Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Thioxanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with a SULFUR in the center ring.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum. (1/197)

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. We describe the synthesis of ACC by Penicillium citrinum, purification of ACC synthase [EC 4.4.1.14] and ACC deaminase [EC 4.1.99.4], and their properties. Analyses of P. citrinum culture showed occurrence of ACC in the culture broth and in the cell extract. ACC synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine and ACC deaminase was done from cells incubated in a medium containing 1% 2-aminoisobutyrate. The purified ACC synthase, with a specific activity of 327 milliunit/mg protein, showed a single band of M(r) 48,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme by gel filtration was 96,000 Da. The ACC synthase had the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 1.74 mM and kcat of 0.56 s-1 per monomer. The purified ACC deaminase, with a specific activity of 4.7 unit/mg protein, showed one band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of M(r) 41,000. The molecular mass of the native ACC deaminase was 68,000 Da by gel filtration. The enzyme had a Km for ACC of 4.8 mM and kcat of 3.52 s-1. The presence of 7 mM Cu2+ in alkaline buffer solution was effective for increasing the stability of the ACC deaminase in the process of purification.  (+info)

Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover. (2/197)

We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development.  (+info)

Glucose regulation of glutaminolysis and its role in insulin secretion. (3/197)

Leucine or the nonmetabolized leucine analog +/- 2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid (BCH) (both at 10 mmol/l) induced biphasic insulin secretion in the presence of 2 mmol/l glutamine (Q2) in cultured mouse islets pretreated for 40 min without glucose but with Q2 present. The beta-cell response consisted of an initial peak of 20- to 25-fold above basal and a less marked secondary phase. However, BCH produced only a delayed response, while leucine was totally ineffective when islets were pretreated with 25 mmol/l glucose plus Q2. With Q2, 10 mmol/l BCH or leucine caused a nearly threefold increase, a twofold increase, or had no effect on cytosolic Ca2+ levels in islets pretreated for 40 min with 0, 5, or 15 mmol/l glucose, respectively. Thus, pretreatment of islets with high glucose inhibited BCH- and leucine-induced cytosolic Ca2+ changes and insulin release. Glucose decreased glutamine oxidation in cultured rat islets when BCH was present at 10 mmol/l, but not in its absence, with a lowest effective level of approximately 0.1 mmol/l, a maximum of 18-30 mmol/l, and an inhibitory concentration, 50%, of approximately 3 mmol/l. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that glucose inhibits glutaminolysis in pancreatic beta-cells in a concentration-dependent manner and hence blocks leucine-stimulated insulin secretion. We postulate that in the basal interprandial state, glutaminolysis of beta-cells is partly turned on because glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is activated by a decreased P-potential due to partial fuel depletion and sensitization to endogenous activators such as leucine. Additionally, it may contribute significantly to basal insulin release, which is known to be responsible for about half of the insulin released daily. The data explain "leucine-hypersensitivity" of beta-cells during hypoglycemia and contribute to the elucidation of the GDH-linked syndrome of hyperinsulinism associated with elevated serum ammonia levels. Thus, understanding the precise regulation and role of beta-cell glutaminolysis is probably central to our concept of normal blood glucose control.  (+info)

Putative partial agonist 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid acts concurrently as a glycine-site agonist and a glutamate-site antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. (4/197)

1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC) has been shown to protect against neuronal cell death after ischemic insult in vivo. Such results can be correlated with in vitro assays in which ACPC protected neurons against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by reducing the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel activation. Electrophysiological studies have determined that ACPC inhibits NMDA receptor activity by acting as a glycine-binding site partial agonist. In this study, rapid drug perfusion combined with whole-cell voltage-clamp was used to elicit and measure the effects of ACPC on NMDA receptor-mediated responses from cultured hippocampal neurons and cerebellar granule cells. The ACPC steady-state dose-response curve had both stimulatory and inhibitory phases. Half-maximal activation by ACPC as a glycine-site agonist was 0.7 to 0.9 microM. Half-maximal inhibition by ACPC was dependent on NMDA concentration. Peak responses to a >100 microM ACPC pulse in the presence of 1 microM glutamate were similar to those of glycine but decayed to a steady-state amplitude below that of glycine. The removal of ACPC initially caused an increase in inward current followed by a subsequent decrease to baseline levels. This suggests that relief of low-affinity antagonism occurs before high-affinity agonist dissociation. Simulations of ACPC action by a two glutamate-binding site/two glycine-binding site model for NMDA channel activation in conjunction with the concurrent role of ACPC as a glycine-site full agonist and glutamate-site competitive antagonist were able to successfully approximate experimental results.  (+info)

Regulation of L-methionine and L-lysine uptake in chicken jejunal brush-border membrane by dietary methionine. (5/197)

In the chicken intestine, L-methionine is transported by systems that are specific for neutral amino acids (L- and B-like) and by systems that can also transport cationic amino acids (y(+)m and b(0,+)-like). These four uptake pathways have been investigated in brush-border membrane vesicles from the jejunum of chickens fed a diet enriched with 0.4% L-methionine. Methionine supplementation from the 1st to the 6th wk of age has no effect on body weight or on the efficiency of food utilization. The kinetic analysis of L-methionine influx across the transport systems specific for neutral amino acids shows, for system L, no dietary effect on the Michaelis constant (Km) and a 30% reduction in maximal velocity (Vmax); for system B it shows a decrease in Km (30%) and in Vmax (51%). Transport systems shared by cationic and neutral amino acids show no dietary effect on b(0,+) activity and a significant reduction in y(+)m Vmax, similar for L-methionine and L-lysine, both in the absence and in the presence of Na+ (L-methionine, 30 and 26% reduction; L-lysine, 19 and 28% reduction, respectively). The downregulation induced by L-methionine supplementation may be an adaptive response to reduce the risk of intoxication by dietary excess of L-methionine. These results support the view that the toxicity of the supplemented substrate can be an important factor in the regulation of amino acid transport by dietary content.  (+info)

Hypaphorine from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius counteracts activities of indole-3-acetic acid and ethylene but not synthetic auxins in eucalypt seedlings. (6/197)

Very little is known about the molecules regulating the interaction between plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi during root colonization. The role of fungal auxin in ectomycorrhiza has repeatedly been suggested and questioned, suggesting that, if fungal auxin controls some steps of colonized root development, its activity might be tightly controlled in time and in space by plant and/or fungal regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrate that fungal hypaphorine, the betaine of tryptophan, counteracts the activity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on eucalypt tap root elongation but does not affect the activity of the IAA analogs 2,4-D ((2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid) or NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid). These data suggest that IAA and hypaphorine interact during the very early steps of the IAA perception or signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, while seedling treatment with 1-amincocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the precursor of ethylene, results in formation of a hypocotyl apical hook, hypaphorine application as well as root colonization by Pisolithus tinctorius, a hypaphorine-accumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus, stimulated hook opening. Hypaphorine counteraction with ACC is likely a consequence of hypaphorine interaction with IAA. In most plant-microbe interactions studied, the interactions result in increased auxin synthesis or auxin accumulation in plant tissues. The P. tinctorius / eucalypt interaction is intriguing because in this interaction the microbe down-regulates the auxin activity in the host plant. Hypaphorine might be the first specific IAA antagonist identified.  (+info)

Expression of AtPRP3, a proline-rich structural cell wall protein from Arabidopsis, is regulated by cell-type-specific developmental pathways involved in root hair formation. (7/197)

The tightly regulated expression patterns of structural cell wall proteins in several plant species indicate that they play a crucial role in determining the extracellular matrix structure for specific cell types. We demonstrate that AtPRP3, a proline-rich cell wall protein in Arabidopsis, is expressed in root-hair-bearing epidermal cells at the root/shoot junction and within the root differentiation zone of light-grown seedlings. Several lines of evidence support a direct relationship between AtPRP3 expression and root hair development. AtPRP3/beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression increased in roots of transgenic seedlings treated with either 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) or alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (alpha-NAA), compounds known to promote root hair formation. In the presence of 1-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, AtPRP3/GUS expression was strongly reduced, but could be rescued by co-addition of ACC or alpha-NAA to the growth medium. In addition, AtPRP3/GUS activity was enhanced in ttg and gl2 mutant backgrounds that exhibit ectopic root hairs, but was reduced in rhd6 and 35S-R root-hair-less mutant seedlings. These results indicate that AtPRP3 is regulated by developmental pathways involved in root hair formation, and are consistent with AtPRP3's contributing to cell wall structure in Arabidopsis root hairs.  (+info)

Salicylates of intact Salix myrsinifolia plantlets do not undergo rapid metabolic turnover. (8/197)

Salicylates, the main phenolic glucosides of northern willow (Salix spp.), play an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. Salicylates are labile metabolites that are thought to undergo metabolic turnover. Salicylates are synthesized from phenylalanine (Phe) via the shikimate pathway. 2-Aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a strong inhibitor of Phe ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), was used to block the biosynthesis of salicylates. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term turnover of salicylates in intact micropropagated plantlets of Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. The biosynthesis of salicylates was inhibited efficiently but not completely by 30 microM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. Inhibitor treatment, aside from leading to a high accumulation of Phe, also led to an increase in tyrosine and tryptophan, indicating that 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid may also inhibit enzymes other than Phe ammonia-lyase. Salicylates were shown to be unexpectedly stable metabolites that did not undergo marked metabolic turnover in intact plants; in leaves no significant turnover occurred, and in the stems the five salicylates studied were turned over slowly, with half-lives of 11 to 25 d. The total amount of salicylate in mature shoots decreased only 0.6% per day.  (+info)

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Background and Aims: Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods: Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0 ...
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Acetic acid;heptane-1,2,3,4,5,6,7-heptol | C9H20O9 | CID 312987 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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SIMILARITY:Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.,,CAUTION:Similar to plant 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases but lacks a number of residues which are necessary for activity. ...
Title: The Enantioselective Synthesis of Conformationally Constrained Cyclic β- Amino Acids. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Jason A. Miller and SonBinh T. Nguyen. Affiliation:Northwestern University,Department of Chemistry, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, USA.. Keywords:amino acids, cyclic amino acids, enantioselective synthesis, conformationally constrained, peptides, asymmetric synthesis. Abstract: Enantiomerically pure and conformationally constrained cyclic β-amino acids have been the subject of a vast amount of research across the chemical, biological, and medicinal disciplines. These valuable molecules are synthetic precursors for a wide variety of useful compounds that include natural products and modified peptides. Many methods have been developed to prepare chiral cyclic β-amino acids in high optical purity. This mini-review will discuss some of the most recent and successful approaches. ...
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Competition assays allow for a massively parallel assessment of the relative fitness of variants in a functional context (1). Variant pools can be generated synthetically or harvested from the environment. Recently, deep mutational scanning was developed as a method to elucidate the sequence-function relationships and optimal catalytic sequences of proteins (2, 3). Using a doped DNA oligomer library as a starting point for selection assays, followed by next-generation sequencing, Fowler et al. (2, 3) mapped the mutational preferences of hundreds of thousands of protein variants for an important human protein domain and thereby assessed the fitness effects of nearly all the possible point mutations in the protein domain. This method is able to assay truly novel mutations and combinations of mutations affecting enzyme function, thereby helping to generate optimized engineered proteins for biomedical or other use.. The use of artificially produced proteins may be constrained for ethical and social ...
Turnover of LeACS2, a wound-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase in tomato, is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.: 1-aminocyclo
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4-Nitrophenyl bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-carboxylate | C14H15NO4 | CID 579216 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Invited paper) Characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase in broccoli florets and from Escherichia coli cells transformed with cDNA of broccoli ACC ...
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4-hydroxy-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridazine-3-carboxylic acid; CAS Number: 121582-69-2; Linear Formula: C12H10N2O5; find Key Organics / BIONET-KEY183157449 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
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Most endophytic bacteria in consortia, which provide robust and broad metabolic capacity, are attractive for applications in plant metabolic engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of engineered endophytic bacterial strains on rice sprout ethylene level and growth under saline stress. A protocol was developed to synthesize engineered strains by expressing bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene on cells of endophytic Enterobacter sp. E5 and Kosakonia sp. S1 (denoted as E5P and S1P, respectively). Results showed that ACC deaminase activities of the engineered strains E5P and S1P were significantly higher than those of the wild strains E5 and S1. About 32-41% deaminase was expressed on the surface of the engineered strains. Compared with the controls without inoculation, inoculation with the wild and engineered strains increased the deaminase activities of sprouts. Inoculation with the engineered strains increased 15-21% more deaminase activities of
The exact role of ethylene in xylogenesis remains unclear, but the Zinnia elegans cell culture system provides an excellent model with which to study its role during the differentiation of tracheary elements (TEs) in vitro. • Here, we analysed ethylene homeostasis and function during Z. elegans TE differentiation using biochemical, molecular and pharmacological methods. • Ethylene evolution was confined to specific stages of TE differentiation. It was found to peak at the time of TE maturation and to correlate with the activity of the ethylene biosynthetic 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase. The ethylene precursor ACC was exported and accumulated to high concentrations in the extracellular medium, which also displayed a high capacity to convert ACC into ethylene. The effects of adding inhibitors of the ethylene biosynthetic ACC synthase and ACC oxidase enzymes to the TE cultures demonstrated for the first time strict dependence of TE differentiation on ethylene biosynthesis ...
For genus and species identification, a colony PCR was performed with live cells cultured on solid Bacto Pseudomonas F or M79 medium as described previously (17). Species assignment was confirmed by submitting the 16S rRNA sequences to the Ribosomal Database Project II (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu) and comparing them with their nearest phylogenetic relatives.. Degenerate primers DegACC5′ (5′-GGBGGVAAYAARMYVMGSAAGCTYGA) and DegACC3′ (5′-TTDCCHKYRTANACBGGRTC) were designed based upon stretches of conserved base pairs towards the N terminus of the protein and around the putative pyridoxal phosphate cofactor binding domain of the protein (20), whereas for 3′ primer design, a conserved region close to the carboxyl terminus of the protein was utilized. This allows for the amplification of a fragment of approximately 750 bp. Thus, by using this PCR method, bacterial colonies can be quickly screened for the presence of the ACC deaminase gene.. Nucleotide sequences were aligned using MUSCLE v3.52 ...
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) enzymes catalyze the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) into 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a direct precursor of ethylene.
Biology and Biotechnology of the Plant Hormone Ethylene II by Klee, H. and Eu-Tmr-Euroconference Symposium on Biolo and Kanellis, A. K. available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and rThese papers assess existing knowledge and develop ideas on the mechanisms of ethylene synthesis,...
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When plants are exposed to ozone (O3), foliage frequently responds by emitting ethylene. A number of researchers have suggested that O3-induced ethylene is responsible for many subsequent effects of this pollutant. This hypothesis has been tested by using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and demonstrating that other O3 responses were repressed as well. The inhibitors used in all of these studies were pyridoxal phosphate inhibitors, which are largely nonspecific. As such, while the results of the inhibitor studies were consistent with the notion of ethylene as a potential regulator of the O3 response, they could not provide a reliable test of the hypothesis. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase regulates ethylene biosynthesis. In this laboratory, a gene has been isolated for O3-induced foliar ACC synthase (ST-ACS4) in potato foliage. The objectives of this research project are to produce transformed potato plants which carry antisense for ST-ACS4, and then to test ...
Cas Index,Name Index,α-Amino Acids,β-Amino Acids,Cyclic β-amino Acids,α-hydroxy Acids,β-Hydroxy Acids,Chiral Amines,Chiral Alcohols,Chiral Amino Alcohols,Chiral Pyrrolidines,Succinates,Chiral Compounds,Chiral Ligands,Chiral Catalyst,Others,,Chiralblock
This page contains information on the chemical 4-Thia-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-6-(sulfoamino)-, sodium salt, hydrate (1:2:3), (2S-(2-alpha,5-alpha,6-beta))- including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
0046] Suitable ether carboxylic acids or ether carboxylates include, but are not limited to, the following representatives referred to by their INCI names (INCI: nomenclature for raw materials according to the International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary, 7th Edition, published by the Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association Inc. (CTFA), Washington D.C., USA): Butoxynol-5 Carboxylic Acid, Butoxynol-19 Carboxylic Acid, Capryleth-4 Carboxylic Acid, Capryleth-6 Carboxylic Acid, Capryleth-9 Carboxylic Acid, Ceteareth-25 Carboxylic Acid, Coceth-7 Carboxylic Acid, C9-C11 Pareth-6 Carboxylic Acid, C11-C15 Pareth-7 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C13 Pareth-5 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C13 Pareth-8 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C13 Pareth-12 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C15 Pareth-7 Carboxylic Acid, C12-C15 Pareth-8 Carboxylic Acid, C14-C15 Pareth-8 Carboxylic Acid, Deceth-7 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-3 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-4 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-5 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-6 Carboxylic Acid, Laureth-8 Carboxylic Acid ...
1A14_ARATH 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 / ACC synthase 4 (ACS4) / identical to gi:940370 [GB:U23481]; go_function: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity [goid 0016847]; go_process: ethylene biosynthesis [goid 0009693]; go_process: response to auxin stimulus [goid 0009733 ...
1J0C: Reaction intermediate structures of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase: insight into PLP-dependent cyclopropane ring-opening reaction
Additionally, in myb12, the elevated PAP1 and TTG1 transcript levels after IAA and ACC are lost (Fig. 7B; Supplemental Fig. S3), suggesting an essential and upstream role for this MYB transcription factor in these auxin- and ethylene-driven transcriptional changes. As the myb12-1f allele that we used is predicted to encode a truncated MYB12 protein, an alternative possibility is that synthesis of this defective protein may interfere with the expression of PAP1 and TTG1. This possibility is represented in Figure 9 by a dashed arrow between MYB12 and PAP1/TTG1. One interesting surprise from these results is that, although PAP1 and TTG1 transcript accumulation increases after IAA and ACC treatment, transcript of a potential target of these transcriptional regulators, DFR, does not increase. This contrasts with the fact that anthocyanins accumulate in roots in the original activation-tagged pap1 line (Borevitz et al., 2000); however, this may also reflect substantially higher levels of PAP1 in this ...
Alfa Aesar™ 1-(2-Carbamoylethyl)indole-6-carboxylic acid, 97% 250mg Alfa Aesar™ 1-(2-Carbamoylethyl)indole-6-carboxylic acid, 97% Cap to Carbow...
CCD:CCD00225634. CAS:39828-47-2. MDL:MFCD01547735. MF / MW:C4 H4 N2 O3 / 128.087. 同义词:2-OXO-2,3-DIHYDRO-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID;2,3-DIHYDRO-2-OXO-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID;1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID, 2,3-DIHYDRO-2-OXO-;2,3-DIHYDRO-2-OXO-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLICACID;BESTIPHARMA 543-714;ABLOCK AB-10-1646. ...
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The ACCs Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Section welcomes the perspective and participation from international colleagues.. The ACPC Section hosted a webinar with Childrens HeartLink on the release of the first brief, The Case for the Invisible Child as part of CHLs Invisible Child series. The webinar is available here.. Please email [email protected] with any international activities you would like to share with the ACPC Section.. ...
Carboxylic Acid Imports Data of India | Major Indian ports Importing Carboxylic Acid, Indian Importers of Carboxylic Acid in India, Indian Import of Carboxylic Acid, Carboxylic Acid Buyers, Carboxylic Acid Shipment Data, Major Countries exporting Carboxylic Acid, Monthly Trends, Major Ports.
The ACC gene encodes a truncated copy of the tomato 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase encoding gene in order to suppress expression of the endogenous unmodified gene (which is required for normal ethylene biosynthesis) through gene silencing ...
Carboxylic acid is an organic molecule and an acid containing a carboxyl group, formula -COOH. They are a functional group present in both amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids are weak acids, and therefore dissociate incompletely in water, forming an equilibrium between the RCOOH molecule and the RCOO- and H+ ions. ...
Carboxylic Acids - Download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online.
t-butoxycarbonyl-4-amino-1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid-4-amino-1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid methyl amide: structure in first source
Cyclic peptides[edit]. A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical ... Amino acids[edit]. BMAA[edit]. The non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is ubiquitously produced by ... Amino Acid BMAA Nervous System All Most cyanotoxins have a number of variants (analogues). As of 1999, altogether over 84 ... a neurotoxic amino acid". PNAS. 102 (14): 5074-5078. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.5074C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0501526102. PMC 555964. PMID ...
Amino Acids. 35 (2): 283-289. doi:10.1007/s00726-007-0629-6. PMID 18163175. Prasad C (Dec 1995). "Bioactive cyclic dipeptides ... The Ugi reaction using an isonitrile, amino acid, aldehyde and amine, can produce a dipeptide in equally high yield and optical ... As a consequence of their predominant biosynthetic origin from L-α-amino acids most naturally occurring 2,5-DKPs are cis ... They have a rigid backbone, which can mimic a preferential peptide conformation and contain constrained amino acids imbedded ...
"Two piperazic acid-containing cyclic hexapeptides from Streptomyces alboflavus 313". Amino Acids. 43 (5): 2191-8. doi:10.1007/ ... Ji, Z; Qiao, G; Wei, S; Fan, L; Wu, W (2012). "Isolation and characterization of two novel antibacterial cyclic hexapeptides ... Ji, Zhiqin; Wei, Shaopeng; Fan, Lixia; Wu, Wenjun (2012). "Three novel cyclic hexapeptides from Streptomyces alboflavus 313 and ...
Banerjee, A. B.; Bose, S. K. (1963). "Amino acid configuration of mycobacillin". Nature. 200 (4905): 471. doi:10.1038/200471a0 ... Mycobacillin is an antifungal cyclic peptide. It was first isolated in 1958 from the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. ...
Leucine and isoleucine belong to the proteinogenic amino acids; the others are non-natural. Including the stereoisomers, six ... Cycloleucine could be classified as a cyclic derivative of norleucine. With a cyclopentane-ring, it has two hydrogen atoms ... The leucines are primarily the four isomeric amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, tert-leucine and norleucine. Being compared with ...
... is a non-proteinogenic amino acid. It could be classified as a cyclic derivate of norleucine, having two hydrogen ... Cycloleucine is a non-metabolisable amino acid and is a specific and reversible inhibitor of nucleic acid methylation, and as ...
It is a cyclic fungal peptide, composed of 11 amino acids. Ciclosporin is thought to bind to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin ... Antimetabolites interfere with the synthesis of nucleic acids. These include: folic acid analogues, such as methotrexate purine ... Methotrexate is a folic acid analogue. It binds dihydrofolate reductase and prevents synthesis of tetrahydrofolate. It is used ... Mycophenolic acid acts as a non-competitive, selective, and reversible inhibitor of Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase ( ...
... is a cyclic peptide consisting of five amino acids. The amino acid sequence is D-tryptamine-D-aspartic acid-L-proline-D- ... "Cyclic pentapeptide endothelin antagonists with high ETA selectivity. Potency- and solubility-enhancing modifications". Journal ...
Furthermore the polymerization of the amino acid thioesters into polypeptides preceded the directed polymerization of amino ... It has been claimed that the emergence of cyclic systems of protein catalysts is implausible. Montmorillonite, an abundant clay ... of abiogenesis is that the thermodynamic equilibrium of amino acid versus peptides is in the direction of separate amino acids ... such as the synthesis of the amino acid glycine. In 1961, it was shown that the nucleic acid purine base adenine can be formed ...
Folding control of CPP using unnatural β, δ cyclic amino acids. CPPs found applications as transporters of contrast agents ... CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids ... a natural degradation process by which peptide bonds are hydrolyzed to amino acids. Unnatural acid insertion in the peptide ... CADY contains a short peptide sequence of 20 amino acids, with the sequence "Ac-GLWRALWRLLRSLWRLLWRA-cysteamide." [40] This ...
... forming the two cyclic peptides, patellamides A and C. Although all the amino acids used in the production of patellamide A are ... L-amino acids, some of the amino acids found in natural patellamide A are the D-epimers. It is proposed that epimerization of ... these amino acids occurs spontaneously. This was determined by comparison to a similar system, lissoclinamide 7. Ireland, C.; ... In, Y.; Doi, M.; Inoue, M.; Ishida, T. (1994). "Patellamide A, a cytotoxic cyclic peptide from the ascidian Lissoclinum patella ...
This matrix is composed of nucleic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and various ions. This matrix is one of the main ... Cyclic di-GMP is a major contributor to biofilm adherent properties. This signalling molecule in high quantities makes ... However, salicylic acid can inhibit pyocyanin production. One in ten hospital-acquired infections is from Pseudomonas. Cystic ... Abu EA, Su S, Sallans L, Boissy RE, Greatens A, Heineman WR, Hassett DJ (August 2013). "Cyclic voltammetric, fluorescence and ...
... or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, ... The structure of the polypeptide is atypical of most polypeptides, due to the branching of the amino acid chain. A cross bridge ... is formed by the normal peptide bond of the carboxyl terminus to the amino terminus of the peptide chain. Unlike most cyclic ...
He is known for his studies of unnatural amino acids, cyclic peptides and biologically active natural products and is an ... Amino acids Cyclic peptides Har Gobind Khorana India portal Chemistry portal "Santanu Bhattacharya". Indian Institute of ... Bhattacharya is reported to have made notable contributions in the design and synthesis of unnatural amino acids, cyclic ...
... or γ-amanitin is a Cyclic peptide of eight amino acids. It is an amatoxin, a group of toxins isolated from and ...
NR58.3-14-3 is a cyclic peptide consisting of 11 D-amino acids. It is a broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor and anti- ... the amino acid sequence was reversed and the amino acids replaced with D-amino acids. This combined transformation changes the ... Peptide 3' is a 12-amino acid linear peptide corresponding to amino acids 51 to 62 of mature human chemokine CCL2. It is formed ... The corresponding 11th amino acid in CXCL12 is Ile. Ala4 in CCL2 is also present in CCL3 but the corresponding residue is Leu ...
... or β-amanitin is a cyclic peptide comprising eight amino acids. It is part of a group of toxins called amatoxins ...
Accordingly, various non-proteinogenic (non-ribosomal) amino acids are found in katanosins, such as 3-hydroxyleucine, 3- ... All katanosins have a cyclic and a linear segment ("lariat structure"). The peptidic ring is closed with an ester bond (lactone ... Katanosin A and B differ in the amino acid position 7. The minor metabolite katanosin A has a valine in this position, whereas ... Katanosins are cyclic depsipeptides (acylcyclodepsipeptides). These non-proteinogenic structures are not regular proteins from ...
They range from 30 to 47 amino acid residues in length. Although only a few orders are represented so far, CRF-related peptides ... Dippu-DH31 was isolated using a cyclic AMP assay at the same time as a CRF-related peptide from the same insect. Ct-like ... They act by increasing cyclic AMP production in Malpighian tubules and appear to stimulate cation (K+/Na+) transport. ...
"Messenger RNA-programmed incorporation of multiple N-methyl-amino acids into linear and cyclic peptides". Chemistry & Biology. ... It has been shown that some unnatural amino acids, such as N-methyl-amino acid accylated tRNA can be incorporated into peptides ... N-substituted amino acid-containing peptides have been associated with good proteolytic stability and improved pharmacokinetic ... Some components, such as amino acids and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases (AARSs) can be omitted from the system. Instead, chemically ...
It also forms the basis for the racetam compounds (e.g. piracetam, aniracetam). The amino acids proline and hydroxyproline are ... It is a cyclic secondary amine, also classified as a saturated heterocycle. It is a colourless liquid that is miscible with ... Relative to many secondary amines, pyrrolidine is distinctive because of its compactness, a consequence of its cyclic structure ...
The fruit further contains 1-2.7% of free aminoacids; chiefly proline, and including [[γ -aminobutyric acid]] (GABA) and ... Of particular interest are cyclic oligopeptides with 8 aminoacid rings, christened lyciumins A and B.[16] ... vanillic acid, salicylic acid, and nicotinic acid. From the flowers, diosgenin, β-sitosterol, and lanosterol have been isolated ... Other detected compounds include flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol; hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid ...
One way cytosolic nucleic acid is sensed is via the cGAS/STING pathway. Cytosolic DNA is recognized by cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase ... cGAS is a 522 amino acid protein and a member of the nucleotidyltransferase family. N-terminal residues 1-212 are necessary to ... Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) is a cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) and the first to be found in metazoans. Other CDNs (c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP ... STING is a 378 amino acid protein. Its N-terminal region (residues 1-154) contains four trans-membrane domains. Its C-terminal ...
I.V. Komarov; A.O. Grigorenko; A.V. Turov; V.P. Khilya (2004). "Conformationally rigid cyclic α-amino acids in the design of ... Other examples include natural and unnatural amino acid libraries, collections of conformationally constrained bifunctionalized ... p-Aminobenzoic Acid as a Building Block". Curr. Med. Chem. 9 (21): 1871-1892. doi:10.2174/0929867023368872. CS1 maint: Multiple ...
The absolute configuration of the amino acid segments was determined by chiral HPLC analysis. Apratoxin A comes from the ... Apratoxin A is a mixed peptide-polyketide cyclic structure, as shown above. It has a thiazoline ring flanked by polyketide ... to a methyl-carboxylic acid. There is a dehydration and decarboxylation. Eventually, the post-pathway modification methylates ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... Cyclic ketonesEdit. Many ketones are cyclic. The simplest class have the formula (CH2)nCO, where n varies from 2 for ... In the Ruzicka cyclization, cyclic ketones are prepared from dicarboxylic acids.. *In the Nef reaction, ketones form by ... The best known ketose is fructose, which exists as a cyclic hemiketal, which masks the ketone functional group. Fatty acid ...
They are also used as a muscle energy source under certain circumstances.* BCAAs, which consist of 3 essential amino acids -- ... branched-chain amino acid) supplements are important for protein synthesis, muscle building and preservation of lean body mass ... Low prices on Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)! BCAAs help increase muscle size and strength, and enhance recovery*. BCAA ( ... BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) supplements are important for protein synthesis, muscle building and preservation of lean body ...
Given the medicinal and biological significance of the hydroxylated β-amino acids, an increasing volume of research is ... a short summary of the developments in the field of natural and synthetic alicyclic and heterocyclic hydroxylated β-amino acids ...
A series of cyclic enediyne-containing amino acids with ring sizes varying from 10 to 12 atoms have been prepared starting from ... Synthesis and aromatisation of cyclic enediyne-containing amino acids Org Biomol Chem. 2009 Feb 21;7(4):695-705. doi: 10.1039/ ... A series of cyclic enediyne-containing amino acids with ring sizes varying from 10 to 12 atoms have been prepared starting from ...
A cyclic hexapeptide comprising alternating alpha-aminoxy and alpha-amino acids is a selective chloride ion receptor.. Yang D1 ... In nonpolar solvents, the cyclic hexapeptide 2, which comprises alternating D-alpha-amino and D-alpha-aminoxy acids, adopts a ...
Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ... Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ... Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ... Similarities in amino acid sequences of Drosophila eag and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels ...
Synthetic cyclic peptides are used as artificial receptors due to a series of advantages over conventional receptors. In order ... Cyclic peptides represent a large class of substances that occur in nature with important biological and medical functions. ... Structural analyses of isolated cyclic tetrapeptides with varying amino acid residues A. Stamm, D. Maué, A. Schaly, S. ... The investigated cyclic peptides contain an arrangement of an amino acid sequence which is no longer symmetric compared to the ...
Keywords: amino acids, cyclic amino acids, enantioselective synthesis, conformationally constrained, peptides, asymmetric ... Keywords:amino acids, cyclic amino acids, enantioselective synthesis, conformationally constrained, peptides, asymmetric ... The Enantioselective Synthesis of Conformationally Constrained Cyclic β- Amino Acids. Author(s): Jason A. Miller, SonBinh T. ... Many methods have been developed to prepare chiral cyclic β-amino acids in high optical purity. This mini-review will discuss ...
Mixed quartic-harmonic oscillators: a study of the ring puckering vibration of a cyclic amino acid dimer Author(s): Robert ...
2-amino-4-cyclohexene-, and -2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acids was investigated with host-guest complexes where tetraethyl ... 0/Amino Acids, Cyclic; 0/Indicators and Reagents; 0/Ions From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Amino Acids, Cyclic / analysis*, chemistry*. Cyclotrons. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Indicators and Reagents / chemistry. Ions ... Differentiation of diastereomeric cyclic beta-amino acids by varying the neutral reagent in ion/molecule reactions studied by ...
I. Amino acids, glucose, and ions in uterine lumenal flushings of cyclic and pregnant ewes. ... amino acids, glutathione, calcium, sodium, and potassium in uterine lumenal fluid from cyclic (Days 3-16) and pregnant (Days 10 ... Amino Acids / metabolism*. Animals. Calcium / metabolism. Estrous Cycle / metabolism*. Female. Glucose / metabolism*. ... amino acids, and glutathione, required to activate nutrient-sensing cell signaling pathways for growth, development, and ...
A. Synthesis of an isoguaninyl amino acid and alanyl-PNA oligomers B.Cyclic peptides for DNA binding and bending , PDF ... A contribution to evaluate and predict the strength and life time of angleply CFRP laminates under static and cyclic loads , ...
Amino Acids" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications ... "Highly functionalized cyclic β-amino acid moieties as promising scaffolds in peptide research and drug design, ... Asymmetric synthesis of ß-amino acids and α-substituted β-amino acids ... Amino Acids Springer Journals http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer-journals/highly-functionalized-cyclic-amino-acid-moieties-as- ...
Pd-Catalyzed directed CH-(hetero)arylation of cyclic α-amino acids: effects of substituents and the ring size. Org. Biomol. ... For the first time, the 7- and 8-membered cyclic amino acids were introduced to C-H activation. 8-Aminoquinoline was used as a ... A systematic study on the directed Pd-catalyzed (hetero)arylation of 26 substituted cyclic α-amino acids at the C(3)-atom was ... Pd-Catalyzed directed CH-(hetero)arylation of cyclic α-amino acids: effects of substituents and the ring size ...
Metal-catalyzed derivatization of C alpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids and their use in the synthesis of cyclic peptides ... Metal-catalyzed derivatization of C alpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids and their use in the synthesis of cyclic peptides. ... C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted amino acids are important building blocks in the design and preparation of novel peptidomimetics. We ... C(alpha)-tetrasubstituted amino acids are important building blocks in the design and preparation of novel peptidomimetics. We ...
... and application of cyclic Cα-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids in a systematic order beginning with cyclopropane amino acids, ... Maity, P. und König, Burkhard (2007) Enantio- and Diastereoselective Syntheses of Cyclic Cα-Tetrasubstituted α-Amino Acids and ... artificial amino acids; cyclic compounds; synthesis; conformation. Dewey-Dezimal-Klassifikation:. 500 Naturwissenschaften und ... This survey presents recent advances in the synthesis and application of cyclic Cα-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids in a ...
"Amino Acids, Cyclic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Amino Acids, Cyclic" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Amino Acids, Cyclic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Amino Acids, Cyclic*Amino Acids, Cyclic. *Cyclic Amino Acids. *Acids, Cyclic Amino ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Acids, Cyclic" by people in Profiles. ...
Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1Add BLAST. 341. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... "Nucleotide and derived amino-acid sequences of the CRE-binding proteins from rat C6 glioma and HeLa cells.". Short M.L., ... p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. ... section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the ...
Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ... section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over ... p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and ... Retinal rod rhodopsin-sensitive cGMP 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit gamma (EC:3.1.4.35). Short name: ...
... β-Amino Acids,Cyclic β-amino Acids,α-hydroxy Acids,β-Hydroxy Acids,Chiral Amines,Chiral Alcohols,Chiral Amino Alcohols,Chiral ...
Amino Acid/Peptide*Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives ... Amino Acid/Peptide / Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives ... Intramolecular Hydroamination of Dithioketene Acetals: An Easy Route To Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives. Hai-Chao Xu and Kevin D ... Catalytic intramolecular hydroamination of dithioketene acetals was developed for the synthesis of cyclic amino acid ...
Will the torsions make problems or do I have to define somthing new ? My guess is that any D-amino acids would be converted to ... gmx-users] MD simulating cyclic peptides including D-aminoacids. Joern Lenz JLenz at zbh.uni-hamburg.de Wed Jan 21 13:54:41 CET ... We have successfully simulated D-amino acids with OPLS (e.g. Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 248 (2006) p. 124). If the coordinates are ... Within the ffamber ports, I believe all of the amino acids are in their standard L configuration. ...
PG is a two-amino acid linker inserted between PKA-C (C, orange) and cpGFP (G, green). AC is a two-amino acid linker inserted ... contains amino acid residues 91 to 244 of the regulatory subunit of PKA. The binding of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP; ... We used amino acid residues 91 to 244 of PKA-R, which lack the D/D domain, to ensure that the sensor would remain in the ... The first C-G-R construct with the shortest linkers did not fluoresce in E. coli at either 18° or 37°C. Because amino acid ...
A METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF A CYCLIC L-AMINO ACID. Abstract. The invention concerns a method for producing a cyclic L-amino acid ... amino acids with acidic side chains (such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid), amino acids with apolar side chains (such as ... deletion and/or insertion of an amino acid or a reduced number of amino acids, particularly by substitution of natural amino ... There is an increasing demand for cyclic amino acids, particularly L-proline, L-pipecolic acid or L-piperazine-2-carboxylic ...
The direct decarboxylative azidation of cyclic α-amino acids has been achieved via visible light-mediated organo-photoredox ... Photoinduced decarboxylative azidation of cyclic amino acids David C. Marcote, Rosie Street-Jeakings, Elizabeth Dauncey, James ... Achiral amino acid glycine acts as an origin of homochirality in asymmetric autocatalysis Arimasa Matsumoto, Hanae Ozaki, ... This review covers new trends towards the selective synthesis of organoboron compounds where boron reagents and cyclic ...
These peptides may be composed of any mixture of L- or D-amino acid residues, achiral amino acid residues, peptoid residues, or ... cyclic_peptide:prohibit_D_at_negative_phi ,Bool, If true, only L-amino acids are permitted at positions in the negative-phi ... cyclic_peptide:prohibit_L_at_positive_phi ,Bool, If true, only D-amino acids are permitted at positions in the positive-phi ... cyclic_peptide:L_beta_comp_file ,String, An optional aa_composition file for biasing the amino acid composition of residues in ...
  • In humans, bile acids conjugated with glycine and taurine are the major solutes in bile, and unconjugated bile acids are almost nondetectable in normal bile. (hmdb.ca)
  • Here, we quantify the DLIPS performance using a Raman scattering probe in classification of basic constituents of collagenous tissues, namely, the amino acids glycine, L -proline, and L -alanine, and the dipeptides glycine-glycine, glycine-alanine and glycine-proline and compare the performance to a traditional Raman spectroscopy probe via several multivariate analyses. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This review is intended to give a short summary of the developments in the field of natural and synthetic alicyclic and heterocyclic hydroxylated β-amino acids and to focus on the main strategies that have been reported for their synthesis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Novel heterocyclic alpha-phosphinoamino acids, by structural relationship named 3-phosphaprolines, were obtained by cyclocondensation of 2-phenylphosphinoethylamines with glyoxylic, pyruvic or phenylglyoxylic acid at room temperature in diethylether. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • These cyclic dipeptides incorporate both donor and acceptor groups for hydrogen bonding and are small, conformationally constrained heterocyclic scaffolds in which diversity can be introduced at up to six positions and stereochemistry controlled at up to four positions, and they are stable to proteolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of the syntheses end in an isocyanate or urethane that can be converted into the desired (1-aminomethyl)-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid by acidic hydrolysis to give an acid or basic hydrolysis to give a basic salt or followed by acidification to give an acid salt. (google.com)
  • His primary interest lay in the physiological use of organic bound phosphate and the turnover of metabolic energy by its utilization (as "energy rich" or "squiggle" phosphate: ~P) in carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid, and nucleic acid syntheses as well as degradations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The second messenger cyclic AMP, for example, regulates a striking number of physiologic processes, including intermediary metabolism, cellular proliferation, and neuronal signaling, by altering basic patterns of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The intracellular second messenger cyclic AMP was also released into the perfusate, and its content was enhanced by local application of various biogenic amines. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Various S2 mutations had effects on the kinetics of desensitization and recovery from desensitization, but no single amino acid substitution was found to block desensitization, as in the L/Y mutant AMPA receptors, or to prevent desensitization to KA. (jneurosci.org)
  • In our previous work we have shown that, despite the decreased hydrogen-bonding potential of the peptoid backbone, linear and cyclic α,β-peptoids can adopt more than one ordered conformation 6 and these can be perturbed by different solvent environments and temperatures. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • He also initiated research on the nonribosomal synthesis of linear and cyclic (antibiotic) peptides by specifically arranged multienzyme complexes with pantetheine at its active center and on the milieu dependence of the chemical phosphate potential of phosphorylated amino acids in phosphoproteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our understanding of cyclic AMP signaling in the nucleus has expanded considerably over the past decade, owing in large part to the characterization of cyclic AMP-responsive promoter elements, transcription factors that bind them, and signal-dependent coactivators that mediate target gene induction. (nih.gov)
  • Amino Acids, Cyclic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C3 -C5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound. (google.es)
  • The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C 3 -C 5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound selected from lactams and lactones. (google.es)
  • For example, gabapentin can be prepared by converting 1,1-cyclohexanediacetic acid, via a reactive acid derivative, into the azide which is subsequently subjected by thermal decomposition to a Curtius reaction. (google.com)
  • 2. The compound of claim 1 , wherein the first moiety is a baclofen, vigabatrin, gabapentin, or pregabalin, or a γ-amino-phosphinic acid derivative. (google.nl)
  • Aldehydes, carboxylic acids and epoxides separate better on the gamma while alcohols, alcohol amines and other linear molecules separate better on the beta derivative. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • They may be produced by the interaction of a diamine (a compound containing two amino [NH 2 ] groups- e.g., hexamethylenediamine) and a dicarboxylic acid (containing two carboxyl [CO―OH] groups- e.g., adipic acid), or they may be formed by the self-condensation of an amino acid or an amino-acid derivative. (britannica.com)
  • The single administration of narcotic analgesics, gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs such as gabapentin, pregabalin and baclofen, antidepressants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to display pain alleviating properties in the clinic and in various animal models. (google.nl)
  • or pipA (WO-A-96/01901) could be involved in the synthesis route of Rapamycin via transformation of lysine into pipecolic acid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • To date, however, even if it has sometimes been suggested obiter dictum, no activity of cyclodeamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid has been demonstrated, exemplified or quantified. (allindianpatents.com)
  • This lack of knowledge of the reaction actually catalysed by these genes is demonstrated by the diversity of hypotheses concerning the biological route leading to pipecolic acid by certain of these authors who also relate in these publications that the conversion of lysine into pipecolic acid could be effected via D-lysine (Khaw et al. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The examples of amino acids that have ionic interactions are lysine and aspartic acid. (bartleby.com)
  • The instant invention concerns a novel process for the preparation of 1-aminomethyl-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid (gabapentin), a known compound useful for treating certain cerebral diseases such as epilepsy and dizziness. (google.com)
  • Gabapentin is a generic term used to identify the chemical compound (1-aminomethyl)-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid ##STR1## It is useful in therapy of certain cerebral disorders such as certain forms of epilepsy, faintness attacks, hypokinesia, and cranial traumas. (google.com)
  • 4. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the cyclic, bidentate compound is selected from the group consisting of γ-butyrolactone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2-pyrrolidone, 1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone, δ-valerolactam, ε-caprolactone, ε-caprolactam, methyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetate, and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-pyrrolidone. (google.es)
  • of the cyclic, bidentate compound. (google.es)
  • Synthetic cyclic peptides are used as artificial receptors due to a series of advantages over conventional receptors. (rsc.org)
  • Here we report the structural analysis of two synthetic cyclic tetrapeptides cyclo [ L -Tyr(Me)- D -Pro- L -Ala- D -Pro] ( CP Ala ) and cyclo [ L -Tyr(Me)- D -Pro- L -Glu(Me)- D -Pro] ( CP Glu ) in a molecular beam by means of combined IR/UV spectroscopic techniques. (rsc.org)
  • PITTSBURGH-Carnegie Mellon University chemists have created a synthetic form of a cyclic peptide known for its remarkable ability to combat a wide variety of pathogens, including HIV and SARS. (healthcanal.com)
  • Ly and colleagues created a mimic of RTD-1 using the building blocks of natural and synthetic nucleic acids called peptide nucleic acids. (healthcanal.com)
  • n-Propylamine and i-propylamine proved to be the best neutral reagents, providing clear diastereoselectivity for beta-amino acids in ion/molecule reactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Differentiation of diastereomeric cyclic beta-amino acids by varying the neutral reagent in ion/molecule reactions studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interestingly, diastereoselectivity was better for flexible cyclohexane beta-amino acids (2 and 3) than for more rigid cyclopentane beta-amino acids (6 and 7). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results of ab initio and hybrid density functional theory calculations on the structures of the host-guest complexes of saturated beta-amino acids were in good agreement with the experimental results. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The synthesis of bile acid and amino acid conjugates in human liver is the result of two independent enzymatic reactions with a bile acid coenzyme A thioester intermediate formation of bile acid-CoA esters, considered the rate-limiting step in bile acid amidation and catalyzed by an ATP-dependent microsomal enzyme, bile acid-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.7). (hmdb.ca)
  • The reactions proceed via primary attack of the P-lone electron pair, as shown by the synthesis of phosphonium glycolates from tertiary phosphines and glyoxylic acid, and addition of PH at the carbonyl group. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Stereochemical differentiation of diasteromeric pairs of cis- and trans-2-aminocyclohexane-, -2-amino-4-cyclohexene-, and -2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acids was investigated with host-guest complexes where tetraethyl resorcarene was the host molecule. (biomedsearch.com)