine) is a primary metabolite on a branch of the shikimate biosynthetic pathway to aromatic amino acids. It plays a key role in the synthesis of plant secondary metabolites including alkaloids and the phenylpropanoids that are the key to carbon fixation. Yet understanding thecontrol of arogenate metabolism has been hampered by its extreme instability and the lack of a versatile synthetic route to arogenate and its analogues. We now report a practical synthesis of L-arogenate in seven steps from O-benzyl L-tyrosine methyl ester in an overall yield of 20%. The synthetic route also delivers the fungal metabolite spiroarogenate, as well as a ...
Parkinsons Disease is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, genetics, cellular, molecular and neurophysiology, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinsons disease.
Buy LY 379268 (CAS 191471-52-0), a water soluble systemically active group II mGluR agonist. Join researchers using high quality LY 379268 from Abcam and…
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TABLE-US-00008 TABLE VIII No. R5 R L 265 --H 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 266 --H 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 267 --H 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 268 --H 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 269 --H 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 270 --H 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 271 --H 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 272 --H 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 273 --H 4-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 274 --CH3 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 275 --CH3 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 276 --CH3 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 277 --CH3 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 278 --CH3 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 279 --CH3 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 280 --CH3 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 281 --CH3 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 282 --CH3 4-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 283 --CH2CH3 2-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 284 --CH2CH3 3-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 285 --CH2CH3 4-fluorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 286 --CH2CH3 2-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 287 --CH2CH3 3-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 288 --CH2CH3 4-chlorophenyl --C(CH3)2-- 289 --CH2CH3 2-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 290 --CH2CH3 3-methylphenyl --C(CH3)2-- 291 ...
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of vision due to rod and cone degeneration. Evidence suggests that an inappropriate oxygen level could contribute to its pathogenesis. Rod cell death could increase oxygen concentration, reduce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) and contribute to cone cell death. The purposes of this study were: 1) to analyze the temporal profile of HIF-1α, its downstream effectors VEGF, endothelin-1 (ET-1), iNOS, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), and neuroinflammation in retinas of the murine model of rd10 (retinal degeneration 10) mice with RP; 2) to study oxygen bioavailability in these retinas; and 3) to investigate how stabilizing HIF-1α proteins with dimethyloxaloglycine (DMOG), a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, affects retinal degeneration, neuroinflammation, and antioxidant response in rd10 mice ...
1. A compound of the formula (I) ##STR00139## in which R1 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00140## where * represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, A in each individual occurrence represents C--R4 or N, where at most two ring members A represent N at the same time, and E in each individual occurrence represents C--R5 or N, where at most two ring members E represent N at the same time, R2 represents a heteroaryl group of the formula ##STR00141## where # represents the point of attachment to the dihydropyrazolone ring, G in each individual occurrence represents C--R6 or N, J represents O, S or N--R7, L in each individual occurrence represents C--R8 or N, where at most two ring members L represent N at the same time, and M in each individual occurrence represents C--R9 or N, where in total one or two ring members M represent N, where R4, R6, R8 and R9 are identical or different and in each individual case independently of one another represent hydrogen or a ...
iButton-Memory-Module-Dallas-Semiconductor-DS1992L-F5-The-iButton-1k-Memory-DS1992L-F5-is-from-a-range-of-iButton-read-write-devices-that-act-as-localised-databases-that-are-easily-accessible-via-the-1-Wire-protocol-by-minimal-hardware-BR-BR-Suitable-for-use-in-such-applications-as-access-control-debit-tokens-storage-of-calibration-constants-electronic-travellers-and-workflow-tracking-Dallas-Semiconductor-DS1992L-F5-iButton-1k-Memory Read More » ...
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine-driven inflammation are key features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and contribute to disease pathogenesis by promoting angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to characterise the angiogenic gene signature of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in response to hypoxia, as well as Th1 and T-helper cell 2 (Th2) cytokines, and in particular to dissect out effects of combined hypoxia and cytokines on hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) and angiogenesis. METHODS: Human angiogenesis PCR arrays were used to screen cDNA from RA FLS exposed to hypoxia (1% oxygen) or dimethyloxalylglycine, which stabilises HIFs. The involvement of HIF isoforms in generating the angiogenic signature of RA FLS stimulated with hypoxia and/or cytokines was investigated using a DNA-binding assay and RNA interference. The angiogenic potential of conditioned media from hypoxia-treated and/or cytokine-treated RA FLS was measured using an in vitro endothelial-based
10,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,f]oxepine-4,6-dicarboxylic acid - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Hi all, Im trying to cross-compile an application statically linked to Qt-Embedded (open-source license). My host is Ubuntu Linux 32-bit on a PC. My target is Linux running on a ARM9. I dowloaded Qt-embedded and built them using: ./configure -release -static -no-largefile -no-accessibility -embedded arm -xplatform qws/linux-arm-g++ -prefix |destinazione| -little-endian -no-mmx -no-3dnow -no-sse -no-sse2 -opensource -no-qt3support -no-webkit -no-openssl -silent -no-cups -no-opengl
This study investigated the effects of 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (IOX3), a selective small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, on mouse brains subject to transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Male, 8- to 12-week-old C57/B6 mice were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) either immediately or 24 h after receiving IOX3. Mice receiving IOX3 at 20 mg/kg 24 h prior to the MCAO had better neuroscores and smaller blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and infarct volumes than mice receiving the vehicle, whereas those having IOX3 at 60 mg/kg showed no significant changes. IOX3 treatment immediately before MCAO was not neuroprotective. IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α, and increased EPO expression in mouse brains. In an in vitro BBB model (RBE4 cell line), IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α and delocalized ZO-1. Pre-treating IOX3 on RBE4 cells 24 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation had a protective effect on endothelial barrier
This study investigated the effects of 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetic acid (IOX3), a selective small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, on mouse brains subject to transient focal cerebral ischaemia. Male, 8- to 12-week-old C57/B6 mice were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) either immediately or 24 h after receiving IOX3. Mice receiving IOX3 at 20 mg/kg 24 h prior to the MCAO had better neuroscores and smaller blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and infarct volumes than mice receiving the vehicle, whereas those having IOX3 at 60 mg/kg showed no significant changes. IOX3 treatment immediately before MCAO was not neuroprotective. IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α, and increased EPO expression in mouse brains. In an in vitro BBB model (RBE4 cell line), IOX3 up-regulated HIF-1α and delocalized ZO-1. Pre-treating IOX3 on RBE4 cells 24 h before oxygen-glucose deprivation had a protective effect on endothelial barrier ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- The name of the drug is FG-2216, and its designed to stimulate production of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) in dialysis patients. In fact, its the worlds first oral drug for the treatment of kidney disease-related anemia; its a hypoxia inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) that stabilizes the master switch, which normally tells the body to produce EPO in response to low oxygen levels.. Anemia, one of the more common blood disorders, is caused by low production of EPO, which has been assumed to result from damage to the kidney cells that produce EPO.. Our study clearly shows that this may not be the case, and that the kidneys of patients on dialysis retain significant ability to produce erythropoietin, which Wanja M. Bernhardt, MD, Department of Nephrology, University hospital Erlangen, Germany, was quoted as saying. Renal anemia seems to result from disturbed regulation rather than lost production capacity of the hormone.. Treatment with FG-2216 ...
cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid 5445-51-2 MSDS report, cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid MSDS safety technical specifications search, cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylic acid safety information specifications ect.
Organic compounds containing a benzene ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of nucleic acids to benzopyrenes and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered ...
Arogenate dehydratases (ADTs) perform the final step of phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthesis in plants. As one of twenty protein-coding amino acids, Phe is essential in all living organisms, and in plants it is also a precursor ...
Comprehensive supplier list for L-Tyrosine,L-asparaginyl-L-asparaginyl-L-glutaminyl-L-leucyl-L-valyl-L-alanylglycyl-,L-Tyrosine,L-asparaginyl-L-isoleucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-L-alanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-a-glutamyl-L-prolyl-L-glutaminyl-L-isoleucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-tryptophyl-L-isoleucyl-
Researchers have developed an in vitromodel to mimic hemorrhagic stroke using hemin, which induces cell death in various neuronal cell types that is rescued by PHD inhibitors.
In the present study, we tested the possibility that, in addition to HIF-α down-regulation, the functional inactivation of HIF-α also contributes to the YC-1-induced deregulation of hypoxia-induced genes. In brief, YC-1 stimulated FIH binding to HIF-α CAD, which in turn prevented p300 binding to CAD and led to the functional repression of HIF. The mechanisms underlying HIF inhibition by YC-1 are summarized in Supplementary Fig. S2.5. FIH was first identified as a HIF-1α CAD-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening (25), and its function has been extensively investigated. FIH is an enzyme that hydroxylates the Asn803 residue in HIF-1α and which belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily (26, 27). Like other dioxygenases, FIH requires O2, Fe2+, and 2-oxoglutarate for its enzymatic action. Furthermore, the DMOG used in this study is known to inhibit FIH by competing with 2-oxoglutarate (27, 28). The action of FIH and its X-ray crystal structure are well ...
Name: Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid CA Name: 1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid Molecular Structure: Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid,1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid,CAS 605-70-9,216.19,C12H8O4 Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid,1,4-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid,CAS 605-70-9,216.19,C12H8O4 Molecular Formula:C12H8O4 Molecular Weight: 216.19 CAS Registry Number: 605-70-9
Metformin is among the hottest therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus and in addition offers anticancer and antiaging properties. through the administration of metformin and an intraperitoneal shot of lactic acidity. We discovered that the PHD inhibitors considerably increased the manifestation degrees of genes involved with gluconeogenesis in the liver organ as well as the kidney and considerably improved the success of mice with MALA. buy SB-505124 Furthermore, the PHD inhibitor also improved the pace of success of MALA induced in mice with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, PHD represents a fresh therapeutic focus on for MALA, which really is a critical problem of metformin therapy. (erythropoietin [EPO] gene) or (vascular endothelial development element gene) under hypoxia (1). We previously reported that liver-specific inactivation of improved the success price of mice with MALA and in addition acted as a realtor for save from MALA in mice with CKD (CKD mice), which represents a ...
Anti Human Prolyl Hydroxylase 1 Antibody, clone PHD112/G7 , Mouse Anti-Human Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P (ABD12496), Abgent
Visit ChemicalBook To find more 2,6-Dimethyl-D,L-tyrosine(81806-45-3) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of 2,6-Dimethyl-D,L-tyrosine(81806-45-3). At last,2,6-Dimethyl-D,L-tyrosine(81806-45-3) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
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L-Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized by the body. It can be used to regulate mood and stimulate the nervous system. Its a...
Interneurons are critical for proper neural network function and can activate Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes. However, the impact of the interneuron-astrocyte signaling into neuronal network operation remains unknown. Using the simplest hippocampal Astrocyte-Neuron network, i.e., GABAergic interneuron, pyramidal neuron, single CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapse, and astrocytes, we found that interneuron-astrocyte signaling dynamically affected excitatory neurotransmission in an activity- and time-dependent manner, and determined the sign (inhibition vs potentiation) of the GABA-mediated effects. While synaptic inhibition was mediated by GABAA receptors, potentiation involved astrocyte GABAB receptors, astrocytic glutamate release, and presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. Using conditional astrocyte-specific GABAB receptor (Gabbr1) knockout mice, we confirmed the glial source of the interneuron-induced potentiation, and demonstrated the involvement of astrocytes in hippocampal theta and gamma ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Wound healing in tissues and organs is characterized by hypoxia. However, the effect of hypoxia on wound healing is not well understood. On one hand, hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis and tissue remodeling for healing; on the other hand, lack of oxygen may adversely affect parenchymal cells to prevent the repair of the wound. In this study, we have used cell culture models to examine the effect of hypoxia on wound healing in renal tubular cells. The results demonstrate that wound healing is impaired in hypoxic cells. Mechanistically, GSK3β/β-catenin signaling, but not HIF-1, seems to contribute to the wound-healing defect.. A renoprotective role of HIF has been suggested during acute kidney injury. Hill et al. (2008) showed that pharmacological activation of HIF by DMOG protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Weidemann et al. (2008) further showed that hypoxic preconditioning protected renal tubular cells against cisplatin injury by inducing HIF. The preconditioning effect ...
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Vilskersts Reinis; Vigante Brigita; Neidere Zaiga; Krauze Aivars; Domracheva Ilona; Shestakova Irina; Duburs Gunars; Dambrova Maija; Bisenieks Egils; Velena Astrida. 2,6-dimethyl-4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid propyloxyalkyl esters. LV14662, 20.06.2013 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of N1-substituted analogues of (2R,4R)-4-amino-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid as agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. AU - Mukhopadhyaya, Jayanta Kumar. AU - Kozikowski, Alan P.. AU - Grajkowska, Ewa. AU - Pshenichkin, Sergey. AU - Wroblewski, Jarda T.. PY - 2001/7/23. Y1 - 2001/7/23. N2 - The chemical synthesis of a series of N1-substituted derivatives of (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid [(2R,4R)-APDC] as constrained analogues of γ-substituted glutamic acids is described. Appropriate substitution of the N1-position results in agonist, partial agonist, or antagonist activity at mGluR2, mGluR3, and/or mGluR6.. AB - The chemical synthesis of a series of N1-substituted derivatives of (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid [(2R,4R)-APDC] as constrained analogues of γ-substituted glutamic acids is described. Appropriate substitution of the N1-position results in agonist, partial agonist, or ...
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Molbase Encyclopedia provides furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (3238-40-2) basic information, physical and chemical properties, safety information, toxicity, customs data, synthetic routes, maps, MSDS, generation methods and uses, and its upstream and downstream products, find furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid introduction, on the Molbase Encyclopedia!
5-[3-[[[[3-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-oxomethyl]hydrazinylidene]methyl]-2,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolyl]benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid - Ontology Browser - Rat Genome Database
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N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is a cognitive enhancer that has gained notoriety recently as a powerful mind enhancer. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is actually an acetylated form of L-Tyrosine...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 142374-01-4, N-(Butylsulfonyl)-L-tyrosine methyl ester, N-(n-Butylsulfonyl)-L-tyrosine methyl ester, molecular formula: C14H21NO5S.
Disclosed is an optimized process and apparatus for more efficiently and economically producing aromatic discarboxylic acids. The process reduces costs associated with hydrogenation by forming a final composite product containing unhydrogenated acid particles.
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... is one CH 2 unit longer than a related dicarboxylic acid, adipic acid, a precursor to many polyesters and ... Derivatives of pimelic acid are involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid lysine and the vitamin biotin. The biosynthesis ... Like other simple dicarboxylic acids, many methods have been developed for producing pimelic acid. Pimelic acid is produced ... Pimelic acid has been synthesized from cyclohexanone and from salicylic acid. In the former route, the additional carbon is ...
Acid anhydride Acid chloride Amide Amino acid Ester List of carboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acid Polyhydroxy carboxylic acid (PHC ... Carboxylic acids occur widely. Important examples include the amino acids and fatty acids. Deprotonation of a carboxylic acid ... fatty acids (coatings), maleic acid (polymers), propionic acid (food preservative), terephthalic acid (polymers). Important ... Carboxylic acids are decarboxylated in the Hunsdiecker reaction. The Dakin-West reaction converts an amino acid to the ...
... among those dicarboxylic acids play an essential role in many biological behaviors. Many of those acids are amino acids, which ... Fluoroacetic acid Trifluoroacetic acid Chloroacetic acid Dichloroacetic acid Trichloroacetic acid Normal carboxylic acids are ... Examples of strong acids are hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydroiodic acid (HI), hydrobromic acid (HBr), perchloric acid (HClO4), ... Examples in organic acids include formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH) and benzoic acid (C6H5COOH). Polyprotic acids, ...
But "star" branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino ...
EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as ... Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. EAAT3 is expressed on ... Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in ... Excitatory amino acid transporter Glutamate transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106688 - ...
M.-H. Koh et al.: Divergent process for C10, C11, and C12 α-amino acid and α,ω-dicarboxylic acid monomers of polyamides from ... undecylenic acid) is obtained. 4. Hydrobromination of 10-undecenoic acid to 11-bromoundecanoic acid The undecenoic acid is ... 5. Bromine exchange of 11-bromoundecanoic acid to 11-aminoundecanoic acid 11-Bromodecanoic acid is mixed at 30 °C with a large ... 11-Aminoundecanoic acid is a precursor to Nylon-11. As practiced by Arkema, 11-aminoundecanoic acid is prepared industrially ...
While being described in FDA reporting as an amino acid derivative, it is more formally and correctly described as a ... dicarboxylic acid monohydrazide.[citation needed] It is the product of the condensation of succinic acid with 2,2- ... The agent is neither synthesized from, not does it contain as component, any amino acid.[citation needed] Marshall, Eliot (7 ... When consumed by mammals, daminozide (see structure at right) is catabolised into two chemical components, succinic acid (a non ...
"Dipeptides as effective prodrugs of the unnatural amino acid (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740), ... 2-amino)propionyl]aminobicyclo[3.1.0.]hexen-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY544344) in rats and dogs: assessment of first-pass ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268)". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 331 (3): 1126-36. doi:10.1124/jpet.109.160598. PMID 19755662. S2CID ... Amino acids, Eli Lilly and Company brands, MGlu2 receptor agonists, MGlu3 receptor agonists, Cyclopropanes, Cyclopentanes). ...
Amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, All stub articles, Alkene stubs). ... 2-Aminomuconic acid is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan. Muconic acid He Z, Spain J (August 1999). "Preparation ...
Toxic amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Excitotoxins, Isopropenyl compounds). ... Kainic acid, or kainate, is an acid that naturally occurs in some seaweed. Kainic acid is a potent neuroexcitatory amino acid ... Kainic acid is commonly injected into laboratory animal models to study the effects of experimental ablation. Kainic acid is a ... Moloney, Mark G. (1998). "Excitatory amino acids". Natural Product Reports. 15 (2): 205-219. doi:10.1039/a815205y. PMID 9586226 ...
Dicarboxylic acids, Amino acid derivatives, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Secondary amino acids). ... N-methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA ... NMDA is a water-soluble D-alpha-amino acid - an aspartic acid derivative with an N-methyl substituent and D-configuration - ... Watkins, J. C. (November 1962). "The synthesis of some acidic amino acids possessing neuropharmacological activity". Journal of ...
Amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Lactones). ... Stizolobic acid is an amino acid found in the sap epicotyl tips ... alpha-amino-6-carboxy-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-propionic acid, and stizolobic acid, alpha-amino-6-carboxy-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-propionic ... Hattori, S.; Komamine, A. (1959). "Stizolobic Acid: a New Amino-Acid in Stizolobium hassjoo". Nature. 183 (4668): 1116. Bibcode ... Stizolobium hassjoo catalyzes the conversion of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine into stizolobinic acid, ...
Hypermethioninemia Hyperlysinemias Nonketotic hyperglycinemia Propionic acidemia Hyperprolinemia Cystinuria Dicarboxylic ... Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism are metabolic disorders which impair the synthesis and degradation of amino acids. ... Amino acid metabolism disorders, All stub articles, Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disease stubs). ... Alkaptonuria Aspartylglucosaminuria Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase kinase deficiency Methylmalonic acidemia Maple syrup ...
Dicarboxylic acids, Formamides, Secondary amino acids, All stub articles, Molecular biology stubs). ... Penicilloic acid is any of several acids which are obtained from the penicillins by the hydrolytic opening of the lactam ring ( ... The major antigenic determinant of penicillin hypersensitivity is its metabolite, penicilloic acid, which reacts with proteins ...
Amino acid derivatives, Carbamates, Dicarboxylic acids, Orphan drugs, All stub articles, Gastrointestinal system drug stubs). ... Carglumic acid, sold under the brand name Carbaglu among others, is used for the treatment of hyperammonaemia. Carglumic acid ... Carglumic acid is an orphan drug. Carglumic acid is indicated for the treatment of acute hyperammonemia and chronic ... "Carglumic acid". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Portal: Medicine v t e (Drugs with non-standard ...
Amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Non-proteinogenic amino acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... Diaminopimelic acid (DAP) is an amino acid, representing an epsilon-carboxy derivative of lysine. DAP is a characteristic of ... Aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in DAP synthesis Peptidoglycan Pimelic acid Brooks, George H.; Geo F. ...
Acidic amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Alpha hydroxy acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... 3-Hydroxyaspartic acid (three letter abbreviation: Hya) also known as beta-hydroxyaspartic acid is derivative of aspartic acid ... The Hya amino acid residue is sometimes contained in EGF-like domains such as Vitamin K-dependent coagulation plasma proteins ...
Amino acid derivatives, Dicarboxylic acids, Secondary amino acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... N-Methyl-l-glutamic acid (methylglutamate) is a chemical derivative of glutamic acid in which a methyl group has been added to ... It can also be demethylated by methylglutamate dehydrogenase to regenerate glutamic acid. Shaw, WV; Tsai, L; Stadtman, ER (1966 ... Biosynthetically, it is produced from methylamine and glutamic acid by the enzyme methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase. ...
Amino acid derivatives, Biosynthesis, Dicarboxylic acids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... 4-(γ-Glutamylamino)butanoic acid is molecule that consists of L-glutamate conjugated to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is the ...
Dicarboxylic acids, Amidines, Amino acid derivatives). ... semialdehyde Glutamic acid Imidazol-4-one-5-propionic acid ... Formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU; conjugate base, formiminoglutamate) is an intermediate in the catabolism of L-histidine to L- ... It is elevated with folate trapping, where it is accompanied by decreased methylmalonic acid, increased folate and a decrease ... glutamic acid. It thus is also a biomarker for intracellular levels of folate. The FIGLU test is used to identify vitamin B₁₂ ...
Amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Neurotoxins, Toxic amino acids, Plant toxins). ... Further, L. sativus, as a food, is deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids, enhancing the receptor-level effects of ODAP on ... One antioxidant in the neutralizing pathway is glutathione (GSH), whose synthesis requires the sulfur-containing amino acids ... ODAP can be synthesized from L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid and dimethyl oxalate at a pH of 4.5-5. Cupric oxide can be used to ...
Amino acids, Secondary amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... Lanthorn, T.H.; Fagg, G.E. (April 1989). "Gostatin blocks physiological actions and binding of acidic amino acids in rat brain ... Its structure is a dihydro-4-pyridone analog of glutamic acid. ...
Dicarboxylic acids, Amino acids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine. In the eukaryotes, this ... α-Aminoadipic acid is the conjugate acid of α-aminoadipate, the latter of which is the prevalent form at physiological pH. A ... Adipic acid Zabriskie TM, Jackson MD (2000). "Lysine biosynthesis and metabolism in fungi". Natural Product Reports. 17 (1): 85 ...
Amino acids, Conjugated aldehydes, Dicarboxylic acids, Enoic acids, All stub articles, Alkene stubs). ... "Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for 2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic acid semialdehyde (HMDB0001330)". Retrieved ... Quinolinate is a neurotoxin formed nonenzymatically from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic semialdehyde in mammalian tissues. 2-Amino-3- ... 2-Amino-3-carboxymuconic semialdehyde is an intermediate in the metabolism of tryptophan in the tryptophan-niacin catabolic ...
Amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Cyclopropanes, MGlu2 receptor antagonists, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
Amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, MGlu1 receptor agonists, MGlu5 receptor agonists, NMDA receptor agonists, Cyclopentanes, All ... 1-Amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane (ACPD) is a chemical compound that binds to the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), ... Manzoni O, Fagni L, Pin JP, Rassendren F, Poulat F, Sladeczek F, Bockaert J (July 1990). "(trans)-1-amino-cyclopentyl-1,3- ... "1-amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 25 ...
Amino acids, Alpha hydroxy acids, Indoles, Dicarboxylic acids). ...
When prepared from amino-carboxylic acids, e.g. amino acids, the stoichiometry of the polymerization includes co-formation of ... H2O When prepared from diamines and dicarboxylic acids, e.g. the production of nylon 66, the polymerization produces two ... They arise from the reaction of carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Examples include polyesters, e.g. polyethyleneterephthalate: n ... They arise from the reaction of carboxylic acid and an amine. Examples include nylons and proteins. ...
... and molecular modeling of heterobicyclic amino acids related to (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid ( ... 4-amino-2-sulfonylbicyclo[3.1.0]-hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY404039)". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY379268)". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 331 (3): 1126-36. doi:10.1124/jpet.109.160598. PMID 19755662. v t e ( ...
Sulfur amino acids, Thioethers, Amino acid derivatives, Dicarboxylic acids). ... Lanthionine ketimine (3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) is a naturally occurring sulfur amino acid metabolite ... In Sulfur Amino Acids: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects, Alan R. Liss Inc., pp. 355-364 Cavallini, Doriano; Ricci, Giorgio; ... which normally condenses the amino acids homocysteine and serine to form cystathionine. In an alternate pathway, cysteine and ...
... in different amino acids. The last one, which consists of an acetylation in the amino acid lysine in position 472, activates ... which is produced by the peroxisomal beta oxidation of odd chain length dicarboxylic fatty acids (odd chain length DFAs). While ... Another important PTM is the formation of an interchain disulfide bond in the amino acid cysteine in position 206, which may ... Similarly, a deacetylation in this specific amino acid by SIRT4 (a mitochondrial protein) represses the enzyme activity, ...
Hydroxy acids, Alpha-keto acids, Dicarboxylic acids, Cyclohexadienes). ... is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, as well as of a large number of ... Stereochemistry of prephenic acid and an observation on the base-catalyzed rearrangement of prephenic acid to p- ... Prephenic acid is an example of achiral (optically inactive) molecule which has two pseudoasymmetric atoms (i.e. stereogenic ...
Its acetyl-coenzyme A form is the primary input in the citric acid cycle and is obtained from glycolysis, amino acid metabolism ... Benzoyl-CoA Phenylacetyl-CoA Acyl derived from dicarboxylic acids Malonyl-CoA (important in chain elongation in fatty acid ... amino acids, and lipids. When there is excess glucose, coenzyme A is used in the cytosol for synthesis of fatty acids. This ... These bacteria synthesize pantothenate from the amino acid aspartate and a metabolite in valine biosynthesis. In all living ...
... fatty acids (most often oleic acid and stearic acid), dicarboxylic acids) and sometimes amino acids. Some milder fluxes also ... formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and dicarboxylic, e.g. oxalic acid, malonic acid, sebacic acid) There are three types ... A mixture of organic acids (resin acids, predominantly abietic acid, with pimaric acid, isopimaric acid, neoabietic acid, ... phosphoric acid, citric acid, and hydrobromic acid. Salts of mineral acids with amines are also used as aggressive activators. ...
... interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and inhibition of steroidogenesis by an ... as well as to dicarboxylic tetrapyrrole intermediates of the haem biosynthetic pathway. Depending upon the tissue, it was shown ... and have been shown to bind and transport dicarboxylic tetrapyrrole intermediates of the haem biosynthetic pathway. They are ...
Amino acid derivatives, Dicarboxylic acids). ... Finally, the compound was treated with trifluoroacetic acid ( ... Zi-Qiang Gu; Xiao-Fa Lin; Hesson, David P. (1995). "Diastereoselective synthesis of (2S,4R)-4-Methylglutamic acid (sym 2081): A ... TFA) in dichloromethane to produce (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid. Some research has indicated that having the methyl group in ...
A white solid, the compound is a dicarboxylic acid amine (the nitrogen atom forms a secondary amino group, not an imino group ... Iminodiacetic acid is an important intermediate in one of the two main industrial processes used to manufacture the herbicide ... Iminodiacetic acid is the organic compound with the formula HN(CH2CO2H)2, often abbreviated to IDA. ... Several technetium-99m complexes are used in cholescintigraphy scans (also known as hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scans) to ...
... monoacylglycerol esters of dicarboxylic acids, sucrose monoesters of fatty acids, and phospholipids. Polyglycerol monoesters ... Soy protein is also considered a "complete protein" as it contains all of the essential amino acids that are crucial for proper ... Sucrose monoesters are derived from the esterification of sucrose with a fatty acid ester or a fatty acid and it ideally should ... The polymer is created from esterification reactions with fatty acids and contains 14 to 16 carbons per polyglycerol moiety. ...
Amino acid derivatives, Dicarboxylic acids, Guanidines). ... Octopine is a derivative of the amino acids arginine and ... Octopine is formed by reductive condensation of pyruvic acid and arginine through the action of the NADH-dependent enzyme ... Pecten maximus and Sipunculus nudus where it functions as an analog of lactic acid. Plants may also produce this compound after ... octopine dehydrogenase (ODH). The reaction is reversible so that pyruvic acid and arginine can be regenerated. Morizawa, ...
... the monomers are amino acids. Polymerization occurs at ribosomes. Usually about 20 types of amino acid monomers are used to ... the formation of many nylons requires equal amounts of a dicarboxylic acid and diamine. In the case of addition polymerizations ... For polynucleic acids (DNA/RNA), the monomers are nucleotides, each of which is made of a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base and ... to form epoxy BPA is the monomer precursor for polycarbonate Terephthalic acid is a comonomer that, with ethylene glycol, forms ...
June 2006). "Prodrugs of 3-(3,4-dichlorobenzyloxy)-2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (MGS0039): a ... 6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives as potent and selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists". Journal of ... August 2004). "Synthesis, in vitro pharmacology, structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics of 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6- ...
... and L-glutamic acid is more than three times as abundant as its D counterpart. Amino acids from meteorites show a left-handed ... first organisms were self-replicating iron-rich clays which fixed carbon dioxide into oxalic acid and other dicarboxylic acids ... amino acids for protein metabolism, and nucleic acids DNA and RNA for the mechanisms of heredity. Any successful theory of ... "Formation of Amino Acids on the Sonolysis of Aqueous Solutions Containing Acetic Acid, Methane, or Carbon Dioxide, in the ...
Thus the genetic code is a triplet code, where each triplet (called a codon) specifies a particular amino acid. 1961: Sydney ... 1948). "Biosynthesis of Dicarboxylic Acids by Carbon Dioxide Fixation". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 174 (3): 979-1000. doi ... These mutations were used to demonstrate that three sequential bases of the rIIB gene's DNA specify each successive amino acid ... At the time, "yeast nucleic acid" (RNA) was thought to occur only in plants, while "thymus nucleic acid" (DNA) only in animals ...
The HADH gene encodes a 34.3 kDa protein that has 314 amino acids and 124 observed peptides. This gene is a member of the 3- ... There are other clinical presentations that have been identified, namely: myoglobinuria, dicarboxylic aciduria, feeding ... Its enzymatic activity is highest with medium-chain-length fatty acids. Mutations in this gene cause one form of familial ... "Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia caused by a defect in the SCHAD enzyme of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation". Diabetes ...
... (/səkˈsɪnɪk/) is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2. The name derives from Latin ... amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and heme, rely on the temporary formation of succinate. The intermediate is made ... and dicarboxylic acids, it is not harmful but can be an irritant to skin and eyes. Historically, succinic acid was obtained ... Citric acid cycle compounds, Dicarboxylic acids, Excipients, Succinates, E-number additives). ...
2-dicarboxylic acid. Acridine is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. The carbon 9-position ... the resulting o-nitro-p-diaminotriphenylmethane being reduced to the corresponding o-amino compound, which on oxidation yields ... When formic acid is the carboxylic acid, the reaction yields the parent acridine. With the higher larger carboxylic acids, the ... Acridine is separated from coal tar by extracting with dilute sulfuric acid. Addition of potassium dichromate to this solution ...
4-dicarboxylic acid (BDC or terephthalic acid, biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (BPDC), and the tricarboxylic acid trimesic acid ... Thus, the framework-incorporated amino acid can exist in a form that is not accessible for the free amino acid. While the ... These compounds employ amino acids(L- or D-aspartate) together with dipyridyls as struts. The coordination chemistry is such ... The anhydrous version of HKUST-1 is an acid catalyst. Compared to Brønsted vs. Lewis acid-catalyzed pathways, the product ...
The amino group transfer catalyzed by this enzyme is crucial in both amino acid degradation and biosynthesis. In amino acid ... Within each active site, a couple arginine residues are responsible for the enzyme's specificity for dicarboxylic acid ... In E. coli, the enzyme is encoded by the aspCgene and has also been shown to exhibit the activity of an aromatic-amino-acid ... In the first half-reaction, amino acid 1 (e.g., L-Asp) reacts with the enzyme-PLP complex to generate ketoacid 1 (oxaloacetate ...
The active site contains a highly conserved 2-His-1-carboxylate (HXD/E...H) amino acid residue triad motif, in which the ... 4-dicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA), 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline, FG-2216 and FG-4592, which were all designed mimic the co- ... is held by two histidine residues and one aspartic acid/glutamic acid residue. The N2O triad binds to one face of the Fe center ... Sesti C, Simkhovich BZ, Kalvinsh I, Kloner RA (Mar 2006). "Mildronate, a novel fatty acid oxidation inhibitor and antianginal ...
... these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as ... to produce four-carbon dicarboxylic acid precursors. The glyoxylate shunt comprises two enzymes, malate synthase and isocitrate ... Other glucogenic amino acids and all citric acid cycle intermediates (through conversion to oxaloacetate) can also function as ... Amino Acid Degradation and Synthesis". Biochemistry (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & ...
Significant yields of amino, hydroxy, and monocarboxylic acids have been produced by the action of electric discharge on such a ... Apart from the detection of succinic acid3,4,6, no other dicarboxylic acids have been reported in chemical evolution ... Apart from the detection of succinic acid3,4,6, no other dicarboxylic acids have been reported in chemical evolution ... Significant yields of amino, hydroxy, and monocarboxylic acids have been produced by the action of electric discharge on such a ...
The Status of Excitatory Dicarboxylic Amino Acid Uptake Sites in the Cerebral Cortex in Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases. ... Hippocampal Free Amino Acids in Alzheimers Disease. Journal of Neurochemistry 1980, 35(5), 1246-1249. ... Use of post-mortem human synaptosomes for studies of metabolism and transmitter amino acid release. Neuroscience Letters 1982, ... Use of Human Brain to Study AminoAcid Neurotransmitters. Neuroscience 1982, 7, 590-590. ...
Experimental cancer drugs, Dicarboxylic acids, Monoclonal antibodies, Amino acids, Monoclonal antibodies for tumors ... Experimental cancer drugs, Dicarboxylic acids, Monoclonal antibodies, Amino acids, Monoclonal antibodies for tumors ...
Amino Acids [D12.125]. *Amino Acids, Acidic [D12.125.067]. *Glutamates [D12.125.067.625]. *Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic [D12.125. ... Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that ...
... primary acid amides, secondary acid amides, polyamides (nylons) & polypeptides, tertiary acid amides, diazonium salts and azo ... dyes, nitro-aromatics, acid nitriles via displayed formula of molecules, graphic formula, molecular formula, skeletal formula, ... NYLONS are formed by condensing together a dicarboxylic acid and a diamine (nylon-x,y) OR polymerising an amino carboxylic acid ... amino acids molecules, displayed formula of amino acids molecules, shapes of amino acids molecules, isomers of amino acids ...
Amino Acids [D12.125]. *Amino Acids, Diamino [D12.125.095]. *Homocystine [D12.125.095.533]. *Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic [D12.125 ... Complementary effects of multivitamin and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on indices of cardiovascular health in individuals ... ine is associated with increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in the era of folic acid grain fortification. ...
Enhance your subject knowledge were prepared Based on latest Exam Pattern monoamino dicarboxylic acid b. monocarboxylic! To the ... aliphatic amino acids b) all amino acids c) Non-polar amino acids d) aromatic amino acids Online Practice test on. Amino acids ... glucogenic amino acid B. ketogenic amino acid C. ketogenic and glucogenic amino acid D. keto-gluco amino acid. non active amino ... the match in amino acid sequencs is perfect, except for the amino acids at 3 positions. Amino acid X and amino acid Y both have ...
Intestinal bacteria are then able to ferment these substances to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), hydroxy and dicarboxylic ... Carbohydrate metabolism is quantitatively more important than amino acid fermentation in the human large intestine, ... Short-chain fatty acids feature a regulatory function in the cell metabolism of fatty acids, glucose and cholesterol in various ... Acidification to pH 5.0 or less, with hydrochloric acid or a lactic-acetic acid mixture, significantly reduced ammonia ...
All three mutations, i.e. W140H, I17H and V37--H, decreased the aminotransferase activity toward aromatic amino acids by ... 10-100-fold, while decreasing the activity toward dicarboxylic substrates only moderately to 20%, 20% and 60% of the activity ... MALEIC ACID. C4 H4 O4. VZCYOOQTPOCHFL-UPHRSURJSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... the quinonoid enzyme substrate intermediate indicates that H140 might assist in the reprotonation of C alpha of the amino acid ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers many products related to excitatory amino acid transporters for your research needs. ... trans-2,3-PDC: L-trans-Pyrrolidine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid. trans-2,4-PDC: L-trans-Pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid. trans-ACPD: ... WAY-855: 3-Amino-tricyclo[]heptane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ... Nieoullon A, Canolle B, Masmejean F, Guillet B, Pisano P, Lortet S. 2006. The neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter EAAC1/ ...
... another dicarboxylic nonessential amino acid, to all intents ubiquitous in the compassionate fullness, but influentially concen ... rearrangement nitrenium intermediatearistolochic acid I and II (AI: R = H, AII: --OCH3) N6-AA-dA adduct (mutagenic) N2-AA-dG ...
... at amino acid position 363. The gene from Y. pestis KIM possesses a unique second transversion (G·C→T·A) at amino acid 146 ... provided that the amino acid substitution at position 146 was also reversed. These observations have important implications for ... structures as well as comparable Michaelis constants for l-aspartic acid. However, the k cat of the Y. pestis CRIM of strain ... causing substitution of aspartic acid (encoded by GAU) with tyrosine (encoded by UAU). We show in this study that Y. pestis ...
Dicarboxylic amino acid (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Dicarboxylic amino acid (substance). ...
Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic Entry term(s). Acids, Dicarboxylic Amino Dicarboxylic Amino Acids ... Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic - Preferred Concept UI. M0000926. Preferred term. ... Acids, Dicarboxylic Amino. Dicarboxylic Amino Acids. Tree number(s):. D12.125.119. RDF Unique Identifier:. https://id.nlm.nih. ... Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic Descriptor Spanish: Aminoácidos Dicarboxílicos Spanish from Spain Descriptor. aminoácidos ...
2. Dicarboxylic amino acid permease. General function:. Involved in transport. Specific function:. Can transport glutamate, ... belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is ... Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G) is an alpha-amino acid. It is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building ... It is the smallest, simplest amino acid as it lacks any side chain or chirality. It is generally considered a polar amino acid ...
2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, Glutamate receptor antagonism, Organotypic tissue culture, cis-2,3-Piperidine dicarboxylic ... Ross, S. M., Seelig, M., & Spencer, P. S. (1987). Specific antagonism of excitotoxic action of uncommon amino acids assayed ... Ross, Stephen M. ; Seelig, Mary ; Spencer, Peter S. / Specific antagonism of excitotoxic action of uncommon amino acids ... β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and β-N-oxalylamino-l-alanine (BOAA) are chemically related excitant amino acids present in ...
Glutamate is a dicarboxylic amino acid negatively charged at physiologic pH, synthetized during the enzyme known as phosphate- ... What Are Omega-3 Oleaginous Acids [url=]buy tadalis sx 20 mg lowest ...
Abstract: A process for producing a 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6-fluoro bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivative represented ... Abstract: A process for producing a 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6-fluoro bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivative represented ... Abstract: A process for producing a 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6-fluoro bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivative represented ... Abstract: The present invention relates to 2-amino-6-fluorobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives ...
... diamine sulfonic acids, e.g., 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-ethanesulfonic acid; etc. Other types of polyester-polyurethanes can also ... C4 to C10 alkyl dicarboxylic acids, e.g., adipic acid; C4 to C10 alkyl diisocyanates, e.g., hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI); ... diamine sulfonic acids, e.g., 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-ethanesulfonic acid; etc. Alternatively, the polyester-polyurethane ... U42 or other similar aromatic polyester-polyurethane binders can include aromatic dicarboxylic acids, e.g., phthalic acid; C4 ...
Like other cyclic acid anhydrides, succinic anhydride is readily hydrolyzed to a dicarboxylic acid (WHO, 2009). Dicarboxylic ... Succinic anhydride is an acylating agent which reacts with N-terminal amino acids and consequently falls within a chemical ... acid anhydrides like (phthalic acid, hexahydrophthalic acid, trimellitic acid, methyl tetrahydrophthalic acid) are irritants to ... Effects of cyclic acid anhydride administration on humans In humans, cyclic acid anhydrides can cause irritation and ...
Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 03; 96(16):8835-8. Glavin DP, Bada JL, Brinton ... hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids. Adv Space Res. 1984; 4(12):69-74. Peltzer ET, Bada JL, Schlesinger G, Miller SL. PMID: 11537797 ... Amino acids in the Tagish meteorite. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 09 15; 117(37):22649. Bada JL. PMID: 32913062; PMCID: ... Amino acid racemization and the preservation of ancient DNA. Science. 1996 May 10; 272(5263):864-6. Poinar HN, Höss M, Bada JL ...
Aspartic Acid [D12.125.067.500]. *Isoaspartic Acid [D12.125.067.500.275]. *Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic [D12.125.119] ... An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha- ... "Isoaspartic Acid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Isoaspartic Acid" by people in this website by year, and ...
Aspartic Acid [D12.125.067.500]. *N-Methylaspartate [D12.125.067.500.400]. *Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic [D12.125.119] ... An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, ...
Dicarboxylic amino acid permease (4) * Aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] 2 (4) * Sulfate adenylyltransferase (4) ... cis,cis-2-amino-3-(3-oxoprop-1-enyl)but-2-enedioic acid (97) ... General amino acid permease AGP1 (4) * 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase ... Nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (4) * Ubiquinone biosynthesis O-methyltransferase, ... 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (108) ... S)-dihydroorotic acid (74) * UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine ( ...
Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Vinylogous amides / Enoate esters / Methyl esters / Amino acids and derivatives / ... Carboxylic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid ester / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acid ... Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester / Amine / Amino acid or derivatives / ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [Article] *Araie M, Mayama C: Use of calcium channel blockers for glaucoma. Prog ...
3-dicarboxylic acid manufacturers and suppliers in China, we warmly welcome you to wholesale chiral compounds at low price from ... 1-Amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane (ACPD) is a chemical compound that binds to the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), ... 1-AMINOCYCLOPENTANE-CIS-1,3-DICARBOXYLIC ACID. Get Latest Price > FOB Price contact us for price ... Hot tags: (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-cis-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, China, manufacturers, suppliers, factory, wholesale, low price, ...
Amino Acids [D12.125]. *Amino Acids, Diamino [D12.125.095]. *Homocystine [D12.125.095.533]. *Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic [D12.125 ... Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products. CMAJ. ...
... the glomeruli filter all amino acids out of the blood, and the renal tubules then reabsorb over 95% of the filtered amino acids ... In dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, there are no apparent clinical features and hence no recommended therapy. ... Aminoaciduria is a test that screens for increased levels of amino acid excretion in the urine which may indicate inborn errors ... Aminoaciduria occurs when the urine contains abnormally high amounts of amino acids. In the healthy kidney, ...
  • A plausible simultaneous synthesis of amino acids and simple peptides on the primordial Earth. (
  • The complex formation equilibria of Pd(amine)2+ complexes with amino acids, peptides, dicarboxylic acids and DNA constituents, were extensively investigated. (
  • It is established that cells of Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of bubonic plague, excrete l -aspartic acid at the expense of exogenous l -glutamic acid during expression of the low-calcium response. (
  • The gene from Y. pestis KIM possesses a unique second transversion (G·C→T·A) at amino acid 146 causing substitution of aspartic acid (encoded by GAU) with tyrosine (encoded by UAU). (
  • After purification to near homogeneity, the products were subjected to biochemical analysis and found to exhibit similar secondary, tertiary and quaternary (tetrameric) structures as well as comparable Michaelis constants for l -aspartic acid. (
  • Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere? (
  • An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha-carboxyl group, polypeptide linkage. (
  • It is a result of the spontaneous decomposition of aspartic acid or ASPARAGINE residues. (
  • a) aliphatic amino acids b) all amino acids c) Non-polar amino acids d) aromatic amino acids Online Practice test on. (
  • W140-->H, I17-->H and V37--H, decreased the aminotransferase activity toward aromatic amino acids by 10-100-fold, while decreasing the activity toward dicarboxylic substrates only moderately to 20%, 20% and 60% of the activity of the wild-type enzymes, respectively. (
  • 6. Isaev SG Synthesis, reactivity and biological activity of ortho-halogenbenzoic, aromatic amino acids and acridine: Abstract. (
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. (
  • 8. Levitin EY Synthesis and biological activity of halogenbenzoic acid derivatives and acridines created on their basis: Abstract. (
  • The facultative methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 has previously been genetically engineered to overproduce the amino acids L -lysine and L -glutamate and their derivatives cadaverine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from methanol at 50°C. We here explored the potential of utilizing the sugar alcohol mannitol and seaweed extract (SWE) containing mannitol, as alternative feedstocks for production of chemicals by fermentation using B. methanolicus . (
  • Quantitation of α-hydroxy acids in complex prebiotic mixtures via liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. (
  • Lactic acid bacteria, including Lactobacillus plantarum , have a specific polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation metabolism that generates multiple fatty acid species, such as hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and trans -fatty acids. (
  • A variety of other dicarboxylic acids and hydroxy acids and amino acids were found in elevated amounts in body fluids, along with elevated concentrations of butyric, isobutyric, 2-methylbutyric, and isovaleric acids. (
  • were prepared based on … Carboxylic group provides an acidic property to the amino acid while amino group gives it … Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. (
  • The carbon has an amino group, carboxylic group, hydrogen and variable R group. (
  • Definition: Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. (
  • Carboxylic acids are Brønsted-Lowry acids and are proton donors. (
  • Salts and anions of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates. (
  • The simplest series of carboxylic acids are the alkanoic acids, R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. (
  • Compounds may also have two or more carboxylic acid groups per molecule. (
  • Further, the calculated ∆ pKa values clearly demonstrate that 2A4M6MP is a good salt former when combined with carboxylic acids. (
  • The title compound was synthesized by the reaction of 1:1 stoichiometric mixture of 2-amino 4-methoxy 6-methyl pyrimidine (34.79 mg, 0.25 mmol) with 4-amino salicylic acid (38.28 mg, 0.25 mmol) or 5-chlorosalicylic acid (43.14 mg, 0.25 mmol) in 20ml of hot methanol solution, after warming a few minutes over a water bath for 30 min. (
  • CBSE AIPMT 2014) A. glucogenic amino acid B. ketogenic amino acid C. ketogenic and glucogenic amino acid D. keto-gluco amino acid. (
  • Glycine is classified as a glucogenic amino acid, since it can be converted to serine by serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and serine can be converted back to the glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate or to pyruvate by serine/threonine dehydratase. (
  • However, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is not able to use tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates such as succinate, fumarate, and L-malate as sole carbon sources. (
  • In addition to the transport of L-glutamate, a number of other naturally occurring excitatory amino acids, including L-aspartate, L-cysteine sulfinate and L-cysteate, are known substrates of these transporter proteins. (
  • It is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. (
  • 22) Consider all possible tripeptides made of the amino acids tyrosine, histidine and proline. (
  • Amino acids in a polypeptide Nucleic acids in a nucleotide Answer- Nucleic acids in a nucleotide Q10) Which one of the following is a non-reducing carbohydrate? (
  • Folate functions as a coenzyme in single-carbon transfers in the metabolism of nucleic and amino acids and is therefore especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth, such as occurs during infancy and pregnancy. (
  • Apart from the detection of succinic acid 3,4,6 , no other dicarboxylic acids have been reported in chemical evolution experiments. (
  • The cyclic anhydrides used in the read-across approach generally demonstrate structural similarities with succinic anhydride and maleic anhydride in particular is a close structural analogue of succinic acid only differing in a double bond at position 2 of the molecule. (
  • β-alanine is naturally occurring β-amino acid (amino group is at the β position not in the α position) 7. (
  • B12 functions as a coenzyme for a critical methyl transfer reaction that converts homocysteine to methionine and for a separate reaction that converts L-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Homocysteine (Hcy) is an amino acid naturally found in the blood. (
  • Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a dicarboxylic acid naturally found in the blood. (
  • Here, we investigated the ligand activity of lactic acid bacteria-produced fatty acids in relation to nuclear hormone receptors expressed in the small intestine. (
  • Organic acid analysis revealed massive lactic aciduria and glutaric aciduria. (
  • Read Online Amino Acid Metabolism Mcqs And Answers Multiple Choice Questions- Amino acid and protein chemistry 1-A mutation has changed an isoleucine residue of a protein to Glutamic acid, which statement best describes its location in a endobj Biology MCQs for Class 12 Chapter Wise with Answers PDF Download was Prepared Based on Latest Exam Pattern. (
  • A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. (
  • non active amino acid a. (
  • They are designed to covalently bind the catalytically active amino acids through electrophilic groups called warheads. (
  • Aminoaciduria is a test that screens for increased levels of amino acid excretion in the urine which may indicate inborn errors of metabolism caused by a specific enzyme deficiency. (
  • Research has shown that myocardial metabolism is altered in cardiac disease, leading to a reduction in β-oxidation of fatty acids and an increased dependence upon glycolysis. (
  • The topic of this review is the key end products of colonic fermentation, the SCFA butyric, acetic, and propionic acids. (
  • of colonic fermentation, the SCF A butyric, acetic, and propionic acids. (
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. (
  • In nature, marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms are protected from harmful UVR through several important photoprotective mechanisms, including the synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). (
  • Eleven compounds have been identified that are up regulated in the ID cohort, three of which are previously reported namely Dopamine, Glutarylglycine and Suberic acid. (
  • Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G) is an alpha-amino acid. (
  • In the third pathway, glycine is converted to glyoxylate by D-amino acid oxidase. (
  • Iminodiacetic acid, HN(CH2CO2H)2, often abbreviated to IDA, is an amino dicarboxylic acid that is glycine in which one of the hydrogens attached to the nitrogen is substituted by a carboxymethyl group. (
  • Equilibrium studies of the binary and ternary complexes involving oxytetracycline and amino acid or DNA constituents. (
  • The ∆ pKa values for both base-acid complexes (I & II) were calculated to confirm the formation of molecular salts. (
  • The only known distinction between most sequenced isolates of aspA from Y. pestis and the active gene in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (the immediate progenitor of Y. pestis ) is a single base transversion (G·C→T·A) causing replacement of leucine (encoded by UUG) for valine (encoded by GUG) at amino acid position 363. (
  • Return of valine for leucine at position 363 of the Y. pestis enzyme restored normal turnover ( k cat 86±2 s −1 ) provided that the amino acid substitution at position 146 was also reversed. (
  • The subtypes EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 are the human homologs of the transporter clones initially isolated from non-human species designated as GLAST (GLutamate/ASpartate Transporter), GLT-1 (GLutamate Transporter) and EAAC1 (Excitatory Amino Acid Carrier), respectively. (
  • BMAA-induced cellular changes were antagonized selectively in a concentration-dependent manner by 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate-receptor antagonist. (
  • Cephalopod vision involves dicarboxylic amino acids: D-aspartate, L-aspartate and L-glutamate. (
  • β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and β-N-oxalylamino-l-alanine (BOAA) are chemically related excitant amino acids present in the seeds of Cycas circinalis and Lathyrus sativus, respectively. (
  • colon cancer , life style, nutrition, short chain fatty acids. (
  • Amino acids can be assorted on the basis of the general chemical characteristics of their R w h freeman publishers biochemistry macmillan learning. (
  • Biology MCQ-06: Biochemistry: Amino Acids: Part 2 for JRF/NET Life Science Examination Biochemistry MCQ - 06 MCQ on Amino Acids - Part 2 (1). (
  • Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products. (
  • It is estimated that approximately 70% of ATP is produced as a result of fatty acid (FA) oxidation and alternative substrates, predominantly pyruvate, account for the remainder (Stanley et al. (
  • b) The requirement for dietary protein is for individual amino acids, not simply the total amount of protein in the diet. (
  • The function of this protein is to transport certain amino acids into cells. (
  • The roles of bile acids and their receptors, such as the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, on the development of NASH are not fully clear. (
  • Synthesis of 4-bromo- and 4,6-dibromo-2-carboxysuccinalic acids anilides has been carried out and their physico-chemical properties have been studied. (
  • Low vitamin B6 but not homocyst(e)ine is associated with increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in the era of folic acid grain fortification. (
  • Improved fermentative production of gamma-aminobutyric acid via the putrescine route: Systems metabolic engineering for production from glucose, amino sugars, and xylose. (
  • A process for producing a 3-alkoxy-2-amino-6-fluoro bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivative represented by the formula (I) or a salt thereof, which includes converting a compound represented by the formula (VI) or a salt thereof to the compound represented by the formula (I) or a salt thereof. (
  • Production of Food and Feed Additives From Non-food-competing Feedstocks: Valorizing N-acetylmuramic Acid for Amino Acid and Carotenoid Fermentation With Corynebacterium glutamicum. (
  • Efficient Production of the Dicarboxylic Acid Glutarate by Corynebacterium glutamicum via a Novel Synthetic Pathway. (
  • Recombinant strains of the mesophilic bacteria Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum are used for production of biofuels, chemicals and amino acids. (
  • A model of the structure of the quinonoid enzyme substrate intermediate indicates that H140 might assist in the reprotonation of C alpha of the amino acid substrate from the re side of the deprotonated coenzyme-substrate adduct in competition with si-side reprotonation by K258. (
  • It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. (
  • The dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, may play important roles in vision. (
  • The title salts, namely, 2-amino 4-methoxy 6-methyl pyrimidinium 4-amino salicylate (2A4M6MP-4AMSA) (I), and 2-amino 4-methoxy 6-methyl pyrimidinium 5-chloro salicylate (2A4M6MP-5ClSA) (II), have been investigated in order to study the hydrogen bonding patterns and supramolecular architectures in the crystalline state. (
  • These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). (
  • It is the smallest, simplest amino acid as it lacks any side chain or chirality. (
  • Complementary effects of multivitamin and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on indices of cardiovascular health in individuals with elevated homocysteine. (
  • In the healthy kidney, the glomeruli filter all amino acids out of the blood, and the renal tubules then reabsorb over 95% of the filtered amino acids back into the blood. (
  • We report that the acute neuronotoxic actions of these amino acids are blocked selectively by specific glutamate receptor antagonists. (
  • Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure. (
  • Aminoaciduria occurs when the urine contains abnormally high amounts of amino acids. (
  • The proton transfer (PT) complex of 2-amino 4-methoxy 6-methyl pyrimidinium (2A4M6MP) 4-aminosalicylate (4AMSA), C 6 H 10 ON 3 + C 7 H 6 NO 3 − , (I), and 5-chlorosalicylate (5ClSA), C 6 H 10 ON 3 + C 7 H 4 O 3 Cl − (II) were synthesized and crystallized. (
  • Read- across is justified because a common feature of cyclic anhydride is that they readily hydrolyse to their corresponding dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions. (
  • Hence, they have been termed excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). (
  • 1991). Thus, CDC and the U.S. Public Health Service have recommended that every woman who could become pregnant consume at least 400 micrograms (µg) of folic acid each day (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1992). (