Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Amino Acids, SulfurPeptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Amino Acids, DiaminoAspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein PrecursorsCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

A general method for selection of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase-deficient Lactococcus lactis mutants to improve diacetyl formation. (1/531)

The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the alpha-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains.  (+info)

Criteria for choosing amino acid therapy in acute renal failure. (2/531)

Metabolic studies were performed on 19 patients with acute renal failure. Therapy included intravenous hyperalimentation using 15 to 20 g of essential amino acids or 20 to 40 g of essential plus nonessential amino acids and hypertonic glucose (37 to 50%). The effect of this parenteral feeding appears to be primarily pharmacological. Hypertonic glucose promotes the hyperinsulinemia important to be membrane function, the operation of the sodium pump, and cell metabolism. Administration of high biological value crystalline amino acdis potentiates the effect of insulin by inhibiting protein breakdown and promoting protein synthesis, particularly in muscle. This reduces tissue catabolism and urea formation, and promotes potassium, magnesium, and phosphate homeostasis. The branched-chain ketogenic amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine may be of particular importance. When indicated, administration of renal failure hyperalimentation and peritoneal or hemodialysis can be expected to complement each other and accelerate recovery. This intravenous fluid therapy, in turn, must be coordinated with proper hemodynamics, usually requiring a colloidal solution to maintain intravascular volume, and cardiotrophic agents such as digitalis and dopamine. Early use of renal failure can be expected to demonstrate the most striking response in terms of survival, early recovery from acute renal failure, and the preservation of physiological homeostasis.  (+info)

Effects of dietary mixtures of amino acids on fetal growth and maternal and fetal amino acid pools in experimental maternal phenylketonuria. (3/531)

BACKGROUND: Branched-chain amino acids have been reported to improve fetal brain development in a rat model in which maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) is induced by the inclusion of an inhibitor of phenylalanine hydroxylase, DL-p-chlorophenylalanine, and L-phenylalanine in the diet. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether a dietary mixture of several large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) would improve fetal brain growth and normalize the fetal brain amino acid profile in a rat model of maternal PKU induced by DL-alpha-methylphenylalanine (AMPhe). DESIGN: Long-Evans rats were fed a basal diet or a similar diet containing 0.5% AMPhe + 3.0% L-phenylalanine (AMPhe + Phe diet) from day 11 until day 20 of gestation in experiments to test various mixtures of LNAAs. Maternal weight gains and food intakes to day 20, fetal body and brain weights at day 20, and fetal brain and fetal and maternal plasma amino acid concentrations at day 20 were measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine in fetal brain and in maternal and fetal plasma were higher and fetal brain weights were lower in rats fed the AMPhe + Phe diet than in rats fed the basal diet. However, fetal brain growth was higher and concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine in fetal brain and in maternal and fetal plasma were lower in rats fed the AMPhe + Phe diet plus LNAAs than in rats fed the diet containing AMPhe + Phe alone. CONCLUSION: LNAA supplementation of the diet improved fetal amino acid profiles and alleviated most, but not all, of the depression in fetal brain growth observed in this model of maternal PKU.  (+info)

In vitro transcriptional studies of the bkd operon of Pseudomonas putida: L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers. (4/531)

BkdR is the transcriptional activator of the bkd operon, which encodes the four proteins of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Pseudomonas putida. In this study, hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that BkdR bound to only one face of DNA over the same region identified in DNase I protection assays. Deletions of even a few bases in the 5' region of the BkdR-binding site greatly reduced transcription, confirming that the entire protected region is necessary for transcription. In vitro transcription of the bkd operon was obtained by using a vector containing the bkdR-bkdA1 intergenic region plus the putative rho-independent terminator of the bkd operon. Substrate DNA, BkdR, and any of the L-branched-chain amino acids or D-leucine was required for transcription. Branched-chain keto acids, D-valine, and D-isoleucine did not promote transcription. Therefore, the L-branched-chain amino acids and D-leucine are the inducers of the bkd operon. The concentration of L-valine required for half-maximal transcription was 2.8 mM, which is similar to that needed to cause half-maximal proteolysis due to a conformational change in BkdR. A model for transcriptional activation of the bkd operon by BkdR during enzyme induction which incorporates these results is presented.  (+info)

Serum hepatocyte growth factor as an index of extensive catabolism of patients awaiting liver transplantation. (5/531)

BACKGROUND: Whole body catabolism as the result of intrahepatic metabolic derangement is common in liver transplant candidates. However, individual nutritional assessment parameters lack sensitivity and specificity in determining energy status of these patients. Recently, serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to reflect the recovery of hepatic energy metabolism after liver transplantation. AIMS: The relation between preoperative levels of serum HGF and metabolic variables was investigated to clarify the clinical value of measuring HGF in evaluations of the catabolism. PATIENTS/METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 30 liver transplant recipients, and biopsy specimens were taken from each recipient's rectus muscle and the explanted liver. Preoperative serum concentration of HGF was determined. Whole body energy metabolism was assessed by measuring glycogen contents of biopsy specimens and plasma or serum levels of glucose, insulin, total ketone bodies, total carnitine, and amino acids. RESULTS: Serum HGF concentration was elevated in 22 of 30 patients and correlated with the Child-Pugh score. It showed a negative association with muscle glycogen content, and a positive correlation with serum levels of glucose, total carnitine, and total ketone bodies. Patients with elevated serum HGF concentrations had higher preoperative plasma levels of aromatic amino acids and branched chain amino acids, associated with lower branched chain to aromatic amino acid ratios. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated serum concentration of HGF in liver transplant candidates reflected inhibition of peripheral glucose storage, enhanced lipid oxidation, and increased peripheral release of branched chain amino acids, and thus extensive energy catabolism.  (+info)

Splanchnic and leg substrate exchange after ingestion of a natural mixed meal in humans. (6/531)

The disposal of a mixed meal was examined in 11 male subjects by multiple (splanchnic and femoral) catheterization combined with double-isotope technique (intravenous [2-3H]glucose plus oral U-[14C]starch). Glucose kinetics and organ substrate balance were measured basally and for 5 h after eating pizza (600 kcal) containing carbohydrates 75 g as starch, proteins 37 g, and lipids 17 g. The portal appearance of ingested carbohydrate was maximal (1.0 mmol/min) between 30 and 60 min after the meal and gradually declined thereafter, but was still incomplete at 300 min (0.46+/-0.08 mmol/min). The total amount of glucose absorbed by the gut over the 5 h of the study was 247+/-26 mmol (45+/-6 g), corresponding to 60+/-6% of the ingested starch. Net splanchnic glucose balance (-6.7+/-0.5 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), basal) rose by 250-300% between 30 and 60 min and then returned to baseline. Hepatic glucose production (HGP) was suppressed slightly and only tardily in response to meal ingestion (approximately 30% between 120 and 300 min). Splanchnic glucose uptake (3.7+/-0.6 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), basal) peaked to 9.8+/-2.0 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1) (P<0.001) at 120 min and then returned slowly to baseline. Leg glucose uptake (34+/-5 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1), basal) rose to 151+/-29 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1) at 30 min (P<0.001) and remained above baseline until the end of the study, despite no increase in leg blood flow. The total amount of glucose taken up by the splanchnic area and total muscle mass was 161+/-16 mmol (29+/-3 g) and 128 mmol (23 g), respectively, which represent 39 and 30% of the ingested starch. Arterial blood lactate increased by 30% after meal ingestion. Net splanchnic lactate balance switched from a basal net uptake (3.2+/-0.6 micromol kg(-1) x min(-1) to a net output between 60 and 120 min and tended to zero thereafter. Leg lactate release (25+/-11 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1), basal) drastically decreased postprandially. Arterial concentration of both branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and non-branched-chain amino acids (N-BCAA) increased significantly after meal ingestion (P<0.001). The splanchnic area switched from a basal net amino acid uptake (31+/-16 and 92+/-48 micromol/min for BCAA and N-BCAA, respectively) to a net amino acid release postprandially. The net splanchnic amino acid release over 5 h was 11.3+/-4.2 mmol for BCAA and 37.8+/-9.7 mmol for N-BCAA. Basally, the net leg balance of BCAA was neutral (-3+/-5 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1)), whereas that of N-BCAA indicated a net release (54+/-14 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1)). After meal ingestion, there was a net leg uptake of BCAA (20+/-6 micromol x leg(-1) x min(-1)), whereas leg release of N-BCAA decreased by 50%. It is concluded that in human subjects, 1) the absorption of a natural mixed meal is still incomplete at 5 h after ingestion; 2) HGP is only marginally and tardily inhibited; 3) splanchnic and peripheral tissues contribute to the disposal of meal carbohydrate to approximately the same extent; 4) the splanchnic area transfers >30% of the ingested proteins to the systemic circulation; and 5) after meal ingestion, skeletal muscle takes up BCAA to replenish muscle protein stores.  (+info)

Branched-chain amino acid therapy for spinocerebellar degeneration: a pilot clinical crossover trial. (7/531)

OBJECT: The potential effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) were explored in eleven patients. METHODS: The patients received 200 ml of BCAA-rich solution, 2 mg of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; protirelin), or a placebo daily for 7 days each in a random order. An SCD score was used to quantify the severity of symptoms. PATIENTS: Eleven patients with SCD (7 male, 4 female; mean age 60+/-11; mean disease duration 5.5 years) participated in this study. RESULTS: The mean SCD score of the eleven patients improved significantly by the BCAA treatment compared with the baseline. The conditions of five of the eleven patients (45%) were clearly improved by the BCAA treatment. All of the responders manifested predominantly cerebellar symptoms, but no prominent parkinsonian symptoms. Two patients with marked rigidity and akinesia did not respond to the treatment. CONCLUSION: We concluded that BCAAs do have a beneficial effect on functional improvement in patients with SCD, and that further large scale studies are needed.  (+info)

Contribution of branched-chain amino acids to uteroplacental ammonia production in sheep. (8/531)

The uteroplacental tissues are a principal site of ammonia production for the conceptus. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the composition of maternal amino acid (AA) infusate on uteroplacental ammonia production. Seven pregnant ewes (126 +/- 1. 4 days gestation) were infused through the maternal femoral vein (duration 3.5 h, rate 240 ml per hour) with three solutions of AAs. The first infusate was comparable to commercial parenteral nutrition preparations, the second infusate contained the same solution without branched-chain AAs (BCAAs), and the third infusate contained only BCAAs. Blood samples were simultaneously collected from the maternal artery, uterine vein, fetal artery, and umbilical vein to determine plasma AA concentrations and whole blood ammonia concentrations, before (control) and 2 h after (experimental) the start of infusion. Uterine and umbilical blood flows were measured using the ethanol steady-state diffusion method. Results showed that fetal arterial and venous ammonia concentrations increased significantly after infusions with all AAs or only BCAAs, but not without BCAAs. Uteroplacental ammonia production increased in response to each of the three infusates. However, this increase was much greater when the BCAAs were present in infusates. We conclude that there is a significant contribution of BCAAs to the uteroplacental ammonia production. Maternal AA infusions containing BCAAs can result in increased fetal blood ammonia concentrations.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Branched-chain amino acid supplemented diet during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension in adult rat offspring. AU - Fujii, T.. AU - Yura, S.. AU - Tatsumi, K.. AU - Kondoh, E.. AU - Mogami, H.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Kakui, K.. AU - Aoe, S.. AU - Itoh, H.. AU - Sagawa, N.. AU - Fujii, S.. AU - Konishi, I.. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Maternal food restriction is known to cause developmental hypertension in offspring. We have previously shown that maternal high-protein diet can reverse fetal programming of hypertension and that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma were increased by maternal high-protein intake. Then, we hypothesized that isocaloric supplementation with BCAA to a maternal food restriction can reverse the adverse outcome. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups at 7.5 days postcoitum: normally nourished (NN) and 70% undernourished (UN) groups with and without BCAA supplementation (NN-standard ...
Low prices on Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)! BCAAs help increase muscle size and strength, and enhance recovery*. BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) supplements are important for protein synthesis, muscle building and preservation of lean body mass. They are also used as a muscle energy source under certain circumstances.* BCAAs, which consist of 3 essential amino acids -- leucine, valine and isoleucine, have been extensively studied for their anti-catabolic effects, helping to maintain muscle mass and strength gains.*
Low prices on Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)! BCAAs help increase muscle size and strength, and enhance recovery*. BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) supplements are important for protein synthesis, muscle building and preservation of lean body mass. They are also used as a muscle energy source under certain circumstances.* BCAAs, which consist of 3 essential amino acids -- leucine, valine and isoleucine, have been extensively studied for their anti-catabolic effects, helping to maintain muscle mass and strength gains.*
1. Cangiano C, Laviano A, Meguid MM, et al. Effects of administration of oral branched-chain amino acids on anorexia and caloric intake in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88:550-552. 2. Plaitakis A, Smith J, Mandeli J, et al. Pilot trial of branched-chain aminoacids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lancet. 1988;1:1015-1018. 3. Testa D, Caraceni T, Fetoni V. Branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol. 1989;236:445-447. 4. Tandan R, Bromberg MB, Forshew D, et al. A controlled trial of amino acid therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: I. Clinical, functional, and maximum isometric torque data. Neurology. 1996;47:1220-1226. 5. [No authors listed]. Branched-chain amino acids and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a treatment failure? Italian ALS Study Group. Neurology. 1993;43:2466-2470. 6. Richardson MA, Bevans ML, Weber JB, et al. Branched chain amino acids decrease tardive dyskinesia symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999;143:358-364. 7. ...
1. Testa D, Caraceni T, Fetoni V. Branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol. 1989;236:445-447. 2. Tandan R, Bromberg MB, Forshew D, et al. A controlled trial of amino acid therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: I. Clinical, functional, and maximum isometric torque data. Neurology. 1996;47:1220-1226. 3. Plaitakis A, Smith J, Mandeli J, et al. Pilot trial of branched-chain amino acids in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lancet. 1988;1:1015-1018. 4. Plaitakis A. Branched-chain amino acids and ALS [letter]. Neurology. 1994;44:1982-1983. 5. [No authors listed]. Branched-chain amino acids and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a treatment failure? Italian ALS Study Group. Neurology. 1993;43:2466-2470. 6. Gredal O, Moller SE. Effect of branched-chain amino acids on glutamate metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 1995;129:40-43. 7. Plaitakis A, Smith J, Mandeli J, et al. Pilot trial of branched-chain amino acids in amyotrophic lateral ...
ranched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine) are essential amino acids for humans and animals. It has been shown that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise through activation of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of the BCAAs, and the elevated enzyme activity in skeletal muscle is quickly downregulated after exercise. This tight regulation of the BCKDC is consistent with stimulation of protein synthesis after exercise in skeletal muscle. With this background, it is interesting to consider the BCAAs as a supplement for sports. We conducted a human study to examine the effects of BCAA supplementation on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by squatting exercises. The results clearly showed that BCAA supplementation significantly reduced DOMS evaluated by a visual analog scale method and maintained leg muscle force during the period of DOMS. Other studies using different types of ...
Tumor genetics guides patient selection for many new therapies, and cell culture studies have demonstrated that specific mutations can promote metabolic phenotypes. However, whether tissue context defines cancer dependence on specific metabolic pathways is unknown. Kras activation and Trp53 deletion in the pancreas or the lung result in pancreatic ductal adenocarinoma (PDAC) or non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), respectively, but despite the same initiating events, these tumors use branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) differently. NSCLC tumors incorporate free BCAAs into tissue protein and use BCAAs as a nitrogen source, whereas PDAC tumors have decreased BCAA uptake. These differences are reflected in expression levels of BCAA catabolic enzymes in both mice and humans. Loss of Bcat1 and Bcat2, the enzymes responsible for BCAA use, impairs NSCLC tumor formation, but these enzymes are not required for PDAC tumor formation, arguing that tissue of origin is an important determinant of how cancers ...
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in plasma are discussed as risk factors for the onset of several diseases. Information about the contribution of the overall diet to plasma BCAA concentrations is controversial. Our objective was to investigate which dietary pattern is associated with plasma BCAA concentrations and whether other additional nutrients besides BCAA further characterize this dietary pattern. Based on the cross-sectional KarMeN study, fasting plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, as well as current and habitual dietary intake were assessed in 298 healthy individuals. Using reduced rank regression, we derived a habitual dietary pattern that explained 32.5% of plasma BCAA variation. This pattern was high in meat, sausages, sauces, eggs, and ice cream but low in nuts, cereals, mushrooms, and pulses. The age, sex, and energy intake adjusted dietary pattern score was associated with an increase in animal-based protein together with a decrease in plant-based protein, dietary fiber, and an
This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour a day, five times a week, for six weeks). The animals received a control diet (C) (n = 12), a diet supplemented with 3.57% BCAA (S1) (n = 12), or a diet supplemented with 4.76% BCAA (S2) (n = 12). On the last day of the training protocol, half the animals in each group were sacrificed after one hour of swimming (1H), and the other half after a swimming exhaustion test (EX). Swimming time until exhaustion was increased by 37% in group S1 and reduced by 43% in group S2 compared to group C. Results indicate that the S1 diet had a beneficial effect on performance by sparing glycogen in the soleus muscle (p | 0.05) and by inducing a lower concentration of plasma ammonia, whereas the S2 diet had a negative effect on performance
SCOPE: This study addresses the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on global gene expression in liver and skeletal muscle and the molecular mechanisms underlying the improvement in liver cirrhosis using DNA microarray analysis combined with
Elevated blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which might result from a reduced cellular utilization and/or incomplete BCAA oxidation. White adipose tissue (WAT) has become appreciated as a potential player in whole body BCAA metab …
1. The oxidation of the three branched-chain amino acids was regulated in parallel fashion in rat tissues studied in vitro. 2. With 0.1 mM-[1-14C]isoleucine as substrate in the presence of 5.5 mM-glucose, 14CO2 production was 0.6 mumol/2 h per g in the aorta, 0.3 in peripheral nerve, 0.2 in muscle and 0.13 in spinal cord. 3. The ratio 14C oxidized/14C incorporated into proteins with 0.1 mM-[1-14C]leucine was 1.3 in hemidiaphragms, 3.3 in sciatic nerve and 1.0 in nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration. Leucine oxidation decreased only slightly during degeneration, but protein synthesis doubled. 4. Hemidiaphragms incubated with [1-14C]leucine or 4-methyl-2-oxo[1-14C]pentanoate increased 14CO2 production 7-9-fold as substrate concentration was increased from 0.1 to 0.5 mM; under the same conditions 14CO2 production by nerves increased only 2-3-fold. 5. 2-Oxoglutarate stimulated the oxidation of the branched-chain amino acids by muscles and peripheral nerves and the oxidation of ...
What do they do?. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. BCAAs are considered essential amino acids because human beings cannot survive unless these amino acids are present in the diet.. BCAAs are needed for the maintenance of muscle tissue and appear to preserve muscle stores of glycogen (a storage form of carbohydrate that can be converted into energy).1 BCAAs also help prevent muscle protein breakdown during exercise.2. Some research has shown that BCAA supplementation (typically 10-20 grams per day) does not result in meaningful changes in body composition,3 nor does it improve exercise performance4 5 6 7 8 or enhance the effects of physical training.9 10 However, BCAA supplementation may be useful in special situations, such as preventing muscle loss at high altitudes11 and prolonging endurance performance in the heat.12 Studies by one group of researchers suggest that BCAA supplementation may also improve exercise-induced declines in some aspects of ...
One supplement which I always recommend all of my clients touse is BCAAs, and I would recommend you to do the same. After getting yourprotein supplements bought there is no question in my mind that BCAAs are themost important supplement if protecting your muscle, building muscle and promotingmuscle recovery is of importance to you. In short, any athlete who exercisesregularly needs BCAAs in my mind!What are BCAAs? BCAAs are simply essential amino acids whichaccount for about 35-40% of your overall amino acid count. The body is able toproduce the other 60-65% but without proper nutrition and supplementation itwill not be able to benefit from the essential amino acids. These are known asleucine, isoleucine and valine. When you supplement with BCAAs your body isable to metabolise them within the muscle. BCAA products which have a high concentrationin leucine are generally more beneficial due to the increase anti-cataboliceffects this amino acid can offer.Why do I need BCAAs? Above we touched on some of the
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are endogenous proteins whose function is to maintain the cells tolerance to insult, and glutamine supplementation is known to increase HSP expression during intense exercise. Since few studies have addressed the possibility that supplementation with other amino acids could have s
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This study examines the causal role of disrupted BCAA homeostasis in obesity-associated IR and the therapeutic potential of targeting the elevated amounts of BCAAs and BCKAs. The unbiased integrative genomic analyses reveal a specific and robust association between the BCAA catabolic pathway and obesity-related IR in both human and mouse populations. In genetically obese mice, characteristic BCKD deficiency and BCAA/BCKA buildup accompany the suppression of BCAA catabolic genes at the pathway level. Correcting this BCAA catabolic defect abolishes BCAA/BCKA elevation and attenuates IR in obese ob/ob mice, supporting a causal role for the BCAA catabolic defect in IR onset in obese mice. Furthermore, reducing protein (and thus BCAA) intake effectively reduces BCAA/BCKA abundances and improves insulin sensitivity, whereas BCAA supplementation increases BCAA/BCKA abundances and promotes IR in ob/ob mice. These results together demonstrate the pathogenic role of elevated BCAAs/BCKAs in IR in obese ...
Leg-muscle force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions was measured 2 d after exercise (Day 3), and the BCAA supplementation suppressed the muscle-force decrease (to ~80% of the value recorded under the control conditions) observed in the placebo trial. Plasma BCAA concentrations, which decreased after exercise in the placebo trial, were markedly elevated during the 2 hr postexercise in the BCAA trial. Serum myoglobin concentration was increased by exercise in the placebo but not in the BCAA trial. The concentration of plasma elastase as an index of neutrophil activation appeared to increase after the squat exercise in both trials, but the change in the elastase level was significant only in the placebo trial ...
Dr. Chen-Kang Chang and team studied the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), arginine, and citrulline supplementation on central fatigue. Between periods of intensive Taekwando exercise, they measured the premotor reaction time of athletes who were given amino acid (AA) supplements versus those who received a placebo. They also measured the ratios of free tryptophan to BCAA, since tryptophan is a precursor to serotonin- a molecule that may be responsible for lethargy when present in high levels ...
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and especially L-leucine, have garnered a ton of attention in the scientific community over the past two decades. Data conti
Lots of trainers swear by branched-chain amino acids (or BCAAs) when it comes to making strength #gainz. Heres what you need to know.
Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy: Cochrane systematic review answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Decrease in blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, is known to promote liver carcinogenesis in patients with chronic liver disease, but the mechanism is unclear. We herein established hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells knocked out for DEPDC5 by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and elucidated that cell viability of the DEPDC5 knockout (DEPDC5-KO) cells was higher than that of the DEPDC5 wild-type (DEPDC5-WT) under leucine starvation. Considering that autophagy deficiency might be involved in acquired resistance to leucine deprivation, we observed reduction of LC3-II followed by accumulation of p62 in the DEPDC5-KO, which induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance ...
Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in
K Madsen, D Christensen; Administration of Glucose, Glucose plus Branched-Chain Amino Acids or Placebo during Sustained Exercise and Their Effects on a 100 km Bike Performance. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1994; 87 (s1): 35-36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs087s035a. Download citation file:. ...
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Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Branched chain amino acids - made up of Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine - comprise approximately 35% of the amino acid composition of muscle tissue. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) have attracted a lot of interest in body building and strength based sports because they are the only amino acids that are actually metabolised in the muscle. BCAAs are converted into two other amino acids - glutamine and alanine - which are released in large quantities during intense aerobic exercise. They can also be used directly by the muscles, particularly when muscle glycogen is depleted.
Our previous studies revealed that the staphylococcal protein Gcp is essential for bacterial growth; however, the essential function of Gcp remains undefined. In this study, we demonstrated that Gcp plays an important role in the modulation of the br
21st Century Hong Kong BCAA- Branched Chain Amino Acids, for sports energy HK$75 - Available from our vending machines at these locations, for your convenience and immediate purchase or Buy Online from this website BCAA: The Many Benefits Of Branched Chain Amino Acid Dieting down will get you thinner, but it might also reduce some size from your biceps. BCAAs can help protect your muscles against the catabolic
Source Naturals BCAA Capsules Branched-Chain Amino Acids Source Naturals BCAA provides support to your bodys muscular systems with a vigorous blend of branched-chain amino acids and supporting B vitamins. Research has shown that during exercise, branched-chain amino acids are metabolized directly in the skeletal muscle - a process that provides robust musculoskeletal fortification when your body needs it the most, during workouts or athletic competition. Combined with vitamin B-6 and B-12 for optimized protein synthesis, BCAA may also increase energy and reduce occasional fatigue in support of your active lifestyle. Supplement Facts for 733 mg Capsule Serving Size: 3 capsules Amount %DV Calories 10 Vitamin B-6 (as pyridoxine HCl) 8 mg 400% Vitamin B-12 (as cyanocobalamin) 333 mcg 5,500% Zinc (as zinc citrate) 3 mg 20% L-Leucine 900 mg L-Isoleucine 450 mg L-Valine 450 mg L-Glutamine 400 mg Other Ingredients: gelatin (capsule), silica, and magnesium stearate. Warning: If
Learn more about Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Supplement Forms/Alternate Names: BCAAs or Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine (Separately) Uses Principal...
Learn more about Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) at Medical City Dallas Supplement Forms/Alternate Names: BCAAs or Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine (Separately) Uses Principal...
Learn more about Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) at Sunrise Hospital & Medical Center Supplement Forms/Alternate Names: BCAAs or Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine...
... Dieting down will get you shredded, but it might also shave some size from your biceps. BCAAs c
Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase deficiency (BCKDKD) [MIM:614923]: A metabolic disorder characterized by autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability, and reduced branched-chain amino acids. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:22956686, ECO:0000269,PubMed:24449431}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A diet enriched in branched amino acids (BCAAs) allows to normalize plasma BCAA levels. This suggests that it may be possible to treat patients with mutations in BCKDK with BCAA supplementation ...
Bulk Powders™ 100% Vegan Branched Chain Amino Acids, BCAAs, AjiPure®, Ajinomoto Amino Acids®, Perfect Musclebuilding and Fat Burning Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine. Anti Ageing Booster, Eye Support, Cardiovascular Protection, Liver Protection, Increases Anaerobic Threshold, 100% Vegan, Manufactured from natural raw ingredients/materials of non-animal origin. Guaranteed 100% Pure, Free of Impurities & Toxic Metabolites. Zero Dicyandiamide (DCD), Zero Dihydrotriazine (DHT), Zero Creatinine & Zero Thiourea, Fastest Absorption into Musculoskeletal System for Enhanced Aerobic Threshold, Nitric Oxide Recirculation, Pumps, Endurance, Rapid Recovery, Cell Volumization, Rapid Muscle Building, Fat Loss, Bone Density & Elevated Performance, BCAAs, Branched chain Amino Acids, EAAs, Essential Amino Acids, SAAs, Silk Amino Acids, Histidine, Alanine, Isoleucine, Arginine, Leucine, Asparagine, Lysine, Aspartic Acid, Methionine, Cysteine, Phenylalanine, Glutamic Acid, Threonine, Glutamine, Tryptophan, Glycine,
NOW® Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are 3 essential amino acids which are abundant in muscles. The branched chain amino acids Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine are three of the eight essential amino acids that the human body must receive in food. T
TY - JOUR. T1 - Branched chain amino acids as a major source of alanine nitrogen in man. AU - Haymond, M. W.. AU - Miles, J. M.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - In vitro perfusion and incubation studies and recent investigations in dogs suggest that branched chain amino acids (BCAA)may be a major source of alanine nitrogen. To determine the contribution of BCAA nitrogen to the formation of alanine in man, seven postabsorptive adults received prime-dose constant infusions of 15N-leucine, L-[6,6,6-2H3] leucine, and L-[2,3,3,3-2H4] alanine; isotopic enrichment was determined in arterialized venous plasma samples by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. At substrate and isotope steady state, alanine flux and the rate of 15N alanine appearance were 5.4 ± 0.3 μmol/kg.min and 32 ± 2 nmol/kg.min, respectively. Leucine nitrogen flux was significantly greater than that of leucine carbon flux (2.54 ± 0.25 vs. 1.90 ± 0.10 μmol/kg.min, respectively; P , 0.001). Greater flux of leucine nitrogen when compared ...
The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD) upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake) reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury. The mechanisms responsible for this quandary remain unknown; the role of BCAA in HF-induced liver injury is unclear. Utilizing HFD or HFD+BCAA models, we demonstrated BCAA supplementation attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, decreased fat mass, activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), inhibited hepatic lipogenic enzymes, and reduced hepatic triglyceride content. However, BCAA caused significant hepatic damage in HFD mice, evidenced by exacerbated hepatic oxidative stress,
Healthy N Fit® CORRECT PROPORTION™ BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACIDS are mega potency, free-form B.C.A.A.s (Branched Chain Amino Acids) in their correct and most usable proportion and potency; formulated to increase muscle mass and strength in combination with intense training. ...
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1] Shimomura Y, Murakami T, Naoya Nakai N, Nagasaki M, Harris RA (2004). "Exercise Promotes BCAA Catabolism: Effects of BCAA Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle during Exercise". J. Nutr. 134 (6): 1583S-1587S.. [2] L-Leucine. Layne E. Norton, Donald K. Layman. "Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise.". [3] L-Valine. Gomez-Merino D, Béquet F, Berthelot M, Riverain S, Chennaoui M, Guezennec CY. "Evidence that the branched-chain amino acid L-valine prevents exercise-induced release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus.". [4] "L-Isoleucine." National Center for Biotechnology Information.. [5] Carvalho-Peixoto J, Alves RC, Cameron LC. "Glutamine and carbohydrate supplements reduce ammonemia increase during endurance field exercise." Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007 Dec;32(6):1186-90.. [6] Moloney MA, et al. "Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics." Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2010 Oct;7(4):300-10.. [7] Antti ...
... Published by HongChun at researchbeam.com [Report Price $4000] 140 Pages
What are branched chain amino acids? Why should you use them? Find out how BCAAs can take your fitness to the next level and our top recommended brand.
What are branched chain amino acids? Why should you use them? Find out how BCAAs can take your fitness to the next level and our top recommended brand.
While most amino acids are oxidized in the liver, BCAAs are primarily oxidized in the skeletal muscle and other peripheral tissues.[4] The effects of BCAA administration on muscle growth in rat diaphragm was tested, and concluded that not only does a mixture of BCAAs alone have the same effect on growth as a complete mixture of amino acids, but an amino acid mixture with all but BCAAs has no effect on rat diaphragm muscle growth.[16] Administration of either isoleucine or valine alone had no effect on muscle growth, although administration of leucine alone appears to be nearly as effective as the complete mixture of BCAAs. Leucine indirectly activates p70 S6 kinase as well as stimulates assembly of the eIF4F complex, which are essential for mRNA binding in translational initiation.[16] P70 S6 kinase is part of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTOR) signaling pathway, and has been shown to allow adaptive hypertrophy and recovery of rat muscle.[17] At rest protein infusion stimulates ...
Aki K, Ogawa K, Ichihara A (1968). "Transaminases of branched chain amino acids. IV. Purification and properties of two enzymes ... Ikeda T, Konishi Y, Ichihara A (1976). "Transaminase of branched chain amino acids. XI. Leucine (methionine) transaminase of ...
... like other branched-chain amino acids, is synthesized by plants, but not by animals. It is therefore an essential amino acid in ... Like leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. In sickle-cell disease, a single glutamic acid in β-globin ... "A branched-chain amino acid metabolite drives vascular fatty acid transport and causes insulin resistance". Nature Medicine. 22 ... Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase Valine aminotransferase Like other branched-chain amino acids, the ...
Specifically restricting consumption of the three branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine is sufficient to ... Due to the sulphur content of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, excess of these amino acids leads to the production of ... "Decreased Consumption of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Improves Metabolic Health". Cell Reports. 16: 520-30. doi:10.1016/j.celrep. ... "Restoration of metabolic health by decreased consumption of branched-chain amino acids". The Journal of Physiology. doi:10.1113 ...
... particularly branched-chain amino acids, causing a buildup of acids which are usually not present. The branched-chain amino ... Organic acids refer to the amino acids and certain odd-chained fatty acids which are affected by these disorders. The four main ... Most of the organic acidemias result from defective autosomal genes for various enzymes important to amino acid metabolism. ... ACAT1 § Ketothiolase deficiency, another type of OA Ogier de Baulny H, Saudubray JM (2002). "Branched-chain organic acidurias ...
Branched-chain amino acids consist primarily of leucine and valine. In a research paper published by the Indian J of Palliat ... Also studies have shown branched-chain amino acids can return the metabolism of a cachectic patient from catabolic-losing ... The potential role of branched-chain amino acids as antianorexia and anticachexia agents was proposed many years ago, but ... The conditionally essential amino acid glutamine has been used as a component of oral supplementation to reverse cachexia in ...
... is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) since it possesses an aliphatic side-chain that is non-linear. Racemic leucine ... Like valine and isoleucine, leucine is a branched-chain amino acid. Because the products of its breakdown are acetyl-CoA and ... Feb 01 2017) "Interactions in the Metabolism of Glutamate and the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and ketoacids in the CNS" ... The vast majority of L-leucine metabolism is initially catalyzed by the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase enzyme, ...
Dietary branched chain amino acids ameliorate injury-induced cognitive impairment. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The synthesis of adrenocortical steroid hormones involves a chain of oxidation-reduction reactions catalyzed by a series of ... Through shared intermediates and pathways branching off those shared intermediates, the different classes of steroids are ...
Massey LK, Sokatch JR, Conrad RS (1976). "Branched-chain amino acid catabolism in bacteria". Bacteriol. Rev. 40 (1): 42-54. PMC ... "In vitro reconstitution of the 24-meric E2 inner core of bovine mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase ... "Catalytic and structural properties of the dihydrolipoyl transacylase component of bovine branched-chain alpha-keto acid ...
Davis JM (1995). "Carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and endurance: the central fatigue hypothesis". Int J Sport Nutr. ... Newsholme, E. A., Acworth, I. N., & Blomstrand, E. 1987, 'Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between ... It was once believed that lactic acid build-up was the cause of muscle fatigue. The assumption was lactic acid had a "pickling ... producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the ...
Both these enzymes are needed for plants to make branched-chain amino acids. Many other enzymes are inhibited by herbicides, ... "Herbicidal inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and herbicide-tolerant crops". Amino Acids. 30 (2): 195-204. doi:10.1007/ ... These electrophilic groups react with amino acid side chains to form covalent adducts. The residues modified are those with ... side chains containing nucleophiles such as hydroxyl or sulfhydryl groups; these include the amino acids serine (as in DFP, ...
Specifically, two essential branched-chain amino acids (leucine and isoleucine) are metabolized differently. Individuals ...
... that catalyze the dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA derivatives in the metabolism of fatty acids or branch chained amino acids. ... but also reacts significantly with other 2-methyl branched chain substrates and with short straight chain acyl-CoAs. The ... Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase(ACADSB) is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes ... ACADSB is a human gene that encodes short/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD), an enzyme in the acyl CoA ...
The COR-Performance Series include as ingredients branched chain amino acids, creatine, and protein. At the end of the year, ... The brand released Alpha Amino later in 2013, which is an amino acid drink. Cellucor supplies a large variety of products that ... Alpha Aminos: made with a mix of 14 amino acids. Flavors include watermelon, blue raspberry, lemon lime, and fruit punch. C4: a ... "Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both ...
Degradation of branched-chain ketogenic amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine occurs. These amino acids are ... At low glucose levels, the production of acetyl-CoA is linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids. Fatty acids are first converted to ... Unlike free fatty acids, ketone bodies can cross the blood-brain barrier and are therefore available as fuel for the cells of ... Fatty acids are also components of the phospholipids that make up the bulk of the lipid bilayers of all cellular membranes. In ...
Elevated circulating branched chain amino acids is an early event in pancreatic adenocarcinoma development. Nature Medicine ... Intake of Small-to-Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acid Is Associated with Peripheral Leukocyte Telomere Length in Postmenopausal ... PMC 2809271 Chan KH, Song Y, Hsu YH, You NC, L FT, Liu S. Common genetic variants in fatty acid- binding protein-4 (FABP4) and ...
... functions in catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid valine. ACAD8 functions as a homotetramer and has an overall ... ACAD8 is an isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase that functions in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids including valine, and ... function to catalyze the dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA derivatives in the metabolism of fatty acids or branched-chain amino acids ... "Isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused by short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of a new ...
"Pleiotropic transcriptional repressor CodY senses the intracellular pool of branched-chain amino acids in Lactococcus lactis". ...
Bergeron, M; Layrargues, GP; Butterworth, RF (September 1989). "Aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in autopsied brain ... Imbalance between aromatic and branched chain aminoacids (Fischer index), traditionally involved in HE genesis, can be ... Substances involved are ammonia, manganese, aromatic aminoacids, mercaptans, phenols, medium chain fatty acids, bilirubin, ... "The role of plasma amino acids in hepatic encephalopathy". Surgery. 78 (3): 276-90. PMID 807982. Loock, J; Stange, J; Mitzner, ...
In males, the branched-chain amino acid formula Tarvil, containing the amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine in a 3:3:4 ... 2003). "Efficacy of the Branched-Chain Amino Acids in the Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia in Men". American Journal of ...
... protein or individual amino acids are ingested as well. Branched-chain amino acids are important since they are most ... However, if too much protein and amino acid supplements is consumed it can be more harmful to the body than it is beneficial; ... The substance glutamine, found in whey fiber supplements, is the most abundant free amino acid found in the human body. It is ... Complete proteins such as meat, eggs, and soy provide the athlete with all essential amino acids for synthesizing new tissues. ...
This inactivation results in increased branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which is seen to reduce oxidative stress; however, ... Exceedingly high BCKD complex activity increases branched-chain amino acid catabolism and protein degradation in skeletal ... and death if not treated correctly by lifelong limitation of branched-chain amino acid intake. Because BCKDK regulates BCKD ... "Solution structure and dynamics of the lipoic acid-bearing domain of human mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid ...
... branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine on neuroendocrine system responses and fatigue in humans". Horm. Metab. Res. 30 (4): ... amino acid and is significantly less soluble in water than its precursor, phenylalanine. Aside from being a proteinogenic amino ... which in turn can be oxidized by the citric acid cycle or be used for fatty acid synthesis. Phloretic acid is also a urinary ... It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. Its codons are UAC and UAU. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek ...
An imbalance between aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) and branched-chain amino acids (leucine, ... Dietary supplementation with branched-chain amino acids has shown improvement of encephalopathy and other complications of ... short-chain fatty acids, and phenol. Numerous other abnormalities have been described in hepatic encephalopathy, although their ... There is increased activity of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, and the energy supply to other brain cells is ...
Cavazza, A.; Corradini, C.; Lauria, A.; Nicoletti, I. (2000). "Rapid Analysis of Essential and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in ... Recent applications of MEKC include the analysis of uncharged pesticides, essential and branched-chain amino acids in ... Short-chain alcohols or acetonitrile can be used as organic modifiers that decrease t M {\displaystyle t_{M}} and k 1 {\ ...
This fragment has a less complete amino acid profile and is low in branched chain amino acids. As a dietary supplement, whey ... and have a high concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)[full citation needed] which are highly concentrated in ... "Signaling Pathways and Molecular Mechanisms through which Branched-Chain Amino Acids Mediate Translational Control of Protein ... Whey protein isolates are also widely used in infant formula to provide a natural source of amino acids for optimal growth and ...
... amino acid therapy may be helpful for regenerating damaged or atrophied muscle tissue. The branched-chain amino acids or BCAAs ... Since the absence of muscle-building amino acids can contribute to muscle wasting (that which is torn down must be rebuilt with ... in addition to lysine and other amino acids. In severe cases of muscular atrophy, the use of an anabolic steroid such as ...
Efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:1117-1124. ... Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during repeated prolonged skiing exercises at altitude. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:295- ... Effects of branched-chain amino acids and carbohydrate on fatigue during intermittent, high-intensity running. Int J Sports Med ... Branched-chain amino acids enhance the cognitive recovery of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil ...
Tissue of origin dictates branched-chain amino acid metabolism in mutant Kras-driven cancers ... Tissue of origin dictates branched-chain amino acid metabolism in mutant Kras-driven cancers ... Tissue of origin dictates branched-chain amino acid metabolism in mutant Kras-driven cancers ... Tissue of origin dictates branched-chain amino acid metabolism in mutant Kras-driven cancers ...
This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the ... Effect of branched-chain amino acids, glucose, and glucose plus branched-chain amino acids on endurance performance in rats. ... Jakeman, P.M. Amino acid metabolism, branched-chain amino acid feeding and brain monoamine function. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1998, 57 ... increased ratio of specific amino acids in plasma (free tryptophan/branched-chain amino acids (TRPL/BCAA)). The first three ...
Branched-chain amino acids come together and discuss about Branched-chain amino acids. Please use the message board below to ... Amino acids Forum. • Aliphatic Forum. • Leucine Forum. • Isoleucine Forum. • Valine Forum. • Branched chain aminotransferase ... There are no entries in Branched-chain amino acids forum. Become the first person to post messages in this forum by using the ... Congratulations! You have found the Branched-chain amino acids Forum on Forum Jar. This forum is a place where people who are ...
... Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) as nutraceuticals for ... ranched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine) are essential amino acids for humans and animals. It has been ... shown that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise through activation of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC ...
Branched-chain amino acid supplemented diet during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension in adult rat ... Branched-chain amino acid supplemented diet during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension in adult rat ... Branched-chain amino acid supplemented diet during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension in adult rat ... T1 - Branched-chain amino acid supplemented diet during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension in adult ...
Valine: Valine is one of three branched-chain amino acids, meaning it has a chain branching off to one side of its molecular ... Leucine: Like valine, leucine is a branched-chain amino acid that is critical for protein synthesis and muscle repair. It also ... The three branched- chain essential amino acids are widely used to alleviate fatigue, improve athletic performance and ... Isoleucine: The last of the three branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine is involved in muscle metabolism and is heavily ...
A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having an aliphatic side-chain with a branch (a central carbon atom bound ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Branched-chain amino acids.. *Branched-chain+amino+acids at the US National Library of ... Degradation of branched-chain amino acids involves the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). A ... The BCKDH complex converts branched-chain amino acids into acyl-CoA derivatives, which after subsequent reactions are converted ...
... user ratings and products that contain Branched-Chain Amino Acids ... Learn more about Branched-Chain Amino Acids uses, effectiveness ... Dont use branched-chain amino acids if you have this condition.. Chronic alcoholism: Dietary use of branched-chain amino acids ... Levodopa interacts with BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS. Branched-chain amino acids might decrease how much levodopa the body ... Children: Branched-chain amino acids are POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth, short-term. Branched-chain amino acids ...
you can get branched-chain amino acids from these foods: *whey, milk, and soy proteins *beef, chicken, fish, and eggs *baked ... What are the risks of taking branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)?. *What drugs can branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) interact ... What is the standard dose of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)?. NEXT QUESTION: What are the side effects of taking branched- ... How can you get branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) naturally from foods?. ANSWER ...
Explored promoting multi-disciplinary research on branched chain amino acids (BCAA) actions and metabolism over a broad ... Branched-chain Amino Acids in Exercise. Stuart Phillips, Ph.D., McMaster University. 10:40 a.m. - 11:15 a.m.. BCAA and Recovery ... Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Human Diseases. May 25. - 26, 2017. Location Contacts ... The branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential nutrients, required for normal growth and ...
BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACID AMINOTRANSFERASE FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1A3G/pdb ... Three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase at 2.5 A resolution.. Okada, K., ... The active site structure shows that the following sites can recognize branched-chain amino acids and glutamate as substrates ... The X-ray crystallographic structure of the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Escherichia coli was determined by ...
Find treatment reviews for Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) from other patients. Learn from their experiences about ...
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial. target. Leucine. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, ... Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic. target. Isoleucine. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, ... Amino Acids, Branched-Chain. Accession Number. DBCAT000344. Description. Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain. ... Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic. enzyme. Isoleucine. Short/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ...
Now Branched Chain Amino Acids are pharmaceutical grade.. The Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), Leucine, Isoleucine and ... Now Foods, Sports, Branched Chain Amino Acids, 240 Capsules. By. Now Foods. ... Now Foods, Sports, Branched Chain Amino Acids, 240 Capsules. By. Now Foods. ... Now Foods, Sports, Branched Chain Amino Acids, 240 Capsules. By Now Foods ...
BCAAs (Branched-Chain Amino Acids). "BCAAs" refer to the three essential amino acids - leucine, valine, isoleucine. BCAAs are ... BCAAs (Branched-Chain Amino Acids) :. "BCAAs" refer to the three essential amino acids - leucine, valine, isoleucine. BCAAs ... A complete protein that contains enriched essential amino acids, including branched-chain amino acids. Whey protein isolate ... Amino Acid. Amino Acids are building blocks from which complete proteins are made. Whey protein contains isolated amino acids ...
BCAAs are considered essential amino acids because human beings cannot survive unless these amino acids are present in the diet ... The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... Branched-Chain Amino Acids. Uses. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. BCAAs are ... Under a doctors supervision, supplementing with branched-chain amino acids may correct an imbalance of amino acids and improve ...
The three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are valine, leucine and isoleucine. They are included in the 20 amino acids that ... Branched-chain amino acids might be helpful in certain instances. If protein intake is adequate then supplementing with ... There are several proposed and researched benefits to consuming branched chain amino acids either before, during or after ... These amino acids must be consumed through the diet or supplements. BCAAs are the only amino acids that bypass the liver and go ...
Branched-chain amino acids and Alzheimers disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.. Larsson, Susanna C. Uppsala University ... a two-sample Mendelian randomization study to test the hypothesis that raised plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids ...
Catabolic Defect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Promotes Heart Failure. Haipeng Sun, Kristine C. Olson, Chen Gao, Domenick A. ... Catabolic Defect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Promotes Heart Failure. Haipeng Sun, Kristine C. Olson, Chen Gao, Domenick A. ... Catabolic Defect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Promotes Heart Failure. Haipeng Sun, Kristine C. Olson, Chen Gao, Domenick A. ... Suppression of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) catabolic gene expression along with concomitant tissue accumulation of ...
... for Abcams Branched Chain Amino Acid Assay Kit. Our in-house scientific support team are here to help you with any technical ...
... administration of branched-chain amino acids markedly reduced the movements of TD.{ref65} Such intervention is contraindicated ... What is the role of branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD)?) and What is the role of branched- ... Efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jun. 160(6): ... In a group of adult men with TD, administration of branched-chain amino acids markedly reduced the movements of TD. [65] Such ...
To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) versus any control intervention for people ... Lactulose, rifaximin or branched chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy: what is the evidence?. Metab Brain Dis. 2013 Jun ... Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 17. 9:CD001939. [ ... What is the role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy?. Updated: Apr 04, 2019 ...
Branched-chain amino acids are essential amino acids, meaning that they can only be obtained from food. They play important ... Irregular metabolism of branched-chain amino acids may cause progression of type 2 diabetes. *Download PDF Copy ... Tobias emphasized that branched-chain amino acids are not necessarily unhealthy. More research is needed to determine whether ... From a practical point of view, branched-chain amino acids are difficult to avoid, said Tobias. They are found in so many ...
Long-term therapy with a branched chain amino acid-enriched elemental diet, JAMA 242: 347 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... E. H. Egberts, W. Hamster, and P. Jürgens, Effect of branched chain amino acids on latent portasystemic encephalopathy, in: " ... S. Erikkson and J. Wahren, Failure of oral branched-chain amino acid administration to improve chronic hepatic encephalopathy, ... Effective Treatment of Latent Porto-Systemic Encephalopathy with Oral Branched Chain Amino Acids. ...
  • It has been shown that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise through activation of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of the BCAAs, and the elevated enzyme activity in skeletal muscle is quickly downregulated after exercise. (e-pan.org)
  • This product is formulated with what is termed 'free form' amino acids that have been independently produced and then combined in the optimal 2:1:1 ratio. (naturesbest.co.uk)
  • Bovine gelatin (capsule) and stearic acid (vegetable source). (iherb.com)
  • An acid found naturally in citrus fruits that can act as a preservative or a flavoring agent. (guenergy.com)
  • This product is a Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act compliant combination of naturally derived FDA GRAS (Generally regarded As Safe) herbal, nutraceutical, vitamins, minerals and amino acids products legally sold in the USA. (forresthealth.com)
  • Also, this product consists ONLY of a combination of naturally derived FDA GRAS (Generally regarded As Safe) herbal, nutraceutical, vitamins, minerals and amino acids products legally sold in the USA. (forresthealth.com)