Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum. (1/197)

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. We describe the synthesis of ACC by Penicillium citrinum, purification of ACC synthase [EC 4.4.1.14] and ACC deaminase [EC 4.1.99.4], and their properties. Analyses of P. citrinum culture showed occurrence of ACC in the culture broth and in the cell extract. ACC synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine and ACC deaminase was done from cells incubated in a medium containing 1% 2-aminoisobutyrate. The purified ACC synthase, with a specific activity of 327 milliunit/mg protein, showed a single band of M(r) 48,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme by gel filtration was 96,000 Da. The ACC synthase had the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 1.74 mM and kcat of 0.56 s-1 per monomer. The purified ACC deaminase, with a specific activity of 4.7 unit/mg protein, showed one band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of M(r) 41,000. The molecular mass of the native ACC deaminase was 68,000 Da by gel filtration. The enzyme had a Km for ACC of 4.8 mM and kcat of 3.52 s-1. The presence of 7 mM Cu2+ in alkaline buffer solution was effective for increasing the stability of the ACC deaminase in the process of purification.  (+info)

Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover. (2/197)

We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development.  (+info)

Glucose regulation of glutaminolysis and its role in insulin secretion. (3/197)

Leucine or the nonmetabolized leucine analog +/- 2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid (BCH) (both at 10 mmol/l) induced biphasic insulin secretion in the presence of 2 mmol/l glutamine (Q2) in cultured mouse islets pretreated for 40 min without glucose but with Q2 present. The beta-cell response consisted of an initial peak of 20- to 25-fold above basal and a less marked secondary phase. However, BCH produced only a delayed response, while leucine was totally ineffective when islets were pretreated with 25 mmol/l glucose plus Q2. With Q2, 10 mmol/l BCH or leucine caused a nearly threefold increase, a twofold increase, or had no effect on cytosolic Ca2+ levels in islets pretreated for 40 min with 0, 5, or 15 mmol/l glucose, respectively. Thus, pretreatment of islets with high glucose inhibited BCH- and leucine-induced cytosolic Ca2+ changes and insulin release. Glucose decreased glutamine oxidation in cultured rat islets when BCH was present at 10 mmol/l, but not in its absence, with a lowest effective level of approximately 0.1 mmol/l, a maximum of 18-30 mmol/l, and an inhibitory concentration, 50%, of approximately 3 mmol/l. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that glucose inhibits glutaminolysis in pancreatic beta-cells in a concentration-dependent manner and hence blocks leucine-stimulated insulin secretion. We postulate that in the basal interprandial state, glutaminolysis of beta-cells is partly turned on because glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is activated by a decreased P-potential due to partial fuel depletion and sensitization to endogenous activators such as leucine. Additionally, it may contribute significantly to basal insulin release, which is known to be responsible for about half of the insulin released daily. The data explain "leucine-hypersensitivity" of beta-cells during hypoglycemia and contribute to the elucidation of the GDH-linked syndrome of hyperinsulinism associated with elevated serum ammonia levels. Thus, understanding the precise regulation and role of beta-cell glutaminolysis is probably central to our concept of normal blood glucose control.  (+info)

Putative partial agonist 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid acts concurrently as a glycine-site agonist and a glutamate-site antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. (4/197)

1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) has been shown to protect against neuronal cell death after ischemic insult in vivo. Such results can be correlated with in vitro assays in which ACPC protected neurons against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by reducing the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel activation. Electrophysiological studies have determined that ACPC inhibits NMDA receptor activity by acting as a glycine-binding site partial agonist. In this study, rapid drug perfusion combined with whole-cell voltage-clamp was used to elicit and measure the effects of ACPC on NMDA receptor-mediated responses from cultured hippocampal neurons and cerebellar granule cells. The ACPC steady-state dose-response curve had both stimulatory and inhibitory phases. Half-maximal activation by ACPC as a glycine-site agonist was 0.7 to 0.9 microM. Half-maximal inhibition by ACPC was dependent on NMDA concentration. Peak responses to a >100 microM ACPC pulse in the presence of 1 microM glutamate were similar to those of glycine but decayed to a steady-state amplitude below that of glycine. The removal of ACPC initially caused an increase in inward current followed by a subsequent decrease to baseline levels. This suggests that relief of low-affinity antagonism occurs before high-affinity agonist dissociation. Simulations of ACPC action by a two glutamate-binding site/two glycine-binding site model for NMDA channel activation in conjunction with the concurrent role of ACPC as a glycine-site full agonist and glutamate-site competitive antagonist were able to successfully approximate experimental results.  (+info)

Regulation of L-methionine and L-lysine uptake in chicken jejunal brush-border membrane by dietary methionine. (5/197)

In the chicken intestine, L-methionine is transported by systems that are specific for neutral amino acids (L- and B-like) and by systems that can also transport cationic amino acids (y(+)m and b(0,+)-like). These four uptake pathways have been investigated in brush-border membrane vesicles from the jejunum of chickens fed a diet enriched with 0.4% L-methionine. Methionine supplementation from the 1st to the 6th wk of age has no effect on body weight or on the efficiency of food utilization. The kinetic analysis of L-methionine influx across the transport systems specific for neutral amino acids shows, for system L, no dietary effect on the Michaelis constant (Km) and a 30% reduction in maximal velocity (Vmax); for system B it shows a decrease in Km (30%) and in Vmax (51%). Transport systems shared by cationic and neutral amino acids show no dietary effect on b(0,+) activity and a significant reduction in y(+)m Vmax, similar for L-methionine and L-lysine, both in the absence and in the presence of Na+ (L-methionine, 30 and 26% reduction; L-lysine, 19 and 28% reduction, respectively). The downregulation induced by L-methionine supplementation may be an adaptive response to reduce the risk of intoxication by dietary excess of L-methionine. These results support the view that the toxicity of the supplemented substrate can be an important factor in the regulation of amino acid transport by dietary content.  (+info)

Hypaphorine from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius counteracts activities of indole-3-acetic acid and ethylene but not synthetic auxins in eucalypt seedlings. (6/197)

Very little is known about the molecules regulating the interaction between plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi during root colonization. The role of fungal auxin in ectomycorrhiza has repeatedly been suggested and questioned, suggesting that, if fungal auxin controls some steps of colonized root development, its activity might be tightly controlled in time and in space by plant and/or fungal regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrate that fungal hypaphorine, the betaine of tryptophan, counteracts the activity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on eucalypt tap root elongation but does not affect the activity of the IAA analogs 2,4-D ((2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid) or NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid). These data suggest that IAA and hypaphorine interact during the very early steps of the IAA perception or signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, while seedling treatment with 1-amincocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, results in formation of a hypocotyl apical hook, hypaphorine application as well as root colonization by Pisolithus tinctorius, a hypaphorine-accumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus, stimulated hook opening. Hypaphorine counteraction with ACC is likely a consequence of hypaphorine interaction with IAA. In most plant-microbe interactions studied, the interactions result in increased auxin synthesis or auxin accumulation in plant tissues. The P. tinctorius / eucalypt interaction is intriguing because in this interaction the microbe down-regulates the auxin activity in the host plant. Hypaphorine might be the first specific IAA antagonist identified.  (+info)

Expression of AtPRP3, a proline-rich structural cell wall protein from Arabidopsis, is regulated by cell-type-specific developmental pathways involved in root hair formation. (7/197)

The tightly regulated expression patterns of structural cell wall proteins in several plant species indicate that they play a crucial role in determining the extracellular matrix structure for specific cell types. We demonstrate that AtPRP3, a proline-rich cell wall protein in Arabidopsis, is expressed in root-hair-bearing epidermal cells at the root/shoot junction and within the root differentiation zone of light-grown seedlings. Several lines of evidence support a direct relationship between AtPRP3 expression and root hair development. AtPRP3/beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression increased in roots of transgenic seedlings treated with either 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (alpha-NAA), compounds known to promote root hair formation. In the presence of 1-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, AtPRP3/GUS expression was strongly reduced, but could be rescued by co-addition of ACC or alpha-NAA to the growth medium. In addition, AtPRP3/GUS activity was enhanced in ttg and gl2 mutant backgrounds that exhibit ectopic root hairs, but was reduced in rhd6 and 35S-R root-hair-less mutant seedlings. These results indicate that AtPRP3 is regulated by developmental pathways involved in root hair formation, and are consistent with AtPRP3's contributing to cell wall structure in Arabidopsis root hairs.  (+info)

Salicylates of intact Salix myrsinifolia plantlets do not undergo rapid metabolic turnover. (8/197)

Salicylates, the main phenolic glucosides of northern willow (Salix spp.), play an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. Salicylates are labile metabolites that are thought to undergo metabolic turnover. Salicylates are synthesized from phenylalanine (Phe) via the shikimate pathway. 2-Aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a strong inhibitor of Phe ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), was used to block the biosynthesis of salicylates. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term turnover of salicylates in intact micropropagated plantlets of Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. The biosynthesis of salicylates was inhibited efficiently but not completely by 30 microM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. Inhibitor treatment, aside from leading to a high accumulation of Phe, also led to an increase in tyrosine and tryptophan, indicating that 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid may also inhibit enzymes other than Phe ammonia-lyase. Salicylates were shown to be unexpectedly stable metabolites that did not undergo marked metabolic turnover in intact plants; in leaves no significant turnover occurred, and in the stems the five salicylates studied were turned over slowly, with half-lives of 11 to 25 d. The total amount of salicylate in mature shoots decreased only 0.6% per day.  (+info)

*Protein primary structure

Amino acids are polymerised via peptide bonds to form a long backbone, with the different amino acid side chains protruding ... pyroglutamate An N-terminal glutamine can attack itself, forming a cyclic pyroglutamate group. myristoylation − C ( = O ) − ( C ... Protein sequencing Nucleic acid primary structure Translation Pseudo amino acid composition SANGER F (1952). "The arrangement ... listing the amino acids starting at the amino-terminal end through to the carboxyl-terminal end. Either a three letter code or ...

*Santanu Bhattacharya

He is known for his studies of unnatural amino acids, cyclic peptides and biologically active natural products and is an ... Amino acids Cyclic peptides Har Gobind Khorana India portal Chemistry portal "Santanu Bhattacharya". Indian Institute of ... Bhattacharya is reported to have made notable contributions in the design and synthesis of unnatural amino acids, cyclic ...

*MRNA display

"Messenger RNA-programmed incorporation of multiple N-methyl-amino acids into linear and cyclic peptides". Chemistry & Biology. ... It has been shown that some unnatural amino acids, such as N-methyl-amino acid accylated tRNA can be incorporated into peptides ... N-substituted amino acid-containing peptides have been associated with good proteolytic stability and improved pharmacokinetic ... Some components, such as amino acids and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases (AARSs) can be omitted from the system. Instead, chemically ...

*Kulinkovich reaction

"Cyclopropane-Annelated Azaoligoheterocycles by Ti-Mediated Intramolecular Reductive Cyclopropanation of Cyclic Amino Acid ... Cha and its team introduced the use of cyclic Grignard reagents, particularly adapted for these reactions. The methodology has ... Chaplinski, V.; De Meijere, A. (1996). "A Versatile New Preparation of Cyclopropylamines from Acid Dialkylamides". Angewandte ... "A Versatile New Preparation of Cyclopropylamines from Acid Dialkylamides". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 35 (4): 413-14. doi:10.1002/ ...

*Alpha-Amanitin

... or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, ... The structure of the polypeptide is atypical of most polypeptides, due to the branching of the amino acid chain. A cross bridge ... is formed by the normal peptide bond of the carboxyl terminus to the amino terminus of the peptide chain. Unlike most cyclic ...

*Gamma-Amanitin

... or γ-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is an amatoxin, a group of toxins isolated from and ...

*Beta-Amanitin

... or β-amanitin is a cyclic peptide comprising eight amino acids. It is part of a group of toxins called amatoxins ...

*BQ-123

... is a cyclic peptide consisting of five amino acids. The amino acid sequence is D-tryptamine-D-aspartic acid-L-proline-D- ... "Cyclic pentapeptide endothelin antagonists with high ETA selectivity. Potency- and solubility-enhancing modifications". Journal ...

*Building block (chemistry)

I.V. Komarov; A.O. Grigorenko; A.V. Turov; V.P. Khilya (2004). "Conformationally rigid cyclic α-amino acids in the design of ... Other examples include natural and unnatural amino acid libraries, collections of conformationally constrained bifunctionalized ... p-Aminobenzoic Acid as a Building Block". Curr. Med. Chem. 9 (21): 1871-1892. doi:10.2174/0929867023368872. CS1 maint: Multiple ...

*Tushar Kanti Chakraborty

Chakraborty's researches covered the design and synthesis of unnatural amino acids, cyclic peptides and biologically active ... He is credited with designing new amide-linked molecular entities based on Sugar Amino Acids and anticancer compounds such as ...

*Foldamer

... a quality unique to peptides containing cyclic β-amino acids. Nucleotidomimetics do not generally qualify as foldamers. Most ... β-peptides are composed of amino acids containing an additional CH 2 unit between the amine and carboxylic acid. They are more ... Using a heteroligopeptide consisting of α-amino acids and cis-β-aminocyclopropanecarboxulic acids (cis-β-ACCs) they found the ... The amino acids of these peptides only differ by one (β), two (γ) or three (δ) methylene carbons, yet the structural changes ...

*Cycloisomerization

The utility of this transformation was demonstrated in the synthesis of cyclic γ- amino acid precursors (figure 1). It is ... Cationic Au(I) and Pt(II) catalyst are attractive choices as they display strong Lewis acid character and the ability to ... This Pull-push reactivity is important for understanding reactions mediated by π-acids. Complexation of the alkyne to the metal ... Cycloisomerization is any isomerization in which the cyclic isomer of the substrate is produced in the reaction coordinate. The ...

*Immunosuppressive drug

It is a cyclic fungal peptide, composed of 11 amino acids. Ciclosporin is thought to bind to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin ... Antimetabolites interfere with the synthesis of nucleic acids. These include: folic acid analogues, such as methotrexate purine ... Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and prevents synthesis of tetrahydrofolate. It is used ... Mycophenolic acid acts as a non-competitive, selective, and reversible inhibitor of Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase ( ...

*NR58-3.14.3

NR58.3-14-3 is a cyclic peptide consisting of 11 D-amino acids. It is a broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor and anti- ... the amino acid sequence was reversed and the amino acids replaced with D-amino acids. This combined transformation changes the ... Peptide 3' is a 12-amino acid linear peptide corresponding to amino acids 51 to 62 of mature human chemokine CCL2. It is formed ... The corresponding 11th amino acid in CXCL12 is Ile. Ala4 in CCL2 is also present in CCL3 but the corresponding residue is Leu ...

*Bacillus cereus

Like most of cyclic peptides containing nonproteogenic amino acids, cereulid is resistant to heat, proteolysis, and acid ... Cereulide is a cyclic polypeptide containing three repeats of four amino acids: D-oxy-Leu-D-Ala-L-oxy-Val-L-Val (similar to ... Bacterial growth results in production of enterotoxins, one of which is highly resistant to heat and acids (pH levels between 2 ... Anaerobic Growth: Positive Voges Proskauer test: Positive Acid produced from D-glucose: Positive L-arabinose: Negative D-xylose ...

*Chemotaxis

... cyclic nucleotides, amino acids, insulin, vasoactive peptides) also elicit migration of the cell. While some chemotaxis ... 5-hydroxyeicosatrieonic acid and 5-oxoeicosatrienoic acid are metabolites of Mead acid (5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrirenoid acid); they ... Investigations of ligand families (e.g., amino acids or oligo peptides) proved that there is a fitting of ranges (amplitudes; ... and receptors of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxo-ETEs) derived from arachidonic acid ...

*Extensin

Hydroxyproline is unusual not only as a cyclic amino acid that restricts peptide flexibility but as an amino acid with no codon ... Two tyrosines separated by a single amino acid, typically valine or another tyrosine, form a short intra-molecular ...

*IRGD

... is a 9-amino acid cyclic peptide (sequence: CRGDKGPDC) that was originally identified in an in vivo screening of phage ... Arginylglycylaspartic acid) peptides, also spread much more extensively into extravascular tumor tissue. It was later ...

*Catgrip

They are also observed in synthetic peptides and in cyclic hexapeptides made from alternating D,L amino acids. The conformation ... Catgrips are defined by the phi,psi main chain dihedral angles of the second and third amino acids in the nest. If two catgrips ... Each consists of the main chain atoms only of three consecutive amino acid residues. The first and third main chain CO groups ... of a catgrip is such that the CO groups of the first and third amino acid residues are liable to be electrostatically attracted ...

*Gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone

GBAP is an 11-amino-acid-residue cyclic peptide containing a lactone linkage between the C-terminal carboxylic acid group and a ... Gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone abbreviated as GBAP is a cyclic peptide produced by pathogenic bacteria such as ...

*Melanin-concentrating hormone

... (MCH) is a cyclic 19-amino acid orexigenic hypothalamic peptide originally isolated from the ...

*Daptomycin

... is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin consists of 13 amino acids, 10 ... dptD is responsible for incorporating the penultimate amino acid, 3-methyl-glutamic acid (3mGlu12), and the last amino acid, ... Two nonproteinogenic amino acids exist in the lipopeptide, the unusual amino acid L-kynurenine (Kyn), only known to daptomycin ... Once the coupling of decanoic acid to the N-terminal tryptophan residue occurs, the condensation of amino acids begins, ...

*Streptomyces alboflavus

"Two piperazic acid-containing cyclic hexapeptides from Streptomyces alboflavus 313". Amino Acids. 43 (5): 2191-8. doi:10.1007/ ... Ji, Z; Qiao, G; Wei, S; Fan, L; Wu, W (2012). "Isolation and characterization of two novel antibacterial cyclic hexapeptides ... Ji, Zhiqin; Wei, Shaopeng; Fan, Lixia; Wu, Wenjun (2012). "Three novel cyclic hexapeptides from Streptomyces alboflavus 313 and ...

*2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase

Kurihara T, Takahashi Y, Nishiyama A, Kumanishi T (Apr 1988). "cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence of human brain 2',3'-cyclic ... Kursula P (Feb 2008). "Structural properties of proteins specific to the myelin sheath". Amino Acids. 34 (2): 175-85. doi: ... Helfman DM, Kuo JF (Jan 1982). "A homogeneous cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes both pyrimidine and purine cyclic 2':3'- ... cDNA cloning and amino acid sequences for chicken and bullfrog enzymes". Journal of Neurochemistry. 69 (4): 1335-42. doi: ...

*Arginylglycylaspartic acid

Eptifibatide (marketed as Integrilin) is a cyclic (circular) seven amino acid peptide, whereas tirofiban is a small molecule ... Cilengitide, a cyclic tetrapeptide (RGDfV), is an investigational drug intended to block the growth of new blood vessels in ... Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) is the most common peptide motif responsible for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix ( ...

*Metabolism

... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... Munekage Y, Hashimoto M, Miyake C, Tomizawa K, Endo T, Tasaka M, Shikanai T (2004). "Cyclic electron flow around photosystem I ... Amino acid synthesis depends on the formation of the appropriate alpha-keto acid, which is then transaminated to form an amino ... amino acids can be linked in varying sequences to form a huge variety of proteins. Proteins are made from amino acids that have ...

*1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

... is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the Cα atom of the amino acid. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D511-6. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj128. PMC 1347490 . PMID 16381923. Yang S, Hoffman N (1984 ...
Read "Highly functionalized cyclic β-amino acid moieties as promising scaffolds in peptide research and drug design, Amino Acids" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Background and Aims: Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods: Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0 ...
Shop for Grow Gorgeous haircare solutions today, available with free delivery worldwide. Grow Gorgeous Hair Density Serum and Cleansing Conditioner Brunette Prismatic (Worth £50)
Tris-(heptane-3,5-dionato-o,o)iron/ACM25459794 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
PRP and the vampire facial have recently grown in popularity. PRP can rejuvenate the skin for anti-aging, increase hair density and thickness and even...
SIMILARITY:Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.,,CAUTION:Similar to plant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases but lacks a number of residues which are necessary for activity. ...
Competition assays allow for a massively parallel assessment of the relative fitness of variants in a functional context (1). Variant pools can be generated synthetically or harvested from the environment. Recently, deep mutational scanning was developed as a method to elucidate the sequence-function relationships and optimal catalytic sequences of proteins (2, 3). Using a doped DNA oligomer library as a starting point for selection assays, followed by next-generation sequencing, Fowler et al. (2, 3) mapped the mutational preferences of hundreds of thousands of protein variants for an important human protein domain and thereby assessed the fitness effects of nearly all the possible point mutations in the protein domain. This method is able to assay truly novel mutations and combinations of mutations affecting enzyme function, thereby helping to generate optimized engineered proteins for biomedical or other use.. The use of artificially produced proteins may be constrained for ethical and social ...
Leung Sau-wai, C. [梁秀慧]. (2002). Biochemical studies and heterologous expression of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid N-Malonyltransferase from mung hbean hypocotyls. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_ ...
This is a social download biochemical and physiological aspects of ethylene production in lower and higher plants proceedings of a conference held at of the most entire, flashing small guide of my 72 variations. s download biochemical and physiological aspects of ethylene production in lower and higher plants proceedings: I have a Democrat, but I found a Biden course. Greens download biochemical and physiological aspects of ethylene production in lower and higher plants proceedings of a conference held at the limburgs universitair of the Clinton Foundation patterns came almost Swedish to me.
diexo-3-Amino-7-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid amide/ACM1212408871 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
|P>Ethylene (C2H4) is a Plant hormone involved in a large number of developmental processes including Ripening of Fruit, Abscission, Senescence and Responses to Wounding. Ethylene Biosynthesis is best understood among the plant hormone pathways (Ref.1). In higher plants, Ethylene is [...]
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: (2R,5R,6S)-6-[(2,6-Dimethoxybenzoyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
4-Nitrophenyl bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-carboxylate | C14H15NO4 | CID 579216 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
This hair restoration question was answered by hair loss forum member "ArochaHair", online representative for Coalition physician Dr. Bernardino Arocha: I have an strip hair transplant procedure coming up on Dec 9. During my consultation, it was recommended I concentrate more on the front, with a relatively small percentage on the crown, and that I could have a […]. More. ...
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
1-Methylindazole-3-carboxylic acid chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 1-Methylindazole-3-carboxylic acid 50890-83-0, What are the physical properties of 1-Methylindazole-3-carboxylic acid ect.
5,7-dimethyl-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 5,7-dimethyl-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid 948293-86-5, What are the physical properties of 5,7-dimethyl-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid ect.
5-bromopyridine-3-carboxylic acid chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of 5-bromopyridine-3-carboxylic acid 20826-04-4, What are the physical properties of 5-bromopyridine-3-carboxylic acid ect.
Invited paper) Characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase in broccoli florets and from Escherichia coli cells transformed with cDNA of broccoli ACC ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Nabil Fahmy, MB BCH Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
1R,Website:http://www.royalpharms.net,2S,5R)-Menthyl-(2R,5S)-5-(4-amino-2-oxo-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-[1,3]oxathiolane-2-carboxylic Acid,API &Intermediates ...
Looking for SPECTRUM Aminopyrazine Carboxylic Acid,25g (26WR20)? Graingers got your back. Price:$85.50. Easy ordering & convenient delivery. Log-in or register for your pricing.
Most endophytic bacteria in consortia, which provide robust and broad metabolic capacity, are attractive for applications in plant metabolic engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of engineered endophytic bacterial strains on rice sprout ethylene level and growth under saline stress. A protocol was developed to synthesize engineered strains by expressing bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene on cells of endophytic Enterobacter sp. E5 and Kosakonia sp. S1 (denoted as E5P and S1P, respectively). Results showed that ACC deaminase activities of the engineered strains E5P and S1P were significantly higher than those of the wild strains E5 and S1. About 32-41% deaminase was expressed on the surface of the engineered strains. Compared with the controls without inoculation, inoculation with the wild and engineered strains increased the deaminase activities of sprouts. Inoculation with the engineered strains increased 15-21% more deaminase activities of
The exact role of ethylene in xylogenesis remains unclear, but the Zinnia elegans cell culture system provides an excellent model with which to study its role during the differentiation of tracheary elements (TEs) in vitro. • Here, we analysed ethylene homeostasis and function during Z. elegans TE differentiation using biochemical, molecular and pharmacological methods. • Ethylene evolution was confined to specific stages of TE differentiation. It was found to peak at the time of TE maturation and to correlate with the activity of the ethylene biosynthetic 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase. The ethylene precursor ACC was exported and accumulated to high concentrations in the extracellular medium, which also displayed a high capacity to convert ACC into ethylene. The effects of adding inhibitors of the ethylene biosynthetic ACC synthase and ACC oxidase enzymes to the TE cultures demonstrated for the first time strict dependence of TE differentiation on ethylene biosynthesis ...
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) enzymes catalyze the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) into 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a direct precursor of ethylene.
Biology and Biotechnology of the Plant Hormone Ethylene II by Klee, H. and Eu-Tmr-Euroconference Symposium on Biolo and Kanellis, A. K. available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and rThese papers assess existing knowledge and develop ideas on the mechanisms of ethylene synthesis,...
When plants are exposed to ozone (O3), foliage frequently responds by emitting ethylene. A number of researchers have suggested that O3-induced ethylene is responsible for many subsequent effects of this pollutant. This hypothesis has been tested by using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and demonstrating that other O3 responses were repressed as well. The inhibitors used in all of these studies were pyridoxal phosphate inhibitors, which are largely nonspecific. As such, while the results of the inhibitor studies were consistent with the notion of ethylene as a potential regulator of the O3 response, they could not provide a reliable test of the hypothesis. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase regulates ethylene biosynthesis. In this laboratory, a gene has been isolated for O3-induced foliar ACC synthase (ST-ACS4) in potato foliage. The objectives of this research project are to produce transformed potato plants which carry antisense for ST-ACS4, and then to test ...
0046] Suitable ether carboxylic acids or ether carboxylates include, but are not limited to, the following representatives referred to by their INCI names (INCI: nomenclature for raw materials according to the International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary, 7th Edition, published by the Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association Inc. (CTFA), Washington D.C., USA): Butoxynol-5 Carboxylic Acid, Butoxynol-19 Carboxylic Acid, Capryleth-4 Carboxylic Acid, Capryleth-6 Carboxylic Acid, Capryleth-9 Carboxylic Acid, Ceteareth-25 Carboxylic Acid, Coceth-7 Carboxylic Acid, C9-C11 Pareth-6 Carboxylic Acid, C11-C15 Pareth-7 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C13 Pareth-5 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C13 Pareth-8 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C13 Pareth-12 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C15 Pareth-7 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C15 Pareth-8 Carboxylic Acid, C14-C15 Pareth-8 Carboxylic Acid, Deceth-7 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-3 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-4 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-5 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-6 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-8 Carboxylic Acid ...
1J0C: Reaction intermediate structures of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase: insight into PLP-dependent cyclopropane ring-opening reaction
Additionally, in myb12, the elevated PAP1 and TTG1 transcript levels after IAA and ACC are lost (Fig. 7B; Supplemental Fig. S3), suggesting an essential and upstream role for this MYB transcription factor in these auxin- and ethylene-driven transcriptional changes. As the myb12-1f allele that we used is predicted to encode a truncated MYB12 protein, an alternative possibility is that synthesis of this defective protein may interfere with the expression of PAP1 and TTG1. This possibility is represented in Figure 9 by a dashed arrow between MYB12 and PAP1/TTG1. One interesting surprise from these results is that, although PAP1 and TTG1 transcript accumulation increases after IAA and ACC treatment, transcript of a potential target of these transcriptional regulators, DFR, does not increase. This contrasts with the fact that anthocyanins accumulate in roots in the original activation-tagged pap1 line (Borevitz et al., 2000); however, this may also reflect substantially higher levels of PAP1 in this ...
|p|SPC Code: SPC-a812a|/p||p|CAS RN: 1461705-62-3|/p||p|Smiles: O=C(OC(C)(C)C)NC1(C2)CCC2(N)C1.Cl|/p||p|Formula: C11H21ClN2O2|/p||p|MolWeight: 248.8|/p||p|Purity: 95%|/p|
Hormone balancing for men to regain and maintain normal testosterone levels. This benefits prostate health, sexual function and hair density. Women have also reported greater health of their sexual organs and easier menses.
|b|Phytologist 15 Absolute Anti-Hairloss Treatment|/b| is a high performing, complete anti-hair loss solution that restores hair density, thickness and beauty.
The ACCs Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Section welcomes the perspective and participation from international colleagues.. The ACPC Section hosted a webinar with Childrens HeartLink on the release of the first brief, The Case for the Invisible Child as part of CHLs Invisible Child series. The webinar is available here.. Please email [email protected] with any international activities you would like to share with the ACPC Section.. ...
The ACC gene encodes a truncated copy of the tomato 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase encoding gene in order to suppress expression of the endogenous unmodified gene (which is required for normal ethylene biosynthesis) through gene silencing ...
Carboxylic acid is an organic molecule and an acid containing a carboxyl group, formula -COOH. They are a functional group present in both amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids are weak acids, and therefore dissociate incompletely in water, forming an equilibrium between the RCOOH molecule and the RCOO- and H+ ions. ...
Carboxylic Acids - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine-6-carboxylic acid (C7H5N5O3) from the PQR.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-706434, (S)-N-Fmoc-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Study Carboxylic Acid using smart web & mobile flashcards created by top students, teachers, and professors. Prep for a quiz or learn for fun!
Ethylene is a simple gas that acts as a plant hormone; it controls various processes in the plant life cycle, including seed germination, root hair development, root nodulation, flower senescence, abscission, and fruit ripening [1]. Ethylene also is synthesized in response to stresses such as pathogen attack, wounding, hypoxia, ozone, chilling, and freezing [2]. These responses are controlled through integration of the pathways for ethylene biosynthesis, perception, and signal transduction. The ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways have been well characterized with regard to physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed a universally conserved set of components in the ethylene signaling pathway for all plants. Ethylene is perceived by ethylene receptor family ETR1, ETR2, EIN4, ERS1, ERS2 [3-6] and their assembly requires the RAN1 copper transporter [7]. The signal is further transduced by the signaling pathway components CTR1, a ...
Ethylene synthesis regulated by biphasic induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid oxidase genes is required for hydrogen peroxide accumulation and cell death in ozone-exposed tomato ...
The report generally describes 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoro-6,6-dimethyl-3,5-heptane-, examines its uses, production methods, patents. 1,1,1,2,2-Pentafluoro-6,6-dimethyl-3,5-heptane-
Morgan, P.W.; Sarquis, J.I.; He, C.J.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C., 1993: Regulation of ethylene synthesis in maize root responses to stress
Barry, Cornelius S., M. Immaculada Llop-Tous, and Donald Grierson. "The Regulation of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Gene Expression during the Transition from System-1 to System-2 Ethylene Synthesis in Tomato." Plant Physiology 123.3 (2000): 979-986. Web. 20 Nov. 2019. ...
Department of Dermatology, Sisli Etfal Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.. Background/purpose: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in women is characterized by diffuse thinning in the frontal and parietal areas of the scalp; preservation of the frontal hairline is norm. Hair over the occipital scalp is preserved. The purpose of this work was to investigate the findings of phototrichogram (PTG) of the affected and the spared areas in women with AGA and to compare them with those of healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-two controls and 60 untreated women with AGA (32 with Ludwig I, 28 with Ludwig II) were included in this study. Hair density, percentages of thin hair, and non-growing hair were estimated both on the midscalp and on the occiput by using PTG with digital camera attached to a dermoscope.. Results: In the control group, hair density was higher on the midscalp than the occiput. In AGA groups, hair density was lower on the midscalp than the occiput and percentages of thin hair and ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/The_Plant_Hormone_Ethylene.html?id=tYfwAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe Plant Hormone Ethylene ...
(4-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-yl)methanol hydrochloride |p|SPC Code: SPC-a553|/p||p|CAS RN: 105176-66-7|/p||p|Smiles: Cl.OCC12(CCC(N)(CC1)CC2)|/p||p|Formula: HCl.C9H17NO|/p||p|MolWeight: 191.701|/p||p|Purity: 95|/p|
Redwood Family Dentists Gentle dental care. We specialises in General Denstistry, cosmetic Denstistry, ( Crowns, Veneers, Bridges ) Zoom Whitening,Denture Services and Sedation Available. Free Dental Care for High School Students. Hygienist Treatment Available. Acc Treatment Provider.. What can we offer?. ...
How many of you are concerned about hair loss? Hair loss sufferers spend more than 3.5 billion dollars a year in an attempt to treat their condition, yet u
BCH Digital Ltd BCH Digital is a specialist telecoms provider of hosted IVR and SMS Solutions. We design bespoke hosted telephony solutions and can also customise our off-the-shelf products, such as Virtual Receptionist, to match your exact requirements. Inbound call handling solutions include call queuing, call recording and auto-attendant, with many other call routing solutions also available. Hosted business solutions include Fax to Email, Email to Fax and Call Conferencing. Our SMS platform can cater for all types of sms solutions, including: sms broadcasting, sms competitions, sms subscriptions and sms voting. Alternatively our in-house team can design bespoke sms solutions, matching your requirements. BCH Digital telecommunications consultancy provider of specialist telecoms solutions; for IVR or SMS solutions choose BCH as your telecoms consultants.
1-amino-2-ethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid: an ethylcyclopropyl amino-acid derived from isoleucine; it may be coupled to coronafacic acid by coronafacate ligase to form coronatine; substrate of malonyltransferase & inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid malonyltransferase; RN given refers to cpd without isomeric designation
BCH 494. Seminar/Workshop. 1 Credit. (1 Sem) F,S PREREQUISITE or COREQUISITE: CHMY 394 or BCH 394. Senior capstone course. Taught in collaboration with departmental Honors Thesis, CHMY 499. The chemistry/biochemistry research undergraduate experience constitutes a synthesis of our (bio)chemistry class room and laboratory education. The projects are orally presented in seminar form, discussed on the basis of acquired knowledge, and analyzed using stringent scientific methods and criteria. A complete personal resume is prepared. May be repeated once. Cross-listed with CHMY 494 ...
Discover the best homework help resource for BCH at Miami Dade College. Find BCH study guides, notes, and practice tests for MDC.
Alfa Aesar™ 1-(2-Cyanoethyl)indole-6-carboxylic acid, 97% 250mg Alfa Aesar™ 1-(2-Cyanoethyl)indole-6-carboxylic acid, 97% Cr to Cyanoethyl -Organics
... is performed in such a way to offer an accurate simulation of short hair, instantly increases hair density and covers bald area
Visit Healthgrades for information on Abubakr Marzouk, MB BCH Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Carboxylic acids, acid halides, esters, and amides are easily reduced by strong reducing agents, such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH 4). The carboxylic acid
Creative Peptides offers D-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (5s,6s)-5-[(1-carboxyvinyl)oxy]-6-hydroxy-1,3-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid (C10H10O6) from the PQR.
K 111, a ω-substituted alkyl carboxylic acid, is a novel, orally active compound with insulin-sensitising and lipid-lowering properties. The drug (previously
1-Aminocyclobutanecarboxylic acid - CAS-RN:[22264-50-2] - 1-Amino-cyclobutanecarboxylic acid, (hydrochloride); 1-Amino-cyclobutane carboxylic acid; 1-Amino-cyclobutanecarboxylic acid
Clinical alopecia occurs due to miniaturization of the hair shafts as well as loss of active production of hair shafts. PRFM has been shown to induce dermal angiogenesis, and anecdotal findings of improvement of hair appearance after PRFM injection in the scalp suggest that PRFM may play a role in the treatment of thinning hair. Patients will be treated on a monthly basis with intradermal injections of autologous PRFM for 3 months. Changes in hair density will be assessed by comparing pre- and post-treatment photographs and non-invasive measurements of hair density at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months after initial treatment ...
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Visual examination of roots from 12,000 mutagenized Arabidopsis seedlings has led to the identification of more than 40 mutants impaired in root hair morphogenesis. Mutants from four phenotypic classes have been characterized in detail, and genetic tests show that these result from single nuclear recessive mutations in four different genes designated RHD1, RHD2, RHD3, and RHD4. The phenotypic analysis of the mutants and homozygous double mutants has led to a proposed model for root hair development and the stages at which the genes are normally required. The RHD1 gene product appears to be necessary for proper initiation of root hairs, whereas the RHD2, RHD3, and RHD4 gene products are required for normal hair elongation. These results demonstrate that root hair development in Arabidopsis is amenable to genetic dissection and should prove to be a useful model system to study the molecular mechanisms governing cell differentiation in plants.. ...
Exogenous ethylene is commonly used as a commercial sprouting inhibitor of potato tubers. The role of ethylene in the control of sprouting of sweetpotato roots, however, is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ethylene in control of sprouting in sweetpotato roots by observing the effect of an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and the ethylene antagonist, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), in the presence and absence of exogenous ethylene on root sprouting and associated sugar accumulation. Continuous exposure to 10 μl L−1 ethylene, 24 h exposure to 625 nl L−1 1-MCP or dipping in 100 μl L−1 AVG all inhibited sprout growth in sweetpotato roots of two varieties over 4 weeks of storage at 25 °C. The observations that both ethylene on its own and 1-MCP, which inhibits ethylene action, inhibit sprout growth indicate that while continuous exposure to exogenous ethylene leads to sprout growth inhibition, ethylene is also required for sprouting. ...
Pech, J.C.; Latché, A.; Balagué, C. (eds.), Cellular and molecular aspects of the plant hormone ethylene : proceedings of the International Symposium on Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Biosynthesis and Action of the Plant Hormone Ethylene, Agen, France, August 31st - September 4th, 1992, pp. 369-370 ...
Looking for online definition of carboxylic acids in the Medical Dictionary? carboxylic acids explanation free. What is carboxylic acids? Meaning of carboxylic acids medical term. What does carboxylic acids mean?
When you also, leave fruits closed in a bag, the Ethylene production is high. Hence, you get ripened fruits faster. Knowing the need for Ethylene, fruit vendors/producers have started producing Ethylene to their produce in order to escalate its process.. The development stage of the fruit is when photosynthate is converted to starch and ripening stage is when starch is converted to sugar. For example, If bananas from Mexico are being shipped to California then they are plucked at the Development stage and Ethylene is produced to escalate the process to reach to the ripening stage for commercial reasons. Fruits are digestible only when they are ripened and are easily absorbed , and the nutrient content is high. At the same time, too much Ethylene production could also lead to ruining the enzymes and could lead to destruction of the produce.. Technology has improved so much that Ethylene production can be alternated, hence controlling the ripening process of the fruit. Now the big question? Does ...
View Notes - Lecture_4Paper_31 from BCH 4122 at University of Ottawa. Bch 4122 Paper # 3: Skeletal Muscle Specification by myogenin and Mef2D via the SWI/SNF ATPase Brg1 Ohkawa Y., Marfella C.,
We are starting our work with the carboxylic acids, these are chemicals which you will find in the home in several places. The soap you wash with is made up of carboxylic acid salts and the soup you drink in the kitchen has carboxylic acids (amino acids) which form polymers (proteins), your smelly socks in the…
A process for producing an aliphatic carboxylic acid and an aliphatic carboxylic acid esters ofa phenol which comprises reacting a phenol of the general formula ##STR1## wherein n is an integer of 1 t
Boc Sciences is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 219943-38-1(3,4-DIBROMOINDOLE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID TERT-BUTYL ESTER),please inquire us for 219943-38-1(3,4-DIBROMOINDOLE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID TERT-BUTYL ESTER).
Buy high quality 5-((tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxylic Acid 1408074-42-9 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Creative Peptides offers Boc-1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
You will need the CHIME plug in to view these structures. You can obtain it from the MDL download site. (Mol files are from the WebMolecules molecular graphics site.). ...
InChI=1S/C29H46O3/c1-18(2)8-7-9-19(3)21-11-12-22-20-10-13-24-28(5,23(20)14-16-27(21,22)4)17-15-25(30)29(24,6)26(31)32/h8,19,21-22,24-25,30H,7,9-17H2,1-6H3,(H,31,32)/t19-,21?,22?,24?,25-,27+,28+,29-/m0/ ...
Okamoto Y., Sakata M., Ogura K., Yamamoto T., Yamaguchi M., Tasaka K., Kurachi H., Tsurudome M., Murata Y.. The neutral amino acid transport system L is a sodium-independent transport system in human placenta and choriocarcinoma cells. Recently, it was found that the heterodimer composed of hLAT1 (a light-chain protein) and 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is responsible for system L amino acid transport. We found that the mRNAs of 4F2hc and hLAT1 were expressed in the human placenta and a human choriocarcinoma cell line. The levels of the 4F2hc and hLAT1 proteins in the human placenta increased at full term compared with those at midtrimester. Immunohistochemical data showed that these proteins were localized mainly in the placental apical membrane. Data from leucine uptake experiments, Northern blot analysis, and immunoblot analysis showed that this transport system was partially regulated by protein kinase C and calcium ionophore in the human choriocarcinoma cell ...
Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. PMID: 9878049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of ...
Siddikee, M.A., Glick, B.R., Chauhan, P.S., Yim, W. and Sa, T. (2011) Enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of red pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum L.) by regulating stress ethylene synthesis with halotolerant bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Plant Physiol Biochem 49, 427-434 ...
After the basic information about Carboxylic Acid Ester market, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Carboxylic Acid Ester Industry growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Purchase the Carboxylic Acid Ester Market Research Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/checkout/10349326. Further in the report, the Carboxylic Acid Ester market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Carboxylic Acid Ester market consumption for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed profiles of Carboxylic Acid Ester Industry key players. For each player, product details, capacity, price, ...
New ACC synthase genes from pineapple are disclosed which have utility as targets for the generation of transgenic plants in which the expression of ACC synthase is substantially controlled to effect the regulation of plant development, and, in particular, initiation of natural flowering.
Quick Tips Class 12th Chemistry Exam/Tips/Notes (Part 31) Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids (4) By Sanjit Sir Topic: Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids, Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids, Physical Properties #chemistry #cbse #class12 Download CBSE 2019 Chemistry Sample Questions Paper & Marking Scheme PDF on Link below:…
Hair graft is a procedure performed in order to supplement hair loss in places where hair has thinned. Hair is transferred from areas of high hair density, most
3. Book a 1 hour appointment with the practionner you feel confident with and who answered clearly the questions below and ask him/her to do a patch test on an untouched area. By patch test, I mean epilating ALL the hair in a little portion of the area you want you hairs gone forever. You dont have to feel a plucking sensation during the treatment.(IMPORTANT: a hair that realeade without any resistant is a very good sign. Although this is not a guarantee that the hairs has been definitely killed.) PLEASE wait 3 month and see if you see a reduction in hair density. If you see a lot of hairs that look shaved, this is not a good sign at all and that show that the practionner has a low kill rate and you wont be finish in 3-4 clearances. You have try another one. If you want to save time, maybe doing differents patch test with differents electrolosgist is not a bad idea ...
1 shows the geographical distribution. of London users in relation to the BCH Zone. In comparison with residents and workers in the BCH Zone (Table 2), registered users were more likely to be male (69.6% versus 48.7%), less likely to live in LSOAs with income deprivation scores in the most deprived fifth (15.9% versus 22.7%) and more likely to live in LSOAs with income deprivation Ibrutinib datasheet scores in the least deprived fifth (26.4% versus 20.4%). The ethnic diversity of registered users areas was slightly greater than the average for residents and workers in the BCH Zone (mean percentage of populations who were non-White British 36.1% versus 34.3%), and the prevalence of commuter cycling in registered users areas was higher than the average for the home areas. of BCH Zone residents and workers (mean percentage of population commuting by cycling 3.4% versus 2.6%). All comparisons were statistically significant at the p , 0.001 level. Among those who did register for the scheme, ...
View all products in the ​Insect Repellant section available to buy online or in-store, with free UK delivery on orders over £100 from BCH Camping. See our 5 star Trustpilot reviews.
MANMAR INDUSTRIES - Exporter and Manufacturer of Thiazolidine Carboxylic Acid in Dist Satara, Satara, Maharashtra, India. Get deals on Thiazolidine Carboxylic Acid at Tradeindia.
4-Nitropyridine-2-carboxylic acid 1-oxide | C6H4N2O5 | CID 84713 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
54436-11-2 - RPMHNIXIKVMTCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Pyrrolo(3,2-f)(1,3)benzoxazine-9-carboxylic acid, 1,2,3,7-tetrahydro-8-methyl-2-(2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl)-, propyl ester - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Buy high quality 3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-5-oxo-2,6-naphthyridine-2(1H)-carboxylic Acid tert-Butyl Ester 1211594-91-0 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
This invention relates to novel carboxylic acid indole compounds and compositions for use in the treatment of disease states mediated by the chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8).
Redistribution n Drug releases re-enters circulatory system from l Depot binding l Protein binding l Ion trapping n Bound / unbound drug l Ratio maintained l Prolongs drug effects ~
Events - BCHs mission is to provide the safety, highest quality health care in an innovative and patient-centered environment. Locations in Boulder & Broomfield counties.
ACC synthase catalyses the rate limiting step in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, and in all plants studied has been shown to be encoded by a highly divergent gene family. These different ACC synthase genes are differentially regulated in response to a variety of developmental and environmental stimuli. In this thesis, ACC synthase gene expression during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens L.,) has been studied. This study utilises the stoloniferous growth pattern of white clover, which provides leaf tissue at different developmental stages, ranging from initiation at the apex, through mature green to senescent, and then finally necrotic. RT-PCR, using degenerate primers to conserved regions of ACC synthase genes in the database, was used to amplify putative ACC synthase sequences from mRNA isolated from white clover leaf tissue. Sequencing and GenBank database alignment of the PCR products revealed that ACC synthase sequences comprising approximately 670 bp of the reading frame ...
The plant hormone ethylene regulates fruit ripening, other developmental processes, and a subset of defense responses. Here, we show that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS)-silenced apple (Malus domestica) fruit that express a sense construct of ACS were more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea than untransformed apple, demonstrating that ethylene strengthens fruit resistance to B. cinerea infection. Because ethylene response factors (ERFs) are known to contribute to resistance against B. cinerea via the ethylene-signaling pathway, we cloned four ERF cDNAs from fruit of M. domestica: MdERF3, -4, -5, and -6. Expression of all four MdERF mRNAs was ethylene dependent and induced by wounding or by B. cinerea infection. B. cinerea infection suppressed rapid induction of wound-related MdERF expression. MdERF3 was the only mRNA induced by wounding and B. cinerea infection in ACS-suppressed apple fruit, although its induction was reduced compared with wild-type apple. Promoter regions of ...
The active site and substrate-binding mode of MD-ACO1 (Malus domestica Borkh. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) have been determined using site-directed mutagenesis and comparative modelling methods. The MD-ACO1 protein folds into a compact jelly-roll motif comprised of eight α-helices, 12 β-strands and several long loops. The active site is well defined as a wide cleft near the C-terminus. The co-substrate ascorbate is located in cofactor Fe2+-binding pocket, the so-called 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad. In addition, our results reveal that Arg244 and Ser246 are involved in generating the reaction product during enzyme catalysis. The structure agrees well with the biochemical and site-directed mutagenesis results. The three-dimensional structure together with the steady-state kinetics of both the wild-type and mutant MD-ACO1 proteins reveal how the substrate specificity of MD-ACO1 is involved in the catalytic mechanism, providing insights into understanding the fruit ripening ...
Characterization and Expression of Genes Involved in the Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction during Ripening of Mulberry Fruit. PubMed Central. Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode. 2015-01-01. Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a ...

METHOD OF PRODUCING OPTICALLY ACTIVE N-(HALOPROPYL) AMINO ACID DERIVATIVE - Patent applicationMETHOD OF PRODUCING OPTICALLY ACTIVE N-(HALOPROPYL) AMINO ACID DERIVATIVE - Patent application

The amino acid derivative represented by formula (IV) can be used for the synthesis of optically active cyclic amino acids. ... examples of acids to be used include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrobromic acid, acetic acid, toluenesulfonic acid, ... amino acid derivative is used for the synthesis of an optically active cyclic amino acid, and the like. ... amino acid derivatives are used for, for example, synthesizing optically active cyclic amino acids that are of use as synthetic ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110190527

BCAAs - Branched-Chain Amino Acids - Buy BCAA Supplements - Nutrition ExpressBCAAs - Branched-Chain Amino Acids - Buy BCAA Supplements - Nutrition Express

They are also used as a muscle energy source under certain circumstances.* BCAAs, which consist of 3 essential amino acids -- ... branched-chain amino acid) supplements are important for protein synthesis, muscle building and preservation of lean body mass ... Low prices on Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)! BCAAs help increase muscle size and strength, and enhance recovery*. BCAA ( ... BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) supplements are important for protein synthesis, muscle building and preservation of lean body ...
more infohttps://www.nutritionexpress.com/bodybuilding/energy/bcaas/optimum+nutrition+amino+chewables+wild+berry+100+tablets.aspx

Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...

Tamura, K, Lee, CP, Smith, PL, et al (1996) Effect of charge on oligopeptide transporter-mediated permeation of cyclic ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ... Su, TZ, Lunney, E, Campbell, G, et al (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system L alpha-amino acid ... Uchino, H, Kanai, Y, Kim, DK, et al (2002) Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2181705

Syntheses of Hydroxylated Cyclic β-Amino Acid Derivatives: Ingenta ConnectSyntheses of Hydroxylated Cyclic β-Amino Acid Derivatives: Ingenta Connect

Given the medicinal and biological significance of the hydroxylated β-amino acids, an increasing volume of research is ... a short summary of the developments in the field of natural and synthetic alicyclic and heterocyclic hydroxylated β-amino acids ...
more infohttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cmc/2005/00000012/00000026/art00003

Structural analyses of isolated cyclic tetrapeptides with varying amino acid residues - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics ...Structural analyses of isolated cyclic tetrapeptides with varying amino acid residues - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics ...

Synthetic cyclic peptides are used as artificial receptors due to a series of advantages over conventional receptors. In order ... Cyclic peptides represent a large class of substances that occur in nature with important biological and medical functions. ... Structural analyses of isolated cyclic tetrapeptides with varying amino acid residues A. Stamm, D. Maué, A. Schaly, S. ... The investigated cyclic peptides contain an arrangement of an amino acid sequence which is no longer symmetric compared to the ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/CP/C6CP08696A

Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels | ScienceSimilarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels | Science

Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ... Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ... Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ... Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/254/5032/730?ijkey=5215f0cd7fa5a256d700b65fb803eebe6753d85c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Differentiation of diastereomeric cyclic beta-amino acids by varying the neutral reagent in ion/molecule reactions studied by...Differentiation of diastereomeric cyclic beta-amino acids by varying the neutral reagent in ion/molecule reactions studied by...

2-amino-4-cyclohexene-, and -2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acids was investigated with host-guest complexes where tetraethyl ... 0/Amino Acids, Cyclic; 0/Indicators and Reagents; 0/Ions From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Amino Acids, Cyclic / analysis*, chemistry*. Cyclotrons. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Indicators and Reagents / chemistry. Ions ... Differentiation of diastereomeric cyclic beta-amino acids by varying the neutral reagent in ion/molecule reactions studied by ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Differentiation-diastereomeric-cyclic-beta-amino/18181235.html

Highly functionalized cyclic β-amino acid moieties as promising scaffolds in peptide research and drug design, Amino Acids | 10...Highly functionalized cyclic β-amino acid moieties as promising scaffolds in peptide research and drug design, Amino Acids | 10...

Amino Acids" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... "Highly functionalized cyclic β-amino acid moieties as promising scaffolds in peptide research and drug design, ... Asymmetric synthesis of ß-amino acids and α-substituted β-amino acids ... Amino Acids Springer Journals http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer-journals/highly-functionalized-cyclic-amino-acid-moieties-as- ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/highly-functionalized-cyclic-amino-acid-moieties-as-promising-znu0Tp0ivd

Pd-Catalyzed directed CH-(hetero)arylation of cyclic α-amino acids: effects of substituents and the ring size - EnaminePd-Catalyzed directed CH-(hetero)arylation of cyclic α-amino acids: effects of substituents and the ring size - Enamine

Pd-Catalyzed directed CH-(hetero)arylation of cyclic α-amino acids: effects of substituents and the ring size. Org. Biomol. ... For the first time, the 7- and 8-membered cyclic amino acids were introduced to C-H activation. 8-Aminoquinoline was used as a ... A systematic study on the directed Pd-catalyzed (hetero)arylation of 26 substituted cyclic α-amino acids at the C(3)-atom was ... Pd-Catalyzed directed CH-(hetero)arylation of cyclic α-amino acids: effects of substituents and the ring size ...
more infohttps://enamine.net/research/publications/1060-pd-catalyzed-directed-ch-hetero-arylation-of-cyclic-amino-acids-effects-of-substituents-and-the-ring-size

A cyclic hexapeptide comprising alternating alpha-aminoxy and alpha-amino acids is a selective chloride ion receptor.  - PubMed...A cyclic hexapeptide comprising alternating alpha-aminoxy and alpha-amino acids is a selective chloride ion receptor. - PubMed...

A cyclic hexapeptide comprising alternating alpha-aminoxy and alpha-amino acids is a selective chloride ion receptor.. Yang D1 ... In nonpolar solvents, the cyclic hexapeptide 2, which comprises alternating D-alpha-amino and D-alpha-aminoxy acids, adopts a ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15761910

Cyclic β-amino Acids Products | ChiralblockCyclic β-amino Acids Products | Chiralblock

... β-Amino Acids,Cyclic β-amino Acids,α-hydroxy Acids,β-Hydroxy Acids,Chiral Amines,Chiral Alcohols,Chiral Amino Alcohols,Chiral ...
more infohttp://www.chiralblock.com/category64/list1.html

Enantio- and Diastereoselective Syntheses of Cyclic Cα-Tetrasubstituted α-Amino Acids and Their Use to Induce Stable...Enantio- and Diastereoselective Syntheses of Cyclic Cα-Tetrasubstituted α-Amino Acids and Their Use to Induce Stable...

... and application of cyclic Cα-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids in a systematic order beginning with cyclopropane amino acids, ... Maity, P. und König, Burkhard (2007) Enantio- and Diastereoselective Syntheses of Cyclic Cα-Tetrasubstituted α-Amino Acids and ... artificial amino acids; cyclic compounds; synthesis; conformation. Dewey-Dezimal-Klassifikation:. 500 Naturwissenschaften und ... This survey presents recent advances in the synthesis and application of cyclic Cα-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids in a ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/6286/

Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. I. Amino acids, glucose, and ions in uterine lumenal flushings of cyclic and...Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen. I. Amino acids, glucose, and ions in uterine lumenal flushings of cyclic and...

I. Amino acids, glucose, and ions in uterine lumenal flushings of cyclic and pregnant ewes. ... amino acids, glutathione, calcium, sodium, and potassium in uterine lumenal fluid from cyclic (Days 3-16) and pregnant (Days 10 ... Amino Acids / metabolism*. Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Estrous Cycle / metabolism*. Female. Glucose / metabolism*. ... amino acids, and glutathione, required to activate nutrient-sensing cell signaling pathways for growth, development, and ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Select-nutrients-in-ovine-uterine/18753605.html

gmx-users] MD simulating cyclic peptides including D-aminoacidsgmx-users] MD simulating cyclic peptides including D-aminoacids

Will the torsions make problems or do I have to define somthing new ? My guess is that any D-amino acids would be converted to ... gmx-users] MD simulating cyclic peptides including D-aminoacids. Joern Lenz JLenz at zbh.uni-hamburg.de Wed Jan 21 13:54:41 CET ... We have successfully simulated D-amino acids with OPLS (e.g. Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 248 (2006) p. 124). If the coordinates are ... Within the ffamber ports, I believe all of the amino acids are in their standard L configuration. ...
more infohttps://mailman-1.sys.kth.se/pipermail/gromacs.org_gmx-users/2009-January/039109.html

Indian Patents. 204279:A METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF A CYCLIC L-AMINO ACIDIndian Patents. 204279:A METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF A CYCLIC L-AMINO ACID

A METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF A CYCLIC L-AMINO ACID. Abstract. The invention concerns a method for producing a cyclic L-amino acid ... amino acids with acidic side chains (such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid), amino acids with apolar side chains (such as ... deletion and/or insertion of an amino acid or a reduced number of amino acids, particularly by substitution of natural amino ... There is an increasing demand for cyclic amino acids, particularly L-proline, L-pipecolic acid or L-piperazine-2-carboxylic ...
more infohttp://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/204279-a-method-of-production-of-a-cyclic-l-amino-acid

Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives | The Moeller Research...Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives | The Moeller Research...

Amino Acid/Peptide*Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives ... Amino Acid/Peptide / Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives ... Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives. Hai-Chao Xu and Kevin D ... Catalytic intramolecular hydroamination of dithioketene acetals was developed for the synthesis of cyclic amino acid ...
more infohttps://pages.wustl.edu/moellergroup/articles/8152

Metal-catalyzed derivatization of C alpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids and their use in the synthesis of cyclic peptides  -...Metal-catalyzed derivatization of C alpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids and their use in the synthesis of cyclic peptides -...

Metal-catalyzed derivatization of C alpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids and their use in the synthesis of cyclic peptides ... Metal-catalyzed derivatization of C alpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids and their use in the synthesis of cyclic peptides. ... C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted amino acids are important building blocks in the design and preparation of novel peptidomimetics. We ... C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted amino acids are important building blocks in the design and preparation of novel peptidomimetics. We ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/8676/

OPUS 4 | Novel Cyclic α-Phosphino-α-amino Acids and α-Phosphonium Glycolates, P,O Ligands and Nickel ComplexesOPUS 4 | Novel Cyclic α-Phosphino-α-amino Acids and α-Phosphonium Glycolates, P,O Ligands and Nickel Complexes

... the properties of the phosphaprolines pave the way for derivatisation and further studies with these novel types of amino acids ... The ring closure proceeds by replacement of the hydroxy by the amino group and is kinetically controlled. NMR monitoring of the ... pyruvic or phenylglyoxylic acid at room temperature in diethylether. The reactions proceed via primary attack of the P-lone ... electron pair, as shown by the synthesis of phosphonium glycolates from tertiary phosphines and glyoxylic acid, and addition of ...
more infohttps://epub.ub.uni-greifswald.de/frontdoor/index/index/searchtype/simple/query/%2A%3A%2A/browsing/true/rows/10/sortfield/year/sortorder/asc/institutefq/Institut+f%C3%BCr+Chemie+und+Biochemie/start/0/author_facetfq/Basvani%2C+Kaleswara+Rao/docId/927

Evaluation of single amino acid chelate derivatives and regioselective radiolabelling of a cyclic peptide for the urokinase...Evaluation of single amino acid chelate derivatives and regioselective radiolabelling of a cyclic peptide for the urokinase...

Evaluation of single amino acid chelate derivatives and regioselective radiolabelling of a cyclic peptide for the urokinase ...
more infohttps://experts.mcmaster.ca/display/publication253917

Differential laser-induced perturbation Raman spectroscopy: a comparison with Raman spectroscopy for analysis and...Differential laser-induced perturbation Raman spectroscopy: a comparison with Raman spectroscopy for analysis and...

A. P. Mendham et al., "Vibrational spectroscopy and DFT calculations of Di-amino acid cyclic peptides. Part I: Cyclo(Gly-Gly), ... Amino acid solutions were created by separately dissolving the three amino acids l-proline (17.3 mM), purchased from Fluka, and ... Average Raman and DLIPS spectra of amino acids and dipeptides. (a) l-alanine. (b) Glycine. (c) l-proline. (d) Ala-Gly. (e) Gly- ... It is shown that the use of low-intensity UV laser light for perturbation of the amino acid and dipeptide molecular structures ...
more infohttps://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/journal-of-biomedical-optics/volume-20/issue-04/047006/Differential-laser-induced-perturbation-Raman-spectroscopy--a-comparison-with/10.1117/1.JBO.20.4.047006.full?SSO=1

Difference Between Amino Acids and BCAA  | Difference BetweenDifference Between Amino Acids and BCAA | Difference Between

Branched-Chain Amino Acids) What is Amino Acids? Amino acids are carboxylic acids that have an amino group. Depending on the ... Cyclic amino acids - phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, etc.. There are a large number of amino acids, but only 20 ... Amino Acid verses BCAA ( Branched-Chain Amino Acids). What is Amino Acids? Amino acids are carboxylic acids that have an amino ... Difference Between Amino Acids and BCAA. * Definition. Amino Acids: Amino acids are carboxylic acids that have an amino group. ...
more infohttp://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-amino-acids-and-bcaa/

Patent US6576790 - Process for the preparation of gabapentin - Google PatentsPatent US6576790 - Process for the preparation of gabapentin - Google Patents

Cyclic amino acids. US4960931 *. Oct 6, 1989. Oct 2, 1990. Warner-Lambert Company. Gabapentin mohohydrate and a process for ... All the prior art processes yield, however, gabapentin hydrochloride, which has then to be transformed into the free amino acid ... 4,894,476 discloses a process for the transformation of gabapentin hydrochloride into the free amino acid, which comprises ... which is then hydrogenated under drastic conditions to give the free amino acid. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6576790?dq=6317900

Patent US5091567 - Process for the preparation of 1-aminomethyl-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid - Google PatentsPatent US5091567 - Process for the preparation of 1-aminomethyl-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid - Google Patents

The instant invention concerns a novel process for the preparation of 1-aminomethyl-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid (gabapentin), a ... Cyclic amino acids. US4087544 *. Apr 28, 1977. May 2, 1978. Warner-Lambert Company. Treatment of cranial dysfunctions using ... Cyclic amino acid derivatives. EP0007824A1 *. Jun 27, 1979. Feb 6, 1980. LABORATOIRES JACQUES LOGEAIS Soci t dite:. Benzofurane ... Substituted cyclic amino acids as pharmaceutical agents. US6294690. Sep 16, 1998. Sep 25, 2001. Warner-Lambert Company. Process ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5091567?dq=5319712

Patent US8268887 - Drug conjugates and methods of use thereof -  Google PatentenPatent US8268887 - Drug conjugates and methods of use thereof - Google Patenten

Cyclic amino acids. US4772594. 16 maart 1987. 20 sept 1988. Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.. Prodrug compounds, process for ... acetic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid or maleic acid. In ... such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, methanesulfonic acid, p- ... phosphonic acid, sulfonic acid, sulfinic acid or carboxylic acid; and the like. An amino terminus is also known as the N- ...
more infohttp://www.google.nl/patents/US8268887
  • Examples of the syntheses end in an isocyanate or urethane that can be converted into the desired (1-aminomethyl)-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid by acidic hydrolysis to give an acid or basic hydrolysis to give a basic salt or followed by acidification to give an acid salt. (google.com)
  • The single administration of narcotic analgesics, gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs such as gabapentin, pregabalin and baclofen, antidepressants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to display pain alleviating properties in the clinic and in various animal models. (google.nl)
  • Similar results were obtained for two other α-methyl amino acids, isovaline and α-methylnorvaline, although the α hydrogen analogs of these amino acids, α-amino- n -butyric acid and norvaline, were found to be racemates. (sciencemag.org)
  • In nonpolar solvents, the cyclic hexapeptide 2, which comprises alternating D-alpha-amino and D-alpha-aminoxy acids, adopts a C3-symmetric conformation with alternating eight (N--O turns)- and seven (gamma turns)-membered-ring hydrogen bonds. (nih.gov)
  • For drug design, to improve proteolytic stability, it is desirable to include unnatural building blocks, such as conformationally restricted β-amino acid moieties, into the peptide sequence. (deepdyve.com)
  • We report on the functionalization of the C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted THF amino acid rac-5 by copper(I) catalyzed N-arylation reactions. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The reactions proceed via primary attack of the P-lone electron pair, as shown by the synthesis of phosphonium glycolates from tertiary phosphines and glyoxylic acid, and addition of PH at the carbonyl group. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analyses of the four stereoisomers of 2-amino-2,3-dimethylpentanoic acid (DL-α-methylisoleucine and DL-α-methylalloisoleucine) obtained from the Murchison meteorite show that the L enantiomer occurs in excess (7.0 and 9.1%, respectively) in both of the enantiomeric pairs. (sciencemag.org)
  • The invention concerns a method for producing a cyclic L-amino acid of formula (I), characterised in that it consists in reacting a L-diamino acid of formula (II) or an enantiomeric mixture comprising such a L-diamino acid and a corresponding D-diamino acid in variable proportions, in the presence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase or a polypeptide homologous to the ornithine cyclodeaminase. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In contrast, we report here the detection of enantiomeric excesses in four amino acids indigenous to the Murchison meteorite. (sciencemag.org)
  • The structure of the polypeptide is atypical of most polypeptides, due to the branching of the amino acid chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results have been either negative or unconvincing, the latter largely because of the suspicion of terrestrial contamination when small excesses of the L enantiomers have been reported in meteoritic amino acids that are also common in the biosphere ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A cyclic hexapeptide comprising alternating alpha-aminoxy and alpha-amino acids is a selective chloride ion receptor. (nih.gov)
  • They also disclose an acid salt, i.e., gabapentin hydrochloride hydrate in a ratio of 4:4:1 and a sodium salt of gabapentin hydrate in a ratio of 2:1. (google.com)
  • For example, gabapentin can be prepared by converting 1,1-cyclohexanediacetic acid, via a reactive acid derivative, into the azide which is subsequently subjected by thermal decomposition to a Curtius reaction. (google.com)
  • A systematic study on the directed Pd-catalyzed (hetero)arylation of 26 substituted cyclic α-amino acids at the C(3)-atom was performed. (enamine.net)
  • This study determined quantities of glucose, amino acids, glutathione, calcium, sodium, and potassium in uterine lumenal fluid from cyclic (Days 3-16) and pregnant (Days 10-16) ewes. (biomedsearch.com)