Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found in dairy products or in the intestinal tracts of animals.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A genus of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic BACTERIA, in the family Cellulomonadaceae. It is found in the SOIL and capable of hydrolyzing CELLULOSE.
A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of bacteria ranging from free living and saprophytic to parasitic and pathogenic forms.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Disaccharides as a new class of nonaccumulated osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti. (1/227)

Sucrose and ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidine carboxylic acid) are very unusual osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti because these compounds, unlike other bacterial osmoprotectants, do not accumulate as cytosolic osmolytes in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells. Here, we show that, in fact, sucrose and ectoine belong to a new family of nonaccumulated sinorhizobial osmoprotectants which also comprises the following six disaccharides: trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, turanose, and palatinose. Also, several of these disaccharides were very effective exogenous osmoprotectants for strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars phaseoli and trifolii. Sucrose and trehalose are synthesized as endogenous osmolytes in various bacteria, but the other five disaccharides had never been implicated before in osmoregulation in any organism. All of the disaccharides that acted as powerful osmoprotectants in S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum also acted as very effective competitors of [14C]sucrose uptake in salt-stressed cultures of these bacteria. Conversely, disaccharides that were not osmoprotective for S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum did not inhibit sucrose uptake in these bacteria. Hence, disaccharide osmoprotectants apparently shared the same uptake routes in these bacteria. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantification of cytosolic solutes demonstrated that the novel disaccharide osmoprotectants were not accumulated to osmotically significant levels in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells; rather, these compounds, like sucrose and ectoine, were catabolized during early exponential growth, and contributed indirectly to enhance the cytosolic levels of two endogenously synthesized osmolytes, glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide. The ecological implication of the use of these disaccharides as osmoprotectants is discussed.  (+info)

Role of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate as an enzyme stabilizer and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydroxyectoine. (2/227)

Strain CHR63 is a salt-sensitive mutant of the moderately halophilic wild-type strain Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 that is affected in the ectoine synthase gene (ectC). This strain accumulates large amounts of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate (NADA), the precursor of ectoine (D. Canovas, C. Vargas, F. Iglesias-Guerra, L. N. Csonka, D. Rhodes, A. Ventosa, and J. J. Nieto, J. Biol. Chem. 272:25794-25801, 1997). Hydroxyectoine, ectoine, and glucosylglycerate were also identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as cytoplasmic organic solutes in this mutant. Accumulation of NADA, hydroxyectoine, and ectoine was osmoregulated, whereas the levels of glucosylglycerate decreased at higher salinities. The effect of the growth stage on the accumulation of solutes was also investigated. NADA was purified from strain CHR63 and was shown to protect the thermolabile enzyme rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase against thermal inactivation. The stabilizing effect of NADA was greater than the stabilizing effect of ectoine or potassium diaminobutyrate. A (1)H NMR analysis of the solutes accumulated by the wild-type strain and mutants CHR62 (ectA::Tn1732) and CHR63 (ectC::Tn1732) indicated that H. elongata can synthesize hydroxyectoine by two different pathways-directly from ectoine or via an alternative pathway that converts NADA into hydroxyectoine without the involvement of ectoine.  (+info)

A cycle of deprotonation and reprotonation energizing amino-acid transport? (3/227)

Although lowering the pK2 of neutral amino acids only weakens their concentrative uptake by Ehrlich cells, the same change greatly enhances uptake of diamino acids. This effect does not arise merely from putting the distal amino group in its uncharged form, but depends on an enhanced deprotonation of the alpha-amino group. Parallel effects are seen for the transport system for basic amino acids, for which the assignment of pK values within the membrane is less ambiguous. To explain the paradoxical advantages of having the alpha-amino group protonated yet readily deprotonated, we propose that a proton withdrawn from that group is pumped over an intramembrane interval to energize amino-acid transport.  (+info)

The contribution of a conformationally mobile, active site loop to the reaction catalyzed by glutamate semialdehyde aminomutase. (4/227)

The behavior of glutamate semialdehyde aminomutase, the enzyme that produces 4-aminolevulinate for tetrapyrrole synthesis in plants and bacteria, is markedly affected by the extent to which the central intermediate in the reaction, 4,5-diaminovalerate, is allowed to dissociate. The kinetic properties of the wild-type enzyme are compared with those of a mutant form in which a flexible loop, that reversibly plugs the entrance to the active site, has been deleted by site-directed mutagenesis. The deletion has three effects. The dissociation constant for diaminovalerate is increased approximately 100-fold. The catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, measured as k(cat)/K(m) in the presence of saturating concentrations of diaminovalerate, is lowered 30-fold to 2.1 mM(-1) s(-1). During the course of the reaction, which begins with the enzyme in its pyridoxamine form, the mutant enzyme undergoes absorbance changes not seen with the wild-type enzyme under the same conditions. These are proposed to be due to abortive complex formation between the pyridoxal form of the enzyme (formed by dissociation of diaminovalerate) and glutamate semialdehyde itself.  (+info)

Purified NS2B/NS3 serine protease of dengue virus type 2 exhibits cofactor NS2B dependence for cleavage of substrates with dibasic amino acids in vitro. (5/227)

Dengue virus type 2 NS3, a multifunctional protein, has a serine protease domain (NS3pro) that requires the conserved hydrophilic domain of NS2B for protease activity in cleavage of the polyprotein precursor at sites following two basic amino acids. In this study, we report the expression of the NS2B-NS3pro precursor in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a histidine tag at the N terminus. The precursor was purified from insoluble inclusion bodies by Ni(2+) affinity and gel filtration chromatography under denaturing conditions. The denatured precursor was refolded to yield a purified active protease complex. Biochemical analysis of the protease revealed that its activity toward either a natural substrate, NS4B-NS5 precursor, or the fluorogenic peptide substrates containing two basic residues at P1 and P2, was dependent on the presence of the NS2B domain. The peptide with a highly conserved Gly residue at P3 position was 3-fold more active as a substrate than a Gln residue at this position. The cleavage of a chromogenic substrate with a single Arg residue at P1 was NS2B-independent. These results suggest that heterodimerization of the NS3pro domain with NS2B generates additional specific interactions with the P2 and P3 residues of the substrates.  (+info)

Ectoine, the compatible solute of Halomonas elongata, confers hyperosmotic tolerance in cultured tobacco cells. (6/227)

1,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid (ectoine) functions as a compatible osmolyte in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata OUT30018. Ectoine is biosynthesized by three successive enzyme reactions from aspartic beta-semialdehyde. The genes encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis, ectA, ectB, and ectC, encoding L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase, L-2, 4-diaminobutyric acid transaminase, and L-ectoine synthase, respectively, have been previously cloned. To investigate the function of ectoine as a compatible solute in plant cells, the three genes were individually placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced together into cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) cells. The transgenic BY2 cells accumulated a small quantity of ectoine (14-79 nmol g(-1) fresh weight) and showed increased tolerance to hyperosmotic shock (900 mOsm). Furthermore, the transgenic BY2 cells exhibited a normal growth pattern even under hyperosmotic conditions (up to 530 mOsm), in which the growth of the untransformed BY2 (wild type) cells was obviously delayed. These results suggest that genetically engineered synthesis of ectoine results in the increased hyperosmotic tolerance of cultured tobacco BY2 cells despite the low level of accumulation of the solute.  (+info)

SH3 domain recognition of a proline-independent tyrosine-based RKxxYxxY motif in immune cell adaptor SKAP55. (7/227)

Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains recognize PXXP core motif preceded or followed by positively charged residue(s). Whether SH3 domains recognize motifs other than proline-based sequences is unclear. In this study, we report SH3 domain binding to a novel proline-independent motif in immune cell adaptor SKAP55, which is comprised of two N-terminal lysine and arginine residues followed by two tyrosines (i.e. RKxxYxxY). Domains capable of binding to class I proline motifs bound to the motif, while the class II domains failed to bind. Peptide precipitation, alanine scanning and in vivo co-expression studies demonstrated a requirement for the arginine, lysine and tandem tyrosines of the motif. Two-dimensional NMR analysis of the peptide bound FYN-SH3 domain showed overlap with the binding site of a proline-rich peptide on the charged surface of the SH3 domain, while resonance signals for other residues (W119, W120, Y137) were not perturbed by the RKGDYASY based peptide. Expression of the RKGDYASY peptide potently inhibited TcRzeta/CD3-mediated NF-AT transcription in T cells. Our findings extend the repertoire of SH3 domain binding motifs to include a tyrosine-based motif and demonstrate a regulatory role for this motif in receptor signaling.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein E;-low density lipoprotein receptor interaction. Influences of basic residue and amphipathic alpha-helix organization in the ligand. (8/227)

Conserved lysines and arginines within amino acids 140-150 of apolipoprotein (apo) E are crucial for the interaction between apoE and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). To explore the roles of amphipathic alpha-helix and basic residue organization in the binding process, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on the 22-kDa fragment of apoE (amino acids 1-191). Exchange of lysine and arginine at positions 143, 146, and 147 demonstrated that a positive charge rather than a specific basic residue is required at these positions. Consistent with this finding, substitution of neutral amino acids for the lysines at positions 143 and 146 reduced the binding affinity to about 30% of the wild-type value. This reduction corresponds to a decrease in free energy of binding of approximately 600 cal/mol, consistent with the elimination of a hydrogen-bonded ion pair (salt bridge) between a lysine on apoE and an acidic residue on the LDLR. Binding activity was similarly reduced when K143 and K146 were both mutated to arginine (K143R + K146R), indicating that more than the side-chain positive charge can be important.Exchanging lysines and leucines indicated that the amphipathic alpha-helical structure of amino acids 140-150 is critical for normal binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor.  (+info)

There is mounting evidence to suggest that environmental factors play a major role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). The non-protein amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) was first associated with the high incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in Guam, and has been implicated as a potential environmental factor in ALS, Alzheimers disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. BMAA has a number of toxic effects on motor neurons including direct agonist action on NMDA and AMPA receptors, induction of oxidative stress, and depletion of glutathione. As a non-protein amino acid, there is also the strong possibility that BMAA could cause intraneuronal protein misfolding, the hallmark of neurodegeneration. While an animal model for BMAA-induced ALS is lacking, there is substantial evidence to support a link between this toxin and ALS. The ramifications of discovering an environmental trigger for ALS
I am taking an algae supplement for omega-3 (per Dr. Gregers advice a couple months ago) - should I stop since he said blue green algae was a source? How can I find out the BMAA risk?
USA] Over the last decade the amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has come under intense scrutiny. International laboratory and epidemiological research continues to support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to BMAA (e.g., through dietary practices, water supply) can promote the risk of various neurodegenerative diseases.. A wide variety of cyanobacteria spp. have previously been reported to produce BMAA, with production levels dependent upon species, strain and environmental conditions. Since spirulina (Arthrospira spp.) is a member of the cyanobacteria phylum frequently consumed via dietary supplements, the presence of BMAA in such products may have public health implications.. In the current work, the authors analyzed ten Spirulina-containing samples for the presence of BMAA; six pure Spirulina samples from two separate raw materials suppliers, and four commercially-available multi-ingredient products containing 1.45 g of spirulina per 8.5 g serving. Because of controversy ...
Cox, P.A., Banack, S.A., Murch, S.J., Rasmussen, U., Tien, G., Bigidare, R.R., Metcalfe, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Codd, G.A. & Bergman, B. (2005) Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 5074-5078 ...
ecta represents the interests of companies operating as competitors in one or more European markets. ecta members (Members) agree to abide by the principle that they will not obstruct the approval of any work programs, actions or documents on the basis of interests which do not reflect those of competitive operators. This does not prevent Members from expressing differing views based on the particular competitive activities they undertake.. The Regulatory Forum. ecta membership has direct impact.. The Regulatory Forum (Forum) is the high-level decision-making body on ectas regulatory and public policy. The Forum is open to all Members pursuant to the membership scheme in force. Members wishing to participate to the Forum may do so by registering their interest with the ecta Secretariat (the Secretariat), who will circulate an updated list of participants ahead of each meeting. The Forum is chaired by the ecta Director General.. The Forum is competent to decide on: a) approving the ...
The non-protein amino acid β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin present in microalgae and shown to accumulate in the food web. BMAA has been linked to the complex neurodegenerative disorder of Guam and to increased incidents sporadic ALS. Two main neurotoxic routes are suggested; an excitotoxic by acting as an agonist towards glutamate receptors and a metabolic by misincorporating into cellular proteins. We have used zebrafish, an increasingly used model for neurodegenerative diseases, to further identify signaling components involved in BMAA-induced toxicity. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to sub-lethal dosages of BMAA and a label-free proteomics analysis was conducted on larvae 4 days post fertilization. The exposed larvae showed no developmental abnormalities, but a reduced heart rate and increased expression of GSK3 isoforms. Search towards a reviewed database containing 2968 entries identified 480 proteins. Only 17 of these were regulated 2-fold or more in the exposed larvae. ...
Supporting Three Key Aspects of Mens Sexual Health By Corey B. Schuler, MS, DC, CNS A focus on sexual health and function becomes important for men at different seasons of life and for different reasons. Sexual performance requires proper circulation, hormone health, and desire. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid involved in many biochemical pathways in the human body. It is involved in immune function, ammonia metabolism, and the secretion of hormones. Arginine is used to make nitric oxide (NO) in the body, a molecule that works on blood flow in the cardiovascular system by controlling the relaxation of blood vessels. Thats not all arginine can do; this amino acid is needed to support numerous bodily functions beyond blood flow.*1 Citrulline is another amino acid, found most commonly in the juice of the watermelon.2 Since it is a non-protein amino acid, scientists used to think of it only as an intermediate metabolite, for example, in the formation of urea.3,4 But, newer research
Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. More than 300 amino acids are found in nature but only 20 amino acids are standard and present in protein because they are coded by genes. Other amino acids are modified aminoacids and called non-protein amino acids.
Beta Alanine is suitable for anyone who needs explosive power or strength training. Most pre-workout supplements use this ingredient but in a smaller quantitie than a dose of this beta alanine. In this dose, it works not only as a stimulant, but also as fat burner. It also helps in endurance disciplines. Increasing the carnitine concentration in the muscle results in improved performance and prevents the formation of lactic acid (less muscle fever). That is why its very popular among professionals.. Beta alanine delays fatigue, improves endurance, improves muscle strength and performance in any sport. Beta alanine is a non-essential amino acid which can be naturally found in the spectrum of the beta amino acids and together with L-histidine it helps to create carnosine. It is a non-protein amino acid that is not often found in our diet. Beta alanine has been gaining popularity recently and there are more and more studies showing its positive impact on athletes performance. Its been shown to ...
An amino acid-mineral complex, magnesium taurate is formed by chemically bonding the mineral magnesium with the amino acid L-taurine. This water-soluble complex is highly bioavailable and preferred for those looking to support cardiovascular wellness.** Low levels of magnesium are commonly found in the elderly and in premenstrual women, and both groups of people can benefit from taking magnesium supplements.**. Magnesium is an essential mineral with a primary role in enzyme activation; in fact, magnesium is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions within the body!** It also plays a role in energy production, which is why it is so readily found in the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys.** About 60% of the bodys supply of magnesium is found in the bones, 26% in the muscle, and the rest in soft tissues and bodily fluids. It is naturally found in whole foods, tofu, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables.. Taurine is a non-protein amino acid that is conditionally essential, ...
Recently, lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia and hypertension have become a severe problem throughout the world, in terms of both human health and increasing medical expenses. GABA, a ubiquitous non-protein amino acid, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that has an antihypertensive effect in mammals. GABA is synthesized from L-glutamate by cellular glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Our lab has reported that rice GAD2ΔC, lacking a C-terminal coding region, conferred an increase in enzymatic activity and its over-expression resulted in extreme GABA accumulation in the calli. In order to accumulate high levels of GABA in rice grains, we performed seed-specific expression of GAD2ΔC using a rice endosperm-specific promoter (glutelin gene, GluB-1) to produce stable lines. Amino acid analysis showed that milled rice grains from transformed rice contain three- to 30-fold higher GABA levels than those from non-transformed rice. We are currently evaluating the effect of a ...
The function in plants of the non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is poorly understood. In this study, we show that GABA down-regulates the expression of a large sub-set of 14-3-3 gene family members in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in a calcium, ethylene and abscisic acid-dependent manner. Gene expression is not affected when seedlings are supplied with glutamate, a precursor of GABA. The repression of 14-3-3 gene expression by GABA is dependent on functional ethylene and abscisic acid signalling pathways, since the response is lost in the etr1-1, abi1-1 and abi2-1 mutants. Calcium measurements show that in contrast to glutamate, GABA does not elicit a cytoplasmic calcium elevation, suggesting that the GABA response is unlikely to be mediated by glutamate receptors, as has been suggested previously. We suggest that in addition to its role as a stress-related metabolite, GABA may regulate gene expression in Arabidopsis, including members of the 14-3-3 gene family.. ...
GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid) is a non-protein amino acid that can be accumulated via permease-mediated uptake by Uga4p, Put4p, and Gap1p. GABA can also be produced via glutamate degradation by the glutamate decarboxylase, this variant of the pathway includes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent 4-aminobutyrate transaminase and an NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase. This combination of enzymes has been documented in bacteria and animals and in some plants. Regarding the hydrogenase, NAD-specific variants have been studied from many bacteria, plant and animals ...
Apple, Stephanie. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) measurement of corticosterone and testosterone in mercury contaminated birds. (Eric Bradley, Biology). Arrington, Justine. Gas-phase H/D Exchange of Protein and Non-protein Amino Acids and Small Peptides. (John Poutsma, Chemistry). Broome, Taylor. A Computational Model of Axonal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis. (Randolph Coleman, Chemistry). Brown, Rachel. Exploration of Meristem Regulation Genes in Arabidopsis Thaliana. (Eric Engstrom, Biology). Chalphin, Alex. The Functional Characterization of GlyT2 and GAD67 Transcriptional Regulation. (Margaret Saha, Biology). Dombrosky, Evan. Nuclear Export of Thyroid Hormone Receptors a and ß. (Lizabeth Allison, Biology). Donaher, Megan. Defining SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) of the budding yeast SUMO protease Ulp1. (Oliver Kerscher, Biology). Easterling, Katy. Stop signal reaction time task performance in rats: role of cholinergic and orexigenic systems. (Josh Burk, Psychology). Feresten, Matt. Influence of forest ...
L-Carnitine A dietary supplement to support muscle and cardiovascular functions.* Carnitine is a non-protein amino acid that is biosynthesized in the human liver and naturally occurs in muscle and organ meats. It is intimately involved in the transfer of fatty acids across the membranes of the mitochondria where they can be used to generate energy. Each caplet contains 800 mg Calcium, 250 mg L-Carnitine hydrochloride.Other ingredients: calcium carbonate, cellulose, silica, vegetable stearate, stearic acid.As a dietary supplement take 1 caplet between meals.
Since heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S., taking some extra measures to protect your heart is something everyone should consider. New research has discovered that increased levels of homocysteine are a higher risk factor for heart disease than cholesterol.. This non-protein α-amino acid can create inflammation if theres a lack of vitamin B12. In other words, this vitamin reduced the levels of homocysteine, and with that the risk of heart disease and stroke. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
美国锐格斯软件 - Free eCTD publishing software Professional Online or Desktop. 不收费 eCTD 申报编辑软件 专业网上版 (专业桌面版) FDA regulatory 专家审核帮助 免费注册软件 帮助申报文件的撰写和寻求指南法规依据
A subsequent synthesis of pyrimidines shows the synthetic potential of these β-enaminones. E. Gayon, M. Szymczyk, H. Gérard, E. Vrancken, J.-M. Campagne, J. Org. Chem., , 77, A method for the synthesis of 2-substituted pyrimidinecarboxylic esters is described. The sodium salt of 3,3-dimethoxymethoxycarbonylpropenol has.
Description ULTRA-SLOW RELEASE PROTEIN 25 g Slow-Release Protein per Serving Enzyme activated protein absorption Zero Non-Protein Aminos Next Level Night Time Supplementation CASEIN-FX™ is a revolutionary approach to keeping your system fueled with a constant flow of muscle-building protein. Made with 100% Pure Micella
Complete information for ECTD7 gene (Uncategorized), Ectodermal Dysplasia 7, Hair/Nail Type, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1s07.1. Crystal Structure of the R253A Mutant of 7,8-Diaminopelargonic Acid Synthase
The NM Emory Cardiac Toolbox (ECTb) v4.1 provides advanced tools for cardiac SPECT and PET analysis including comparison of perfusion to viability data, display of 3D images with coronary overlays and gated 3D cine, normal limits for agent match/mismatch as well as optional phase analysis for wall motion and evaluation of thickening. ...
Rasova K, Dolezil D, Kalistova H, Kucera P, Juzova O, Zimova D, Medova E, Jandova D, Tintera J, Ibrahim I, Zvara K, Bicikova M, Martinkova P. Physiotherapy as an immunoactive therapy? A pilot study. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012 Jan; 33(1): 67-75 ...
Alfa Aesar is a leading manufacturer and supplier of research chemicals, pure metals and materials for a wide span of applications.
The halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens is a natural producer of ectoines, compatible solutes with current and potential biotechnological applications. As production of ectoines is an osmoregulated process that draws away TCA intermediates, bacterial metabolism needs to be adapted to cope with salinity changes. To explore and use C. salexigens as cell factory for ectoine(s) production, a comprehensive knowledge at the systems level of its metabolism is essential. For this purpose, the construction of a robust and high-quality genome-based metabolic model of C. salexigens was approached. We generated and validated a high quality genome-based C. salexigens metabolic model (iFP764). This comprised an exhaustive reconstruction process based on experimental information, analysis of genome sequence, manual re-annotation of metabolic genes, and in-depth refinement. The model included three compartments (periplasmic, cytoplasmic and external medium), and two salinity-specific biomass compositions,
Save 40% Lindberg - Spirulina 500 mg Organic 250 Tablets 100% Organic Spirulina 500 mg Ultimate Organics® Green SuperFood USDA Organic Pesticide and Herbicide Free Double Verified Gluten Free Our 100% Organic Spirulina is a certified organic whole food concentrate, providing a naturally rich source of vitamins, trace minerals, mixed carotenoids, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids. Spirulina provides a vegetarian source of complete protein. Spirulina Platensis contains an exceptionally high amount of C-phycocyanin, a type of algae renowned for its health benefits. Our tablets are 100% organic without herbicides, pesticides, fertilizes or preservatives and tests negative for BMAA. BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) is a toxin sometimes associated with spirulina. Our Ultimate Organics products do not contain conventional pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, growth hormones, genetic modification or antibiotics. We source only natural, organic raw materials that promote the use of renewable resources
The decline in SVC indicated that the drought treatment imposed severe water stress on plants. SVC in a 20-cm soil depth declined to ≈2% after 14 d of drought treatment. Our results demonstrate that GABA- (50 mm) treated perennial ryegrass maintained significantly higher RWC under drought stress than non-treated plants. RWC in leaves is a measure of internal water status during drought stress (Matin et al., 1989). The results suggest that GABA-treated perennial ryegrass plants were better able to maintain water under drought stress. The function of GABA as a compatible osmolyte under osmotic stress has been proposed by Shelp et al. (1999). Osmolyte accumulation in plant cells results in maintenance of cell turgor pressure and also protects cell membranes, protein, and metabolic machinery from cell dehydration (Hare et al., 1998; Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Rathinasabapathi, 2000). Two recent studies demonstrated that GABA was differentially accumulated in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × ...
Chromohalobacter salexigens ATCC ® BAA-138D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Chromohalobacter salexigens strain DSM 3043 TypeStrain=True Application:
It has been firmly established that organic osmolytes (compatible solutes) of halophilic Bacteria and Archaea have positive effects on conformation and activity of proteins, and may therefore improve their functional production. In particular, the amino acid derivative ectoine is known for its conformational stabilization, aggregation suppression, and radical protection properties. The natural producer and industrial production strain Halomonas elongata accumulates ectoine in the cytoplasm, and as a result offers a unique stabilizing environment for recombinant proteins. For the construction of broad hoast range vector systems with fluorescent reporter proteins, we chose the salt-inducible promoter region of the ectoine gene cluster (promA). A closer inspection of the genetic background revealed that its combination of sigma 38 (σ38) and sigma 70 (σ70) promoters was followed by a weak ribosomal binding site (RBS). This inspired a systematic approach for the construction of a promA-based vector series
Neurolathyrism is a neurological condition seen among people who eat the seeds of Lathyrus sativus as a principal source of food energy for 2 months or more. It is characterised by severe muscular rigidity and irreversible spastic paralysis of the lower limbs, spinal hyperreflexia, and structural changes of the skeleton and connective tissue (18-19). Once prevalent throughout Europe, N. Africa, the Middle East and parts of the Far East, the disease is presently restricted to India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia (20). The biochemical mechanism involves beta-N-Oxalyl amino-L-alanine (L-BOAA); a synonym is beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP). This is a naturally occurring non-protein amino acid present in Blue vetch. Ingestion of L-BOAA in a staple diet results in a progressive neurodegenerative condition, a form of motor neuron disease that affects the upper motor neurons and anterior horn cells of the lumbar spinal cord. L-BOAA is an excitatory acid and acts as an agonist at the ...
General Information: Halomonas elongata DSM 2581 was isolated from a solar salt facility and is halotolerant up to a concentration of 35%. Halomonas elongata is a halophilic bacterium which uses ectoine as its major compatible solute. This organism can both, synthesize and degrade ectoine and is used as industrial ectoine producer. ...
Citrulline is a non-protein amino acid, isolated from watermelon, involved in the urea cycle and an arginine precursor. Participants will take 10g/d of citrulline or placebo (isocaloric).. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a high intensity aerobic training (30 sec at 85% and up of HRmax + 1min30 at 65-70% of HRmax). they HIIT duration is 30 min/session. HIIT is recognized as beneficial to improve health in human such as Vo2max, body fat or .. Then intervention will be follow during 12 consecutive weeks.. ...
Salinity-alkalinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting plant growth and development. γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions in stress tolerance. However, the interactions between cellular redox signaling and chlorophyll (Chl) metabolism involved in GABA-induced salinity-alkalinity stress tolerance in plants remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of GABA in perceiving and regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis and oxidative stress induced by salinity-alkalinity stress in muskmelon leaves. We also evaluated the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbate (AsA) on GABA-induced salinity-alkalinity stress tolerance. Salinity-alkalinity stress increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity (REC), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR). Salinity-alkalinity stress decreased shoot dry and fresh weight and leaf area, reduced
δ-Aminolevulinic acid (also dALA, δ-ALA, 5ALA or 5-aminolevulinic acid), an endogenous non-protein amino acid, is the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, the pathway that leads to heme in mammals and chlorophyll in plants. 5ALA is used in photo dynamic detection and photo dynamic surgery of cancer. Being a precursor of photosensitizer, 5ALA is also used as an agent for photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic detection is the use of photosensitive drugs with a light source of the right wavelength for the detection of cancer, using fluorescence of the drug. 5ALA, or derivatives thereof, can be used to visualize bladder cancer by fluorescence imaging. It elicits synthesis and accumulation of fluorescent porphyrins (protoporphyrin IX) in epithelia and neoplastic tissues, among them malignant gliomas. It is used to visualise tumorous tissue in neurosurgical procedures. Studies since 2006 have shown that the intraoperative use of this guiding method may reduce the tumour residual volume ...
L-ornithine is a non-essential, non-protein amino acid. Although L-ornithine is contained in various foods, the amount is usually small. Recently, studies have shown that orally administered L-ornithine reduced the stress response in animals. From these findings, we speculated that L-ornithine may play a role in the relieve of stress and improve sleep and fatigue symptoms in humans. Through a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we asked if L-ornithine could be beneficial to stress and sleep in healthy workers. Fifty-two apparently healthy Japanese adults who had previously felt slight stress as well as fatigue were recruited to be study participants and were randomly divided into either the L-ornithine (400 mg/day) or placebo group. They orally consumed the respective test substance every day for 8 weeks. Serum was collected for the assessment of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S). Perceived mood and quality of sleep were measured by the Profile of Mood States
In the Guzzoni V. et al experiment, placebo or nandrolone rats were given to rats, some animals were trained, while others were not. Nandrolone was used at a dose of 5 mg / kg body weight, 2x a week. The amount of nitric oxide formed and reactive oxygen species were evaluated using DAF-2 methods and hydroethidine fluorescence techniques. Results Conclusions: high doses of Nandrolone lower the bioavailability of nitric oxide and may induce endothelial dysfunction and morphological changes in the arteries. It is not known whether such changes occur in humans, but it can be expected - for now we are waiting for further research in this matter. __. You can read also: L-Theanine - a non-protein amino acid with interesting properties. ...
Microorganisms are known to counteract salt stress through salt influx or by the accumulation of osmoprotectants (also called compatible solutes). Understanding the pathways that synthesize and/or breakdown these osmoprotectants is of interest to studies of crops halotolerance and to biotechnology applications that use microbes as cell factories for production of biomass or commercial chemicals. To facilitate the exploration of osmoprotectants, we have developed the first online resource, Dragon Explorer of Osmoprotection associated Pathways (DEOP) that gathers and presents curated information about osmoprotectants, complemented by information about reactions and pathways that use or affect them. A combined total of 141 compounds were confirmed osmoprotectants, which were matched to 1883 reactions and 834 pathways. DEOP can also be used to map genes or microbial genomes to potential osmoprotection-associated pathways, and thus link genes and genomes to other associated osmoprotection ...
In several TRAP-T systems, fused Q-M-type proteins instead of two separate Q- and M-type proteins are found, while in others, Q-P-type fusion proteins are found. The operon encoding the Synechocystis system includes a protein homologous to the glutamine binding protein, and biochemical evidence has suggested that a glutamate transporter from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a periplasmic binding protein-dependent, pmf-dependent secondary carrier (Jacobs et al., 1996). Homologous systems in Halomonas elongata and Rhodobacter spheroides take up ectoine/hydroxyectoine and taurine, respectively (Bruggemann et al., 2004; Grammann et al., 2002). The DctP dicarboxylate receptor is homologous to both the YiaO monocarboxylate receptor and the TeaA ectoine receptor. Thus, the TRAP-T family of permeases may be involved in the uptake of widely divergent compounds, mostly carboxylate derivatives (Kelly and Thomas, 2001; Thomas et al., 2006; Mulligan et al., 2007). The crystal structure of SiaP (the receptor for ...
Cell wall and phospholipid composition and their contribution to the salt tolerance of Halomonas elongata.: The salt-tolerant bacterium Halomonas elongata makes
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
We present a model of osmoadaptation in S.cerevisiae based on existing experimental and theoretical work. In order to investigate the impact of osmoadaptation on glycolysis, this model focuses on the interactions between glycolysis and osmoadaptation, namely the production of glycerol and its influence on flux towards pyruvate. Evaluation of this model shows that, depending on initial relations between glycerol and pyruvate production, the increased glycerol production can have a substantial negative effect on the pyruvate production rate. Existing experimental data and a detailed analysis of the model lead to the suggestion of an interaction between activated Hog1 and activators of glycolysis such as Pfk26.
Nesterenkonia halobia strain DSM 20541 di- and tricarboxylate transporter, diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase (ectA), diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase (ectB), and ectoine synthase (ectC) genes, complete ...
Nesterenkonia halobia strain DSM 20541 di- and tricarboxylate transporter, diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase (ectA), diaminobutyric acid aminotransferase (ectB), and ectoine synthase (ectC) genes, complete ...
Strand breaks and conformational changes of DNA have consequences for the physiological role of DNA. The natural protecting molecule ectoine is beneficial to entire bacterial cells and biomolecules such as proteins by mitigating detrimental effects of environmental stresses. It was postulated that ectoine-like molecules bind to negatively charged spheres that mimic DNA surfaces. We investigated the effect of ectoine on DNA and whether ectoine is able to protect DNA from damages caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV-A). In order to determine different isoforms of DNA, agarose gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy experiments were carried out with plasmid pUC19 DNA. Our quantitative results revealed that a prolonged incubation of DNA with ectoine leads to an increase in transitions from supercoiled (undamaged) to open circular (single-strand break) conformation at pH 6.6. The effect is pH dependent and no significant changes were observed at physiological pH of 7.5. After UV-A irradiation ...
Neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by environmental factors such as exposure to toxins including the cyanotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) that can bioaccumulate in common food sources such as fish, mussels and crabs. Accurate and precise analytical methods are needed to detect and quantify BMAA
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ECTC is armed with a great deal of knowledge, experience and expertise through its diverse membership, well positioning ECTC to educate engineers, contractors and regulatory agencies on effective erosion and sediment control practices and promote the proper use of hydraulic erosion control products, rolled erosion control products and sediment retention fiber rolls in combating the cumulative and detrimental effects of erosion on our environment.. ...
germinate.01: GERMINATE-V NOTES: Frame by Jena based on ECTB2, VNcls entity_specific_cos-45.5, sprout. Member of VNcls . entity_specific_cos-45.5, entity_specific_modes_being-47.2. (from germinate.01-v) GERMINATION-N NOTES: Corresponds with germinate.01. Framed by anwen april 2011 (from germination.01-n) ...
In accordance with the invention, nanoscale connectors particularly useful for connecting microscale devices comprise free-standing nanoscale conductors. The nanoscale conductors are conveniently fabricated in sets of controlled, preferably equal length by providing a removable substrate, growing conductive nanotubes or nanowires on the substrate, equalizing the length of the nanoscale conductors, and removing the substrate. Preferably the removable substrate is soluble, leaving a collection of free standing nanoscale connectors in suspension or solution.
A specific family of amino acids called diamino acids was identified in the Murchison meteorite as well. The initial report ... decomposition or synthesis of amino acids to occur with protein amino acids but not with non-protein amino acids". In 1997, L- ... Later the amino acid alanine, which is also a protein amino acid, was found to have an excess of the L-configuration, which led ... The meteorite contained a mixture of left-handed and right-handed amino acids; most amino acids used by living organisms are ...
2-({2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl}(carboxymethyl)amino)acetic acid. Drugi nazivi Diamino etan tetra acetatna kiselina. ... 2002). „Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)". Приступљено 25. 7. 2007.. *↑ „Home , Medical Reference , Complementary ... J. Roger Hart "Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Related Chelating Agents" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry ... F. Münz "Polyamino carboxylic acids to IG Farben, DE 718 981, 1935; US 2 130 505, 1938. ...
... β-amino acids, syn- and anti-2,3-diamino esters, α-amino aldehydes and ketones, β-amino ketones, α-amino phosphonates, ... Applications to the Synthesis of Nonracemic β-Amino acids and α-hydroxy-β-amino acids". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 57 (24): ... Davis, Franklin A; Srirajan, Vaidyanathan; Titus, Donald D. (1999). "Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Fluoro α-Amino Acids ... "Asymmetric synthesis of amino acids using sulfinimines (thiooxime S-oxides)". Chemical Society Reviews. 27: 13. doi:10.1039/ ...
... based on their amino acid or di-amino acid content. Brendel V, Bucher P, Nourbakhsh IR, Blaisdell BE, Karlin S (15 Mar 1992). " ... Wootton JC, Federhen S (June 2003). "Statistics of local complexity in amino acid sequences and sequence databases". Computers ... and calculation of amino acid frequencies. Furthermore, the union or intersection of the results of the search on a query ... Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Web server issue): W435-W440. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp254. PMC 2703921. PMID 19389726. Harbi D, Kumar M, ...
... based on its amino acid or di-amino acid content. Wootton, John C. (September 1994). "Non-globular domains in protein sequences ... total amino acids of LCRs in a given proteome/total amino acids of that proteome) form LCRs whereas for five model eukaryotic ... The average size of a eukaryotic LCR is 42 amino acids long, whereas bacterial, archaeal and phage LCRs are 38, 36 and 33 amino ... Very similar trends for amino acids with a high (G, A, P, S, Q) and low (M, V, L, I, W, F, R, C) occurrence within LCRs have ...
2008). Amino acids and the asymmetry of life : caught in the act of formation. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-76885-2.. - ( ... Munoz Caro, G. M.; Bredehoft, J. H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Thiemann, W. H.-P. (11 June 2004). "Identification of diamino acids in ... They succeeded in synthesizing 16 amino acids. When the Rosetta spacecraft reached 67P in 2014, it detected similar organic ... "Amino acids from ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues". Nature. 416 (6879): 403-406. Bibcode:2002Natur.416.. ...
Diamino acids belong to the class of amino acids. Asparagine, glutamine and lysine are proteinaceous diamino acids (i.e. they ... 6-diaminopimelic acid are non-proteinaceous diamino acids. In biochemistry, diamino acids are of particular interest. Diamino ... In chemistry, a diamino acid, also called a diamino carboxylic acid, is a molecule containing at least one carboxyl and two ... The corresponding diamino acids such as 2,3-diaminopropanoic acid were detected in the Murchison meteorite and in a simulated ...
A 1,2-diamino-diol is then formed after proton exchange and a nucleophilic attack of water to the former nitrile carbon. ... The Strecker amino acid synthesis, also known simply as the Strecker synthesis, is a method for the synthesis of amino acids by ... While usage of ammonium salts gives unsubstituted amino acids, primary and secondary amines also give substituted amino acids. ... Several methods exist to synthesize amino acids aside from the Strecker synthesis. The commercial production of amino acids ...
The molecule is a tetracarboxylic acid with four -COOH groups. One section of the molecule is the amino acid aspartic acid. ... 3-diamino-propionic acid. [α]20°D at pH 7 is -48°.[contradictory] With nitrous acid aspergillomarasmine A is deaminated,[ ... Titration reveals changes in ionisation at pK 3.5 and 4.5 due to carboxylic acid groups, and pK 9.5 and 10 due to amino groups ... In P. teres, a biosynthetic precursor of aspergillomarasmine A, L,L-N-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-aspartic acid has also been ...
The benzyl group of 2-amino-5-benzyloxy-4-hydroxypyrimidine is removed by acid hydrolysis, yielding 2-amino-4,5- ... Divicine (2,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine) is an oxidant and a base with alkaloidal properties found in fava beans and ... This intermediate is then treated with nitrous acid to yield the slightly soluble orange product 2-amino-6-nitrosopyrimidine-4, ... A common derivative is the diacetate form (2,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-4,5-pyrimidinedione). Divicine is found in fava beans and in ...
Structurally, it is a derivative of trans-stilbene, containing amino and sulfonic acid functional groups on each of the two ... 4,4′-Diamino-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid is the organic compound with the formula (H2NC6H3SO3H)2C2H2. It is a white, water- ... It is produced by reduction of 4,4′-dinitro-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid with iron powder. P. F. Vogt, J. J. Gerulis, "Amines, ...
The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. ... 6-diamino-N-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl]hexanamide. The condensation reaction occurs with loss of water: (S)-PhCH 2CH(CH 3)NH ... Chemically, lisdexamfetamine is composed of the amino acid L-lysine, attached to dextroamphetamine. Lisdexamfetamine was ... and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Sulzer D, Cragg SJ, Rice ME (August 2016). "Striatal ...
... sugars and amino acids existed in space, via meteorites. This includes non-terrestrial amino acids. Multiple isotopes do not ... Meierhenrich, U; Muñoz Caro, G; Bredehöft, J; Jessberger, E; Thiemann, W (22 Jun 2004). "Identification of diamino acids in the ... The levels of amino acids are higher in CMs than CIs. Amino-like nitriles/cyanides and heterocycles are also found. These ... As amino acids are diverse but low, the discovery of meteoritic chirality had to await the separation of IOM. Handedness of ...
The N-terminal 77 amino acids of UNG1 seem to be required for mitochondrial localization, but the presence of a mitochondrial ... The most abundant lesions formed at guanine residues are 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) and 8-oxoguanine. ... The most N-terminal conserved region contains an aspartic acid residue which has been proposed, based on X-ray structures to ... Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (17): 5291-5302. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh859. PMC 521670. PMID 15466595. Wu P, Qiu C, Sohail A, Zhang X, ...
... para-Aminobenzoic acid 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol 2-Amino-5-nitrophenol 4-Amino-2-nitrophenol 2-Amino- ... 9 Dapsone Decabromodiphenyl oxide Deltamethrin Diacetylaminoazotoluene Diallate 1,2-Diamino-4-nitrobenzene 1,4-Diamino-2- ... Parasorbic acid Parathion Patulin Penicillic acid Pentachloroethane Permethrin Perylene Petasitenine Phenanthrene Phenelzine ... Hypochlorite salts Insulation glass wool Iron-dextrin complex Iron sorbitol-citric acid complex Isatidine Isonicotinic acid ...
I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Kitagawa, Matsunosuke; Takani, A. (1936). "Studies on a Diamino Acid, Canavanin, IV. The Constitution of Canavanin and Canalin ... Reed, H.; Meltzer, J.; Crews, P.; Norris, C.; Quine, D.; Guth, P. (1985). "Amino-oxyacetic acid as a palliative in tinnitus". ... Blair, P.; Reed, H. (1986). "Amino-oxyacetic acid: A new drug for the treatment of tinnitus". Journal of the Louisiana State ...
1,4-diamino-butane 1,5-diamino-pentane. MPMD. HMD. MXD. Nonane-diamine. Decane-diamine. Dodecane-diamine. bis-(para-amino- ... Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid): Castor oil → ricinoleic acid → sebacic acid. *Dodecanedioic acid: Butadiene → ... Most nylons are made from the reaction of a dicarboxylic acid with a diamine (e.g. PA66) or a lactam or amino acid with itself ... ricinoleic acid → methylricinoleate → methyl-11-undecenoate → undecenoic acid → 11-undecenoic acid → 11-bromoundecanoic acid → ...
Lattanzio V, Bianco VV, Crivelli G, Miccolis V (May 1983). "Variability of Amino Acids, Protein, Vicine and Convicine in Vicia ... Despite these initial successes, the correct formula of vicine was determined only in 1953 and it is 2,4-diamino-6- ... Vicine was initially isolated in 1870 from the seeds of Vicia sativa by a method of extraction with sulfuric acid and ... 6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine). These aglycones have a strong oxidising capacity for glutathione. In healthy individuals, ...
acid α, ε diamino-capronic (lisină) După alte grupări incluseModificare. Aminoacizi hidroxilațiModificare. C. H. 2. −. C. H. − ... acid α-amino-propanoic (α-alanină) C. H. 3. −. C. H. −. C. H. −. C. O. O. H. ,. ,. C. H. 3. N. H. 2. {\displaystyle {\begin{ ... acid α amino β hidroxi propanoic (serină) Aminoacizi tioliciModificare. C. H. 2. −. C. H. −. C. O. O. H. ,. ,. S. H. N. H. 2. ... acid aminosuccinic (acid asparagic) H. O. O. C. −. C. H. −. C. H. 2. −. C. H. 2. −. C. O. O. H. ,. N. H. 2. {\displaystyle {\ ...
Unlike related keto acids, it is not an intermediate or metabolite associated with amino acids and its origin is unknown. α- ... 2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene as a precolumn fluorescence derivatization reagent". Journal of Chromatography. 430 (2): ... Ketoisovaleric acid 3-Oxopentanoic acid (β-ketovaleric acid) Levulinic acid (γ-ketovaleric acid) Fu, X; Kimura, M; Iga, M; ... α-Ketovaleric acid is a keto acid that is found in human blood. ... liquid chromatographic determination of alpha-keto acids in ...
... para-Aminobenzoic acid 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol 2-Amino-5-nitrophenol 4-Amino-2-nitrophenol 2-Amino- ... 9 Dapsone Decabromodiphenyl oxide Deltamethrin Diacetylaminoazotoluene Diallate 1,2-Diamino-4-nitrobenzene 1,4-Diamino-2- ... Parasorbic acid Parathion Patulin Penicillic acid Pentachloroethane Permethrin Perylene Petasitenine Phenanthrene Phenelzine ... Hypochlorite salts Insulation glass wool Iron-dextrin complex Iron sorbitol-citric acid complex Isatidine Isonicotinic acid ...
... sulphur-containing amino acids, indol-derivatives, and carbohydrates. In the Handbuch der biochemischen Arbeitsmethoden (1912- ... folyóirat 1909) "Synthese der inaktiven α,δ-Diamino valleriansäure und des Prolnis" (with Emil Fischer; Budapest, 1909; ... Folyóirat 1911) "Neue Synthese von Amino-oxysäuren u. von Piperidon-Derivaten" (with Emil Fischer; Budapest, 1910; Berichte der ... "Übers-Amino α-guanido-capronsäure" (Budapest) "Einige Derivate der Cellobiose" (with Emil Fischer; Budapest, 1911; Berichte der ...
An artificial isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, is used for amino acid sequencing in the Edman degradation. Cruciferous ... O'Reilly, RJ; Radom, L (2009). "Ab initio investigation of the fragmentation of 5,5-diamino-substituted 1,4,2-oxathiazoles". ... "Isothiocyanates from tosyl chloride mediated decomposition of in situ generated dithiocarbamic acid salts". The Journal of ...
"Amino acid studies. Part IV. Structure and synthesis of the plant amino acid willardiine [3-(1-uracyl)-L-alanine]". Acta ... Viso, Alma; Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; García, Ana; Flores, Aida (August 2005). "α,β-Diamino Acids: Biological ... Willardiine was first discovered in 1959 by R. Gmelin, when he isolated several free, non-protein amino acids from Acacia ... This final synthesis of willardiine from uracil-1-lyacetaldehyde is carried out under the conditions of Strecker amino acid ...
... of the 6-carbon dicarboxylic acid adipic acid. An important use of adipoyl chloride is polymerization with an organic di-amino ... carboxylic acids to form an organic acid anhydrides. In the above reactions, HX (hydrogen halide or hydrohalic acid) is also ... If the acid is a carboxylic acid, the compound contains a -COX functional group, which consists of a carbonyl group singly ... Billions of kilograms are generated annually in the production of acetic acid. The hydroxyl group of a sulfonic acid may also ...
L-amino-acid alpha-ligase EC cyanophycin synthase (L-aspartate-adding) EC cyanophycin synthase (L-arginine- ... 6-diamino-pimelate ligase EC 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-serine ligase EC Deleted, due to EC EC ... long-chain-fatty-acid-luciferin-component ligase EC long-chain-fatty-acid-(acyl-carrier-protein) ligase EC ... hydrogenobyrinic acid a,c-diamide synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) EC adenosylcobyric acid synthase (glutamine- ...
Other names in common use include diamino-acid transaminase, and diamino acid aminotransferase. Roberts E (February 1954). " ... 5-amino-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2,5-diaminopentanoate and 2-oxoglutarate, ... whereas its two products are 5-amino-2-oxopentanoate and L-glutamate. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. This enzyme ...
States DJ, Walseth TF, Lee HC (December 1992). "Similarities in amino acid sequences of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase and human ... amino-8-quinoline carboxamides and 2,4-diamino-8-quinazoline carboxamides". SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research. 30 (1): 21- ... Cassic acid (Rhein) CD38-IN-78c Chrysanthemin (Kuromanin) compound 1ai compound 1am Daratumumab A gradual increase in CD38 has ... When nicotinic acid is present under acidic conditions, CD38 can hydrolyze nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) ...
Thus, adsorption of the TNT decomposition product 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) was greater than that for 4-amino-2,6- ... Nitric acid is consumed by the manufacturing process, but the diluted sulfuric acid can be reconcentrated and reused. After ... and then carefully nitrated with a mixture of fuming nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Towards the end of the nitration, the ... picric acid. hexanitrobenzene. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard ...
Some electron-rich iminoboranes form adducts with Lewis acids. The typical [2+3]-cycloaddition is the addition of B≡N and RN3 ... Die Kristall- und Molekularstruktur von Hexakis(trimethylsilyl)-2,4-diamino-1,3,2,4-diazadiboretidin" (PDF). Acta ... amino-boration) and R (alkyl-boration). One of these reactions are illustrated here. ...
3-{[(2'-{(5S,8S,9S,10R,13S)-15-{6-amino-2- [(1S)-3-amino-1-{[(2S)-2,3-diamino-3-oxopropyl]amino}-3-oxopropyl] -5- ... Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides are synthesized from amino acids and short carboxylic acids by NRPSs and PKSs, ... Claussen, C.A.; Long, E.C. (1999). "Nucleic Acid Recognition by Metal Complexes of Bleomycin". Chem. Rev. 99 (9): 2797-2816. ... megasynthetase-templated assembly of the bleomycin peptide/polyketide/peptide aglycon was proposed from nine amino acids and ...
2-(aminometil)- 6-[4,6-diamino-3- [4-amino-3,5-dihidroksi-6-(hidroksimetil) tetrahidropiran-2-il]oksi- 2-hidroksi- ... A Comparative Study with Fusidic Acid". Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun 92: 647-654. ...
4,6-Diamino-3-({3-amino-6-[1-(methylamino)ethyl]tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl}oxy)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl 3-deoxy-4-C-methyl-3-( ... Acid 4-aminosalicilic# • Dapsonă# • Clofazimină# • Etambutol# • Pirazinamidă# • Fusafungină • Xibornol • Acid mandelic • ... Amoxicilină/acid clavulanic# • Imipenem/cilastatin# • Piperacilină/tazobactam# • Ampicilină/flucloxacilină • Ampicilină/ ...
2RS,3S,4S,5R)-5-Amino-2-(aminomethyl)-6-((2R,3S,4R,5S)-5-((1R,2R,5R,6R)-3,5-diamino-2-((2R,3S,4R,5S)-3-amino-6-(aminomethyl)-4, ... Neomycin belongs to aminoglycoside class of antibiotics that contain two or more amino sugars connected by glycosidic bonds. ... Acetic acid. *Aluminium acetotartrate. *Aluminium triacetate (Burow's solution). *Boric acid. *Chloramphenicol. *Chlorhexidine ...
They can interact with cellular components including unsaturated lipids, amino acid residues and nucleic acids. If sufficient ... Diamino platinum porphyrins show high anti-tumour activity, demonstrating the combined effect of the cytotoxicity of the ... including amino acid residues in proteins, such as tryptophan; unsaturated lipids like cholesterol and nucleic acid bases, ... 5-Aminolaevulinic acid[edit]. 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is a prodrug used to treat and image multiple superficial cancers ...
"Pharmacological properties of N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-N'-4-[4-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)phenyl]butyl-guanidine ... ArCO2- (not para-amino or Ph). *Amoproxan (3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzoyl). *3-(p-Fluorobenzoyloxy)tropane ... Pheneturide; Fatty acids: Valproate. *Valpromide. *Valproate pivoxil; Carboxamides: Carbamazepine#. *Eslicarbazepine acetate. * ...
... thymidylic acid, and certain amino acids. While the functional dihydrofolate reductase gene has been mapped to chromosome 5, ... 1kmv: HUMAN DIHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE COMPLEXED WITH NADPH AND (Z)-6-(2-[2,5-DIMETHOXYPHENYL]ETHEN-1-YL)-2,4-DIAMINO-5- ... Purification, properties, and amino acid sequence". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (22): 11475-84. PMID 500653.. ... Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron ...
When the spacing of the amino acid residues participating in a hydrogen bond occurs regularly between positions i and i + 4, an ... V. Réaction anormale de la butanedione avec la diamino-1,2 anthraquinone; structure cristalline de la naphto \2,3-f] ... and also in the solid phase of many anhydrous acids such as hydrofluoric acid and formic acid at high pressure. It is also seen ... Viscosity of anhydrous phosphoric acid and of glycerol. *Dimer formation in carboxylic acids and hexamer formation in hydrogen ...
An artificial isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, is used for amino acid sequencing in the Edman degradation. ... O'Reilly, RJ; Radom, L (2009). "Ab initio investigation of the fragmentation of 5,5-diamino-substituted 1,4,2-oxathiazoles". ... "Isothiocyanates from tosyl chloride mediated decomposition of in situ generated dithiocarbamic acid salts". The Journal of ...
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Benserazide • کاربی‌دوپا • ژنیستئین • متیل‌دوپا. Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase ... Lysergic acid 2-butyl amide • Lysergic acid 3-pentyl amide • Methysergide; Phenethylamines: 25I-NBF • 25I-NBMD • 25I-NBOH • 25I ... Agonists: Lysergamides: ALD-52 • Ergometrine • Lisuride • Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide • ال‌اس‌دی • LSD-Pip • ... 2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene • 2-Aminoindane • 2-Aminotetralin • 2-Benzylpiperidine • 4-Benzylpiperidine • 5-Iodo-2- ...
... (Hyl) is an amino acid with the molecular formula C6H14N2O3. It was first discovered in 1921 by Donald Van Slyke ... 2S,5R)-2,6-Diamino-5-hydroxyhexanoic acid. Other names *5-Hydroxy-L-lysine ...
2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-2-{[(1S,2S,3R,4S,6R)-4,6-diamino-3-{[(2R,3R,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-(aminomethyl)-5-hydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}-2- ... However, there seems to be no indication that Tobramycin binds to natural RNAs or other nucleic acids. ... "Carbon Sources Tune Antibiotic Susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Control". Cell Chemical ...
NHCs are often strongly basic (the pKa value of the conjugate acid of an imidazol-2-ylidene was measured at ca. 24) and react ... Solé, Stéphane; Gornitzka, Heinz; Schoeller, Wolfgang W.; Bourissou, Didier; Bertrand, Guy (2001). "(Amino)(Aryl)Carbenes: ... 2-Diamino Enols (Breslow Intermediates)". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 (49): 12370-12374. doi:10.1002/anie.201205878. PMID 23081675 ... pKa values for the conjugate acids of several NHC families have been examined in aqueous solution. pKa values of triazolium ...
The vast majority of mutations conferring resistance are single amino acid residue substitutions (His274Tyr in N1) in the ... Karpf M, Trussardi R (March 2001). "New, azide-free transformation of epoxides into 1,2-diamino compounds: synthesis of the ... The enzyme cleaves the sialic acid which is found on glycoproteins on the surface of human cells that helps new virions to exit ... Rawat G, Tripathi P, Saxena RK (May 2013). "Expanding horizons of shikimic acid. Recent progresses in production and its ...
For example, a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and trifluoroperacetic acid oxidises the nitroso-substituted pyrimidine 4,6-diamino ... Mansuy, Daniel; Valadon, Philippe; Erdelmeier, Irene; López Garcia, Pilar; Amar, Claudine; Girault, Jean-Pierre; Dansette, ... Trifluoroperacetic acid (trifluoroperoxyacetic acid, TFPAA) is an organofluorine compound, the peroxy acid analog of ... or by reacting iodobenzene with a combination of trifluoroperacetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid: Trifluoroperacetic acid is ...
In the title mol-ecular salt-adduct, C5H8N3+·C6H7O2−·C6H8O2, the 2,3-diamino-pyridinium cation is essentially planar, with a ... For background to amino-pyridines, see: Peng et al. (2001. ); Leung et al. (2002. ); Banerjee & Murugavel (2004. ); Lautie & ... The carboxyl groups of the sorbic acid mol-ecules and the carboxyl-ate groups of the sorbate anions are connected via O-H⋯O ... In the crystal, the protonated N atom and one of the two amino-group H atoms are hydrogen bonded to the sorbate anion through a ...
... methyl-amino]-benzoylamino}-nonanedioic acid , C24H30N8O5 , CID 14058546 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
... amino]phenyl]arsonic acid , C9H11AsN6O3 , CID 79871 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-, sodium salt including: 2 synonyms/identifiers. ... This page contains information on the chemical L-Glutamic acid, N-(4-(((2, ... L-Glutamic acid, N-(4-(((2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl) methyl) amino) benzoyl)-, sodium salt. Identifications. *CAS Number: 31823- ... L-Glutamic acid, N-(4-(((2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl) methyl) amino) benzoyl)-, sodium salt Related Resources. *USDOT Hazardous ...
4-Diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl](methyl)amino}benzoyl)amino]-4-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)b. ... 2S)-2-[(4-{[(2,4-Diamino-6-pt. eridinyl)methyl](methyl)amino}. benzoyl)amino]-4-(2H-tetrazol-. 5-yl)butanoic acid *Molecular ... amino-6-pteridinyl)m. ethyl](methyl)amino}. benzoyl)amino]-4-(2H. -tetrazol-5-yl)butan. oic acid ... butanoic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name] (2S)-2-[(4-{[(2,4-D. iamino-6-pteridinyl. )methyl](methyl)ami. no}benzoyl)amino]-4. -(2H- ...
4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-, - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more ... amino]pentanedioic acid, 4-Amino-4-deoxypteroylglutamate, 4-Aminofolic acid, 4-Amino-PGA, 4-Aminopteroylglutamic acid, 4- ... Folic acid, 4-amino-, Glutamic acid, N-[p-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-, L-, KBio1_001939, KBio2_002391, ... amino]glutaric acid, 2-[[4-[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl)methylamino]benzoyl]amino]pentanedioic acid, … ...
Diamino-Amino Acids. 7 Results Catalog #. Product Name. CAS. Structure. E-6010. Nα-Boc-(+-)-2,3-diaminopropionic acid. 159002- ... Nα-Boc-(S)-2-amino-3-(dimethylamino)propionic acid. 94778-71-9. ... Nα-Boc-(S)-2-amino-6-(dimethylamino)hexanoic acid. 65671-53-6. ... Nα-Boc-(R)-2-amino-3-(dimethylamino)propionic acid. 110755-32-3. ... Nα-Boc-(+-)-2-amino-3-(dimethylamino)propionic acid. 851653-36-6. ...
4-Diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl)methylamino)benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, molecular formula: C20H22N8O5. ... Amethopterin; (+)-4-Amino-10-methylfolic acid; N-(p-(((2,4-Diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl)methylamino)benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid. ...
Glutamic acid, N-[p-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-, L-, L-Glutamic acid, N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl) ... methyl]amino]benzoyl]-, N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid, N-[4-[[(2,4-Diamino-6- ... amino]benzoyl]-, 4-Aminofolic acid, 4-Aminopteroylglutamic acid, Acide N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L ... acido N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinil)metil]amino]benzoil]-L-glutamico, Aminopterin, AMINOPTERIN, Aminopterine, APGA, ...
Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)- Pharmacology A non-essential amino acid. Asparagine is critical for the production of ... Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)- LogP -2.13 Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)- Dosage Forms No information ... Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)- Brand names, Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)- Analogs *(-)-Asparagine ... Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)- fda sheet Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)- msds (material safety sheet) http:// ...
Vibrational spectroscopic studies of the structure and conformation of cyclic di-amino acid peptides *Repository Statistics ... Mendham, Andrew P. (2006) Vibrational spectroscopic studies of the structure and conformation of cyclic di-amino acid peptides. ... Vibrational spectroscopic studies of the structure and conformation of cyclic di-amino acid peptides ... covalent chemical bond, peptide bond, cyclic di-amino acid peptides, CDAPs, Raman spectroscopy, infra-red spectra, ...
3.3.2 Amino Acid Derivatives 98. 3.3.3 Amino Alcohols 103. 3.3.4 Diamino Derivatives 106 ... detailing complex syntheses using the amino group as templates and modern techniques focussing on the introduction of the amino ... Amino Group Chemistry: From Synthesis to the Life Sciences (US $266.00). -and- Heterocyclic Chemistry, 5th Edition (US $64.00) ... 6 Amino-Based Building Blocks for the Construction of Biomolecules 207. André Mann ...
... nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to ... Amino Acids, Basic. *Amino Acids, Diamino. *Amino Acids, Neutral. *Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. , PMID:21059682 ...
are China Amino Acids Products suppliers, provide Amino Acids Products products. ... Quality Amino Acids Products manufacturer, Nanjing Meisun Industry Co., Ltd. ... 4,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-2-mercapto-pyrimidin. Contact Supplier. 4-Fluoropyridinehydrochloride. ...
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4-diamino Butanoic Acid Patents and Patent Applications (Class 530/318) Filed with the USPTO ... Search for The Cyclisation Occurring Through The 4-amino Radical Of 2, ... 4-diamino Butanoic Acid Patents (Class 530/318) The Cyclisation Occurring Through The 4-amino Radical Of 2,4-diamino Butanoic ... the side-chain carboxy terminus of one amino acid in the peptide chain to the side-chain amino terminus of another amino acid ...
Amino Acids, Diamino / metabolism * Amino Acids, Diamino / toxicity * Cyanobacteria * Dementia / etiology* * Dementia / ... Keywords: Alzheimers disease; Beta-N-methyl amino-L-alanine (BMAA); Finland; Glutathione; Methylmercury; Mycotoxin. ... beta-N-methyl amino-L-alanine, known to cause dementia and related disorders 3) the aforementioned toxins can be potentiated by ...
α-amino acids are molecules, which contain an amine and carboxylic group that are separated by a single carbon (the α-carbon). ... Strecker synthesis is one of several means of producing α-amino acids. ... This produces a 1,2-diamino-diol. The acidic conditions of this step result in protonation of the amide and deprotonation of a ... the α-amino nitrile is broken down using acid (acid hydrolysis) to produce an α-amino carboxylic acid. Here, the α-amino ...
46-diamino-2-phenyl indole. EAA2. excitatory amino acid transporter 2. FA. formic acid. GABT. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase ... 2010) The role of excitatory amino acid transporters in cerebral ischemia. Neurochem. Res. 35, 1224-1230. ... Oxidized methionine was considered as variable amino acid modification and carbamidomethylation of cysteines as fixed ... excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAA2 or GLT1, cat.#: NBP1-59632, Novus Biologicals, Littleton, CO), GTPase KRas (RASK or ...
Diamino acids belong to the class of amino acids. Asparagine, glutamine and lysine are proteinaceous diamino acids (i.e. they ... 6-diaminopimelic acid are non-proteinaceous diamino acids. In biochemistry, diamino acids are of particular interest. Diamino ... In chemistry, a diamino acid, also called a diamino carboxylic acid, is a molecule containing at least one carboxyl and two ... The corresponding diamino acids such as 2,3-diaminopropanoic acid were detected in the Murchison meteorite and in a simulated ...
1-amino-cyclohexane carboxylic acid; CML, chronic myeloid leukemia; Dab, 2,3-diamino butyric acid; DIC, diisopropyl- ... Amino Acids 46, 873-882. doi: 10.1007/s00726-013-1650-6. Pubmed Abstract , Pubmed Full Text , CrossRef Full Text , Google ... Amino acid derivatives (Iris Biotech or Orpegen Pharma GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) were activated in situ with diisopropy- ... Effect of single amino acid substitution and glycosylation peptide reactivity in human serum. Pharmacol. Res. 10, 1268-1273. ...
2-({2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl}(carboxymethyl)amino)acetic acid. Drugi nazivi Diamino etan tetra acetatna kiselina. ... 2002). „Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)". Приступљено 25. 7. 2007.. *↑ „Home , Medical Reference , Complementary ... J. Roger Hart "Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Related Chelating Agents" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry ... F. Münz "Polyamino carboxylic acids to IG Farben, DE 718 981, 1935; US 2 130 505, 1938. ...
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Substances * Amino Acids, Diamino ... Agonist-stimulated PI-hydrolysis was attenuated (25 +/- 4% inhibition) by L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid and partially ... 1-amino-cyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD) was only 673 +/- 78% of the basal level. The relative order of potency was ...
NAPHTHALENESULFONIC ACID, COMPD. WITH ETHYL[2-AMINO-6-[[(4-FLUOROPHENYL)METHYL]AMINO]-3-PYRIDINYL]CARBAMATE ... Comprehensive supplier list for Naphthalenesulfonic acid, calcium salt, ... Naphthalenesulfonic acid, diamino- (0 suppliers). IUPAC Name: 2,3-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid , CAS Registry Number: ... Synonyms: Stebbins acid, Oxy-Tobias acid, 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, beta-Naphtholsulfonic acid, AG-F-99629, BRN ...
4-amino-10-methylfolic acid. *Methotrexatum. *Méthotrexate. *N-[4-[[(2,4-diamino-6-pteridinyl)methyl]methylamino]benzoyl]-L- ... 2S)-2-[[4-[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl)methyl-methyl-amino]phenyl]carbonylamino]pentanedioic acid. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. , PMID:21059682 ...
A) HPLC-FD separation of non-hydrolyzed AQC derivatized amino and diamino acids: tyrosine (Try), valine (Val), methionine (Met ... A) HPLC-FD separation of non-hydrolyzed AQC derivatized amino and diamino acids: tyrosine (Try), valine (Val), methionine (Met ... Separation of the derivatized amino and diamino acids was optimized on a C18 column. ... Figure 1A illustrates the HPLC-FD separation of the standard amino acids, BMAA and its isomers N-2(amino)ethylglycine (AEG) and ...
It is synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia. It is the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and is an important ... A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. ... 2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid. *(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid ... L-alpha-amino acid / Fatty acid / Amino acid / Carboximidic acid / Carboximidic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid / ...
Uwe J. Meierhenrich et al., "Identification of diamino acids in the Murchison meteorite" [abstract], Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... Amino acids in meteorites..... 2003, February 12: Amino acids in the Murchison meteorite.... 2002, March 12: More on amino acid ... Amino Acids in Meteorites, by Narcinda R. Lerner, NASA Ames Research Center, 1997.. 1997, October 23: The amino acids in the ... Some unusual amino acids present in the Murchison Meteorite apparently do have small excesses of the L enantiomers.... - ...
  • Asparagine, glutamine and lysine are proteinaceous diamino acids (i.e. they are components of proteins), and are accordingly coded by codons of the genetic material. (
  • α-amino acids are essential building blocks of proteins, and there are a variety of ways in which they may be synthesized. (
  • Like other amino acids, glutamine is biochemically important as a constituent of proteins. (
  • The initial report stated that the amino acids were racemic and therefore formed in an abiotic manner, because amino acids of terrestrial proteins are all of the L-configuration. (
  • In particular embodiments, the labeled molecules may be peptides or proteins, although other types of molecules including but not limited to aptamers, oligonucleotides and nucleic acids may be labeled and utilized for such imaging studies. (
  • DNA is shaped as a double helix and is made up of nucleic acid-sugar complexes loosely bound to proteins. (
  • First among nitrogenous substances are the proteins, which in turn are characterised by an elevated content of amino acids, especially arginine. (
  • Mutation analysis of the two cystinuria disease genes revealed one SLC7A9 mutation (A217T) and two SLC3A1 mutations (I192V and S698G) in French and English Bulldogs that affect nonconserved amino acid residues, arguing against functional impact on the proteins. (
  • The aim of the studies reported in this investigation was to examine (from both a theoretical and experimental perspective) the effect of the change in structure and conformation of the diketopiperazine (DKP) ring and the cis amide geometry of the peptide bond, in relation to the vibrational spectra of a series of cyclic di-amino acid peptides (CDAPs). (
  • F. Clerici, E. Erba, M.L. Gelmi, S. Pellegrino, Non-standard amino acids and peptides: From self-assembly to nanomaterials, Tetrahedron Letters 57 (2016) 5540-5550. (
  • It also can react with 2-methylamino-benzoic acid to get N-methyl-N-(2- nitro -phenyl)- anthranilic acid . (
  • The primary structure is simply the order, or sequence, of the amino-acid residues along the polypeptide chains. (
  • this chain is folded into a uniquely defined configuration, in which it is held by hydrogen bonds between the peptide nitrogen and oxygen atoms and also between the free amino and carboxyl groups of the diamino and dicarboxyl amino acid residues. (
  • The substrate specificity of an endopeptidase consists in the ability of a given enzyme to hydrolyze the peptide bonds between certain amino acid residues with the greatest speed. (
  • they possess a five-motif amino acid sequence signature, and conserved dicarboxylic amino acid residues are probably elements of the glycosyl transferase catalytic center. (
  • Many studies, including nucleic and amino acid derivatives, showed that 2-mercaptopyrimidine and 2-mercapto-4-aminopyrimidine are able to inhibit the synthesis of t -RNA [ 8 ]. (
  • Solvatochromic Effects in the Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of Indazole and Its Amino Derivatives," J. Photochem. (
  • Coupling of the core molecule with the protected amino acid, then deprotection and guanidinylation generated the novel a,a-trehalose derivatives. (
  • The efficient asymmetric synthesis of new chiral gamma-chloro-alpha,beta-diamino acid derivatives via highly diastereoselective Mannich-type reactions of N-(diphenylmethylene) glycine esters across a chiral alpha-chloro-N-p-toluenesulfinylimine was developed. (
  • The gamma-chloro-alpha,beta-diamino acid derivatives proved to be excellent building blocks for ring closure towards optically pure anti-and syn-beta,gamma-aziridino-alpha-amino esters, and subsequent ring transformation into trans-3-aminoazetidine-2-carboxylic acid derivatives and alpha,beta-diamino-gamma-butyrolactones. (
  • Callebaut G, Mangelinckx S, Kiss L, Sillanpaa R, Fulop F, De Kimpe N. Asymmetric synthesis of α,β-diamino acid derivatives with an aziridine-, azetidine- and γ-lactone-skeleton via Mannich-type additions across α-chloro-N-sulfinylimines. (
  • The simplest and smallest amino acid is glycine , for which the R group is a single hydrogen. (
  • Here, we quantify the DLIPS performance using a Raman scattering probe in classification of basic constituents of collagenous tissues, namely, the amino acids glycine, L -proline, and L -alanine, and the dipeptides glycine-glycine, glycine-alanine and glycine-proline and compare the performance to a traditional Raman spectroscopy probe via several multivariate analyses. (
  • Murchison contains common amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and glutamic acid as well as unusual ones such as isovaline and pseudoleucine. (
  • In Noopept's case, the two amino acids are Glycine and Proline . (
  • Cedar nut fat differs from other fat sources in its high content of polyunsaturate fatty acids, especially linolic acid. (
  • It's also needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids. (
  • In chemistry, a diamino acid, also called a diamino carboxylic acid, is a molecule containing at least one carboxyl and two amine functional groups. (
  • To do so, the α-amino nitrile is broken down using acid (acid hydrolysis) to produce an α-amino carboxylic acid. (
  • Also, the effect of 2-mercaptopyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid and S-analogy of pyrimidinic bases on oral epidermoid human carcinoma (KB) have been reported [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • The article demonstrates that a super-engineering plastic with very high thermo-mechanical properties bearing unprotected carboxylic acid groups can be utilized to incept the water solubility in the polymer. (
  • Propionates were shown to transesterify with the labelled acetic acid (Fig. 7). (
  • Transesterificationof esters of propionic acid with [14C]-acetic acid. (
  • Cystinuria is defined as an inherited disorder characterized by increased urinary excretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids arginine, lysine and ornithine. (
  • Lysine Other name(s): a,e-diamino-n-caproic acid General information Lysine is an essential amino acid. (
  • Our findings, in which substitution of a conserved dibasic amino acid pair in the activation loop of PpPIPK1 completely prevented plasma membrane targeting and abolished enzymatic activity, demonstrate its critical role in these processes. (
  • Placing our results in the context of studies of eukaryotic PIPKs led us to conclude that the function of the dibasic amino acid pair in the activation loop in type I/II PIPKs is plant specific. (
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular genetic basis of cystinuria in patients from Sweden and to correlate genetic findings with phenotypes produced regarding cystine and dibasic amino acid excretion. (
  • Ammonia (formed by nitrogen fixation) is assimilated into organic compounds by converting glutamic acid to glutamine. (
  • Glutamine can then be used as a nitrogen donor in the biosynthesis of many compounds, including other amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines. (
  • A 2010 study using high resolution analytical tools including spectroscopy, identified 14,000 molecular compounds, including 70 amino acids, in a sample of the meteorite. (
  • A significantly higher anticancer effect of Lac-L-TTA with respect to the fructose analogue emerged from our study suggesting that the anti-metastatic potential of fructosyl-amino acids can be enhanced by increasing the polarity of the compounds, for example by introducing disaccharide moieties in place of fructose. (
  • The invention features compounds and methods relating to hydroxy-proline analog inhibitors of the ASCT1 and ASCT2 neutral amino acid transporters useful for diagnostic purposes. (
  • 2,3-Diaminopropionic acid, also known as L-2,3-diaminopropanoate or Dpr, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. (
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. (
  • Three NPAAs of concern are the neurotoxins Beta-oxalyl-diamino-propionic acid (Beta-ODAP) ( L. sativus ), Diamino-butyric acid (DABA) ( L. sylvestris ) and the nitrile containing beta-amino-propionitrile (BAPN) ( L. odoratus ). (
  • The corresponding diamino acids such as 2,3-diaminopropanoic acid were detected in the Murchison meteorite and in a simulated comet. (
  • Amino Acid Asymmetry in the Murchison Meteorite! (
  • Now two biochemists at the University of Arizona have reported in Science that they found more left-handed than right-handed versions of certain amino acids in the Murchison meteorite (3) . (
  • Other scientists, before 1997, have demonstrated that there are more left-handed than right-handed versions of some amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite (5) . (
  • Now we can be even more confident that the excess of left-handed amino acids in the Murchison meteorite was there before it struck Earth. (
  • The results increase the weight of the previous argument for panspermia based on biological amino acids from Murchison. (
  • A specific family of amino acids called diamino acids was identified in the Murchison meteorite as well. (
  • 5-[(2-Aminoethyl)amino]naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, a fluorophor usually coupled to the Nω of a diamino acid (e.g. (
  • Amino acids and the asymmetry of life. (
  • In 1997, L-excesses also were found in a non-protein amino acid, isovaline, suggesting an extraterrestrial source for molecular asymmetry in the solar system. (
  • We will then highlight the transfer of asymmetry from chiral photons to racemic amino acids and elucidate current experimental data on the photochemical synthesis of amino and diamino acid structures in simulated interstellar and circumstellar ice environments. (
  • Here, the α-amino nitrile is protonated by an acid, undergoes a proton transfer step and is subsequently attacked by a molecule of water. (
  • 2,3-Diaminopropionic acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. (
  • Mechanism of L-ascorbic acid uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells: evidence for the involvement of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2. (
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the mechanism of L-ascorbic acid uptake by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and to functionally characterize the specific transporter involved in this translocation process. (
  • METHODS: Uptake studies were carried out with SIRC (Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea) and rPCEC (rabbit Primary corneal epithelial cell culture) in 12-well plates using [14C] Ascorbic acid (AA). (
  • Uptake was done in the presence of L-ascorbic acid and D-isoascorbic acid to delineate stereospecificity. (
  • RESULTS: Uptake of AA was inhibited by about 90% and 50% respectively in the presence of L-ascorbic acid and D-isoascorbic acid in both SIRC and rPCEC. (
  • A saturable, sodium dependent, and pH sensitive transporter with high specificity for L-ascorbic acid was functionally characterized and was identified as SVCT2. (
  • of glutamate and related excitatory amino acids suggest that excitotoxic injury may be a contributory factor. (
  • Glucarpidase is a recombinant form of carboxypeptidase G2, a bacterial enzyme that rapidly cleaves methotrexate to form the amino acid glutamate and 2,4-diamino-N 10 -methylpteroic acid. (
  • From the culture medium of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas corrugata, a lipopeptide siderophore was isolated that comprises interesting structural elements such as cyclic condensation products of the two amino groups of 2,4-diamino butyric acid with the carboxyl group of a second amino acid, and the rarely encountered L-threo-B-hydroxy histidine. (
  • Methionine Other name(s): a-amino-g-methylthiol-n-butyric acid Overview Methionine is an amino acid. (
  • The scientific design of this mission will therefore be presented in the context of analysing the formation of amino acid structures within interstellar ice analogues as a means towards furthering understanding of the origin of asymmetric biological molecules. (
  • The carboxyl groups of the sorbic acid mol-ecules and the carboxyl-ate groups of the sorbate anions are connected via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. (
  • However, even before the new work by Cronin and Pizarello was reported, analyses of isotope ratios showed that the excess of left-handed amino acids in the meteorite was not the result of earthly contamination (7) . (
  • Cronin and Pizarello do not mention the possibility that the left-handed amino acids could be byproducts of biological processes in the meteorite's parent body. (
  • NASA has found left-handed amino acids in many more carbon-rich meteorites. (
  • A team of chemists in Sweden demonstrated in 2005 that this homochirality could have been triggered or catalyzed, by the action of a left-handed amino acid such as proline. (
  • α-amino acids are molecules, which contain an amine and carboxylic group that are separated by a single carbon (the α-carbon). (
  • These analogs are potent and selective inhibitors of ASCT2 and ASCT1-mediated amino acid transport as evidenced by significantly reduced glutamine or alanine transport-associated currents or radiolabeled substrate (amino acid) uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing ASCT2 or ASCT1. (
  • Nucleic Acids Res. (
  • Diamino acids are used for the synthesis of specific peptide nucleic acids, such as daPNA. (
  • Artificial peptide nucleic acids are capable of forming duplex structures with individual DNA- and RNA-strands and are, therefore, not only called DNA-analog, but also they are considered as candidates for the first genetic material on Earth. (
  • The two neutral amino acids examined had rate coefficients for efflux which were similar, and approximately equal to rate coefficients for the nonsaturable component of entry of this category of substrates. (
  • the difference may be due to lower levels of endogenous, competing diamino acids compared with the neutral amino acids. (
  • E. A. Bell, K. P. W. C. Perera, P. B. Nunn, M. S. J. Simmonds and W. M. Blaney, "Non-Protein Amino Acids of Lathyrus Latifolius as Feeding Deterrents and Phago-stimulants in Spodoptera Littoralis," Phytochemistry, Vol. 43, No. 5, 1996, pp. 1003-1007. (
  • The monofunctional penicillin-binding dd -peptidases and penicillin-hydrolyzing serine β-lactamases diverged from a common ancestor by the acquisition of structural changes in the polypeptide chain while retaining the same folding, three-motif amino acid sequence signature, serine-assisted catalytic mechanism, and active-site topology. (
  • The present invention relates to a method for providing bacterial or yeast cells with the capacity to produce a protein, the amino acid sequence of which comprises at least one unconventional amino acid. (
  • Agonist-stimulated PI-hydrolysis was attenuated (25 +/- 4% inhibition) by L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid and partially blocked (44 +/- 7%) by pertussis toxin treatment. (
  • Inhibition studies were performed in the presence of D-glucose a substrate for GLUT and also para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) a substrate for organic anion transporter. (
  • When HY is an amino compound, NH 2 -R 3 , the carbonyl donor is transpeptidated and the product of enzyme deacylation is R 1 -CO-NH-R 3 . (
  • It is synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia. (
  • iii) acyl side chain derived from malic acid, succinic acid, their mono amides, α-ketoglutaric acid, or glutamic acid. (
  • Selectivity has been established in the same manner whereby reduced substrate associated current or substrate uptake is unobserved in Xenopus oocytes expressing ATA2, SN1, or EAAT(s) (excitatory amino acid transporter). (
  • 6 . The composition of claim 1 , wherein the 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid is selected from the group consisting of citric acid, lactic acid, and glycolic acid. (
  • 8 . The composition of claim 1 , wherein the 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid is citric acid. (
  • 19 . The method of claim 18 , wherein the 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid is selected from the group consisting of citric acid, lactic acid, and glycolic acid. (
  • 20 . The method of claim 18 , wherein the 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid is citric acid. (
  • Tryptophan Other name(s): a-amino-b-[3-indollyl]-propionic acid Unsubstantiated claims Please note that this section reports on claims that have not yet been substantiated through studies. (
  • Serine Other name(s): a-amino-b-hydroxy-propionic acid General description Phosphatidylserine is a fat-soluble phospholipid. (
  • l -3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l -DOPA) uptake in renal epithelial cells is promoted through the type 2 L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2), and this might rate-limit the synthesis of renal dopamine. (
  • 14 The proximal tubules, but not distal segments of the nephron, are endowed with high aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, and epithelial cells of proximal tubules have been demonstrated to synthesize dopamine from circulating or filtered l -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l -DOPA). (
  • 4,15,16 Recently, l -DOPA uptake in renal epithelial cells was found to be promoted through the Na + -independent and pH-sensitive type 2 L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2), 17 the activity of which might rate-limit the synthesis of renal dopamine. (
  • Meso-diaminopimelic acid and meso-lanthionine, amino acids specific to bacterial peptidoglycans, activate human epithelial cells through NOD1. (
  • Where Noopept differs is that it is a dipeptide, which is two ('di') amino acids joined together by a peptide bond. (
  • Stage 1: Addition of ammonia and hydrogen cyanide to an aldehyde to form an α-amino nitrile. (
  • Stage 2: hydrolysis of the α-amino nitrile to produce an α-amino acid. (
  • Gruner SAW, Locardi E, Lohof E, Kessler H (2002) Carbohydrate-based mimetics in drug design: sugar amino acids and carbohydrate scaffolds. (
  • 2,3-Diaminopropionic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. (
  • In biochemistry, diamino acids are of particular interest. (
  • Biochemistry scientific background with amino acids. (
  • The primordial appearance of chiral amino acids was an essential component of the asymmetric evolution of life on Earth. (
  • Blakley RL, Ramasastri BV, McDougall BM (1963) The biosynthesis of thymidylic acid. (
  • The genetic basis of the disorder is best characterized in humans and is caused by mutations in one of the amino acid transporter genes SLC3A1 or SLC7A9 , which results in hyperexcretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids in the urine and subsequent precipitation of cystine due to its low solubility in urine. (
  • Estimation of efflux of amino acids from the mammalian lens indicates it is of small magnitude compared to influx at equivalent nonsaturating levels of substrate. (
  • 2-Amino-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid Molecular. (