Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found in dairy products or in the intestinal tracts of animals.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A genus of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic BACTERIA, in the family Cellulomonadaceae. It is found in the SOIL and capable of hydrolyzing CELLULOSE.
A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family Paenibacillaceae.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of bacteria ranging from free living and saprophytic to parasitic and pathogenic forms.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Disaccharides as a new class of nonaccumulated osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti. (1/227)

Sucrose and ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidine carboxylic acid) are very unusual osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti because these compounds, unlike other bacterial osmoprotectants, do not accumulate as cytosolic osmolytes in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells. Here, we show that, in fact, sucrose and ectoine belong to a new family of nonaccumulated sinorhizobial osmoprotectants which also comprises the following six disaccharides: trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, turanose, and palatinose. Also, several of these disaccharides were very effective exogenous osmoprotectants for strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars phaseoli and trifolii. Sucrose and trehalose are synthesized as endogenous osmolytes in various bacteria, but the other five disaccharides had never been implicated before in osmoregulation in any organism. All of the disaccharides that acted as powerful osmoprotectants in S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum also acted as very effective competitors of [14C]sucrose uptake in salt-stressed cultures of these bacteria. Conversely, disaccharides that were not osmoprotective for S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum did not inhibit sucrose uptake in these bacteria. Hence, disaccharide osmoprotectants apparently shared the same uptake routes in these bacteria. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantification of cytosolic solutes demonstrated that the novel disaccharide osmoprotectants were not accumulated to osmotically significant levels in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells; rather, these compounds, like sucrose and ectoine, were catabolized during early exponential growth, and contributed indirectly to enhance the cytosolic levels of two endogenously synthesized osmolytes, glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide. The ecological implication of the use of these disaccharides as osmoprotectants is discussed.  (+info)

Role of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate as an enzyme stabilizer and an intermediate in the biosynthesis of hydroxyectoine. (2/227)

Strain CHR63 is a salt-sensitive mutant of the moderately halophilic wild-type strain Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 that is affected in the ectoine synthase gene (ectC). This strain accumulates large amounts of Ngamma-acetyldiaminobutyrate (NADA), the precursor of ectoine (D. Canovas, C. Vargas, F. Iglesias-Guerra, L. N. Csonka, D. Rhodes, A. Ventosa, and J. J. Nieto, J. Biol. Chem. 272:25794-25801, 1997). Hydroxyectoine, ectoine, and glucosylglycerate were also identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as cytoplasmic organic solutes in this mutant. Accumulation of NADA, hydroxyectoine, and ectoine was osmoregulated, whereas the levels of glucosylglycerate decreased at higher salinities. The effect of the growth stage on the accumulation of solutes was also investigated. NADA was purified from strain CHR63 and was shown to protect the thermolabile enzyme rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase against thermal inactivation. The stabilizing effect of NADA was greater than the stabilizing effect of ectoine or potassium diaminobutyrate. A (1)H NMR analysis of the solutes accumulated by the wild-type strain and mutants CHR62 (ectA::Tn1732) and CHR63 (ectC::Tn1732) indicated that H. elongata can synthesize hydroxyectoine by two different pathways-directly from ectoine or via an alternative pathway that converts NADA into hydroxyectoine without the involvement of ectoine.  (+info)

A cycle of deprotonation and reprotonation energizing amino-acid transport? (3/227)

Although lowering the pK2 of neutral amino acids only weakens their concentrative uptake by Ehrlich cells, the same change greatly enhances uptake of diamino acids. This effect does not arise merely from putting the distal amino group in its uncharged form, but depends on an enhanced deprotonation of the alpha-amino group. Parallel effects are seen for the transport system for basic amino acids, for which the assignment of pK values within the membrane is less ambiguous. To explain the paradoxical advantages of having the alpha-amino group protonated yet readily deprotonated, we propose that a proton withdrawn from that group is pumped over an intramembrane interval to energize amino-acid transport.  (+info)

The contribution of a conformationally mobile, active site loop to the reaction catalyzed by glutamate semialdehyde aminomutase. (4/227)

The behavior of glutamate semialdehyde aminomutase, the enzyme that produces 4-aminolevulinate for tetrapyrrole synthesis in plants and bacteria, is markedly affected by the extent to which the central intermediate in the reaction, 4,5-diaminovalerate, is allowed to dissociate. The kinetic properties of the wild-type enzyme are compared with those of a mutant form in which a flexible loop, that reversibly plugs the entrance to the active site, has been deleted by site-directed mutagenesis. The deletion has three effects. The dissociation constant for diaminovalerate is increased approximately 100-fold. The catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, measured as k(cat)/K(m) in the presence of saturating concentrations of diaminovalerate, is lowered 30-fold to 2.1 mM(-1) s(-1). During the course of the reaction, which begins with the enzyme in its pyridoxamine form, the mutant enzyme undergoes absorbance changes not seen with the wild-type enzyme under the same conditions. These are proposed to be due to abortive complex formation between the pyridoxal form of the enzyme (formed by dissociation of diaminovalerate) and glutamate semialdehyde itself.  (+info)

Purified NS2B/NS3 serine protease of dengue virus type 2 exhibits cofactor NS2B dependence for cleavage of substrates with dibasic amino acids in vitro. (5/227)

Dengue virus type 2 NS3, a multifunctional protein, has a serine protease domain (NS3pro) that requires the conserved hydrophilic domain of NS2B for protease activity in cleavage of the polyprotein precursor at sites following two basic amino acids. In this study, we report the expression of the NS2B-NS3pro precursor in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a histidine tag at the N terminus. The precursor was purified from insoluble inclusion bodies by Ni(2+) affinity and gel filtration chromatography under denaturing conditions. The denatured precursor was refolded to yield a purified active protease complex. Biochemical analysis of the protease revealed that its activity toward either a natural substrate, NS4B-NS5 precursor, or the fluorogenic peptide substrates containing two basic residues at P1 and P2, was dependent on the presence of the NS2B domain. The peptide with a highly conserved Gly residue at P3 position was 3-fold more active as a substrate than a Gln residue at this position. The cleavage of a chromogenic substrate with a single Arg residue at P1 was NS2B-independent. These results suggest that heterodimerization of the NS3pro domain with NS2B generates additional specific interactions with the P2 and P3 residues of the substrates.  (+info)

Ectoine, the compatible solute of Halomonas elongata, confers hyperosmotic tolerance in cultured tobacco cells. (6/227)

1,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid (ectoine) functions as a compatible osmolyte in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata OUT30018. Ectoine is biosynthesized by three successive enzyme reactions from aspartic beta-semialdehyde. The genes encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis, ectA, ectB, and ectC, encoding L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid acetyltransferase, L-2, 4-diaminobutyric acid transaminase, and L-ectoine synthase, respectively, have been previously cloned. To investigate the function of ectoine as a compatible solute in plant cells, the three genes were individually placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced together into cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) cells. The transgenic BY2 cells accumulated a small quantity of ectoine (14-79 nmol g(-1) fresh weight) and showed increased tolerance to hyperosmotic shock (900 mOsm). Furthermore, the transgenic BY2 cells exhibited a normal growth pattern even under hyperosmotic conditions (up to 530 mOsm), in which the growth of the untransformed BY2 (wild type) cells was obviously delayed. These results suggest that genetically engineered synthesis of ectoine results in the increased hyperosmotic tolerance of cultured tobacco BY2 cells despite the low level of accumulation of the solute.  (+info)

SH3 domain recognition of a proline-independent tyrosine-based RKxxYxxY motif in immune cell adaptor SKAP55. (7/227)

Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains recognize PXXP core motif preceded or followed by positively charged residue(s). Whether SH3 domains recognize motifs other than proline-based sequences is unclear. In this study, we report SH3 domain binding to a novel proline-independent motif in immune cell adaptor SKAP55, which is comprised of two N-terminal lysine and arginine residues followed by two tyrosines (i.e. RKxxYxxY). Domains capable of binding to class I proline motifs bound to the motif, while the class II domains failed to bind. Peptide precipitation, alanine scanning and in vivo co-expression studies demonstrated a requirement for the arginine, lysine and tandem tyrosines of the motif. Two-dimensional NMR analysis of the peptide bound FYN-SH3 domain showed overlap with the binding site of a proline-rich peptide on the charged surface of the SH3 domain, while resonance signals for other residues (W119, W120, Y137) were not perturbed by the RKGDYASY based peptide. Expression of the RKGDYASY peptide potently inhibited TcRzeta/CD3-mediated NF-AT transcription in T cells. Our findings extend the repertoire of SH3 domain binding motifs to include a tyrosine-based motif and demonstrate a regulatory role for this motif in receptor signaling.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein E;-low density lipoprotein receptor interaction. Influences of basic residue and amphipathic alpha-helix organization in the ligand. (8/227)

Conserved lysines and arginines within amino acids 140-150 of apolipoprotein (apo) E are crucial for the interaction between apoE and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). To explore the roles of amphipathic alpha-helix and basic residue organization in the binding process, we performed site-directed mutagenesis on the 22-kDa fragment of apoE (amino acids 1-191). Exchange of lysine and arginine at positions 143, 146, and 147 demonstrated that a positive charge rather than a specific basic residue is required at these positions. Consistent with this finding, substitution of neutral amino acids for the lysines at positions 143 and 146 reduced the binding affinity to about 30% of the wild-type value. This reduction corresponds to a decrease in free energy of binding of approximately 600 cal/mol, consistent with the elimination of a hydrogen-bonded ion pair (salt bridge) between a lysine on apoE and an acidic residue on the LDLR. Binding activity was similarly reduced when K143 and K146 were both mutated to arginine (K143R + K146R), indicating that more than the side-chain positive charge can be important.Exchanging lysines and leucines indicated that the amphipathic alpha-helical structure of amino acids 140-150 is critical for normal binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor.  (+info)

The hallmark symptom of RA is an inability to reabsorb these amino acids, leading to their excessive excretion in the urine. This can cause a range of health problems, including:

1. Cystinuria: excessive excretion of cystine in the urine, which can form stones and damage the kidneys.
2. Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1): excessive excretion of glutaric acid and other branched-chain amino acids in the urine, which can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disability, and seizures.
3. Aminoaciduria: excessive excretion of various amino acids in the urine, including alanine, glycine, and proline.
4. Kidney damage: chronic exposure to high levels of certain amino acids in the urine can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
5. Other complications: RA can also lead to other health problems, such as electrolyte imbalances, bone disease, and metabolic acidosis.

RA is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary restrictions, medications, and kidney transplantation in severe cases.

There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.

It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients. It is caused by a mutation in the HCN1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cobalamin into the cells.

Symptoms of Hartnup Disease:

The symptoms of Hartnup disease can vary in severity and may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness
* Headaches
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Seizures
* Poor appetite
* Diarrhea

Complications of Hartnup Disease:

If left untreated, Hartnup disease can lead to complications such as:

* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Nerve damage
* Skin problems
* Eye problems
* Hearing loss
* Increased risk of infections

Treatment of Hartnup Disease:

The treatment of Hartnup disease typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements. Patients with the condition may need to follow a strict diet that includes foods high in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. They may also need to take supplements to ensure they are getting enough of this important nutrient. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

Prognosis of Hartnup Disease:

The prognosis for Hartnup disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. With proper management, most patients with Hartnup disease can lead active and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications that can be difficult to reverse.

Inheritance Pattern of Hartnup Disease:

Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated HCN1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a person inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the condition but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers of Hartnup disease can pass the mutated gene on to their children, who have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and developing the condition.

Prevention of Hartnup Disease:

There is no known prevention for Hartnup disease. However, if a person knows they are a carrier of the condition, they can work with their healthcare provider to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 and monitoring their diet to prevent any complications.

In conclusion, Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements, and early diagnosis and management can lead to a good prognosis. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of Hartnup disease, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Cystinuria is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cystine across the brush border membrane of renal tubular cells. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that affected individuals must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop symptoms.

There is no cure for cystinuria, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms. These may include medications to reduce the acidity of the urine and prevent infection, as well as surgical procedures to remove stones or repair damaged kidneys. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.

It's important for individuals with cystinuria to drink plenty of water and maintain good hydration to help flush out the urinary tract and prevent stone formation. They should also avoid certain foods that may increase the risk of stone formation, such as oxalate-rich foods like spinach and rhubarb.

Overall, while there is no cure for cystinuria, with proper management and care, individuals with this disorder can lead relatively normal lives and minimize the complications associated with it.

Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.

Types of Starvation:

There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:

1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.

Effects of Starvation on the Body:

Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:

1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.

It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.

There are several types of PKU, including classic PKU, mild PKU, and hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). Classic PKU is the most severe form of the disorder and is characterized by a complete deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which is necessary for the breakdown of Phe. Mild PKU is characterized by a partial deficiency of PAH, while HPA is caused by a variety of other genetic defects that affect the breakdown of Phe.

Symptoms of PKU can vary depending on the severity of the disorder, but may include developmental delays, intellectual disability, seizures, and behavioral problems. If left untreated, PKU can lead to serious health complications such as brain damage, seizures, and even death.

The primary treatment for PKU is a strict diet that limits the intake of Phe. This typically involves avoiding foods that are high in Phe, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products, and consuming specialized medical foods that are low in Phe. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

PKU is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that it is inherited in an unusual way. Both parents must carry the genetic mutation that causes PKU, and each child has a 25% chance of inheriting the disorder. PKU can be diagnosed through newborn screening, which is typically performed soon after birth. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the symptoms of PKU and improve quality of life for individuals with the disorder.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

Also known as: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA synthetase deficiency, and amino acid transporter defects.

There are several factors that can contribute to protein deficiency, including:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is lacking in protein-rich foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts, can lead to protein deficiency.
2. Vegetarian or vegan diet: People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet may be at risk of protein deficiency if they do not consume enough protein-rich plant-based foods.
3. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease, can lead to malabsorption of proteins and other nutrients.
4. Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding have a higher protein requirement to support the growth and development of their baby.
5. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, can lead to protein deficiency.

Protein deficiency can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Muscle wasting and loss of muscle mass
3. Poor wound healing
4. Hair loss
5. Difficulty concentrating and making decisions
6. Mood changes, such as irritability and depression
7. Increased risk of infections

If protein deficiency is not treated, it can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Stunted growth in children
2. Weakened immune system
3. Poor wound healing
4. Increased risk of infections
5. Nutrient deficiencies
6. Reproductive problems
7. Cardiovascular disease

Treatment for protein deficiency typically involves increasing the intake of protein-rich foods or supplements. The goal is to provide enough protein to support growth and development, as well as overall health and well-being. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms or address underlying conditions.

In addition to dietary changes, other treatments for protein deficiency may include:

1. Nutritional supplements: Protein supplements can be taken to increase protein intake.
2. Vitamin and mineral supplements: If the protein deficiency is due to a lack of certain vitamins or minerals, supplements may be prescribed.
3. Hormone replacement therapy: In cases where protein deficiency is caused by hormonal imbalances, hormone replacement therapy may be recommended.
4. Medications: Certain medications, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs, may be prescribed to help manage symptoms of protein deficiency.
5. Addressing underlying conditions: If the protein deficiency is due to an underlying condition, such as kidney disease, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing protein deficiency is important for maintaining overall health and well-being. Here are some tips for preventing protein deficiency:

1. Eat a balanced diet: Include a variety of protein-rich foods in your diet, such as lean meats, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts.
2. Consult with a healthcare professional: If you are vegetarian or vegan, or if you have certain medical conditions, consult with a healthcare professional to ensure you are getting enough protein.
3. Consider supplements: If you are unable to get enough protein through your diet alone, consider taking protein supplements.
4. Monitor your symptoms: Pay attention to any symptoms of protein deficiency and seek medical attention if they persist or worsen over time.

Overall, preventing protein deficiency is important for maintaining overall health and well-being. If you suspect you or someone you know may have a protein deficiency, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. With proper diagnosis and treatment, protein deficiency can be effectively managed and symptoms can improve.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

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There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

Treatment for uremia typically involves dialysis or kidney transplantation to remove excess urea from the blood and restore normal kidney function. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, anemia, or electrolyte imbalances.

The term "uremia" is derived from the Greek words "oura," meaning "urea," and "emia," meaning "in the blood." It was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe a condition caused by excess urea in the blood. Today, it remains an important diagnostic term in nephrology and is often used interchangeably with the term "uremic syndrome."

Diamino acids belong to the class of amino acids. Lysine is a proteinaceous diamino acid (i.e. a component of proteins), and is ... Ornithine is a non-proteinaceous diamino acid. In biochemistry, diamino acids are of particular interest. Diamino acids are ... In chemistry, a diamino acid, also called a diamino carboxylic acid, is a molecule including a carboxylic acid and two amine ... Uwe Meierhenrich (2008). Amino acids and the asymmetry of life. Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-76885-2. (Amino acids, ...
A specific family of amino acids called diamino acids was identified in the Murchison meteorite as well. The initial report ... decomposition or synthesis of amino acids to occur with protein amino acids but not with non-protein amino acids". In 1997, L- ... Later the amino acid alanine, which is also a protein amino acid, was found to have an excess of the L-configuration, which led ... The meteorite contained a mixture of left-handed and right-handed amino acids; most amino acids used by living organisms are ...
A 1,2-diamino-diol is then formed after proton exchange and a nucleophilic attack of water to the former nitrile carbon. ... The Strecker amino acid synthesis, also known simply as the Strecker synthesis, is a method for the synthesis of amino acids by ... While usage of ammonium salts gives unsubstituted amino acids, primary and secondary amines also give substituted amino acids. ... Several methods exist to synthesize amino acids aside from the Strecker synthesis. The commercial production of amino acids ...
Structurally, it is a derivative of trans-stilbene, containing amino and sulfonic acid functional groups on each of the two ... 4,4′-Diamino-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid is the organic compound with the formula (H2NC6H3SO3H)2C2H2. It is a white, water- ... It is produced by reduction of 4,4′-dinitro-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid with iron powder. P. F. Vogt, J. J. Gerulis, "Amines, ... Benzenesulfonic acids, Cleaning product components, Luminescence, Stilbenoids). ...
... based on their amino acid or di-amino acid content. Brendel V, Bucher P, Nourbakhsh IR, Blaisdell BE, Karlin S (15 Mar 1992). " ... Wootton JC, Federhen S (June 2003). "Statistics of local complexity in amino acid sequences and sequence databases". Computers ... and calculation of amino acid frequencies. Furthermore, the union or intersection of the results of the search on a query ... Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Web server issue): W435-W440. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp254. PMC 2703921. PMID 19389726. Harbi D, Kumar M, ...
5-diamino-1,6-diphenylhexan-3-ol. Importantly, this retains the absolute stereochemistry of the amino acid precursor. The ...
... β-amino acids, syn- and anti-2,3-diamino esters, α-amino aldehydes and ketones, β-amino ketones, α-amino phosphonates, ... Applications to the Synthesis of Nonracemic β-Amino acids and α-hydroxy-β-amino acids". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 57 (24): ... Davis, Franklin A; Srirajan, Vaidyanathan; Titus, Donald D. (1999). "Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Fluoro α-Amino Acids ... "Asymmetric synthesis of amino acids using sulfinimines (thiooxime S-oxides)". Chemical Society Reviews. 27: 13. doi:10.1039/ ...
... based on its amino acid or di-amino acid content. Wootton, John C. (September 1994). "Non-globular domains in protein sequences ... total amino acids of LCRs in a given proteome/total amino acids of that proteome) form LCRs whereas for five model eukaryotic ... The average size of a eukaryotic LCR is 42 amino acids long, whereas bacterial, archaeal and phage LCRs are 38, 36 and 33 amino ... Very similar trends for amino acids with a high (G, A, P, S, Q) and low (M, V, L, I, W, F, R, C) occurrence within LCRs have ...
2008). Amino acids and the asymmetry of life : caught in the act of formation. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-76885-2.. - ( ... Munoz Caro, G. M.; Bredehoft, J. H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Thiemann, W. H.-P. (11 June 2004). "Identification of diamino acids in ... They succeeded in synthesizing 16 amino acids. When the Rosetta spacecraft reached 67P in 2014, it detected similar organic ... "Amino acids from ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues". Nature. 416 (6879): 403-406. Bibcode:2002Natur.416.. ...
The benzyl group of 2-amino-5-benzyloxy-4-hydroxypyrimidine is removed by acid hydrolysis, yielding 2-amino-4,5- ... Divicine (2,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine) is an oxidant and a base with alkaloidal properties found in fava beans and ... This intermediate is then treated with nitrous acid to yield the slightly soluble orange product 2-amino-6-nitrosopyrimidine-4, ... A common derivative is the diacetate form (2,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-4,5-pyrimidinedione). Divicine is found in fava beans and in ...
The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. ... 6-diamino-N-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl]hexanamide. The condensation reaction occurs with loss of water: (S)-PhCH 2CH(CH 3)NH ... Chemically, lisdexamfetamine is composed of the amino acid L-lysine, attached to dextroamphetamine. Lisdexamfetamine was ... lisdexamfetamine is completely converted by red blood cells to dextroamphetamine and the amino acid L-lysine by hydrolysis via ...
The N-terminal 77 amino acids of UNG1 seem to be required for mitochondrial localization, but the presence of a mitochondrial ... The most abundant lesions formed at guanine residues are 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) and 8-oxoguanine. ... The most N-terminal conserved region contains an aspartic acid residue which has been proposed, based on X-ray structures to ... Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (11): 2579-84. doi:10.1093/nar/21.11.2579. PMC 309584. PMID 8332455. Olsen LC, Aasland R, Wittwer CU, ...
... sugars and amino acids existed in space, via meteorites. This includes non-terrestrial amino acids. Multiple isotopes do not ... Meierhenrich, U; Muñoz Caro, G; Bredehöft, J; Jessberger, E; Thiemann, W (22 Jun 2004). "Identification of diamino acids in the ... The levels of amino acids are higher in CMs than CIs. Amino-like nitriles/cyanides and heterocycles are also found. These ... As amino acids are diverse but low, the discovery of meteoritic chirality had to await the separation of IOM. Handedness of ...
I. The inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid-alpha-ketoglutaric acid transaminase in vitro and in vivo by U-7524 (amino- ... Kitagawa, Matsunosuke; Takani, A. (1936). "Studies on a Diamino Acid, Canavanin, IV. The Constitution of Canavanin and Canalin ... Reed, H.; Meltzer, J.; Crews, P.; Norris, C.; Quine, D.; Guth, P. (1985). "Amino-oxyacetic acid as a palliative in tinnitus". ... Blair, P.; Reed, H. (1986). "Amino-oxyacetic acid: A new drug for the treatment of tinnitus". Journal of the Louisiana State ...
The enolate species rearranges at -20 °C to form an amino acid with an allylic side chain in α-position. This method was ... The Overman rearrangement is applicable to the synthesis of vicinol diamino compounds from 1,2-vicinal allylic diols. Unlike ... Mechanism: The Kazmaier-Claisen rearrangement is the reaction of an unsaturated amino acid ester with a strong base (such as ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)81208-4. Kazmaier, U (1993). "Synthesis of Unsaturated Amino Acids by [3,3]‐Sigmatropic Rearrangement ...
Lattanzio V, Bianco VV, Crivelli G, Miccolis V (May 1983). "Variability of Amino Acids, Protein, Vicine and Convicine in Vicia ... Despite these initial successes, the correct formula of vicine was determined only in 1953 and it is 2,4-diamino-6- ... Vicine was initially isolated in 1870 from the seeds of Vicia sativa by a method of extraction with sulfuric acid and ... 6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine). These aglycones have a strong oxidising capacity for glutathione. In healthy individuals, ...
... of the 6-carbon dicarboxylic acid adipic acid. An important use of adipoyl chloride is polymerization with an organic di-amino ... carboxylic acids to form an organic acid anhydrides. In the above reactions, HX (hydrogen halide or hydrohalic acid) is also ... If the acid is a carboxylic acid (−C(=O)OH), the compound contains a −C(=O)X functional group, which consists of a carbonyl ... an alcohol to form an ester an amine to form an amide an aromatic compound, using a Lewis acid catalyst such as AlCl3, to form ...
Unlike related keto acids, it is not an intermediate or metabolite associated with amino acids and its origin is unknown. α- ... 2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene as a precolumn fluorescence derivatization reagent". Journal of Chromatography. 430 (2): ... Ketoisovaleric acid 3-Oxopentanoic acid (β-ketovaleric acid) Levulinic acid (γ-ketovaleric acid) Fu, X; Kimura, M; Iga, M; ... α-Ketovaleric acid is a keto acid that is found in human blood. ... Alpha-keto acids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
"Amino acid studies. Part IV. Structure and synthesis of the plant amino acid willardiine [3-(1-uracyl)-L-alanine]". Acta ... Viso, Alma; Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; García, Ana; Flores, Aida (August 2005). "α,β-Diamino Acids: Biological ... Willardiine was first discovered in 1959 by R. Gmelin, when he isolated several free, non-protein amino acids from Acacia ... This final synthesis of willardiine from uracil-1-lyacetaldehyde is carried out under the conditions of Strecker amino acid ...
... para-Aminobenzoic acid 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone 2-Amino-4-nitrophenol 2-Amino-5-nitrophenol 4-Amino-2-nitrophenol 2-Amino- ... 9 Dapsone Decabromodiphenyl oxide Deltamethrin Diacetylaminoazotoluene Diallate 1,2-Diamino-4-nitrobenzene 1,4-Diamino-2- ... Parasorbic acid Parathion Patulin Penicillic acid Pentachloroethane Permethrin Perylene Petasitenine Phenanthrene Phenelzine ... Hypochlorite salts Insulation glass wool Iron-dextrin complex Iron sorbitol-citric acid complex Isatidine Isonicotinic acid ...
... sulphur-containing amino acids, indol-derivatives, and carbohydrates. In the Handbuch der biochemischen Arbeitsmethoden (1912- ... folyóirat 1909) "Synthese der inaktiven α,δ-Diamino valleriansäure und des Prolnis" (with Emil Fischer; Budapest, 1909; ... Folyóirat 1911) "Neue Synthese von Amino-oxysäuren u. von Piperidon-Derivaten" (with Emil Fischer; Budapest, 1910; Berichte der ... "Übers-Amino α-guanido-capronsäure" (Budapest) "Einige Derivate der Cellobiose" (with Emil Fischer; Budapest, 1911; Berichte der ...
An artificial isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, is used for amino acid sequencing in the Edman degradation. Cruciferous ... O'Reilly, RJ; Radom, L (2009). "Ab initio investigation of the fragmentation of 5,5-diamino-substituted 1,4,2-oxathiazoles". ... "Isothiocyanates from tosyl chloride mediated decomposition of in situ generated dithiocarbamic acid salts". The Journal of ...
Other names in common use include diamino-acid transaminase, and diamino acid aminotransferase. Roberts E (February 1954). " ... 5-amino-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2,5-diaminopentanoate and 2-oxoglutarate, ... whereas its two products are 5-amino-2-oxopentanoate and L-glutamate. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. This enzyme ...
When formic acid is the carboxylic acid, the reaction yields the parent acridine. With the higher larger carboxylic acids, the ... 6-diamino-9-phenylacridine, which is the chief constituent of the dyestuff phosphine (not to be confused with phosphine gas), a ... the resulting o-nitro-p-diaminotriphenylmethane being reduced to the corresponding o-amino compound, which on oxidation yields ... 2-dicarboxylic acid. Acridine is easily oxidized by peroxymonosulfuric acid to the acridine amine oxide. The carbon 9-position ...
States DJ, Walseth TF, Lee HC (December 1992). "Similarities in amino acid sequences of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase and human ... amino-8-quinoline carboxamides and 2,4-diamino-8-quinazoline carboxamides". SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research. 30 (1): 21- ... When nicotinic acid is present under acidic conditions, CD38 can hydrolyze nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) ... Deaton DN, Haffner CD, Henke BR, Jeune MR, Shearer BG, Stewart EL, Stuart JD, Ulrich JC (May 2018). "2,4-Diamino-8-quinazoline ...
Now included with EC aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase EC aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase EC ... 5-diamino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribosylamino)pyrimidin-4(3H)-one isomerase/dehydratase * EC bisanhydrobacterioruberin ... Now included with EC aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase EC ... bile-acid 7α-dehydratase EC 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholest-24-enoyl-CoA hydratase EC ectoine synthase EC ...
Some electron-rich iminoboranes form adducts with Lewis acids. The typical [2+3]-cycloaddition is the addition of B≡N and RN3 ... Die Kristall- und Molekularstruktur von Hexakis(trimethylsilyl)-2,4-diamino-1,3,2,4-diazadiboretidin" (PDF). Acta ... amino-boration) and R (alkyl-boration). One of these reactions are illustrated here. ...
Thus, adsorption of the TNT decomposition product 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) was greater than that for 4-amino-2,6- ... Nitric acid is consumed by the manufacturing process, but the diluted sulfuric acid can be reconcentrated and reused. After ... and then carefully nitrated with a mixture of fuming nitric acid and sulfuric acid.[citation needed] TNT is one of the most ... The diamino products are energetically less favorable, and even less likely are the triamino products.[citation needed] The ...
Rumen microbes from African ruminants can degrade Acacia angustissima diamino acids. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 117: ... metabolize some tannins and moderate levels of condensed tannins may even be beneficial to ruminants by increasing amino acid ...
"A facile cleavage of oxirane with hydrazoic acid in dmf A new route to chiral β-hydroxy-α-amino acids". Tetrahedron Letters. 26 ... 3-diamino-3-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives". Tetrahedron. 57 (11): 2139-2145. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)00090-4. Martinez, ... Aliphatic alcohols give azides via a variant of the Mitsunobu reaction, with the use of hydrazoic acid. Hydrazines may also ... In the 1890s, Theodor Curtius, who had discovered hydrazoic acid (HN3), described the rearrangement of acyl azides to ...
NHCs are often strongly basic (the pKa value of the conjugate acid of an imidazol-2-ylidene was measured at ca. 24) and react ... Solé, Stéphane; Gornitzka, Heinz; Schoeller, Wolfgang W.; Bourissou, Didier; Bertrand, Guy (2001). "(Amino)(Aryl)Carbenes: ... 2-Diamino Enols (Breslow Intermediates)". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 (49): 12370-12374. doi:10.1002/anie.201205878. PMID 23081675 ... pKa values for the conjugate acids of several NHC families have been examined in aqueous solution. pKa values of triazolium ...
The vast majority of mutations conferring resistance are single amino acid residue substitutions (His274Tyr in N1) in the ... Karpf M, Trussardi R (March 2001). "New, azide-free transformation of epoxides into 1,2-diamino compounds: synthesis of the ... The enzyme cleaves the sialic acid which is found on glycoproteins on the surface of human cells that helps new virions to exit ... Rawat G, Tripathi P, Saxena RK (May 2013). "Expanding horizons of shikimic acid. Recent progresses in production and its ...
For example, a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and trifluoroperacetic acid oxidises the nitroso-substituted pyrimidine 4,6-diamino ... Mansuy, Daniel; Valadon, Philippe; Erdelmeier, Irene; López Garcia, Pilar; Amar, Claudine; Girault, Jean-Pierre; Dansette, ... Trifluoroperacetic acid (trifluoroperoxyacetic acid, TFPAA) is an organofluorine compound, the peroxy acid analog of ... or by reacting iodobenzene with a combination of trifluoroperacetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid: Trifluoroperacetic acid is ...
They can interact with cellular components including unsaturated lipids, amino acid residues and nucleic acids. If sufficient ... Diamino platinum porphyrins show high anti-tumour activity, demonstrating the combined effect of the cytotoxicity of the ... including amino acid residues in proteins, such as tryptophan; unsaturated lipids like cholesterol and nucleic acid bases, ... the inner two pyrrolenine nitrogens can be protonated with acids such as trifluoroacetic acid affording a dicationic ...
When the spacing of the amino acid residues participating in a hydrogen bond occurs regularly between positions i and i + 4, an ... V. Réaction anormale de la butanedione avec la diamino-1,2 anthraquinone; structure cristalline de la naphto \2,3-f] ... and also in the solid phase of many anhydrous acids such as hydrofluoric acid and formic acid at high pressure. It is also seen ... Viscosity of anhydrous phosphoric acid and of glycerol. Dimer formation in carboxylic acids and hexamer formation in hydrogen ...
Dapsone (diamino-diphenyl sulfone), an antibacterial, has been recommended for the treatment of dyshidrosis in some chronic ... Alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) has been approved for prescription in the UK. It is specifically used for chronic hand and ... ISBN 978-0-323-31029-1. Shelley, W. B. (1953-09-01). "Dysidrosis (pompholyx)". AMA Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology. 68 ... Bollag W, Ott F (1999). "Successful treatment of chronic hand eczema with oral 9-cis-retinoic acid". Dermatology (Basel). 199 ( ...
... a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by several species of both prokaryotic (cyanobacteria) and eukaryotic (diatoms) ... 3-diaminobutyric acid; 3,4-diaminobutyric acid; 3-amino-2-(aminomethyl)-propanoic acid; and 2,3-diamino-2-methylpropanoic acid ... The natural non-protein amino acid N-β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is incorporated into protein during synthesis. Amino Acids ... Dunlop, R.A.; Cox, P.A.; Banack, S.A.; Rodgers, K.J. The non-protein amino acid BMAA is misincorporated into human proteins in ...
N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The first 14 residues of SMFliC showed considerable identity to other flagellins. The ... Louis, MO). The reaction was developed with a mixture of diamino benzidine and 30% hydrogen peroxide (Sigma). A 38-kDa protein ... N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The first 14 residues of SMFliC showed considerable identity to other flagellins. The ... The S. maltophilia FliC protein, SMFliC, showed considerable identity in its first 14 amino acid residues to the flagellins of ...
Amino Acids, Diamino Entry term(s). Acids, Diamino Amino Acids, Dibasic Amino Amino Acids, Dibasic Diamino Amino Acids Dibasic ... Acids, Diamino Amino. Acids, Dibasic Amino. Amino Acids, Dibasic. Diamino Amino Acids. Dibasic Amino Acids. ... Amino Acids, Diamino - Preferred Concept UI. M0000925. Preferred term. ...
4-[(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]phenyl]arsonic acid EC / List no: 227-365-0 , CAS no: 5806-89-3 ... 4-((2-Amino-2-oxoethyl)amino)phenyl)arsonic acid EC / List no: - , CAS no: 618-25-7 ... Arsenenic acid EC / List no: - , CAS no: 10102-53-1 Arsonic acid, methyl-, compd. with 1-octanamine (1:1) EC / List no: - , CAS ... Arsenous acid EC / List no: - , CAS no: 13464-58-9 Silicic acid (H4SiO4), tetraethyl ester, polymer with arsenic oxide (As2O3) ...
Synthetic meso-lanthionine, which is another diamino-type amino acid specific to PGN of the specified Gram-negative bacteria, ... encoding a 953-amino acid polypeptide. The porcine NOD1 amino acid sequence is more closely related to the human sequence (83.8 ... Meso-diaminopimelic acid and meso-lanthionine, amino acids specific to bacterial peptidoglycans, activate human epithelial ... In the transfected cells, both gamma-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid, and meso-diaminopimelic acid and meso-lanthionine ...
4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene, sodium sulfite, resorcinol, sodium silicate, etidronic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, m- ... 1-hydroxyethyl 4.5 diamino pyrazole sulfate, coco-glucoside, ceteareth-20, ceteareth-12, parfum, glyceryl oleate, potassium ... 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene, sodium sulfite, resorcinol, sodium silicate, etidronic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, m- ... 1-hydroxyethyl 4.5 diamino pyrazole sulfate, coco-glucoside, ceteareth-20, ceteareth-12, parfum, glyceryl oleate, potassium ...
Suparx-5-aminosalicylic acid is sold as a prednisolone 5mg online Arroyo Grande buffering mixture of mono and di amino acid ... which are a sub-class of amino-diazide compounds. ...
Mutating R388 to an acidic amino acid small (Ala) or large non-polar (Phe) amino-acid reduces both the uptake activity and the ... γ-diamino esters, indole and pyrrole derivatives. Though the synthetic procedures are quite simple, the stereochemical issues ... A conserved positive charge in TM7: a key player in excitatory amino acid transporter dual function Delany Torres Department of ... Diversity-oriented synthesis from amino acid-derived β-ketoesters: Finding new TRPV1 antagonists Paula Pérez-Faginas1, M. ...
... can also be used to introduce hydrophobic spacer groups into the matrix by coupling 1.6-diamino hexane or 6-amino hexanoic acid ... Organic Acids. Amino Acids. Introduction. Enzymic Resolution. Enzymic Production of Amino Acids. Antioxident. Introduction. ... whereas basic amino acids bind test at pH 7.5. Atkinson pointed out the unpredictable elution properties of acidic proteins ... Amino Acids 7. DATA ON TECHNIQUES OF ENZYME IMMOBILIZATION AND BIOAFFINITY PROCEDURES. Entrapment. Gel Entrapment. Fibre ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule l-lysyl-l-seryl-l-glutamic acid (C14H26N4O7) from the PQR. ... 2s)-2-[[(2s)-2-[[(2s)-2,6-diamino-1-oxohexyl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropyl]amino]pentanedioic acid ... 2s)-2-[[(2s)-2-[[(2s)-2,6-diaminohexanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxy-propanoyl]amino]pentanedioic acid. ... 2s)-2-[[(2s)-2-[[(2s)-2,6-diaminohexanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxy-propanoyl]amino]glutaric acid ...
... such as acid anhydride, amino group or phenol group) of the other curing agent becomes 0.1 to 5 equivalents based on the epoxy ... diamino-3,3′-diethyl diphenyl methane, 4,4′-diaminodicyclohexyl methane, diethyl toluene diamine, phthalic anhydride, ... acid anhydride, amino group or phenol group) of the curing agent (component C) is 0.1 to 5 equivalents based on the epoxy group ... amino group, phenol group or decomposed product of an acid anhydride besides the epoxy group of the epoxy resin (component A), ...
... it not only couples activated amino acids to form dipeptides with high turnover rates but also couples an activated amino acid ... High catalytic selectivity is observed for the nucleophilic α-amino group of an α,β-diamino nucleophile and for the para ... it not only couples activated amino acids to form dipeptides with high turnover rates but also couples an activated amino acid ... it not only couples activated amino acids to form dipeptides with high turnover rates but also couples an activated amino acid ...
4-Amino-2-Hydroxytoluene, Steareth-2, 5-Amino-6-Chloro-o-Cresol, Thiolactic Acid, Polyquaternium-6, Camellia Oleifera Seed Oil ... 5-Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate, Ammonium Hydroxide, ...
Which type of amino acid is lysine ?. 1.b -amino acid. 2. Acidic. 3. Basic. 4. Neutral ... 1) 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine. (2) 2-amino-1,3,5-triazine. (3) 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine. (4) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-triazine ... An acids among the followingthat acts as vitamin is: 1. Benzoic acid. 2. Ascorbic acid. 3. Oxalic acid. 4. Formic acid ... An acid that actsas a vitamin is. 1. Aspartic acid. 2. Glumatic acid. 3. Ascorbic acid. 4. Saccharic acid ...
5-Amino-6-Chloro-O-Cresol, 1-Hydroxyethyl 4,5-Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate, Tetrasodium EDTA, Thioglycolic Acid, Toluene-2,5- ... Etidronic Acid, Disodium Phosphate, Sodium Stannate, Parfum, , Hair Conditioner , Water, Cetearyl Alcohol, Water/Amodimethicone ...
4, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 1,4-diamino-2-nitrobenzene) could not be classified. The cosmetic ... Of the four industrial dyestuffs, CI Direct Blue 15, CI Acid Red 114, and magenta containing CI Basic Red 9 were classified as ... 4, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 1,4-diamino-2-nitrobenzene) could not be classified. The cosmetic ... Of the four industrial dyestuffs, CI Direct Blue 15, CI Acid Red 114, and magenta containing CI Basic Red 9 were classified as ...
Di-Amino Phenol : 0.5% Maximum. Di-Nitro Phenol : 0.5% Maximum. Send inquiry. ... Solubility: Soluble in Dilute Acid and Alkaline Solution. Insolubles: Less then 0.2% ...
Novel Oxazole-Containing Amino Acids * B-Ring Contraction in Steroids via Benzilic Acid Rearrangement ... Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Chiral 1,2-Diamino Derivatives * New Synthesis of Azulene ...
5-Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate, 4-Amino-2-Hydroxytoluene, Toluene-2,5-Diamine Sulfate, 2-Amino-4-Hydroxyethylaminoanisole Sulfate. ... Ascorbic Acid, Dimethicone, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Hydrosulfite, Disodium EDTA, 1-Naphthol, p-Aminophenol, 1-Hydroxyethyl 4,5- ... Diamino Pyrazole Sulfate, 4-Amino-2-Hydroxytoluene, Toluene-2,5-Diamine Sulfate, 2-Amino-4-Hydroxyethylaminoanisole Sulfate. ... Ascorbic Acid, Dimethicone, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Hydrosulfite, Disodium EDTA, 1-Naphthol, p-Aminophenol, 1-Hydroxyethyl 4, ...
Buy Black 24 Acid Dyes online at the best price offered by GOKUL EXIMP. Our office is based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. ... 2.6 Diamino Toluidine. *3 Amino 4 Methoxy Benzene Sulfonic Acid. *3,3 Dichloro Benzidine Di Hcl ( Mw 257 ) ... PARA AMINO AZO BENZENE 3,4 DISULFONIC ACID. *PARA AMINO AZO BENZENE 4 SULFONIC ACID ( Y ACID ) ... 4 Nitro 2 Amino Diphenylamine 4 Sulfonic Acid (4-nadapsa). *4 Nitro 2 Amino Phenol 6 Sulfonic Acid ( 4 Napsa ) ...
Benzamide, 4-amino-. N- (4-aminophenyl)- Benzanilide, 4, 4-. diamino- Benzanilide, 4,4-d. iamino- ... Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]: Rate constants can NOT be estimated for this structure! ...
... and Difluorinated Amino Acids: Common Methodology- Based on (R)-2,3-O-Isopropylideneglyceraldehyde ... Gerstner, Peter; Rohde, Dirk; Hartmann, Horst: A Versatile Route to N,N′-(Peraryl)substituted 5,5′-Diamino-2,2′-bithiophenes ... Efficient Syntheses of ω-Trifluoromethyl Substituted ω-Amino Acids ... A Mild and Highly Efficient Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides with Periodic Acid Catalyzed by FeCl3 ...
Benzamide, 4,5-diamino-2-ethoxy-N-methyl- (9CI) SDS. C10H15N3O2. 116448-91-0 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-methyl-4-nitro-, methyl ... 4-OXO-4-[3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ANILINO]BUT-2-ENOIC ACID. C11H8F3NO3. 116401-54-8 Methyl 5-aMino-1H-iMidazole-4-carboxylate ... BENZENEACETIC ACID, 4-AMINO-3-NITRO- SDS. C8H8N2O4. ... AMINO-(2,3-DIMETHOXY-PHENYL)-ACETIC ACID SDS. C10H13NO4. 116435 ... 5-(Dipentylamino)-5-oxo-4-[(2-quinolinylcarbonyl)amino]valeric acid SDS. C25H35N3O4. ...
2 Chloro Benzoic Acid, 2.5 Di Chloro Para Phenylene Di-Amine, 2, 5 Di Chloro PPD, 2 Chloro Para Phenylene Di-Amine, CAS No. 79- ... Para Amino Benzoic Acid Para Amino Benzamide 3,5 Diamino Benzoic Acid 3,5 Di Nitro Benzoic Acid 4 Chloro Benzoic Acid Benzidine ... 2- Amino Dimethyl Terphthalate (ADMT) Para Nitro Toluene Ortho Sulphonic Acid (PNTOSA) 3 Amino 4 Chloro Benzoic Acid(CABA) Para ... Chromotropic Acid 6 Acetyl 2 (Ortho) Amino Phenol 4 Sulfonic Acid (6 Acetyl OAPSA) 2-Chloro-5-Toludine- 4-Sulphonic Acid (CLT ...
2-Amino-4-bromobenzoic acid CAS# 20776-50-5 4-Bromo-2-nitrobenzoic acid CAS# 99277-71-1 ... 2,5-Diamino-4,6-Dihydroxy Pyrimidine. CAS# 40769-69-5 2-Chloro-4,6-Dimethoxy-1,3,5-Triazine. CAS# 3140-73-6 ... R-(-)-3-(Carbamoymethyl)-5-methylhexanoic acid. CAS# 181289-33-8 O-(1H-benzotriazol-1-y1)-N,N,NN-tetramethyluronium ...
Nonprotein amino acids from spark discharges and their comparison with the Murchison meteorite amino acids (1972) Proc Natl ... Meierhenrich, U.J., Munoz Caro, G.M., Bredehoft, J.H., Jessberger, E.K., Thiemann, W.H.-P., Identification of diamino acid in ... Complexes Formation With Natural Nucleic Acids (494 views). Roviello GN, Musumeci D, Pedone C, Bucci EM. Amino Acids (ISSN: ... Takehara, M., Saimura, M., Inaba, H., Hirohara, H., Poly(γ-L-diaminobutanoic acid), a novel poly(amino acid), coproduced with ...
2-Amino-6-Chloro-9H-Purine-9-Acetic Acid Benzyl Ester. $0 ... 2,6-Diamino-9-(2-O-methyl-b-D-ribofuranosyl)purine. $0 ...
TCA-soluble peptides and amino acids were identified using the Lowry method (Lowry et al. 1951). Tyrosine solutions (0C100?g/ml ... 4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine the unmodified cytokine) in a mouse model of cancer.7 While good reviews exist on the topic of ... TCA-soluble peptides and amino acids were identified using the Lowry method (Lowry et al. 1951). Tyrosine Nav1.7-IN-2 solutions ... Under tissue remodeling conditions, mechanisms of alternative splicing can lead to the insertion of EDB, an extra 91-amino-acid ...
  • The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. (
  • The transfer of proteins and nucleic acids from donor to acceptor cells via small membrane vesicles has been implicated with (patho)physiological consequences. (
  • Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins. (
  • Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes. (
  • Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories. (
  • In DNA polymerase (Pol) beta, an enzyme mainly involved in DNA repair, the side chain of amino acid aspartate 276 prevents Pol beta from incorporating the oxidatively-induced damaged nucleotide 4,6-Diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (Fapy-dGTP) into DNA. (
  • The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. (
  • If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. (
  • Although an amine compound, acid anhydride or phenol resin is used as a curing agent for the epoxy resin, when a carbodiimide compound is used in combination, the curing agent reacts with the compound and a free isocyanate derived from the carbodiimide is produced by a high-temperature treatment at the time of curing, thereby causing problems such as limitation to the work environment and the deterioration of another member. (
  • 15. Synthesis, antifolate, and antitumor activities of classical and nonclassical 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines. (
  • 17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,4-diamino-6-(arylaminomethyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines as inhibitors of Pneumocystis carinii and Toxoplasma gondii dihydrofolate reductase and as antiopportunistic infection and antitumor agents. (
  • In continuation of our efforts toward the design and synthesis of novel small molecules and heterocyclic peptidomimetics, we developed an orthogonal deprotection strategy of oxazolyl amino acids, prepared from serine methyl ester and amino acids such as aspartic and glutamic acids to prepare a variety of pharmacologically relevant oxazole-based small molecules. (
  • Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. (
  • Tab azilide 500 price india, azilides are a class of highly potent antibacterial agent (azide 100 mg, aziridines and azidoximes) which are a sub-class of amino-diazide compounds. (
  • Non-proteinogenic amino acids play a fundamental role in drug discovery and chemical biology, being key building blocks in natural compounds as well as in bioactive peptides and mimics. (
  • 4,4'-Diamino-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid, disodium salt, is used in the synthesis of dyes and optical brighteners or fluorescent whitening agents. (
  • Adel Nefzi presents the synthesis and use of novel oxazolyl amino acids. (
  • Contains sulfuric acid and may contain sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. (
  • There were no biologically significant absolute or relative organ weight, clinical pathology, or histopathology findings in rats or mice administered 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid, disodium salt, in feed for 15 months. (
  • High catalytic selectivity is observed for the nucleophilic α-amino group of an α,β-diamino nucleophile and for the para substituent on the activated ester, traits that are consistent with hapten design. (
  • Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering the chemical (approximately 14% water, 6% sodium chloride, 4% impurities, and 76% 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid) in feed to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 14 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. (
  • ChromaSilk is enriched with pure Silk and Keratin Amino Acids to provide shine, silkiness and long-lasting color. (
  • In view of the difficult methodological problems and the paucity of pertinent data, the remaining hair dyes (CI Acid Orange 3, HC Blue No. 2, HC Red No. 3, HC Yellow No. 4, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 1,4-diamino-2-nitrobenzene) could not be classified. (
  • The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. (
  • 1.5E6 OH/cm3) Half-Life = 0.831 Hrs Ozone Reaction: No Ozone Reaction Estimation Fraction sorbed to airborne particulates (phi): 0.836 (Junge,Mackay) Note: the sorbed fraction may be resistant to atmospheric oxidation Soil Adsorption Coefficient (PCKOCWIN v1.66): Koc : 952.4 Log Koc: 2.979 Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]: Rate constants can NOT be estimated for this structure! (
  • The former chemoselectivity is crucial for the condensation of fragments which are unprotected at the ε-amino group of lysine. (
  • Recently, a group of researchers led by Dr. Adel Nefzi from the Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies (Florida, USA), published an interesting approach to novel oxazole-containing amino acids. (
  • Further investigation of the monoclonal antibody 16G3 has revealed that it not only couples activated amino acids to form dipeptides with high turnover rates but also couples an activated amino acid with a dipeptide to form a tripeptide, as well as an activated dipeptide with another dipeptide to give a tetrapeptide. (
  • Professor Nefzi said: "Unnatural amino acids are utilized as building blocks and molecular scaffolds in the construction of combinatorial libraries for drug-discovery research. (
  • Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. (
  • strain X0973 is a Gram-positive, weakly acid-fast, aerobic actinomycete obtained from a human abscess with Gordonia araii NBRC 100433(T) as its closest phylogenetic neighbor. (
  • A 38-kDa protein band of interest was excised from the PVDF membrane and subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis at the Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo. (
  • A diamino derivative of heptanedioic acid with amino groups at C-2 and C-6 and the general formula (COOH)CH(NH2)CH2CH2CH2CH(NH2)(COOH). (
  • Furthermore, if the insoluble myosin is treated with a typical denaturing agent, such as heat or acid, all of the SH groups in the protein become available, although no change in solubility is observed. (
  • If the denatured protein is dissolved, by acid, alkali, or urea, the solution is found to be far more viscous than a solution of native protein of the same concentration. (

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