Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.

Anti-sm autoantibodies in systemic lupus target highly basic surface structures of complexed spliceosomal autoantigens. (1/107)

Autoantibodies directed against spliceosomal proteins are a common and specific feature of systemic lupus erythematosus. These autoantibodies target a collection of proteins, including Sm B, B', D1, D2, and D3. We define the common antigenic targets of Sm D2 and D3 and examine their role in spliceosomal autoimmunity. Our results define nine major common epitopes, five on Sm D2 and four on Sm D3. These epitopes have significantly higher (more basic) isoelectric points than do nonantigenic regions. In fact, this association is of sufficient power to make isoelectric point an excellent predictor of spliceosomal antigenicity. The crystallographic structure of Sm D2 and D3 is now partially described. The anti-Sm D2 and D3 antigenic targets are located on the surface of the respective three-dimensional complexed proteins, thereby suggesting that these epitopes are accessible in the native configuration. All but one of these nine epitopes conspicuously avoid the specific regions involved in intermolecular interactions within the spliceosomal complex. One of the D3 epitopes (RGRGRGMGR) has significant sequence homology with a major antigenic region of Sm D1 (containing a carboxyl-terminal glycine-arginine repeat), and anti-D3 Abs cross-react with this epitope of Sm D1. These results demonstrate that spliceosomal targets of autoimmunity are accessible on native structure surfaces and that cross-reactive epitopes, as well as structural associations of various spliceosomal Ags, may be involved in the induction of autoimmunity in systemic lupus.  (+info)

Membrane activity of the southern cowpea mosaic virus coat protein: the role of basic amino acids, helix-forming potential, and lipid composition. (2/107)

Southern cowpea mosaic virus (SCPMV) is a spherical RNA virus with T = 3 icosahedral symmetry. The particle is composed of 180 subunits of the coat protein (CP) and one copy of the positive-sense viral RNA. The CP has two domains, the random (R) domain formed by the N-terminal 64 aa and the shell (S) domain (aa 65--260). The R domain is highly charged, with 11 of the N-terminal 30 residues being basic. It is localized to the interior of the native particle where it may interact with the viral RNA, but under certain pH and salt conditions the topology of the particle changes to externalize the R domain. Since the CPs of several spherical RNA viruses have been shown to interact with host membranes during infection, we have begun investigating the membrane interactions of the SCPMV CP using the artificial liposome membranes. Both the native CP and the R domain overexpressed in Escherichia coli were observed to interact with liposomes. The interaction between the R domain and liposomes required either anionic phospholipids or non-bilayer-forming lipids and involved electrostatic interactions since it was shown to be both pH and ionic strength dependent. The analysis of four different deletion and six different site-directed substitution mutations partially mapped the region responsible for this interaction to residues 1--30. Analysis of this region of the R domain by circular dichroism indicated that it assumes an alpha-helical structure when exposed to liposomes composed of anionic lipids. Mutations, which extend the helical nature of this region, promoted an increased interaction. The possible role of the CP/lipid interaction in the SCPMV infection is discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of signal that directs C-tail-anchored proteins to mammalian mitochondrial outer membrane. (3/107)

We analyzed the signal that directs the outer membrane protein with the C-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS) to mammalian mitochondria by using yeast Tom5 as a model and green fluorescent protein as a reporter. Deletions or mutations were systematically introduced into the TMS or the flanking regions and their intracellular localization in COS-7 cells was examined using confocal microscopy and cell fractionation. 1) Three basic amino acid residues within the C-terminal five-residue segment (C-segment) contained the information required for mitochondrial-targeting. Reduction of the net positive charge in this segment decreased mitochondrial specificity, and the mutants were distributed throughout the intracellular membranes. 2) Elongation of the TMS interfered with the function of the C-segment and the mutants were delivered to the intracellular membranes. 3) Separation of the TMS and C-segment by linker insertion severely impaired mitochondrial targeting function, leading to mislocalization to the cytoplasm. 4) Mutations or small deletions in the region of the TMS flanking the C-segment also impaired the mitochondrial targeting. Therefore, the moderate length of the TMS, the positive charges in the C-segment, and the distance between or context of the TMS and C-segment are critical for the targeting signal. The structural characteristics of the signal thus defined were also confirmed with mammalian C-tail-anchored protein OMP25.  (+info)

Covalent cross-linking of proteins without chemical reagents. (4/107)

A facile method for the formation of zero-length covalent cross-links between protein molecules in the lyophilized state without the use of chemical reagents has been developed. The cross-linking process is performed by simply sealing lyophilized protein under vacuum in a glass vessel and heating at 85 degrees C for 24 h. Under these conditions, approximately one-third of the total protein present becomes cross-linked, and dimer is the major product. Chemical and mass spectroscopic evidence obtained shows that zero-length cross-links are formed as a result of the condensation of interacting ammonium and carboxylate groups to form amide bonds between adjacent molecules. For the protein examined in the most detail, RNase A, the cross-linked dimer has only one amide cross-link and retains the enzymatic activity of the monomer. The in vacuo cross-linking procedure appears to be general in its applicability because five different proteins tested gave substantial cross-linking, and co-lyophilization of lysozyme and RNase A also gave a heterogeneous covalently cross-linked dimer.  (+info)

Role of paired basic residues of protein C-termini in phospholipid binding. (5/107)

It is a well known phenomenon that the occurrence of several distinct amino acids at the C-terminus of proteins is non-random. We have analysed all Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins predicted by computer databases and found lysine to be the most frequent residue both at the last (-1) and at the penultimate amino acid (-2) positions. To test the hypothesis that C-terminal basic residues efficiently bind to phospholipids we randomly expressed GST-fusion proteins from a yeast genomic library. Fifty-four different peptide fragments were found to bind phospholipids and 40% of them contained lysine/arginine residues at the (-1) or (-2) positions. One peptide showed high sequence similarity with the yeast protein Sip18p. Mutational analysis revealed that both C-terminal lysine residues of Sip18p are essential for phospholipid-binding in vitro. We assume that basic amino acid residues at the (-1) and (-2) positions in C-termini are suitable to attach the C-terminus of a given protein to membrane components such as phospholipids, thereby stabilizing the spatial structure of the protein or contributing to its subcellular localization. This mechanism could be an additional explanation for the C-terminal amino acid bias observed in proteins of several species.  (+info)

Contribution of basic residues of the A helix of heparin cofactor II to heparin- or dermatan sulfate-mediated thrombin inhibition. (6/107)

Inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II (HCII) is accelerated 1000-fold by heparin or dermatan sulfate. To investigate the contribution of basic residues of the A helix of HCII to this activation, we constructed amino acid substitutions (K101Q, R103L, and R106L) by site-directed mutagenesis. K101Q greatly reduced heparin cofactor activity and required a more than 10-fold higher concentration of dermatan sulfate to accelerate thrombin inhibition compared with wild-type recombinant HCII. Thrombin inhibition by R106L was not significantly stimulated by dermatan sulfate. These results provide evidence that basic residues of the A helix of HCII (Lys(101) and Arg(106)) are necessary for heparin- or dermatan sulfate-accelerated thrombin inhibition.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved charged amino acid residues in ClpB from Escherichia coli. (7/107)

ClpB is a member of a multichaperone system in Escherichia coli (with DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that reactivates strongly aggregated proteins. The sequence of ClpB contains two ATP-binding domains, each containing Walker consensus motifs. The N- and C-terminal sequence regions of ClpB do not contain known functional motifs. In this study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected charged residues within the Walker A motifs (Lys212 and Lys611) and the C-terminal region of ClpB (Asp797, Arg815, Arg819, and Glu826). We found that the mutations K212T, K611T, D797A, R815A, R819A, and E826A did not significantly affect the secondary structure of ClpB. The mutation of the N-terminal ATP-binding site (K212T), but not of the C-terminal ATP-binding site (K611T), and two mutations within the C-terminal domain (R815A and R819A) inhibited the self-association of ClpB in the absence of nucleotides. The defects in self-association of these mutants were also observed in the presence of ATP and ADP. The four mutants K212T, K611T, R815A, and R819A showed an inhibition of chaperone activity, which correlated with their low ATPase activity in the presence of casein. Our results indicate that positively charged amino acids that are located along the intersubunit interface (this includes Lys212 in the Walker A motif of the N-terminal ATP-binding domain as well as Arg815 and Arg819 in the C-terminal domain) participate in intersubunit salt bridges and stabilize the ClpB oligomer. Interestingly, we have identified a conserved residue within the C-terminal domain (Arg819) which does not participate directly in nucleotide binding but is essential for the chaperone activity of ClpB.  (+info)

Complete replacement of basic amino acid residues with cysteines in Rickettsia prowazekii ATP/ADP translocase. (8/107)

The ATP/ADP translocase (Tlc) of Rickettsia prowazekii is a basic protein with isoelectric point (pI)=9.84. It is conceivable, therefore, that basic residues in this protein are involved in electrostatic interactions with negatively charged substrates. We tested this hypothesis by individually mutating all basic residues in Tlc to Cys. Unexpectedly, mutations of only 20 out of 51 basic residues resulted in greater than 80% inhibition of transport activity. Moreover, 12 of 51Cys-substitution mutants exhibited higher than wild-type (WT) activity. At least in one case this up-effect was additive and the double mutant Lys422Cys Lys427Cys transported ATP five-fold better than WT protein. Since in these two single mutants and in the corresponding double mutant K(m)'s were similar to that of WT protein, we conclude that Tlc may have evolved a mechanism that limits the transporter's exchange rate and that at least these two basic residues play a key role in that mechanism. Based on the alignment of 16 Tlc homologs, the loss of activity in the mutants poorly correlates with charge conservation within the Tlc family. Also, despite the presence of three positively charged and one negatively charged intramembrane residues, we have failed to identify potential charge pairs (salt bridges) by either charge reversal or charge neutralization approaches.  (+info)

Category:Basic amino acids Pages in category Basic amino acids There are 5 pages in this section of this category. A ArginineArgininosuccinic acidH
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminestransporter, basic amino acid/polyamine antiporter (APA) family (TIGR00905; HMM-score: 72.3) ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminestransporter, basic amino acid/polyamine antiporter (APA) family (TIGR00905; HMM-score: 133.3) ...
Wellendorph P, Hansen KB, Balsgaard A, Greenwood JR, Egebjerg J, Bräuner-Osborne H (2005). „Deorphanization of GPRC6A: a promiscuous L-alpha-amino acid receptor with preference for basic amino acids. Mol. Pharmacol. 67 (3): 589-97. PMID 15576628. doi:10.1124/mol.104.007559 ...
Looking for online definition of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme in the Medical Dictionary? paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme explanation free. What is paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme? Meaning of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme medical term. What does paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cluster of basic amino acid residues in the γ370-381 sequence of fibrinogen comprises a binding site for platelet integrin α IIbβ3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa). AU - Podolnikova, Nataly P.. AU - Gorkun, Oleg V.. AU - Loreth, Ralph M.. AU - Yee, Vivien C.. AU - Lord, Susan T.. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana P.. PY - 2005/12/27. Y1 - 2005/12/27. N2 - Adhesive interactions of platelet integrin αIIbβ 3 with fibrinogen and fibrin are central events in hemostasis and thrombosis. However, the mechanisms by which αIIbβ 3 binds these ligands remain incompletely understood. We have recently demonstrated that αIIbβ3 binds the γ365-383 sequence in the γC-domain of fibrin(ogen). This sequence contains neither the AGDV nor the RGD recognition motifs, known to bind αIIbβ3, suggesting the different specificity of the integrin. Here, using peptide arrays, mutant fibrinogens, and recombinant mutant γC-domains, we have examined the mechanism whereby αIIbβ3 binds γ365-383. The αIIbβ3-binding ...
Rhodium has a nuclear charge of 45. The effective nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge found in an atom. This means the nuclear charge is equal to the atomic...
Modification of arginyl residues of Hageman factor by phenylglyoxal hydrate inhibits activation of this clotting factor in a plasma-free system, that is, in the absence of the other constituents of the contact activation system. Activation is also in
The functional characterization of BAR-domain-containing proteins has expanded quite rapidly over the past few years. Recently, Guerrier and colleagues found that the F-BAR domain of srGAP2 shares the functional properties of I-BAR domain activity (Guerrier et al., 2009), such as those contained in IRSp53 and missing in metastasis (MIM) (Mattila et al., 2007; Millard et al., 2007; Saarikangas et al., 2009) by inducing membrane protrusions, rather than making invaginations as observed with canonical F-BAR proteins (Frost et al., 2007; Itoh et al., 2005). Recent reports (Carlson et al., 2011) and reviews (Heath and Insall, 2008) describing the subclasses of F-BAR-domain-containing proteins categorize srGAP family members into one functionally uniform subgroup; however, our work demonstrates that there are discrete roles and intricate differences between each srGAP family member.. Although the F-BAR domains of the srGAP family are all able to induce filopodia-like membrane protrusions to a greater ...
Dr. Mandanas responded: Glutamine amino acid. Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). People take it for various reasons as a dietary supplement. It purportedly helps maintain |a href=/topics/muscle-mass track_data={
Can I take the product during my breastfeeding?In addition, it is advisable not to use the product? In such cases as weight loss pills during breastfeeding?Personal coach Wiktor Smith is an expert in the field and diet, who knows what your body needs and how it will throw away your kilograms.The basic amino acids contained in Aloe Vera are the basic amino acids, which the body cannot produce by itself.In the manufacturers opinion, it is enough to take two tablets before sowing so that your body can fight the overweight?Schud. am 7 kilo or doc. as much as for itself, and the effect has been going on for several months now.If you want to strengthen the effect and achieve fast results, it is worthwhile to use the top quality supplement and choose Garcynia.Trust level of trust and how will you begin to lose a few kilos of pounds? b. t he all more likely to continue to lose weight and, how will you get energy, mood and eye evasion to pounds? in the melt?. How does she cope with it, so as not to ...
Amino Acids tutorial video explaining the hydrophilic side chain characteristics for polar neutral, acidic and basic amino acid side chains.
Trypsin is a serine protease enzyme (EC number of 3.4.21.4), which hydrolyses esters of basic amino acids such as lysine and arginine in the peptides. Optimal temperature for trypsin activation is around 37 degrees Celsius and its optimal pH is around 7.5 to 9.0. Trypsin is available in the form of immobilized enzym...
An atom with more protons than electrons, giving it a net positive charge. For example, a sodium atom becomes a cation when it transfers an electron to a chlorine atom to form sodium chloride. See also Ion and Anion.. ...
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Interplay between cellular membranes and their peripheral proteins drives many processes in eukaryotic cells. Proteins of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain family, in particular, play a role in cellular morphogenesis, for example curving planar membranes into tubular membranes. However, it is still unclear how F-BAR domain proteins act on membranes. Electron microscopy revealed that, …
A composition for use in the oral cavity comprising a monophosphate represented by the following general formula (1), ##STR1## wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or alkenyl group with 6 to 20 carbon atoms, and may have a substituted fluorine atom; one of X1 or X2 is a basic amino acid residual group, while the other is a hydrogen atom, an alkali metal, an ammonium, an alkyl amine, an alkanol amine, or a basic amino acid residual group; and n is an integer from 0 to 4. The composition exhibits a superior action in protecting the tooth surface, is stable, and has a pleasant taste.
Uniform-sized silica nanospheres with a well-ordered arrangement were successfully synthesized by a novel and simple method; hydrolysis and condensation reactions of tetraethyl orthosilicate were conducted in the presence of basic amino acids.
L-Arginine is a conditionally essential basic amino acid involved primarily in urea metabolism and excretion as well as DNA synthesis.
Et randomiseret, dobbeltblindet,placebokontrolleret multicenterforsøg med parallelle grupper til undersøgelse af virkningern af sotagliflozin på kardiovaskulære og renale hændelser hos forsøgsdeltagere med type 2-diabetes, kardiovaskulære risikofaktorer og moderat nedsat nyrefunktion ...
In 2009, Washington state had 179 murders, according to the national disaster center. The Spokesman reported that Washington state had 264 deaths involving an impaired driver in 2009. DUI drivers kill more people than
This invention relates to methods of treating early enamel lesions comprising applying an effective amount of a basic amino acid in free or salt form, together with fluoride to a patient in need thereof.
Looking for Protamines? Find out information about Protamines. Any of the simple proteins that are combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of certain fish, and that upon hydrolysis yield basic amino acids; used in... Explanation of Protamines
NOW L-Arginine is a conditionally essential basic amino acid involved primarily in urea metabolism and excretion. Order your bottle today. Same Day Shipping!
A set of styryl- and bis-styryl dyes, varying in length, aromatic surface, net positive charge and steric positioning or bulkiness of substituents, was tested for interactions with various ds-DNA or ds-RNA. Most of the compounds showed strong affinity toward ds-DNA/RNA, directly correlated to the synergistic
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A(H7N9) viruses of the YRD lineage with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site have been detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples from live poultry markets. These viruses fulfil the requirements for classification as HPAI viruses. The HPAI A(H7N9) viruses were genetically and antigenically distinct from other A(H7N9) viruses including A/Hunan/2650/2016 and the current CVVs (Figure 2, Table 3 and 4). Therefore, a new CVV derived from an A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus (HPAI) is proposed. ...
Proteases (also called Proteolytic Enzymes, Peptidases, or Proteinases) are enzymes that hydrolyze the amide bonds within proteins or peptides. Most proteases act in a specific manner, hydrolyzing bonds at or adjacent to specific residues or a specific sequence of residues contained within the substrate protein or peptide. Proteases play an important role in most diseases and biological processes including prenatal and postnatal development, reproduction, signal transduction, the immune response, various autoimmune and degenerative diseases, and cancer. They are also an important research tool, frequently used in the analysis and production of proteins. Furin is a calcium dependent serine endoprotease that processes numerous proproteins of different secretory pathways into their mature forms by cleaving at the carboxyl side of the recognition sequence, R-Xaa-(K/R)-R, where Xaa can be any amino acid. Recombinant human Furin is a 61.7 kDa protein, corresponding to residues 124 through 715 of the ...
WHAT ARE AMINO ACIDS? Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are vital to understanding the Krebs Cycle. They are individual crystalline molecules that make up protein, similar to the way letters make up the alphabet. There are 20 basic amino acids that produce over 1600 substances in the body. They make up 3/4ths of the body s solid material and are found in muscle tissue, organs, blood and skin. Amino acids also make hormones, enzymes, and vitamins, and are essential for a healthy immune system and proper neurological functions. It is necessary to replace amino acids constantly to nourish the body and to repair and regenerate tissue. Amino acids are generally ingested in the food we eat, however, because of processed foods, inadequate diets, and food restrictive programs, a proper balance is rarely achieved and supplementation is advisable. This holds to be true during illness, trauma, surgery and stress. More amino acids are required than can be obtained by food alone. In the chronically
The pH at which a protein carries no net charge. Below the isoelectric point proteins carry a net positive charge; above it a net negative charge. Due to a preponderance of weakly acid residues in almost all proteins, they are nearly all…
This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module for conversion of three-carbon compounds from glyceraldehyde-3P to pyruvate [MD:M00002], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. This KEGG module is the most conserved one in the KEGG MODULE database and is found in almost all the completely sequenced genomes. The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001, RM033, RM032, and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple ...
This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module for conversion of three-carbon compounds from glyceraldehyde-3P to pyruvate [MD:M00002], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. This KEGG module is the most conserved one in the KEGG MODULE database and is found in almost all the completely sequenced genomes. The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001, RM033, RM032, and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple ...
These non-specific interactions are formed through basic residues in the histones making ionic bonds to the acidic sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA, and are therefore largely independent of the base sequence. Chemical modifications of these basic amino acid residues include methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation. These chemical changes alter the strength of the interaction between the DNA and the histones, making the DNA more or less accessible to transcription factors and changing the rate of transcription. Other non-specific DNA-binding proteins in chromatin include the high-mobility group proteins, which bind to bent or distorted DNA. These proteins are important in bending arrays of nucleosomes and arranging them into the larger structures that make up chromosom ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitation of neuropeptides in Cpefat/Cpefat mice using differential isotopic tags and mass spectrometry. AU - Che, Fa yun. AU - Fricker, Lloyd D.. PY - 2002/7/1. Y1 - 2002/7/1. N2 - Neuroendocrine peptides play important roles as intercellular messengers. We previously developed a technique to isolate and identify a large number of neuroendocrine peptides from Cpefat/Cpefat mice (Che, F.; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001, 98, 9971-6); these mice lack carboxypeptidase E activity and this defect causes an accumulation of neuropeptide intermediates that contain C-terminal Lys or Arg residues (Naggert, J. K.; et al. Nat. Genet. 1995, 10, 135-42). In the present study, we have developed a differential isotopic-labeling technique that can be used to quantitate changes in neuropeptide levels in Cpefat/Cpefat mouse tissues. Samples are treated with either the H6 or the D6 form of acetic anhydride, peptides that contain C-terminal basic amino acids are isolated by affinity ...
This little video clip that I put together shows how a growth factor binds to its receptor. Heparin mediates the process. The growth factors bind to receptors in pairs with the heparin threaded through all four proteins and holding the complex together. The receptors would be embedded in the membrane at the bottom. This clip starts with a single receptor to which the heparin binds first, followed by the first growth factor. The basic amino acids, arginine and lysine are shown in blue. In the first image, the amino acid backbone is shown as a ribbon with blue bars. In the second, the atoms of the amino acid side chains are filled in and the blue bars become blue atomic balls that reveal the surface of the protein. The blue areas are positively charged and groups on the surface are heparin-binding domains. The heparin is shown as a polysaccharide with atoms colored by element, O-red, S-orange, N-blue. The proteins bind to the heparin like beads on a string. Pairing of the receptors in a particular ...
This gene encodes a member of the semaphorin III family of secreted signaling proteins that are involved in axon guidance during neuronal development. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal Sema domain, an immunoglobulin like domain and a C-terminal basic domain. The protein encoded by this gene binds neuropilin and plays an important role in cardiovascular development. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016 ...
Complete information for COLQ gene (Protein Coding), Collagen Like Tail Subunit Of Asymmetric Acetylcholinesterase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module for conversion of three-carbon compounds from glyceraldehyde-3P to pyruvate [MD:M00002], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. This KEGG module is the most conserved one in the KEGG MODULE database and is found in almost all the completely sequenced genomes. The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001, RM033, RM032, and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple ...
Coinciding with its newly achieved GRAS status, Layn is processing a bumper crop of Luo Han Guo from its GAP compliant farming operations. Luo Han Guos sweetness comes from Mogroside V and it is up to 300 times sweeter than sucrose yet contains virtually no calories. It is rich in vitamin c, protein and 18 basic amino acids. Its intense sweetness requires only small amounts yet provides great taste and nutrition and all the health benefits of reduced calories and sugar intake. Luo Han Guos flavor profile and clean tasting sweetness allows for a wide variety of food and beverage applications.
POWERING UP FOR RAGE. Undefeated Justin Smith replaces Niel Du Plessis against Gordon Roodman at EFC 77. Pretoria, South Africa - One of the most exciting up-and-coming talents, DRCs undefeated Justin Smith, has stepped-up to replace a sick Niel Du Plessis and challenge Pretorias dangerous Gordon Roodman in front of his home town in the opening fight of the main card of EFC 77. Live from Time Square, Pretoria on 16 March.. ​. Du Plessis recently reported to EFC HQ that he has caught a Staphylococcus. infection and has withdrawn from his scheduled bout against Roodman. Upon hearing the news of Du Plessis withdrawing, Smith posted, Yo EFC, Ill come up to Gordons home town, put my undefeated streak on the line and go up a division! #MainCard us! Okay wow… is this actually happening, the little lionclub wants to get noticed, Roodman responded to Smiths call out.. Smith has been making headlines in the organisationsince his debut. In less than a year, he has faced three formidable ...
2.A.118 The Basic Amino Acid Antiporter (ArcD) Family. The ArcD family is a constituent of the IT superfamily (Lolkema and Slotboom, 2003; Prakash et al., 2003; Rabus et al., 1999). It is the st313/AitC family of Lolkema and Slotboom (2003). It consists of proteins from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus, Escherichia, Salmonella, Fusobacterium and Borrelia species). The proteins are of about 480 aas with 10-12 putative TMSs. Functionally characterized homologues are in the DcuC (TC #2.A.61) and ArsB (TC #2.A.4) families. Some members of the family probably catalyze arginine/ornithine or citruline/ornithine antiport (Gupta et al., 2013; Rimaux et al., 2013). ...
simulate this circuit - Schematic created using CircuitLab. ADDITION. As such we normally ignore that leakage current in DC circuits. So let us look at your question another way.. For the moment consider what would happen if an electron fell down that drain to ground. What happens to the rest of the circuit?. Suddenly it will have a missing electron and will have a net positive charge. The ground now has an extra electron and has net negative charge. That means there is a reverse voltage on the ground wire which will immediately cause the electron to return to the circuit. The opposite would happen if somehow an extra electron were to arrive from the ground. The circuit would be at a negative potential and ground would be positive. The visiting electron would be immediately repelled.. In actuality, that returning force is what prevents the electrons from crossing the connection in the first place. It is a self stabilizing state.. ...
View Notes - chapter13 from ESS 40 at UCSB. The Urinary Sys = Important to Maintain Homeostasis H2O, plasma, + EFC volume Electrolyte composition pH balance Eliminate body waste Kidneys = major
This report provides a guide to the development and presentation of 2014-2016 NSDUH substate estimates. A summary of the estimation methodology is included as well as sample sizes, response rates, and population estimates. This shapefile includes geographic boundaries of the 2014-2016 NSDUH substate regions along with prevalence rates, map group.... ...
This report provides a guide to the development and presentation of 2014-2016 NSDUH substate estimates. A summary of the estimation methodology is included as well as sample sizes, response rates, and population estimates. This shapefile includes geographic boundaries of the 2014-2016 NSDUH substate regions along with prevalence rates, map group.... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peptide nucleic acids conjugated to short basic peptides show improved pharmacokinetics and antisense activity in adipose tissue. AU - Wancewicz, Edward V.. AU - Maier, Martin A.. AU - Siwkowski, Andrew M.. AU - Albertshofer, Klaus. AU - Winger, Theodore M.. AU - Berdeja, Andres. AU - Gaus, Hans. AU - Vickers, Timothy A.. AU - Bennett, C. Frank. AU - Monia, Brett P.. AU - Griffey, Richard H.. AU - Nulf, Christopher J.. AU - Hu, Jiaxin. AU - Corey, David R.. AU - Swayze, Eric E.. AU - Kinberger, Garth A.. PY - 2010/5/27. Y1 - 2010/5/27. N2 - A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting a splice junction of the murine PTEN primary transcript was covalently conjugated to various basic peptides. When systemically administered to healthy mice, the conjugates displayed sequence-specific alteration of PTEN mRNA splicing as well as inhibition of full length PTEN protein expression. Correlating activity with drug concentration in various tissues indicated strong tissue-dependence, with highest ...
This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module for conversion of three-carbon compounds from glyceraldehyde-3P to pyruvate [MD:M00002], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. This KEGG module is the most conserved one in the KEGG MODULE database and is found in almost all the completely sequenced genomes. The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001, RM033, RM032, and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple ...
This application claims the priority of Patent Application United States Serial No. 61/027438, filed February 9, 2008, and claims the priority of Patent Application United States Serial No. 61/027442, filed February 9, 2008, and Patent Application United States Serial No. 61/027432; 61/027431; 61/027420 and 61/027435, filed February 9, 2008, all of the contents of these applications are incorporated in this application by reference.. The prior art INVENTIONS. Dry mouth or xerostomia is an acute or chronic condition that originally caused by lack of saliva. This may be due to underlying disease such as Sjogren syndrome, dehydration, damage to the salivary glands, alcohol or side effects of drugs. It was found that the General population of this state is increased. Tentatively, dry mouth complains from 15% to 20% of young people, and dry mouth complaining about 30-40% of people aged 60-80 years.. Xerostomia can cause patients some complications. The amount of saliva may be reduced, and it can be ...
Summary: Flagella from Bacillus firmus RAB, an alkalophilic bacterium, were purified to homogeneity. The flagella were shown to consist of a single protein subunit (flagellin) with an apparent molecular weight of 40000. The amino acid composition of B. firmus RAB flagellin was similar to that of other bacilli except that the former had far fewer basic amino acids. The paucity of basic amino acics may render the flagella more stable at external pH values as high as 11.0.
I know that there are polar uncharged amino acids (serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine) and polar charged amino acids (the basic and acidic amino acids). Does the charge on the acidic and basic amino acids make them more polar and hydrophilic than the uncharged polar amino acids? Moreover, cysteine is classified as an uncharged amino acid, but because it has an ionizable side chain, would it be more polar than serine, asparagine, etc.? ...
This little video clip that I put together shows how a growth factor binds to its receptor. Heparin mediates the process. The growth factors bind to receptors in pairs with the heparin threaded through all four proteins and holding the complex together. The receptors would be embedded in the membrane at the bottom. This clip starts with a single receptor to which the heparin binds first, followed by the first growth factor. The basic amino acids, arginine and lysine are shown in blue. In the first image, the amino acid backbone is shown as a ribbon with blue bars. In the second, the atoms of the amino acid side chains are filled in and the blue bars become blue atomic balls that reveal the surface of the protein. The blue areas are positively charged and groups on the surface are heparin-binding domains. The heparin is shown as a polysaccharide with atoms colored by element, O-red, S-orange, N-blue. The proteins bind to the heparin like beads on a string. Pairing of the receptors in a particular ...
Papain papaya latex has antifungal activity against C. albicans. It is a cysteine protease that cleaves peptide bonds of basic amino acids, leucine, or glycine.
Most people I know who buy iMacs tend to keep them for longer than your average computer. Given that, if youre in the market for a new iMac today and you can afford this one, you should absolutely buy the iMac with Retina display. Theres no question whatsoever that Retina is the future of the iMac, that developers will continue to up-res and support these gorgeous new displays. The iMac with Retina display is the rare gadget that will actually get better over time, as there are more things to do more beautifully ...
Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic ↓ Termination: stop codon * Initiation: possible start codon ... Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic ↓ Termination: stop codon * Initiation: possible start codon ... Amino-acid biochemical properties Nonpolar Polar Basic Acidic ↓ Termination: stop codon * Comparison between codon translations ... most specify an amino acid.[7] Three sequences, UAG, UGA, and UAA, known as stop codons,[note 1] do not code for an amino acid ...
Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. Protein requirements are species-specific. Carnivorous fish need a greater ... essential fatty acids and eight amino acids required for complete nutrition. Whole wheat (carbohydrates) is not the best source ... An example of an aquatic diet that is a good source of amino acid is a crumbled hard boiled egg offered to small fry. Large ... Squid Meal is a highly digestible protein source for fish which provides a full range of amino acids, vitamins, minerals and ...
A rule of thumb for determining the D/L isomeric form of an amino acid is the "CORN" rule. The groups: COOH, R, NH2 and H ( ... Moss, G. P. (1 January 1996). "Basic terminology of stereochemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1996)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. ... For most amino acids, the L form corresponds to an S absolute stereochemistry, but is R instead for certain side-chains. ... For this reason, the D/L system remains in common use in certain areas of biochemistry, such as amino acid and carbohydrate ...
Amino acid neurotransmitters". In G. Siegel; et al. (eds.). Basic Neurochemistry. University of Michigan: Raven Press. pp. 311- ... caprylic and heptanoic acids), lactate, acetate, and possibly amino acids. Information from the sense organs is collected in ... Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated ... Although the same basic components are present in all vertebrate brains, some branches of vertebrate evolution have led to ...
Amino acids nonpolar polar basic acidic Stop codon Standard genetic code 1st. base 2nd base ... amino acid sequences and DNA sequences. Proteins with the same three-dimensional structure need not have identical amino acid ... that code redundantly for the same amino acid. Since many species use the same codon at the same place to specify an amino acid ... Had the amino acid sequences come from different ancestors, they would have been coded for by any of the redundant codons, and ...
Two types of amino acid clusters have been observed, a serine cluster and a basic cluster. Its function(s) are unknown. However ... It is 360 amino acids in length. It is expressed ubiquitously but only in G1/S phase of the cell cycle. The human and mouse ... The amino acid change is conservative and is unlikely to massively alter protein function. However, the editing site may be ... Editing occurs at a K/R editing site within amino acid position 225 of the final protein. Using RT-PCR and sequencing of 100 ...
... consists of 417 amino acids and weighs 47037Da. CKMT1A is rich in amino acids with hydroxyl-containing and basic side ...
Walker JM (1994). "The Dansyl Method for Identifying N-Terminal Amino Acids". Basic Protein and Peptide Protocols. Methods Mol ... Dansyl chloride is widely used to modify amino acids; specifically, protein sequencing and amino acid analysis. Dansyl chloride ... fluorescence intensity of dansyl amino acids and dansyl proteins in aqueous media and its application to assay of amino acids ... This, in combination with their ability to accept energy (as in fluorescence resonance energy transfer) from the amino acid ...
Both share an acid residue Glutamic acid 216 of the enzyme that bridges the two cations. Two basic amino acids surround the ... doi:10.1007/s10295-012-1089-x. Kitahara, K. (1966). "Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria". Nyusankin no Kenkyu: 67~69. Buchanan, R. ...
Chapter 15, Amino acid neurotransmitters. (編) G. Siegel; 等. Basic Neurochemistry. Raven Press. 1989: 311-332. ISBN 978-0-88167- ... Basic Books. 1996. ISBN 978-0-465-07278-1.. *^ Sereno, MI; Dale, AM; Reppas, AM; Kwong, KK; Belliveau, JW; Brady, TJ; Rosen, BR ... Basic Neurochemistry Sixth. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 1999. ISBN 0-397-51820-X.. ... Mechanisms for selection of basic motor programs-roles for the striatum and pallidum. Trends in Neurosciences. 2005, 28 (7): ...
The N-terminal region contains 12 basic amino acids which can be taken as signature as it is present in only coronin proteins. ... The number of amino acids in this region varies greatly. The unique region of Dictyostelium has 22 amino acids whereas ... Contain 450-650 amino acids with C-terminus coiled coil region of 30-40 amino acids that mediates homophilic dimerization and/ ... The WD-repeat is a structural motif comprising approximately 40 amino acids usually ending with the amino acid sequence ...
Separation of amino acids into acidic, basic and neutral groups. Specifically, cytoplasmic leaf proteins are extracted from ... It induces an electrical power that will instigate a flux of the cations present in the less acid side to the more acid side. ... Acids can be recovered from aqueous solutions using anion-exchange membranes. That process is an alternative treatment of the ... It is used for the recovery of mixed acid (HF+ HNO3), the recovery and concentration of Zn2+ and Cu2+, in H2SO4+ CuSO4 and ...
These preferentially cleave C-terminally to paired basic amino acids. Members of this subfamily can be identified by subtly ... Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. Subtilase is ... with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique ... catalytic triad, Ser/Glu/Asp, as well as the presence of an aspartic acid residue in the oxyanion hole. High-resolution crystal ...
... is a basic peptide consisting of 26 amino acids. The principal function of melittin as a component of bee venom is to ... the N-terminal part of the molecule is predominantly hydrophobic and the C-terminal part is hydrophilic and strongly basic. In ...
Each subunit has 245 amino acid residues. It has a basic leucine zipper domain, a characteristic of many transcription factors ...
Interaction of DNA (in orange) with histones (in blue). These proteins' basic amino acids bind to the acidic phosphate groups ... These encode the twenty standard amino acids, giving most amino acids more than one possible codon. There are also three 'stop ... Chemical modifications of these basic amino acid residues include methylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation.[109] These ... Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diːˈɒksɪˌraɪboʊnjuːˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪ-/ (. listen);[1] DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil ...
Salt substitute Acid salt also known as "hydrogen salt" Alkali salts also known as "basic salts" Bresle method (the method used ... Examples of zwitterions include amino acids, many metabolites, peptides, and proteins. Solid salts tend to be transparent as ... carbonic acid) Chloride Cl− (hydrochloric acid) Citrate HOC(COO− )(CH 2COO− ) 2 (citric acid) Cyanide C≡N− (hydrocyanic acid) ... nitric acid) Nitrite NO− 2 (nitrous acid) Oxide O2− Phosphate PO3− 4 (phosphoric acid) Sulfate SO2− 4 (sulfuric acid) Salts ...
... has 22 amino acids and molecular weight of 2698 Daltons. In extract from human gut and plasma, there are two basic ... The sequences of amino acids of motilin is: Phe-Val-Pro-Ile-Phe-Thr-Tyr-Gly-Glu-Leu-Gln-Arg-Met-Gln-Glu-Lys-Glu-Arg-Asn-Lys-Gly ... Based on amino acid sequence, motilin is unrelated to other hormones. Because of its ability to stimulate gastric activity, it ... The second form, on the other hand, is larger and contains the same 22 amino acids as the first form but includes an additional ...
Basic tastes can also be attributed to amino acid groups arranged in specific sequence. In soy sauce, it was found that "amino ... Based on the result of free amino acid analysis, the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid, ... This amino-glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color. Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid ... Over time, the Aspergillus mold on the soy and wheat break down the grain proteins into free amino acid and protein fragments ...
In total, the TTC16 protein is 873 amino acids in length. There are two isoforms, of which variant 1 is the longest. There are ... "PB2 - Polymerase basic protein 2 - Influenza A virus (strain A/Wilson-Smith/1933 H1N1) - PB2 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ... There is only one known case of TTC16 interaction, involving polymerase basic protein 2 (pb2). Pb2 is involved in transcription ... The molecular weight is 98.3 kdal and the isoelectric point is 9.15 making TTC16 a basic protein. ...
... -III is a basic polypeptide, consisting of 29 amino acid residues. It has a molecular mass of 3286.58 Da. Raventoxin- ... Raventoxin-I consists of 43 amino acid residues. It has a molecular mass of 4840.11 Da. The toxin is partially homologous to δ- ... Raventoxin-VI consists of 51 amino acid residues, and has a molecular weight of 5371.6 Da. All described raventoxins have shown ...
Basic tastes can also be attributed to amino acids groups arranged in specific sequence. In soy sauce, it was found that "amino ... Based on the result of free amino acid analysis, the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid, ... This amino-glycosidic reaction gives soy sauce its dark brown color. Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid ... Acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein[edit]. Some brands of soy sauce are made from acid-hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed ...
... and new research on amino acids (3rd ed.). North Bergen, New Jersey: Basic Health. ISBN 978-1-59120-037-6.. ... amino acid metabolism, sphingolipid biosynthesis, and degradation).".[13] Specific conditions[edit]. Orthomolecularists claim ... amino acids, and other so-called "pharmacologic nutrients".[4] These diagnoses have not been accepted by mainstream medicine.[ ... carefully examined the literature produced by megavitamin proponents and by those who have attempted to replicate their basic ...
Amino acids[edit]. An amino acid contains both acidic (carboxylic acid fragment) and basic (amine fragment) centres. The isomer ... The pKa values for deprotonation of the common amino acids span the approximate range 2.15±0.2. This is also consistent with ... The crystal and molecular structure of the amino acid α-glycine" (PDF). Acta Crystallographica Section B. 28 (6): 1827-1833. ... It is generally assumed that K , 1, that is, that the zwitterion is the predominant amino acid isomer in aqueous solution. It ...
Each sequence includes a combination of standard and sulphur-containing amino acids. Although the basic structure can be ... The recently identified protein family is enriched in aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, and is utilized by certain ... Reflectin is a disordered protein made up of conserved amino acid sequences. ...
... for 20 basic amino acids). Trifonov averaged over them and got the proposed temporal order of the amino acids emergence, ... Consensus temporal order of amino acids Having the suspected first two triplets, they pondered which amino acids appeared the ... It is a network arrangement of sequence fragments of the length of 20 amino acids obtained from a collection of fully sequenced ... Later on, Trifonov collected even 101 criteria for the amino acids order. Each criterion could be represented as a vector of ...
... see basic amino acids in (provided table (sort by pH)) of certain amino acids in the "basic" domain, such as lysines and ... or leucine-like amino acids. These amino acids are spaced out in each region's polypeptide sequence in such a way that when the ... The bZIP domain is 60 to 80 amino acids in length with a highly conserved DNA binding basic region and a more diversified ... The NFIL3 protein has 462 amino acids including a b-ZIP domain . The N-terminal portion of the domain contains the basic motif ...
It contains four basic regions: from amino acid 1 to 173: key region for lipid droplet targeting. from amino acid 1 to 108: ... from amino acid 185 to 463: interactions with PNPLA2 and ABHD5. from amino acid 444 to 463: targets mitochondria for lipid ... It is composed of 463 amino acids, weighing an average of 50.8 kDa. ... On the other hand, this association may occur with the aim of protecting the mitochondria against toxic levels of fatty acids ...
The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids that make it up. It has a peptide backbone made up of a repeated sequence ... The two basic types are the α-helix and the β-pleated sheet. The tertiary structure is a back and forth bending of the ... Data structures are built out of two basic types: An array has an index that can be used for immediate access to any data item ... Atoms in a crystal have a structure that involves repetition of a basic unit called a unit cell. The atoms can be modeled as ...
Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ... Wiemuth D, Sahin H, Falkenburger BH, Lefevre CM, Wasmuth HE, Grunder S (2012). "BASIC--a bile acid-sensitive ion channel highly ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... Primary bile acidsEdit. Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and ...
1995). "Amino-terminal basic residues of Src mediate membrane binding through electrostatic interaction with acidic ... Liu J, Sessa WC (1994). "Identification of covalently bound amino-terminal myristic acid in endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... Zhou W, Parent LJ, Wills JW, Resh MD (1994). "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ...
By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... "Centrifugation Basics". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 10 May 2016.. *^ Article on "Centrifugation" retrieved on 15 October 2013 from ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... Special Issue: Biotechnology Annual Review 2010RNA Basics and Biotechnology Applications. 27 (3): 256-66. doi:10.1016/j.nbt. ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ...
... binds to amino acids 170-173 and 182-185 on CD20, which are physically close to each other as a result of a disulfide ... a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[46] ... bond between amino acids 167 and 183.[39] History[edit]. Rituximab was developed by researcher Nabil Hanna and coworkers at ...
... binds to amino acids 170-173 and 182-185 on CD20, which are physically close to each other as a result of a disulfide ... a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[46] ...
Iron will bond with an amino acid produced by the kōji to produce off flavors and a yellowish color. Manganese, when exposed to ... There are two basic types of sake: Futsū-shu (普通酒, ordinary sake) and Tokutei meishō-shu (特定名称酒, special-designation sake). ... As the proportion of amino acids rises, the sake tastes more savory. This number is determined by titration of the sake with a ... aldehydes and amino acids, among other unknown factors.[23] Tōji[edit]. Tōji (杜氏) is the job title of the sake brewer, named ...
... a derivative of amino acid beta-alanine), oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE, a natural compound) and OLE's active ingredient para- ... "Patient education: What to do after a tick bite to prevent Lyme disease (Beyond the Basics)". www.uptodate.com. UpToDate. ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... the IDSA recommends treatment with cefuroxime or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as these are effective against both infections.[ ...
"Complete amino acid sequence of the human progesterone receptor deduced from cloned cDNA". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Zhang XL, Zhang D, Michel FJ, Blum JL, Simmen FA, Simmen RC (June 2003). "Selective interactions of Kruppel-like factor 9/basic ... which are identical except for an additional 165 amino acids present only in the N terminus of hPR-B.[12] Although hPR-B shares ... at the amino acid terminal. This segment is not present in the receptor-A. ...
Phenylalanine is an amino acid that can be obtained from food. Phenylketonuria causes this amino acid to increase in amount in ... One basic model of pleiotropy's origin describes a single gene locus to the expression of a certain trait. The locus affects ... which converts the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. Depending on the mutation involved, this conversion is reduced or ... Other more complex models compensate for some of the basic model's oversights, such as multiple traits or assumptions about how ...
In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ...
Glutamate receptor antagonist(英語:Excitatory amino acid antagonist) (NMDA(英語:NMDA receptor antagonist)) ... Marks' basic medical biochemistry : a clinical approach 4. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ... Glutamate receptor agonist(英語:Excitatory amino acid agonist) (AMPA(英語:Ampakine)) ...
Through a study done at the University of Albany, it was shown that the ability of the Coomassie dye to target amino acids with ... aromatic groups (phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan) and basic side chains (lysine, arginine and histidine), allows Bradford ... This provides a simpler method for fingerprint analysis by reducing the number of amino acids needed to be analyzed from 23 to ... A protein sample is added to a solution of the dye in phosphoric acid and ethanol. Under the acid conditions the dye is ...
Needleman, S. y Wunsch, C. (1970). "A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of ... "Basic Local Alignment Search Tool" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Biology 215 (3). Arquivado dende o orixinal (PDF) o 13 de ... "Similar amino acid sequences: chance or common ancestry?". Science 214 (4517).. ... "Nucleic Acids Research 22 (17).. *↑ Un bo recurso de introdución a EMBnet é a páxina What is EMBnet? Arquivado 07 de setembro ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral.[36] ... Ashmead, H. DeWayne (1993). The Roles of Amino Acid Chelates in Animal Nutrition. Westwood: Noyes Publications.. ... Needed for production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions Table salt (sodium chloride) is the ...
Amino acids[edit]. BMAA[edit]. The non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is ubiquitously produced by ... Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds which mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. They are produced by ... Amino Acid BMAA Nervous System All Most cyanotoxins have a number of variants (analogues). As of 1999, altogether over 84 ... A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical structure as proteins, except ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... After basic processing, teas may be altered through additional processing steps before being sold,[84] and is often consumed ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ... with additions to the basic tea leaf and water added during preparation or drinking. Examples of additional processing steps ...
... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102]. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ... The energy released is used to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through chemiosmosis, the same basic process that happens ... Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... acetic acid or formic acid are used as alternative electron acceptors by methanogens. These reactions are common in gut- ...
Salt bridges and hydrogen bonds between side chains of basic amino acids (especially lysine and arginine) and phosphate oxygens ... The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... Biomass and the Environment - Basics *^ a b "Biofuels Make a Comeback Despite Tough Economy". Worldwatch Institute. 2011-08-31 ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, ...
The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. ... Pyridoxal phosphate links with basic residues (in this case Lys680) and covalently forms a Schiff base. Once the Schiff base ...
They are involved in catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, and polyamines, ... Peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes, such as D-amino acid oxidase and uric acid oxidase.[9] However the last enzyme is absent ... Specific amino acid sequences (PTS or peroxisomal targeting signal) at the C-terminus (PTS1) or N-terminus (PTS2) of ... The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany their cargoes (containing a PTS1 or a PTS2 amino acid sequence, ...
Protonated amino groups (-NH+. 3) are the most common positively charged moieties in proteins, specifically in the amino acid ... Because amines are basic, they neutralize acids to form the corresponding ammonium salts R3NH+. When formed from carboxylic ... carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... The breakdown of amino acids releases amines, famously in the case of decaying fish which smell of trimethylamine. Many ...
... the cognitive aspects of sex are far more important in humans than the basic instinctive functions observed in animals.[9] ... 17α-hydroxyyohimban-16α-carboxylic acid methyl ester. CAS Number. *146-48-5 Y ... 2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. *2-Aminoindane. *5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole. *2-Aminotetralin ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... because normally CREB interaction with CRE and the subsequent translation of the BDNF transcript is blocked by of the basic ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ... neurotrophic factor regulates the expression and synaptic delivery of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid ...
Implications of Comparative Analysis of Amino Acid Sequences". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (5): ... "Understanding the Basics". The Human Genome Project. Retrieved 26 April 2015. *↑ "WS227 Release Letter". WormBase. 10 August ... Watson, J. D.; Crick, FH (1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" (PDF). Nature ... Domingo, E; Escarmís, C; Sevilla, N; Moya, A; Elena, SF; Quer, J; Novella, IS; Holland, JJ (June 1996). "Basic concepts in RNA ...
Amino acid-RNA ligation. The ability to conjugate an amino acid to the 3'-end of an RNA in order to use its chemical groups or ... Bell, Graham: The Basics of Selection. Springer, 1997. *^ Orgel LE (Oct 1994). "The origin of life on the earth". Scientific ... As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino-acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... as no amino acid molecules lie within 18Å of the enzyme's active site,[15] and, when the majority of the amino acids in the ...
"Amino Acids. 38 (5): 1283-99. doi:10.1007/s00726-009-0374-0. PMC 2860555. PMID 19882216.. ... Klingemann HG (2010). "Development and testing of NK cell lines". In Lotze MT, Thompson AW (eds.). Natural killer cells - Basic ... Sweat, desquamation, flushing,[2] organic acids[2] Gastrointestinal tract. Peristalsis, gastric acid, bile acids, digestive ... such as salicylic acid or jasmonic acid. Some of these travel through the plant and signal other cells to produce defensive ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... IFT Basic Symposium Series, Marcel Dekker, Inc.:New York, 793 pages *^ Physical Chemistry of Food Processes, Advanced ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ... Such artificial flavours include methyl salicylate which creates the wintergreen odor and lactic acid which gives milk a tart ...
Mineral Nutrients and Amino Acids May or Must be Added.[87] Voluntary and mandatory fortification was described for various ... The world price of vitamin C rose sharply in 2008 partly as a result of rises in basic food prices but also in anticipation of ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... The biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in vertebrates starts with the formation of UDP-glucuronic acid. UDP-glucuronic acid is ...
Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just dont... ... I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these ... Made only of amino acids. Make up structure of your body. Can be used for energy.. Amino Acids - made of the same elements as ... Related Threads on Basics for: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids Can your body synthesise protein from ... I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about ...
An amino acid containing a second basic group (usually an amino group); e.g., lysine, arginine, ornithine. ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Basic_amino_acids&oldid=57326" ... Basic amino acid ...
The amino acid sequence of human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein without known function, was determined by automated Edman ... Human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis. A Grubb and H Löfberg ... Human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis ... Human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis ...
Amino Acid Transporter Laboratory. This research group is focused on transport and cycling of neurotransmitters and amino acids ... Amino acids, and in particular glutamine, are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways. Glutamine is the most abundant amino ... It is a major carbon and nitrogen donor, and it contributes to the formation of other amino acids, nucleotides and the anti- ... We investigate molecular mechanisms involved in glutamine (and other amino acids) transport across cell membranes subsequent ...
... plus precursor Ornithine-Ketoglutarate and Alpha Lipoic Acid for. ... unique blend of 20 highest quality L-Crystalline singular amino ... All-Basic Powder 350 gms , Montiff. All-Basic-Plus 750 mg 500 caps. Dietary Supplement. • Advanced L-Crystalline Amino Acid ... All-Basic Powder 350 gms , Montiff. A unique blend of 20 highest quality L-Crystalline singular amino acids, plus precursor ... Desiccant pads are included in All-Basic Amino Acid Formula, as well as all of Montiffs highest quality nutraceuticals, to ...
Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in Triggering Substate of RyR1. In Ra Seo,1,2 Dae Eun Kang,1,2 Dong ... In Ra Seo, Dae Eun Kang, Dong Woo Song, and Do Han Kim, "Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in ...
A cluster of basic amino acid residues in calcineurin b participates in the binding of calcineurin to phosphatidylserine ... In the present study we tested the effects of mutations of calcineurin B subunit amino acid residues K(20)K(21), K(24)R(25), K( ... These results indicate that calcineurin B contains an amino terminal basic residue cluster that is involved in the binding of ... Interactions between phospholipid membranes and the acyl chain and specific amino acid residues of myristoylated proteins are ...
All but one of thirty mutants were allelic, and were specifically deficient in the basic amino acid permease. This mechanism of ... Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine ... Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine ... Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine ...
"Effects of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid ... "Sodium-independent Currents of Opposite Polarity Evoked by Neutral and Cationic Amino Acids in Neutral and Basic Amino Acid ... Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A1 gene. Mutations in the ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (19): 14331- ...
Amino Acid Basic Properties. Name, Abbreviations, Chemical classification, Relative Abundance, and Acid-Base properties of each ... 2) Isotopic average of neutral amino acyl residu in a peptide bond. (3) In peptides in aqueous solution. N-terminus: pKa=7.8 & ...
The Arabidopsis nuclear gene BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 (BAC2) encodes a mitochondria-located carrier that transports basic ... The Arabidopsis nuclear gene BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 (BAC2) encodes a mitochondria-located carrier that transports basic ... When BAC2 is overexpressed in vivo, it triggers catabolism of arginine, a basic amino acid, leading to arginine depletion and ... When BAC2 is overexpressed in vivo, it triggers catabolism of arginine, a basic amino acid, leading to arginine depletion and ...
Study Basic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins flashcards from Paige Johnson ... Basic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins Flashcards Preview Biochem , Basic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins , Flashcards ... The pH at which the net charge on an amino acid is 0 ... linear polymers of α-amino acids bound together by peptide ... Helical structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds (b/t amino and carboxyl O atom of 2nd AA 4 residues down the chain) ...
Thus, basic amino acid residues essential to the activation or activity of Hageman factor appear to be variably accessible to ... The effect of chemical modification of basic amino acid residues on the activation and amidolytic activity of Hageman factor ( ... Activation is also inhibited by alteration of the other two basic amino acid residues present, lysine and histidine. Chemical ... Amino Acids / chemistry*. Arginine / chemistry. Diethyl Pyrocarbonate / pharmacology. Factor XII / antagonists & inhibitors, ...
Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). People take it for various reasons as a dietary supplement. It ... In brief: Glutamine amino acid Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). ... In brief: Glutamine amino acid Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). ... if I am also taking the amino acid supplements L-tyrosine and L-glutamine? I took the amino acids roughly 5 hours ago. ...
Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) (FURIN) Protein (His tag,GST tag). Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli ... Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) (FURIN) (AA 587-748) protein (His tag,GST tag) Protein FURIN Origin: Human ... Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) (FURIN) (AA 578-734) protein (His tag,GST tag) Protein ... Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) (FURIN) (AA 108-793) protein (rho-1D4 tag) Protein ...
FURIN furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme) [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms:. FURIN; furin (paired basic amino acid ... paired basic amino acid residue-cleaving enzyme; EC 3.4.21.75; paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (furin, membrane ... Recombinant Human Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme). Download Datasheet See All FURIN Products. Bring this ... Furin is also known as PACE (Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme).. ...
Rapid and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to-Acidic Flash Switching in a Micro-flow ReactorRapid ... Rapid and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to-Acidic Flash Switching in a Micro-flow Reactor. ... and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to-Acidic Flash Switching in a Micro-flow Reactor. ...
We are Professional Manufacturer of Basic Amino Acids company, Factory & Exporters specialize in Basic Amino Acids wiht High- ... Find Basic Amino Acids Manufacturers & Suppliers from China. ... Home > Products > Basic Amino Acids. Basic Amino Acids - ... and will sincerely create and share success with all clients for Basic Amino Acids , basic amino acids , Amino Acids , you ... realizes price share and continual marketing for Basic Amino Acids , basic amino acids , Amino Acids , With more than 9 years ...
... starting with the structure and nature of amino acids, the general difference between acid... ... Learn about what differentiates acidic and basic amino acids, ... Basic Amino Acids. The three basic amino acids are:. *Arginine ... Blog / Amino Acids Acidic and Basic Amino Acids Explained. By: Amino Science ... Nonessential Amino Acids. Your nonessential amino acids are the amino acids your body can create on its own as a byproduct of ...
Rožman, Marko (2012) Proton affinity of several basic non-standard amino acids. Chemical Physics Letters, 543 . pp. 50-54. ISSN ... 2-amino-3-guanidinopropionic acid, 2-amino-4-guanidinobutyric acid, homoarginine, citrulline and canavanine), histidine (1- ... For a majority of here studied non-standard amino acids the gas- phase proton affinities were established for the first time, ... methylhistidine and 3- methylhistidine) and lysine (2, 3-diaminopropanoic acid, 2, 4-diaminobutanoic acid, ornithine, 5- ...
An amino acid may be a singlet (single amino acid) or connected to many other amino acids. Amino Acids form short polymer ... Amino Acid Basics. In biochemistry, an amino acid is a molecule containing both amine and carboxyl functional groups. Amino ... Amino Acid & Protein Basics - A Welltrient Health Tip. We use amino acids in almost every product for the body proper. And we ... Body Basics. In the body, all ingested proteins are broken down to their various amino acids components. Internally, the amino ...
Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ... Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)Imported. ,p>Information which has been ... tr,A0JND0,A0JND0_BOVIN Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) OS=Bos taurus GN ... Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). ...
Amino acids are substances you rely on to form all the proteins in your body. In turn, you rely on these proteins for vital ... Any given protein contains roughly 20 different amino acids.. Amino Acid Basics. While there are more types of amino acids in ... While all proteins contain roughly the same complement of amino acids, the order of those acids dictates both the basic shape ... These bonds form between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of its neighboring acid. The same type of ...
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Here is an overview of basic information about amino acids and how and why they are perfectly suited for, and in fact ... Home , Amino Acids , Back to the Basics: An Overview Of Amino Acids ... an amino acid contains an amino group (with a nitrogen atom) and a carboxylic acid functional group. In addition, each amino ... Amino Acids in Balance. Every amino acid can serve as a structural component of protein, skeletal muscle being the main ...
The comparison between 9 home-made amino acid- and peptide-silica stationary... ... Amino acids and peptides (di- and tripeptides) as chemically bonded ligands in liquid chromatography were investigated. ... In the case of basic columns, such as amino-(Phe)x, amino-(Leu)x, amino-(Gly)1, and amino-(Ala)2 the α(Tb/Tp) value was smaller ... amino-(Gly)1, amino-(Gly)3, amino-(Asp)1, amino-(Ala)2, amino-(Leu)1, amino-(Leu)2, amino-(Leu)3, amino-(Phe)1, and amino-(Phe) ...
Amino acids are essential for the overall development of the body since they are building blocks of protein joined together by ... Acidic and Basic Amino Acids. Aspartic and glutamic acid are referred to as acidic amino acids while arginine, histidine, and ... Facts About Amino Acids. Are amino acids proteins?. Amino acids and proteins are constantly confusing. Amino acids are building ... Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs). Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs). These are essential amino acids that trigger the ...
Acidic : aspartic acid, glutamic acid. Basic : histidine, lysine, arginine. List of the 20 Amino Acids[edit]. Amino Acid 3- ... 2-amino acids, also known as alpha-amino acids, are a specific type of amino acid that makes up proteins. These amino acids ... Amino Acids[edit]. Amino acids are molecules which contain both a carboxylic acid and an amine group. In amino acid, the ... Ionization of amino acids[edit]. The 20 standard amino acids have two acid-base gorups: the alpha-amino and the alpha-carboxyl ...
Basic amino acids that can be used in the compositions and methods of the invention include not only natural basic amino acids ... Any of the preceding compositions, in which the salt of the basic amino acids get by neutralization of the basic amino acids ... salt of the basic amino acids get in the finished form in situ by neutralization of the basic amino acid or salt of the acid. ... in which the basic amino acid is an arginine.. 1.0.5. Any of the preceding compositions, in which the basic amino acid is an L- ...
  • I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just don't understand the basic structure, formulas and such. (physicsforums.com)
  • You say amino acids and proteins. (physicsforums.com)
  • Before the proteins are synthesised from aminoacids the aminoacids have to be biosynthesised too. (physicsforums.com)
  • We also investigate how glutamine transport and metabolism are regulated by extracellular and intracellular growth factors, amino acid levels and interacting proteins and their impact on cell structure and function. (uio.no)
  • Interactions between phospholipid membranes and the acyl chain and specific amino acid residues of myristoylated proteins are necessary for membrane association. (nih.gov)
  • A yeast genetic system was developed to study how the basic regions of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins distinguish between related consensus bHLH binding sites, with nucleotide sequence CANNTG. (pnas.org)
  • The results suggest that this conserved arginine residue in the basic regions of Myc-related bHLH proteins discriminates between CAC(A/G)TG and related sites. (pnas.org)
  • In plants, basic amino acids are important for the synthesis of proteins and signaling molecules and for nitrogen recycling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). (healthtap.com)
  • Shaped like the letter "C," these compounds wrap around chains of lysine, a basic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With tens of thousands of proteins in our body-and all of them constructed from amino acids-the protein-related role of amino acids is definitely critical in support of our health (and especially the health of our immune system). (whfoods.org)
  • There are tens of thousands of unique proteins in our body, and every one of these proteins is constructed from amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • This relationship between amino acids and proteins has been the driving force behind nutritional research on these fascinating nutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • Amino acids that are used to make proteins are referred to as "proteinogenic" amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • In addition to these 20 core amino acids, there are three additional amino acids that can be used by our bodies to make proteins. (whfoods.org)
  • Researchers estimate that an additional 750-1,000 amino acids are present in living things and are routinely used for a wide variety of purposes not related to the building of proteins. (whfoods.org)
  • Proteins are long linear polymers (polypeptides) built from strings of 20 different alpha-amino acids. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Proteins are large organic compounds arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Proteins are chemically constructed from only amino acids (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen (about 16%), oxygen and sometimes sulfur). (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Amino acids are the â€Å"building blocks†that make up the proteins and is what distinguishes Proteins from carbohydrates and fats. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • In the body, all ingested proteins are broken down to their various amino acids components. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • The body stores the other caloric nutrients, but not proteins or amino acids (use or lose it baby), which is why it is vital for people to consume all the required essential amino acids daily. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • All of the body†s proteins are made up from various combinations of these 20 proteinogenic amino acids. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Amino acids are substances you rely on to form all the proteins in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • While there are more types of amino acids in your body, you need just 20 to form all of your various proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • While all proteins contain roughly the same complement of amino acids, the order of those acids dictates both the basic shape of each protein and its function in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Proteins, in turn, contain relatively long amino acid chains, and scientists sometimes call them polypeptides. (livestrong.com)
  • When you eat any food in your diet that contains protein, your body absorbs that protein, breaks it down into individual amino acids, then uses these acids to form the specific proteins you need to support your normal body function. (livestrong.com)
  • Proteins in themselves are made up of smaller items called Amino Acids, there are 20 true individual Amino Acids which our body uses. (freewebs.com)
  • Different types of Proteins contain different proportions and concentrations of these Amino Acids, in fact some proteins doesn't contain some of these Amino Acids at all. (freewebs.com)
  • Beyond serving as the building blocks for all-important proteins, amino acids are in and of themselves important signaling factors and intermediaries in many metabolic pathways. (52.52.137)
  • While hundreds of amino acids exist, we will concern ourselves only with those that are referred to as "proteinogenic," which means they are used in the making of all biological proteins. (52.52.137)
  • Currently, there is a great deal of interest in identifying functional benefits of individual amino acids beyond their role as constituents of proteins. (52.52.137)
  • These are essential amino acids that trigger the production of proteins in the muscles. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Proteins are polymers of multiple monomer units called amino acid, which have many different functional groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • More than 500 amino acids exist in nature, but the proteins in all species, from bacteria to humans, consist mainly of only 20 called the essential amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2-amino acids, also known as alpha-amino acids, are a specific type of amino acid that makes up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Proteins are linear polymers formed by linking the a-carboxyl group of one amino acid to the a-amino group of another amino acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Thus, the 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility. (wikibooks.org)
  • The chemical properties of the amino acids of proteins determine the biological activity of the protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition, proteins contain within their amino acid sequences the necessary information to determine how that protein will fold into a three dimensional structure, and the stability of the resulting structure. (wikibooks.org)
  • There are twenty major amino acids which make up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Human cells are a combination of water, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and fats contained in a lipid-based membrane. (reference.com)
  • An amino acid pool is the collection of amino acids available in an organism's cells at a given time, based on the proteins and fats recently consumed by t. (reference.com)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amino acids, peptides, and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amino acids are the basic structural building blocks of proteins . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Just as the letters of the alphabet can be combined in different ways to form an endless variety of words, a limited number of amino acids can be linked together in varying sequences to form a vast array of proteins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We found that efficient localization of P. sojae nuclear proteins by cNLSs requires additional basic amino acids at distal sites or collaboration with other NLSs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The text begins with the discoveries and basic concepts of amino acids, peptides, and proteins, and then moves to protein digestion and absorption of peptides and amino acids. (routledge.com)
  • The basic subunit of proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • This produced amino acids, the building blocks of all proteins. (newscientist.com)
  • Arginine is one of the amino acids produced in the human body by the digestion, or hydrolysis of proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To understand the role that these basic amino acid residues play in toxicity, STII was chemically modified with ethoxyformic anhydride, maleic anhydride, and phenylglyoxal, which alter the side chains of basic amino acid residues in proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • For one thing, when you drink a protein shake, your body must break the peptide bonds between the amino acids contained in those proteins via digestion before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream and sent along to the muscles. (amino-vital.com)
  • BCAA supplements, on the other hand, are made from free-form amino acids, meaning that they're not joined together by bonds like the amino acids found in whole proteins. (amino-vital.com)
  • Hemp is one of the most complete proteins in the plant nourishment realm, containing ALL 21 known amino acids, including the 9 that people can't deliver themselves. (selfgrowth.com)
  • ALL-BASIC formula has proper Lysine to Arginine balance. (forresthealth.com)
  • When BAC2 is overexpressed in vivo , it triggers catabolism of arginine, a basic amino acid, leading to arginine depletion and urea accumulation in leaves. (frontiersin.org)
  • The BAC2 carrier is therefore involved in controlling the balance of arginine and arginine-derived metabolites and its associated amino acid metabolism is physiologically important in equipping plants to respond to and recover from stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the transport of arginine to the mitochondria in plants is important because arginine is a protein building block, a metabolic precursor of other amino acids, and a form in which nitrogen is assimilated. (frontiersin.org)
  • The basic amino acids are arginine, histidine, and lysine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These six (Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Histidine, Arginine, Tyrosine) are conditionally â€Å"Essential Amino Acids†, each one is not normally required in the diet, but must be supplied exogenously because, they are not synthesize in adequate amounts by some groups of people. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Aspartic and glutamic acid are referred to as acidic amino acids while arginine, histidine, and lysine are basic. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Application of basic amino acids such as arginine, in the finished form of toothpastes known in this field, however, the inventors have revealed unexpected and surprising result when using toothpastes containing arginine bicarbonate, people suffering from xerostomia, namely, that such compositions alleviate, treat and slow the development of dry mouth. (russianpatents.com)
  • I believe that the basic amino acids, for example arginine, can be used to prevent cavities without or in the absence of fluoride, as salts of basic amino acids, for example, arginine bicarbonate, in combination with an insoluble salt of calcium, usually abrasive material for toothpaste, mimic the protective effects of saliva against caries and provide full protection of tooth enamel and roots by covering the tooth. (russianpatents.com)
  • The three consecutive DNA bases, called nucleotide triplets or codons, are translated into amino acids (GCA to alanine , AGA to arginine , GAT to aspartic acid , AAT to asparagine , and TGT to cysteine in this example). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arginine and histidine may also be classified as essential amino acids, though they are generally considered essential only in children, whose undeveloped metabolisms are unable to synthesize them. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Supplements that combine arginine with other amino acids, such as ornithine and lysine , are purported to assist in muscle-building exercises by minimizing body fat and maximizing muscle tone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Arginine is also present in "multi" amino acids capsules that are taken as a dietary supplement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recent studies using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in culture (SILAC) in quantitative proteomics have made mention of the problematic conversion of isotope-coded arginine to proline in cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Eighteen of the 20 â€Å"Proteinogenic Amino Acids†are â€Å"Glucogenic Amino Acids†and have caloric ability, only leucine and lysine do not. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • The investigated stationary phases were modified by the following amino acids: phenylalanine, leucine, alanine, glycine, and aspartic acid. (springer.com)
  • This conversion happens to all glucogenic amino acids except lysine and leucine. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Leucine is an amino acid required to build muscle, but it also acts as a signaling molecule informing the muscle to start protein synthesis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • BCAA are comprised of 3 different amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A significant excess of amino acid polymorphism segregating within this species is localized within the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of RPP13 . (genetics.org)
  • Leucine - As the branched-chain amino acid that's been most widely studied, there is significant evidence 1 supporting the many benefits of this BCAA. (amino-vital.com)
  • Leucine is the amino acid responsible for triggering the synthesis of new skeletal muscle, making it essential for anyone looking to increase strength or muscle mass. (amino-vital.com)
  • The tissue localization and amino acid sequence of gamma-trace indicated that this protein is connected with the peptidergic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine system. (pnas.org)
  • Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids are best-known as the building blocks for protein, and that reputation is well-deserved. (whfoods.org)
  • While some people may take this group for granted and assume that it involves interesting but unnecessary details related to protein, and while others may imagine it as a very specialized area related to body building and physical performance, amino acids are actually spotlight nutrients that all of us would do well to consider when making routine food choices. (whfoods.org)
  • Amino acids are most commonly described as the building blocks of protein . (whfoods.org)
  • It does not matter whether a protein is very small and contains several dozen amino acids, or very large and contains more than 10,000 amino acids, or just average-sized and composed of 200-300 amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Twenty core amino acids are all that it takes to make every single protein in our body. (whfoods.org)
  • The list below shows all 20 of these core protein-building amino acids in alphabetical order. (whfoods.org)
  • The method that scientists have used to determine the protein-building role of these 20 core amino acids involves our genetic code. (whfoods.org)
  • Within our genes can be found direct instructions for making all 20 of these core protein-building amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • The three additional protein-building amino acids are selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, and N-formylmethionine. (whfoods.org)
  • What's perhaps most surprising about these 23 protein-building amino acids is the fact that they only account for about 2% of all amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Some non-protein building amino acids have been well-researched from the standpoint of metabolism, but less well investigated from the standpoint of food. (whfoods.org)
  • We expect non-protein building amino acids to become the subject of increased research attention in future studies on foods and meal planning. (whfoods.org)
  • When making nutritional recommendations for our everyday diet, health scientists have expressed much more confidence in estimating our total protein needs than in estimating our need for individual amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Amino acids are the buildings blocks of protein in your body. (aminoco.com)
  • In short, when it comes to protein synthesis and literally building new muscle, you cannot do it without your amino acids. (aminoco.com)
  • build protein, build one of the 40,000 â€Å"amino acid complexes†, converted to glucose and used as a fuel, secreted as waste, and more. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • The body makes protein from 20 different â€Å"free amino acids†not from dietary protein, through a process called translation. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Besides functioning in our body as a protein building block, Amino acids have are biological molecules, forming parts of enzymes, coenzymes, biosynthesis precursors for molecules and more. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • All usable amino acids in our food originate as protein. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • How Many Different Kinds of Amino Acids Make Up a Protein? (livestrong.com)
  • Any given protein contains roughly 20 different amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • The specific amino acid content of any given protein is determined by the genetic instructions inside the cell that creates it. (livestrong.com)
  • The genetic instructions from the parent cell also determine the order of the amino acids inside a protein. (livestrong.com)
  • The connections that hold the amino acids together inside any given protein are called peptide bonds. (livestrong.com)
  • The same type of amino acid can appear inside a protein multiple times. (livestrong.com)
  • When an amino acid chain contains a relatively short sequence of acids, it is commonly called a peptide rather than a protein. (livestrong.com)
  • The basic building blocks for protein are a. glucose units. (bartleby.com)
  • But we also lose protein on a daily basis as muscles and tissues degrade and amino acids are oxidized. (52.52.137)
  • Amino acids (20 in total for biological purposes) are important organic compounds that exist in all protein-containing food sources. (52.52.137)
  • On the other hand, efforts to lose weight for health can be helped along by the added calorie cost of processing protein and making nonessential amino acids. (52.52.137)
  • Amino acids are essential for the overall development of the body since they are building blocks of protein joined together by peptide bonds. (dietspotlight.com)
  • These are available in the body as organic compounds that act as protein building blocks or free amino acids. (dietspotlight.com)
  • The precise amino acid content, and the sequence of those amino acids, of a specific protein, is determined by the sequence of the bases in the gene that encodes that protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • Before reaching skeletal muscle, dietary protein is digested into small peptides and free amino acids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As amino acid availability in the blood is a precursor for muscle protein synthesis, our objective is to determine if the different absorption rates between free amino acid and peptides influence muscle protein synthetic and breakdown rates. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They will be given amino acid-based shakes and protein free cookies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • FURIN (Furin, Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The unique three-dimensional shape of each protein, which results from the linear sequence of amino acids, determines the protein's specific function in the body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As the name "proteinogenic" (literally, protein building ) suggests, these amino acid are encoded by the standard genetic code and participate in the process of protein synthesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • They are formed from an mRNA template in a process called translation, by which genetic information, encoded in the form of nucleic acids, is translated into the amino acids essential for protein synthesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Combinations of these amino acids produce every single protein required for the homeostasis (i.e., the maintenance of a stable internal environment) of the human body . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sv-LAAOs are present in the acidic, basic, and neutral forms of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The book also details protein synthesis and degradation, regulation of amino acid metabolism, physiological functions of amino acids, and inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. (routledge.com)
  • It covers the history, chemistry, and the integrated physiology of the major amino acids, going far beyond their use in protein synthesis to include a full description of non-protein functions and the role of amino acids as signaling molecules. (routledge.com)
  • The 969-amino acid protein is a member of the Peptidase S8 family. (biocompare.com)
  • Basic building block of protein molecules. (igi-global.com)
  • When you eat protein, your body breaks the protein down into amino acids. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of protein. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, thanks to advances made in recent decades, a more refined supplement has emerged to challenge the supremacy of traditional protein shakes and powders: amino acid supplements made with BCAAs. (amino-vital.com)
  • Those who had a biology class in high school or college may recall that amino acids are the building blocks of protein. (amino-vital.com)
  • however, amino acid supplements provide a number of advantages not found in traditional protein-based products. (amino-vital.com)
  • For this reason, amino acid supplements require far less digestion than conventional protein supplements, allowing them to take effect up to three times faster than whey. (amino-vital.com)
  • The second major advantage amino acid supplements have is that they're much leaner than a regular protein shake. (amino-vital.com)
  • Amino acids are the structure squares of protein. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Inside these hard seeds lie delicate, white or light green internal portions that are stuffed with fundamental amino acids, protein, and omega-3 unsaturated fats. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Activation is also inhibited by alteration of the other two basic amino acid residues present, lysine and histidine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Histidine was thought to be nonessential for adults since it appeared that only infants could not synthesize it, but more extensive studies suggest that adults, too, rely upon dietary sources of this amino acid. (52.52.137)
  • Amino acids and peptides (di- and tripeptides) as chemically bonded ligands in liquid chromatography were investigated. (springer.com)
  • In the last decade, there have been several investigations of amino acids, peptides, and polypeptides grafted onto silica as stationary phases for liquid chromatography (LC). (springer.com)
  • Rate of absorption from the intestine to the blood stream is significantly faster for peptides compared to amino acids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the last half-century, there have been many conceptual and technical advancements, from analysis of amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to molecular cloning of transporters for amino acids and small peptides. (routledge.com)
  • The intent of this investigation was to determine the effect of varying the side chain length of the basic amino acids residues on the binding of a series of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to zwitterionic and anionic LUVs, SUVs and micelles. (elsevier.com)
  • Also provided are methods of preparing the peptides, as well as nucleic acid molecules encoding the peptides. (google.com)
  • The amino acid sequence of human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein without known function, was determined by automated Edman degradations of the carboxymethylated polypeptide chain and of fragments obtained by cyanogen bromide treatment and tryptic digestion after blocking of lysine residues. (pnas.org)
  • A cluster of basic amino acid residues in calcineurin b participates in the binding of calcineurin to phosphatidylserine vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study we tested the effects of mutations of calcineurin B subunit amino acid residues K(20)K(21), K(24)R(25), K(27)K(28) to Glu on the interactions between calcineurin and phosphatidylserine vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of chemical modification of basic amino acid residues on the activation and amidolytic activity of Hageman factor (factor XII). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, modification of amino group(s) in N-terminal and lysine residues inhibits activated Hageman factor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, basic amino acid residues essential to the activation or activity of Hageman factor appear to be variably accessible to chemical modification. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The switch from a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) phenotype, common in wild birds and poultry, to the HPAI phenotype is achieved by the introduction of basic amino acid residues into the HA0 cleavage site (5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lysine (K) replacement, which contains 6 basic amino acid residues KRRKKR, whereas all Thai isolates from 2003 and 2004 have RRRKKR. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The product of this gene is one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. (genecards.org)
  • These results showed that functional P. sojae PY-NLSs include an additional cluster of basic residues for efficient nuclear import. (frontiersin.org)
  • Various attempts have been made to identify the amino acid residues of ASP that are important for binding. (google.com)
  • Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin II (STII) is composed of 48 amino acid residues. (elsevier.com)
  • Isoelectric focusing showed that the isoelectric point of STII is 9.7, indicating that the side chains of some of these basic amino acid residues project outside the molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • This indicated that lysine residues play an important role in the expression of the enterotoxic activity of STII and that the contribution of the other basic amino acid residues to the toxicity is relatively low. (elsevier.com)
  • To confirm this hypothesis, we substituted these nine basic amino acid residues by oligonucleotide-directed site- specific mutagenesis and examined the enterotoxicity of these purified mutant STIIs. (elsevier.com)
  • The HA gene of KU-02 and KU-03 contained multiple basic amino acid insertions at the HA cleavage site (SPQRERRRKKRR) as well as glutamine and glycine (Q222-G224) at the receptor binding site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • REFECT AND APPLY Could the amino acid glycine serve as the ba- sis of a buffer system? (bartleby.com)
  • One example of the enzyme in action occurs with the conversion L-alanine into pyruvic acid (2-oxopropanoic acid), as shown in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Human Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme 4 (PACE4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme 4 (PACE4) is a eukaryotic endoprotease in the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme 4 (PACE4) is a member of the SPC family that has been implicated in a number of proprotein processing events important in mammalian development, homeostasis, and pathology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furin is also known as PACE (Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Using a functional assay to rescue a mutant cbf1 yeast strain from methionine auxotrophy, we determined that the basic region of CBF1 could be replaced by the homologous region of either the vertebrate USF transcription factor or c-Myc, both of which bind CACGTG. (pnas.org)
  • Results of the amino acid analysis revealed high contents of the essential amino acids with methionine as the limiting amino acid. (ajol.info)
  • They found that restricting the amount of an amino acid called methionine in the flies' food had the desired effect. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Methionine, which is abundant in meat and eggs, is known as an "essential" amino acid because the body cannot make its own. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • By eliminating one essential amino acid at a time from the diet of fly larvae, they discovered that depriving the larvae of methionine shut down the P38 pathway. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, you will find recommended food sources for different types of amino acids (including branched chain, sulfur-containing, aromatic, and others) in the Summary of Food Sources section of this article. (whfoods.org)
  • After the extensive review, scientists are able to identify two types of amino acids: proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic. (dietspotlight.com)
  • There are many different types of amino acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids? (reference.com)
  • The Glucogenic Amino Acids are a vital source of energy in the absence of carbohydrates and during fasting. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • If you remember nothing alcohols (ser and thre) sulphydryls (cys) amines (lys and N-terminals), carboxylic acids, amides, paraffins rapidly refresh them. (physicsforums.com)
  • Chemically, an amino acid contains an amino group (with a nitrogen atom) and a carboxylic acid functional group. (52.52.137)
  • Amino acids are molecules which contain both a carboxylic acid and an amine group. (wikibooks.org)
  • In amino acid, the carboxyl group is more acidic than the carboxylic acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • An amino acid is in a zwitterionic state when the carboxylic acid group is deprotonated and the amino group is protonated, simultaneously. (wikibooks.org)
  • In solid state, the amine functionality deprotonates the carboxylic acid group, giving rise to the zwitterionic, dipolar entity. (wikibooks.org)
  • The amino group is on the left, and the carboxylic acid group is on the right. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • An amino acid is an organic molecule with three main components: an amino group (-NH2), a carboxylic acid group (-COOH), and an R group, or side chain, unique to each amino acid. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: esters and amides. (unimi.it)
  • Part of the difficulty in determining our need for individual amino acids involves the interconversion of amino acids that is constantly taking place in our body. (whfoods.org)
  • There are several types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Increased levels of individual amino acids can be a sign of a problem with metabolism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Involved in the high-affinity sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system B(0,+)-like activity). (uniprot.org)
  • 2) Isotopic average of neutral amino acyl residu in a peptide bond. (genosphere-biotech.com)
  • Thomas B. Kinraide and Bud Etherton 1980-06-01 00:00:00 The application of neutral or acidic amino acids to oat coleptiles induced transient depolarizations of the membrane potentials. (deepdyve.com)
  • These experiments support the co-transport theory but suggest somewhat different mechanisms for the transport of the neutral, acidic, and basic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that accumulation depends upon both the ΔpH and the membrane potential components of the proton motive force. (deepdyve.com)
  • The application of neutral or acidic amino acids to oat coleptiles induced transient depolarizations of the membrane potentials. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2.A.3.8.7 y+LAT1 (transports neutral amino acids (i.e. (tcdb.org)
  • Both a protoplast amino acid uptake assay and HPLC analysis indicated that more basic (Lys, Arg) and neutral (Val, Ala) amino acids were transported and accumulated in the OE lines than in the wild type, but the opposite was observed in the RNAi lines. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Working with genetically engineered mice, Johns Hopkins neuroscientists report they have identified what they believe is the cause of the vast disintegration of a part of the brain called the corpus striatum in rodents and people with Huntington's disease: loss of the ability to make the amino acid cysteine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Bindu Diana Paul, Ph.D., a molecular neuroscientist and faculty instructor in Snyder's laboratory, was studying mice lacking CSE, which helps make the amino acid cysteine and hydrogen sulfide that moderate blood pressure and heart function. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A unique blend of 20 highest quality L-Crystalline singular amino acids, plus precursor Ornithine-Þ-Ketoglutarate and the superior antioxidant protection of Alpha Lipoic Acid for general health support. (forresthealth.com)
  • Plus precursor Ornithine-Þ-Ketoglutarate and the superior antioxidant protection of Alpha Lipoic Acid for general health support. (forresthealth.com)
  • GLUTAMIC ACID important for neurological health and is precursor to GABA. (forresthealth.com)
  • Although the cleavage site adjacent to the fusion peptide is typically a basic amino acid , the reported Angrem52 cDNA sequence has an acidic glutamic acid at this position (Figure 1B). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a major carbon and nitrogen donor, and it contributes to the formation of other amino acids, nucleotides and the anti-oxidant GSH. (uio.no)
  • Product Description Amino Acid organic fertilizer A new type of organic nitrogen fertilizer it s efficient and green fertilizer and made from residue of monosodium glutamate after pressing through using advanced production equipment to granulate it under high temperature It provides organic matter. (sinochemnutrition.com)
  • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen are the main elements that make up amino acids although the side chain may feature a variety of other elements. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Interestingly, although alcohols and amines can be Brønsted-Lowry acids, they can also function as Lewis bases due to the lone pairs of electrons on their oxygen and nitrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants synthesize the amino acids that they require, utilizing carbon and oxygen from the air, hydrogen from water, and nitrogen that has been converted to usable form through nitrogen fixation . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Amino acids reflect the interconnectedness of life, as the non-ruminant animals depend of plants for essential amino acids, ruminants depend on microbes within as a source, and even plants depend on bacteria to fix the nitrogen into a form that they can utilize to produce amino acids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Amino acids are regarded as the nitrogen 'currency' of plants. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acids can be taken up from the soil directly or synthesized from inorganic nitrogen, and then circulated in the plant via phloem and xylem. (nih.gov)
  • Amino Acids form short polymer chains called â€Å"peptides†, longer chains are called polypeptides. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides. (osti.gov)
  • The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. (osti.gov)
  • Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided. (osti.gov)
  • When a basic amino acid is in an acidic medium (having a pH lower than 7 and containing the hydrogen ion [H. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acids are the compounds that donate a hydrogen ion (H+) to a base, while a base compound is one that can remove a proton (H+ is a proton) from an acid. (aminoco.com)
  • Hydrogen molecules are why bases and acids are often measured in pH levels (pH stands for "potential of hydrogen") as related to pure water. (aminoco.com)
  • When an acid is dissolved in water, it becomes a solution with higher hydrogen ion activity than water, making it more acidic, with a pH value less than 7. (aminoco.com)
  • Weak acids include formic acid, acetic acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocyanic acid. (reference.com)
  • Each of these acids has the same basic chemical structure, which includes a central carbon atom, a hydrogen atom, a group of atoms called an amino group and a group of atoms called a carboxyl group. (livestrong.com)
  • In an aqueous environment, the hydrophobic amino acids are unable to participate in hydrogen bonding. (wikibooks.org)
  • An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H + ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Common aqueous acids include hydrochloric acid (a solution of hydrogen chloride which is found in gastric acid in the stomach and activates digestive enzymes ), acetic acid (vinegar is a dilute aqueous solution of this liquid), sulfuric acid (used in car batteries ), and citric acid (found in citrus fruits). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, hydrogen chloride, acetic acid, and most other Brønsted-Lowry acids cannot form a covalent bond with an electron pair and are therefore not Lewis acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three substrates of the enzymatic reaction are an L-amino acid, water, and oxygen, whereas the three products are the corresponding α-keto acid (2-oxo acid), ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often they produce higher than normal amounts of the corresponding natural amino acids, and, hence, growth in specific amino acid analog is used as a selection tool (1). (springer.com)
  • Name, Abbreviations, Chemical classification, Relative Abundance, and Acid-Base properties of each of the natural amino acidsAmino acid. (genosphere-biotech.com)
  • The distinguishing characteristic of each amino acid is a portion of its structure called a side chain or R-group, which has a unique chemical arrangement. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, each amino acid contains a unique side group that features an element or chemical structure which imparts a specific characteristic or function to that amino acid. (52.52.137)
  • The performed research assisted in the evaluation of the relation between the chemical properties of bonded amino acid sequence and their role in the retention mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Amino acids can be broadly hydrophobic and hydrophilic , depending on the chemical properties of the R group side chain. (wikibooks.org)
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H + ) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern definitions are concerned with the fundamental chemical reactions common to all acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical structures of the 20 standard amino acids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In enzymology, an L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) (EC 1.4.3.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an L-amino acid + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a 2-oxo acid + NH3 + H2O2 The enzyme was first described in 1944 by A. Zeller and A. Maritz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although chemical labeling methods such as ICAT (isotope-coded affinity tags) have demonstrated widespread applicability ( 1 ), metabolic incorporation strategies such as stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) are becoming more common for cell types that can be grown for extensive periods of time in vitro . (mcponline.org)
  • Though there are numerous advantages for using SILAC-based methods, compared with chemical labeling, a major drawback is the unintended metabolic inter-conversion of isotopic amino acids in the labeling process, generating artifacts affecting the quantification. (mcponline.org)
  • In the case of HILIC mode, the characterization was performed in terms of the degree of hydrophilicity, selectivity for hydrophilic-hydrophobic compounds, selectivity for the regio and configurational substituents, anion and cation exchange properties, and acidic or basic nature of the stationary phase surface. (springer.com)
  • Many studies show that a number of sv-LAAOs exhibit a preference for hydrophobic L-amino acids as substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, results have indicated that most sv-LAAOs demonstrate relatively high specificities toward hydrophobic amino acids such as L-Met, L-Leu, and L-Ile in addition to aromatic amino acids such as L-Phe and L-Trp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iodinated and brominated tyrosine are also amino acids found in species, but are not included in the 20 major amino acids because of their rarity: iodinated tyrosin is only found in thyroid hormones, and brominated tyrosine is only found in coral. (wikibooks.org)
  • Amino acids, and in particular glutamine, are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways. (uio.no)
  • Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. (uio.no)
  • We investigate molecular mechanisms involved in glutamine (and other amino acids) transport across cell membranes subsequent metabolism of glutamine in order to reveal its (patho-)functional roles in brain development and function (e.g. synaptic plasticity, epilepsy, dementia, hepatic encephalopathy and diabetes). (uio.no)
  • Is glutamine a basic amino acid? (healthtap.com)
  • Huntington's disease, an inherited disorder, does its damage because of abnormal DNA coding for the amino acid glutamine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Overall good nutrition is important as well, since sub-optimal vitamin and mineral status can interfere with the synthesis of nonessential amino acids by impairing enzymes or other cofactors involved in the reaction. (52.52.137)
  • Additional chapters cover cell-, tissue-, and species-specific synthesis and catabolism of amino acids and related nitrogenous substances, as well as the use of isotopes to study amino acid metabolism in cells and the body. (routledge.com)
  • Used in synthesis of polymeric polylactic acid (polylactide, polylactate) plastic. (canstockphoto.com)
  • These AMPs are based on the incorporation of three dipeptide units consisting of the unnatural amino acids Tic-Oic in the sequence, Ac-GF-Tic-Oic-GX-Tic-Oic-GF-Tic-Oic-GX-Tic-XXXX-CONH 2 , where X (Spacer #2) may be one of the following amino acids, Lys, Orn, Dab, Dpr or Arg. (elsevier.com)
  • In biochemistry, an amino acid is a molecule containing both amine and carboxyl functional groups. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition presents comprehensive coverage of these scientific developments, providing a useful reference for students and researchers in both biomedicine and agriculture. (routledge.com)
  • While emphasizing basic principles and classical concepts of amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, the author includes recent progress in the field. (routledge.com)
  • ASPARTIC ACID helps in protective function and detoxification of the liver. (forresthealth.com)
  • J.M. Widholm, Selection and characterization of amino acid analog resistant plant cell cultures, Crop Sci. (springer.com)
  • Shorter sequences of amino acids (i.e. di-, tri-, and tetrapeptides) were also investigated with regard to chemically bonded stationary phases for LC. (springer.com)
  • Comparing its essential amino acids with the WHO recommended values, the vegetable is adequate in these acids. (ajol.info)
  • Your essential amino acids are the ones you need but cannot produce yourself, and so must be gained either from your diet or via supplementation. (aminoco.com)
  • All Amino Acids become â€Å"essential aminos†when our body does not make it when we need it. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Amino acids are essential to life, have a role in metabolism and are important in nutrition. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Here is an overview of basic information about amino acids and how and why they are perfectly suited for, and in fact "essential" to, the dietary goals of people committed to health and their own well-being. (52.52.137)
  • Nine amino acids must be obtained from food sources or supplements since humans do not have the ability to make them, and these are deemed indispensable or essential . (52.52.137)
  • There is a recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for the essential amino acids while there is no required dietary intake defined for the nonessentials. (52.52.137)
  • There are also some conditionally essential amino acids . (52.52.137)
  • Liver damage impairs the conversion of some essential amino acids to nonessential amino acids, and these nonessentials then become classified as conditionally essential amino acids. (52.52.137)
  • Other amino acids can be regenerated into ketones, which is essential to the brain in case you abstain from food or have a diet that is low in carbohydrates. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Those important amino acids that cannot be synthesized by an animal, or at a rate sufficient to meet its physiological needs, and which therefore must be obtained from the diet, are called essential amino acids . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The essential amino acids vary according to the type of animal. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Approximately half of these standard amino acids are considered essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized and must be obtained from food. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Thus, the number of essential amino acids in humans is variously listed as 8 or 10. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In a recent study using fruit flies, researchers showed that depriving flies of an essential amino acid can turn off an oncogene's growth pathway while keeping its death pathway switched on. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • the others - called the "essential" amino acids - must be obtained from supplements or food. (amino-vital.com)
  • Among these essential compounds is a group of three amino acids with a distinctive shape and an outsize role in supporting athletic performance: the branched-chain amino acids, more commonly known as BCAAs. (amino-vital.com)
  • The â€Å"Non-proteinogenic amino acids†(like carnitine, GABA, or Carnosine) are not coded or not used in the standard genetic code. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • In humans , 20 amino acids are known as standard amino acids or proteinogenic amino acids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The Arabidopsis nuclear gene BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 ( BAC2 ) encodes a mitochondria-located carrier that transports basic amino acids in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • transports basic amino acids (i.e. (tcdb.org)
  • The intracellular localization suggests trafficking or cycling of the transporter, similar to many metabolite transporters in yeast or mammals, for example, yeast amino acid permease GAP1. (nih.gov)
  • Microarray analyses revealed that the expression profile of genes involved in amino acid metabolism did not change drastically, indicating potential compensation by other amino acid transporters. (nih.gov)
  • For this reason, there is need to understand why amino acids are important, how they are broken down by enzymes, their benefits, and side effects. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Several mechanisms can give rise to analog resistance, but most recovered variants appear to possess altered amino acid levels caused by changes in regulatory enzymes resulting in relaxed feed back control (1, 2). (springer.com)
  • Depending on the immobilized sequence of amino acids, these materials exhibit diversified application targets. (springer.com)
  • A codon table can be used to translate a genetic code into a sequence of amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects in metabolism of amino acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This useful volume takes a broad-based look at the metabolism of amino acids. (routledge.com)
  • Also known as fatty Acids) are a nutrient that gives us energy, insulates us from the cold, protects our nerves and cushions our organs against impact. (freewebs.com)
  • April 4th - New research led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health has identified numerous genes that influence how cells respond to saturated fatty acids. (harvard.edu)
  • Examples: oils, fatty acids (i.e. the 'tails' of phospholipids), cholesterol. (wikibooks.org)
  • Fatty acids and their structure. (unimi.it)
  • Catabolism and biosynthesis of fatty acids. (unimi.it)
  • You may already be familiar with some of these amino acids since an increasing number are available as nutritional supplements. (52.52.137)
  • Are Amino Acid BCAA Supplements Good for Swimmers? (amino-vital.com)
  • For instance, amino acid supplements are a newer, more advanced form of fitness supplement that has gained quite a following in recent years, but are amino acids and BCAA supplements good for swimmers? (amino-vital.com)
  • As multiple codons can code for the same amino acid, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 's (IUPAC) nucleic acid notation is given in some instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acidic amino acids appear to be accumulated by a similar mechanism except that the transport of each molecule may be associated with a cation in addition to a single proton. (deepdyve.com)
  • This study will evaluate the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) ratio in the medical foods formulated for Methylmalonic and Propionic Acidemias (MMA/PROP) patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Different Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) ratios will be tested. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 6 different ratios of the Branched-chain Amino Acids (BCAA) will be tested for 8 hours each. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The 20 major amino acids, along with hundreds of other minor amino acids, sustain our lives. (wikibooks.org)
  • Your nonessential amino acids are the amino acids your body can create on its own as a byproduct of normal functioning. (aminoco.com)
  • While in theory, we could function perfectly well without any dietary intake of nonessential amino acids, we are actually much more metabolically efficient if we have some percentage of these amino acids supplied by the diet. (52.52.137)
  • For example, with an illness or a catabolic disease , having an abundance of all amino acids facilitates immune system function by ensuring all the amino acid components are available and energy does not need to be devoted to synthesizing nonessential amino acids. (52.52.137)
  • PROLINE is major amino acid found in cartilage and is important for maintaining youthful skin as well as repair of muscle, connective tissue and skin damage. (forresthealth.com)
  • All but one of thirty mutants were allelic, and were specifically deficient in the basic amino acid permease. (genetics.org)
  • AtAAP3, a member of the Amino Acid Permease (AAP) family, is mainly expressed in root tissue, suggesting a potential role in the uptake and distribution of amino acids. (nih.gov)