Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Amino Acids, SulfurLeucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Amino Acids, DiaminoTrypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein PrecursorsChromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.

Anti-sm autoantibodies in systemic lupus target highly basic surface structures of complexed spliceosomal autoantigens. (1/107)

Autoantibodies directed against spliceosomal proteins are a common and specific feature of systemic lupus erythematosus. These autoantibodies target a collection of proteins, including Sm B, B', D1, D2, and D3. We define the common antigenic targets of Sm D2 and D3 and examine their role in spliceosomal autoimmunity. Our results define nine major common epitopes, five on Sm D2 and four on Sm D3. These epitopes have significantly higher (more basic) isoelectric points than do nonantigenic regions. In fact, this association is of sufficient power to make isoelectric point an excellent predictor of spliceosomal antigenicity. The crystallographic structure of Sm D2 and D3 is now partially described. The anti-Sm D2 and D3 antigenic targets are located on the surface of the respective three-dimensional complexed proteins, thereby suggesting that these epitopes are accessible in the native configuration. All but one of these nine epitopes conspicuously avoid the specific regions involved in intermolecular interactions within the spliceosomal complex. One of the D3 epitopes (RGRGRGMGR) has significant sequence homology with a major antigenic region of Sm D1 (containing a carboxyl-terminal glycine-arginine repeat), and anti-D3 Abs cross-react with this epitope of Sm D1. These results demonstrate that spliceosomal targets of autoimmunity are accessible on native structure surfaces and that cross-reactive epitopes, as well as structural associations of various spliceosomal Ags, may be involved in the induction of autoimmunity in systemic lupus.  (+info)

Membrane activity of the southern cowpea mosaic virus coat protein: the role of basic amino acids, helix-forming potential, and lipid composition. (2/107)

Southern cowpea mosaic virus (SCPMV) is a spherical RNA virus with T = 3 icosahedral symmetry. The particle is composed of 180 subunits of the coat protein (CP) and one copy of the positive-sense viral RNA. The CP has two domains, the random (R) domain formed by the N-terminal 64 aa and the shell (S) domain (aa 65--260). The R domain is highly charged, with 11 of the N-terminal 30 residues being basic. It is localized to the interior of the native particle where it may interact with the viral RNA, but under certain pH and salt conditions the topology of the particle changes to externalize the R domain. Since the CPs of several spherical RNA viruses have been shown to interact with host membranes during infection, we have begun investigating the membrane interactions of the SCPMV CP using the artificial liposome membranes. Both the native CP and the R domain overexpressed in Escherichia coli were observed to interact with liposomes. The interaction between the R domain and liposomes required either anionic phospholipids or non-bilayer-forming lipids and involved electrostatic interactions since it was shown to be both pH and ionic strength dependent. The analysis of four different deletion and six different site-directed substitution mutations partially mapped the region responsible for this interaction to residues 1--30. Analysis of this region of the R domain by circular dichroism indicated that it assumes an alpha-helical structure when exposed to liposomes composed of anionic lipids. Mutations, which extend the helical nature of this region, promoted an increased interaction. The possible role of the CP/lipid interaction in the SCPMV infection is discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of signal that directs C-tail-anchored proteins to mammalian mitochondrial outer membrane. (3/107)

We analyzed the signal that directs the outer membrane protein with the C-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS) to mammalian mitochondria by using yeast Tom5 as a model and green fluorescent protein as a reporter. Deletions or mutations were systematically introduced into the TMS or the flanking regions and their intracellular localization in COS-7 cells was examined using confocal microscopy and cell fractionation. 1) Three basic amino acid residues within the C-terminal five-residue segment (C-segment) contained the information required for mitochondrial-targeting. Reduction of the net positive charge in this segment decreased mitochondrial specificity, and the mutants were distributed throughout the intracellular membranes. 2) Elongation of the TMS interfered with the function of the C-segment and the mutants were delivered to the intracellular membranes. 3) Separation of the TMS and C-segment by linker insertion severely impaired mitochondrial targeting function, leading to mislocalization to the cytoplasm. 4) Mutations or small deletions in the region of the TMS flanking the C-segment also impaired the mitochondrial targeting. Therefore, the moderate length of the TMS, the positive charges in the C-segment, and the distance between or context of the TMS and C-segment are critical for the targeting signal. The structural characteristics of the signal thus defined were also confirmed with mammalian C-tail-anchored protein OMP25.  (+info)

Covalent cross-linking of proteins without chemical reagents. (4/107)

A facile method for the formation of zero-length covalent cross-links between protein molecules in the lyophilized state without the use of chemical reagents has been developed. The cross-linking process is performed by simply sealing lyophilized protein under vacuum in a glass vessel and heating at 85 degrees C for 24 h. Under these conditions, approximately one-third of the total protein present becomes cross-linked, and dimer is the major product. Chemical and mass spectroscopic evidence obtained shows that zero-length cross-links are formed as a result of the condensation of interacting ammonium and carboxylate groups to form amide bonds between adjacent molecules. For the protein examined in the most detail, RNase A, the cross-linked dimer has only one amide cross-link and retains the enzymatic activity of the monomer. The in vacuo cross-linking procedure appears to be general in its applicability because five different proteins tested gave substantial cross-linking, and co-lyophilization of lysozyme and RNase A also gave a heterogeneous covalently cross-linked dimer.  (+info)

Role of paired basic residues of protein C-termini in phospholipid binding. (5/107)

It is a well known phenomenon that the occurrence of several distinct amino acids at the C-terminus of proteins is non-random. We have analysed all Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins predicted by computer databases and found lysine to be the most frequent residue both at the last (-1) and at the penultimate amino acid (-2) positions. To test the hypothesis that C-terminal basic residues efficiently bind to phospholipids we randomly expressed GST-fusion proteins from a yeast genomic library. Fifty-four different peptide fragments were found to bind phospholipids and 40% of them contained lysine/arginine residues at the (-1) or (-2) positions. One peptide showed high sequence similarity with the yeast protein Sip18p. Mutational analysis revealed that both C-terminal lysine residues of Sip18p are essential for phospholipid-binding in vitro. We assume that basic amino acid residues at the (-1) and (-2) positions in C-termini are suitable to attach the C-terminus of a given protein to membrane components such as phospholipids, thereby stabilizing the spatial structure of the protein or contributing to its subcellular localization. This mechanism could be an additional explanation for the C-terminal amino acid bias observed in proteins of several species.  (+info)

Contribution of basic residues of the A helix of heparin cofactor II to heparin- or dermatan sulfate-mediated thrombin inhibition. (6/107)

Inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II (HCII) is accelerated 1000-fold by heparin or dermatan sulfate. To investigate the contribution of basic residues of the A helix of HCII to this activation, we constructed amino acid substitutions (K101Q, R103L, and R106L) by site-directed mutagenesis. K101Q greatly reduced heparin cofactor activity and required a more than 10-fold higher concentration of dermatan sulfate to accelerate thrombin inhibition compared with wild-type recombinant HCII. Thrombin inhibition by R106L was not significantly stimulated by dermatan sulfate. These results provide evidence that basic residues of the A helix of HCII (Lys(101) and Arg(106)) are necessary for heparin- or dermatan sulfate-accelerated thrombin inhibition.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved charged amino acid residues in ClpB from Escherichia coli. (7/107)

ClpB is a member of a multichaperone system in Escherichia coli (with DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that reactivates strongly aggregated proteins. The sequence of ClpB contains two ATP-binding domains, each containing Walker consensus motifs. The N- and C-terminal sequence regions of ClpB do not contain known functional motifs. In this study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected charged residues within the Walker A motifs (Lys212 and Lys611) and the C-terminal region of ClpB (Asp797, Arg815, Arg819, and Glu826). We found that the mutations K212T, K611T, D797A, R815A, R819A, and E826A did not significantly affect the secondary structure of ClpB. The mutation of the N-terminal ATP-binding site (K212T), but not of the C-terminal ATP-binding site (K611T), and two mutations within the C-terminal domain (R815A and R819A) inhibited the self-association of ClpB in the absence of nucleotides. The defects in self-association of these mutants were also observed in the presence of ATP and ADP. The four mutants K212T, K611T, R815A, and R819A showed an inhibition of chaperone activity, which correlated with their low ATPase activity in the presence of casein. Our results indicate that positively charged amino acids that are located along the intersubunit interface (this includes Lys212 in the Walker A motif of the N-terminal ATP-binding domain as well as Arg815 and Arg819 in the C-terminal domain) participate in intersubunit salt bridges and stabilize the ClpB oligomer. Interestingly, we have identified a conserved residue within the C-terminal domain (Arg819) which does not participate directly in nucleotide binding but is essential for the chaperone activity of ClpB.  (+info)

Complete replacement of basic amino acid residues with cysteines in Rickettsia prowazekii ATP/ADP translocase. (8/107)

The ATP/ADP translocase (Tlc) of Rickettsia prowazekii is a basic protein with isoelectric point (pI)=9.84. It is conceivable, therefore, that basic residues in this protein are involved in electrostatic interactions with negatively charged substrates. We tested this hypothesis by individually mutating all basic residues in Tlc to Cys. Unexpectedly, mutations of only 20 out of 51 basic residues resulted in greater than 80% inhibition of transport activity. Moreover, 12 of 51Cys-substitution mutants exhibited higher than wild-type (WT) activity. At least in one case this up-effect was additive and the double mutant Lys422Cys Lys427Cys transported ATP five-fold better than WT protein. Since in these two single mutants and in the corresponding double mutant K(m)'s were similar to that of WT protein, we conclude that Tlc may have evolved a mechanism that limits the transporter's exchange rate and that at least these two basic residues play a key role in that mechanism. Based on the alignment of 16 Tlc homologs, the loss of activity in the mutants poorly correlates with charge conservation within the Tlc family. Also, despite the presence of three positively charged and one negatively charged intramembrane residues, we have failed to identify potential charge pairs (salt bridges) by either charge reversal or charge neutralization approaches.  (+info)

*Basic amino acid antiporter family

The Basic Amino Acid Antiporter (ArcD) family (TC# 2.A.118) is a constituent of the IT superfamily. This family consists of ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.118 The Basic Amino Acid Antiporter ... Ion transporter superfamily Amino acid transporters DcuC ArsB and ArsAB Transporter Classification Database Lolkema, Juke S.; ... The proteins are of about 480 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and have 10-12 putative transmembrane segments (TMSs). ...

*Argininosuccinic acid

It is a basic amino acid. Some cells synthesize argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid and use it as a ... Argininosuccinic acid is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is an important intermediate in the urea cycle. ... Argininosuccinic acid is a precursor to fumarate in the citric acid cycle via argininosuccinate lyase. Argininosuccinate ...

*Aquarium fish feed

Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. Protein requirements vary according to species. Carnivorous fish need a ... essential fatty acids and eight amino acids required for complete nutrition. Whole wheat (carbohydrates) is not the best source ... An example of an aquatic diet that is a good source of amino acid is a crumbled hard boiled egg offered to small fry. Large ... Fish food should ideally provide the fish with fat (for energy) and amino acids (building blocks of proteins) and the fish food ...

*Subtilase

These preferentially cleave C-terminally to paired basic amino acids. Members of this subfamily can be identified by subtly ... Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. Subtilase is ... with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique ... catalytic triad, Ser/Glu/Asp, as well as the presence of an aspartic acid residue in the oxyanion hole. High-resolution crystal ...

*IGHG3

Probable quadruplication of a 15-amino acid residue basic unit". J. Biol. Chem. 252 (3): 883-9. PMID 402363. Wolfenstein-Todel ... "The amino acid sequence of "heavy chain disease" protein ZUC. Structure of the Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G3". Biochem. ... Nucleic Acids Res. 14 (4): 1779-89. doi:10.1093/nar/14.4.1779. PMC 339572 . PMID 3081877. Frangione B, Rosenwasser E, Prelli F ...

*Furin

... is also known as PACE (Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme). The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme which ... Furin cleaves proteins just downstream of a basic amino acid target sequence (canonically, Arg-X-(Arg/Lys) -Arg'). In addition ... "Entrez Gene: FURIN furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme)". Roebroek AJ, Schalken JA, Leunissen JA, Onnekink C, ... correct cleavage of the von Willebrand factor precursor at a paired basic amino acid site". Proceedings of the National Academy ...

*Von Willebrand factor

The basic vWF monomer is a 2050-amino acid protein. Every monomer contains a number of specific domains with a specific ... Randi AM, Laffan MA (January 2017). "Von Willebrand factor and angiogenesis: basic and applied issues". Journal of Thrombosis ...

*Xylose isomerase

Both share an acid residue Glutamic acid 216 of the enzyme that bridges the two cations. Two basic amino acids surround the ... doi:10.1007/s10295-012-1089-x. Kitahara, K. (1966). "Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria". Nyusankin no Kenkyu: 67~69. Buchanan, R. ...

*Selenocysteine

Pyrrolysine, another amino acid not in the basic set of 20. Selenomethionine, another selenium-containing amino acid, which is ... The remaining chiral amino acids, having only lighter atoms in that position, have S chirality.) Proteins which contain one or ... Unlike other amino acids present in biological proteins, selenocysteine is not coded for directly in the genetic code. Instead ... Again unlike the other amino acids, no free pool of selenocysteine exists in the cell. Its high reactivity would cause damage ...

*SLC3A1

"Effects of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid ... "Sodium-independent Currents of Opposite Polarity Evoked by Neutral and Cationic Amino Acids in Neutral and Basic Amino Acid ... Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A1 gene. Mutations in the ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (19): 14331- ...

*Myelin basic protein

Carnegie PR (1972). "Amino acid sequence of the encephalitogenic basic protein from human myelin". Biochem. J. 123 (1): 57-67. ... Gibson BW, Gilliom RD, Whitaker JN, Biemann K (1984). "Amino acid sequence of human myelin basic protein peptide 45-89 as ... The complete amino acid sequence". J. Biol. Chem. 246 (18): 5770-84. PMID 5096093. Saxe DF, Takahashi N, Hood L, Simon MI (1985 ... "Complete amino acid sequence of PO protein in bovine peripheral nerve myelin". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (9): 4208-14. PMID 2435734. ...

*CKMT1A

... consists of 417 amino acids and weighs 47037Da. CKMT1A is rich in amino acids with hydroxyl-containing and basic side ...

*Raventoxin

... -III is a basic polypeptide, consisting of 29 amino acid residues. It has a molecular mass of 3286.58 Da. Raventoxin- ... Raventoxin-I consists of 43 amino acid residues. It has a molecular mass of 4840.11 Da. The toxin is partially homologous to δ- ... Raventoxin-VI consists of 51 amino acid residues, and has a molecular weight of 5371.6 Da. All described raventoxins have shown ...

*Vesicle-fusing ATPase

"A 200-amino acid ATPase module in search of a basic function". BioEssays. 17 (7): 639-50. doi:10.1002/bies.950170710. PMID ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on acid anhydrides to facilitate cellular and ...

*Phosphorylation

Ciesla J, Fraczyk T, Rode W (2011). "Phosphorylation of basic amino acid residues in proteins: important but easily missed". ... The addition of a phosphate (PO4) molecule to a non-polar R group of an amino acid residue can turn a hydrophobic portion of a ... Phosphorylation on amino acids, such as serine, threonine, and tyrosine results in the formation of a phosphoprotein, when the ... Within a protein, phosphorylation can occur on several amino acids. Phosphorylation on serine is thought to be the most common ...

*Urea cycle

The chemical logic behind the urea cycle Basic Neurochemistry - amino acid disorders. ... Amino acid catabolism results in waste ammonia. All animals need a way to excrete this product. Most aquatic organisms, or ... If individuals with a defect in any of the enzymes used in the cycle ingest amino acids beyond what is necessary for the ... both of which are elevated when free amino acids are elevated. So Glu not only is a substrate for NAGS but also serves as an ...

*Semenogelin I

Lilja H; Jeppsson JO (1985). "Amino acid sequence of the predominant basic protein in human seminal plasma". FEBS Lett. 182 (1 ... Seidah NG; Ramasharma K; Sairam MR; Chrétien M (1984). "Partial amino acid sequence of a human seminal plasma peptide with ... Lilja H; Laurell CB; Jeppsson JO (1984). "Characterization of the predominant basic protein in human seminal plasma, one ... 2002). "Amidolytic activity of prostatic acid phosphatase on human semenogelins and semenogelin-derived synthetic substrates". ...

*GPATCH11

Overall, the protein is composed mainly of charged amino acids, both acidic and basic. There were no regions of sustained non- ... It also comes in a second isoform that is 156 amino acids long. The gene contains a G-patch domain and the DUF 4138 domain. The ... In addition, it is low in amino acids such as valine, threonine, phenylalanine, and proline. It is a soluble protein and has a ... GPATCH11 has a molecular weight of about 33.3 kdal and is 285 amino acids long. ...

*DNA

Chemical modifications of these basic amino acid residues include methylation, phosphorylation, and acetylation. These chemical ... These encode the twenty standard amino acids, giving most amino acids more than one possible codon. There are also three 'stop ... acid simulation software Meiosis Mitochondrial DNA Nuclear DNA Nucleic acid double helix Nucleic acid notation Nucleic acid ... Under the genetic code, these RNA strands are translated to specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process ...

*Protein phosphorylation

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Cieśla J, Frączyk T, Rode W (2011). "Phosphorylation of basic amino acid ... However, many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated in cells, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid ... Phosphorylation of the amino acid Ser129 in the α-Synuclein protein has a profound effect on the severity of the disease. There ... For example, if amino acid Serine-473 ("S473") in the protein AKT is phosphorylated, AKT is, in general, functionally active as ...

*DNA-binding protein

Chemical modifications of these basic amino acid residues include methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation. These chemical ... Wong KC, Chan TM, Peng C., Li Y., and Zhang Z. "DNA Motif Elucidation using belief propagation" Nucleic Acids Research Advanced ... bZIP domain Comparison of nucleic acid simulation software DNA-binding domain Helix-loop-helix Helix-turn-helix HMG-box Leucine ... These non-specific interactions are formed through basic residues in the histones making ionic bonds to the acidic sugar- ...

*Marine life

For example, all living cells use the same basic set of nucleotides and amino acids. The development of molecular genetics has ... Although they have genes, they do not have a cellular structure, which is often seen as the basic unit of life. Viruses do not ... They have two basic body forms: swimming medusae and sessile polyps, both of which are radially symmetrical with mouths ... 205-221 Manhesa, Gérard; Allègre, Claude J.; Dupréa, Bernard; Hamelin, Bruno (May 1980). "Lead isotope study of basic- ...

*Evolution

For example, all living cells use the same basic set of nucleotides and amino acids. The development of molecular genetics has ... "Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" (PDF). Nature. London: Nature Publishing Group ... Other striking examples are the bacteria Escherichia coli evolving the ability to use citric acid as a nutrient in a long-term ...

*C1orf131

These proteins are lysines rich, charged amino acids (DEHKR), and basic charged amino acids (HKR). The secondary structure of ... the proteins are between 93 and 450 amino acids long; however, the majority tend to be between 160-295 amino acids long. They ... DUF4602 (PF15375) is generally 120+ amino acids long. There is typically only one gene that contains this DUF domain;however, ...

*Cupiennin

This is because of their basic chemical similarities, such as the amino acid residues. They are characterised by the presence ... The amino acid sequences of cupiennin 1b, c, and d were obtained by a combination of sequence analysis and mass spectrometric ... All cupiennins are composed of 35 amino acid residues and are characterised by a more hydrophobic N-terminal chain region and a ... These peptides are highly cationic, made up of similar amino acids, but different in the N- and C-terminal ends. The ...

*Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2

... the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a ... Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 10 (3): 192-6. PMID 20846124. EntrezGene 5743 Menter DG, Schilsky RL, DuBois RN (March 2010). " ... Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ... However, oxygenation of 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid to 11-(S )-hydroxyeicosa-5,8,12,14-tetraenoic acid is not consistent ...
... Pages in category Basic amino acids There are 5 pages in this section of this category. A ArginineArgininosuccinic acidH
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminestransporter, basic amino acid/polyamine antiporter (APA) family (TIGR00905; HMM-score: 72.3) ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminestransporter, basic amino acid/polyamine antiporter (APA) family (TIGR00905; HMM-score: 133.3) ...
Looking for online definition of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme in the Medical Dictionary? paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme explanation free. What is paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme? Meaning of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme medical term. What does paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme mean?
Rhodium has a nuclear charge of 45. The effective nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge found in an atom. This means the nuclear charge is equal to the atomic...
Modification of arginyl residues of Hageman factor by phenylglyoxal hydrate inhibits activation of this clotting factor in a plasma-free system, that is, in the absence of the other constituents of the contact activation system. Activation is also in
The functional characterization of BAR-domain-containing proteins has expanded quite rapidly over the past few years. Recently, Guerrier and colleagues found that the F-BAR domain of srGAP2 shares the functional properties of I-BAR domain activity (Guerrier et al., 2009), such as those contained in IRSp53 and missing in metastasis (MIM) (Mattila et al., 2007; Millard et al., 2007; Saarikangas et al., 2009) by inducing membrane protrusions, rather than making invaginations as observed with canonical F-BAR proteins (Frost et al., 2007; Itoh et al., 2005). Recent reports (Carlson et al., 2011) and reviews (Heath and Insall, 2008) describing the subclasses of F-BAR-domain-containing proteins categorize srGAP family members into one functionally uniform subgroup; however, our work demonstrates that there are discrete roles and intricate differences between each srGAP family member.. Although the F-BAR domains of the srGAP family are all able to induce filopodia-like membrane protrusions to a greater ...
Dr. Mandanas responded: Glutamine amino acid. Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). People take it for various reasons as a dietary supplement. It purportedly helps maintain |a href="/topics/muscle-mass" track_data="{
Can I take the product during my breastfeeding?In addition, it is advisable not to use the product? In such cases as weight loss pills during breastfeeding?Personal coach Wiktor Smith is an expert in the field and diet, who knows what your body needs and how it will throw away your kilograms.The basic amino acids contained in Aloe Vera are the basic amino acids, which the body cannot produce by itself.In the manufacturers opinion, it is enough to take two tablets before sowing so that your body can fight the overweight?Schud. am 7 kilo or doc. as much as for itself, and the effect has been going on for several months now.If you want to strengthen the effect and achieve fast results, it is worthwhile to use the top quality supplement and choose Garcynia.Trust level of trust and how will you begin to lose a few kilos of pounds? b. t he all more likely to continue to lose weight and, how will you get energy, mood and eye evasion to pounds? in the melt?. How does she cope with it, so as not to ...
Amino Acids tutorial video explaining the hydrophilic side chain characteristics for polar neutral, acidic and basic amino acid side chains.
An atom with more protons than electrons, giving it a net positive charge. For example, a sodium atom becomes a cation when it transfers an electron to a chlorine atom to form sodium chloride. See also Ion and Anion.. ...
This form is used to calculate the Expected Family Contribution (EFC) and financial need, and to estimate your student financial aid. This is a free service. We do not retain any record of the information you submit using this form, and have taken steps to ensure your privacy.. Before filling out this form, we strongly recommend that you read the caveats. This form calculates the EFC for a single year, so please enter school costs, scholarships and financial information accordingly.. Each section of this form includes more detailed instructions for the items in that section. For help with a particular question, click on the question mark (?) adjacent to the field label. After youve filled out the form, dont forget to press the "Calculate" button at the bottom of the form.. If youre intimidated by such a long form, try FinAids QuickEFC Calculator. It uses much fewer questions to generate a quick estimate of your EFC. If you prefer to do the calculations yourself, you can find the 35-page ...
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Interplay between cellular membranes and their peripheral proteins drives many processes in eukaryotic cells. Proteins of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain family, in particular, play a role in cellular morphogenesis, for example curving planar membranes into tubular membranes. However, it is still unclear how F-BAR domain proteins act on membranes. Electron microscopy revealed that, …
A composition for use in the oral cavity comprising a monophosphate represented by the following general formula (1), ##STR1## wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or alkenyl group with 6 to 20 carbon atoms, and may have a substituted fluorine atom; one of X1 or X2 is a basic amino acid residual group, while the other is a hydrogen atom, an alkali metal, an ammonium, an alkyl amine, an alkanol amine, or a basic amino acid residual group; and n is an integer from 0 to 4. The composition exhibits a superior action in protecting the tooth surface, is stable, and has a pleasant taste.
Uniform-sized silica nanospheres with a well-ordered arrangement were successfully synthesized by a novel and simple method; hydrolysis and condensation reactions of tetraethyl orthosilicate were conducted in the presence of basic amino acids.
L-Arginine is a conditionally essential basic amino acid involved primarily in urea metabolism and excretion as well as DNA synthesis.
In 2009, Washington state had 179 murders, according to the national disaster center. The Spokesman reported that Washington state had 264 deaths involving an impaired driver in 2009. DUI drivers kill more people than
This invention relates to methods of treating early enamel lesions comprising applying an effective amount of a basic amino acid in free or salt form, together with fluoride to a patient in need thereof.
Looking for Protamines? Find out information about Protamines. Any of the simple proteins that are combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of certain fish, and that upon hydrolysis yield basic amino acids; used in... Explanation of Protamines
A set of styryl- and bis-styryl dyes, varying in length, aromatic surface, net positive charge and steric positioning or bulkiness of substituents, was tested for interactions with various ds-DNA or ds-RNA. Most of the compounds showed strong affinity toward ds-DNA/RNA, directly correlated to the synergistic
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A(H7N9) viruses of the YRD lineage with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site have been detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples from live poultry markets. These viruses fulfil the requirements for classification as HPAI viruses. The HPAI A(H7N9) viruses were genetically and antigenically distinct from other A(H7N9) viruses including A/Hunan/2650/2016 and the current CVVs (Figure 2, Table 3 and 4). Therefore, a new CVV derived from an A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus (HPAI) is proposed. ...
Proteases (also called Proteolytic Enzymes, Peptidases, or Proteinases) are enzymes that hydrolyze the amide bonds within proteins or peptides. Most proteases act in a specific manner, hydrolyzing bonds at or adjacent to specific residues or a specific sequence of residues contained within the substrate protein or peptide. Proteases play an important role in most diseases and biological processes including prenatal and postnatal development, reproduction, signal transduction, the immune response, various autoimmune and degenerative diseases, and cancer. They are also an important research tool, frequently used in the analysis and production of proteins. Furin is a calcium dependent serine endoprotease that processes numerous proproteins of different secretory pathways into their mature forms by cleaving at the carboxyl side of the recognition sequence, R-Xaa-(K/R)-R, where Xaa can be any amino acid. Recombinant human Furin is a 61.7 kDa protein, corresponding to residues 124 through 715 of the ...
WHAT ARE AMINO ACIDS? Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are vital to understanding the Krebs Cycle. They are individual crystalline molecules that make up protein, similar to the way letters make up the alphabet. There are 20 basic amino acids that produce over 1600 substances in the body. They make up 3/4ths of the body s solid material and are found in muscle tissue, organs, blood and skin. Amino acids also make hormones, enzymes, and vitamins, and are essential for a healthy immune system and proper neurological functions. It is necessary to replace amino acids constantly to nourish the body and to repair and regenerate tissue. Amino acids are generally ingested in the food we eat, however, because of processed foods, inadequate diets, and food restrictive programs, a proper balance is rarely achieved and supplementation is advisable. This holds to be true during illness, trauma, surgery and stress. More amino acids are required than can be obtained by food alone. In the chronically
The pH at which a protein carries no net charge. Below the isoelectric point proteins carry a net positive charge; above it a net negative charge. Due to a preponderance of weakly acid residues in almost all proteins, they are nearly all…
These non-specific interactions are formed through basic residues in the histones making ionic bonds to the acidic sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA, and are therefore largely independent of the base sequence. Chemical modifications of these basic amino acid residues include methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation. These chemical changes alter the strength of the interaction between the DNA and the histones, making the DNA more or less accessible to transcription factors and changing the rate of transcription. Other non-specific DNA-binding proteins in chromatin include the high-mobility group proteins, which bind to bent or distorted DNA. These proteins are important in bending arrays of nucleosomes and arranging them into the larger structures that make up chromosom ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitation of neuropeptides in Cpefat/Cpefat mice using differential isotopic tags and mass spectrometry. AU - Che, Fa yun. AU - Fricker, Lloyd D.. PY - 2002/7/1. Y1 - 2002/7/1. N2 - Neuroendocrine peptides play important roles as intercellular messengers. We previously developed a technique to isolate and identify a large number of neuroendocrine peptides from Cpefat/Cpefat mice (Che, F.; et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001, 98, 9971-6); these mice lack carboxypeptidase E activity and this defect causes an accumulation of neuropeptide intermediates that contain C-terminal Lys or Arg residues (Naggert, J. K.; et al. Nat. Genet. 1995, 10, 135-42). In the present study, we have developed a differential isotopic-labeling technique that can be used to quantitate changes in neuropeptide levels in Cpefat/Cpefat mouse tissues. Samples are treated with either the H6 or the D6 form of acetic anhydride, peptides that contain C-terminal basic amino acids are isolated by affinity ...
This little video clip that I put together shows how a growth factor binds to its receptor. Heparin mediates the process. The growth factors bind to receptors in pairs with the heparin threaded through all four proteins and holding the complex together. The receptors would be embedded in the membrane at the bottom. This clip starts with a single receptor to which the heparin binds first, followed by the first growth factor. The basic amino acids, arginine and lysine are shown in blue. In the first image, the amino acid backbone is shown as a ribbon with blue bars. In the second, the atoms of the amino acid side chains are filled in and the blue bars become blue atomic balls that reveal the surface of the protein. The blue areas are positively charged and groups on the surface are heparin-binding domains. The heparin is shown as a polysaccharide with atoms colored by element, O-red, S-orange, N-blue. The proteins bind to the heparin like beads on a string. Pairing of the receptors in a particular ...
This gene encodes a member of the semaphorin III family of secreted signaling proteins that are involved in axon guidance during neuronal development. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal Sema domain, an immunoglobulin like domain and a C-terminal basic domain. The protein encoded by this gene binds neuropilin and plays an important role in cardiovascular development. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016 ...
Complete information for COLQ gene (Protein Coding), Collagen Like Tail Subunit Of Asymmetric Acetylcholinesterase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Coinciding with its newly achieved GRAS status, Layn is processing a bumper crop of Luo Han Guo from its GAP compliant farming operations. Luo Han Guos sweetness comes from Mogroside V and it is up to 300 times sweeter than sucrose yet contains virtually no calories. It is rich in vitamin c, protein and 18 basic amino acids. Its intense sweetness requires only small amounts yet provides great taste and nutrition and all the health benefits of reduced calories and sugar intake. Luo Han Guos flavor profile and clean tasting sweetness allows for a wide variety of food and beverage applications.
View Notes - chapter13 from ESS 40 at UCSB. The Urinary Sys = Important to Maintain Homeostasis H2O, plasma, + EFC volume Electrolyte composition pH balance Eliminate body waste Kidneys = major
This report provides a guide to the development and presentation of 2014-2016 NSDUH substate estimates. A summary of the estimation methodology is included as well as sample sizes, response rates, and population estimates. This shapefile includes geographic boundaries of the 2014-2016 NSDUH substate regions along with prevalence rates, map group.... ...
This report provides a guide to the development and presentation of 2014-2016 NSDUH substate estimates. A summary of the estimation methodology is included as well as sample sizes, response rates, and population estimates. This shapefile includes geographic boundaries of the 2014-2016 NSDUH substate regions along with prevalence rates, map group.... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peptide nucleic acids conjugated to short basic peptides show improved pharmacokinetics and antisense activity in adipose tissue. AU - Wancewicz, Edward V.. AU - Maier, Martin A.. AU - Siwkowski, Andrew M.. AU - Albertshofer, Klaus. AU - Winger, Theodore M.. AU - Berdeja, Andres. AU - Gaus, Hans. AU - Vickers, Timothy A.. AU - Bennett, C. Frank. AU - Monia, Brett P.. AU - Griffey, Richard H.. AU - Nulf, Christopher J.. AU - Hu, Jiaxin. AU - Corey, David R.. AU - Swayze, Eric E.. AU - Kinberger, Garth A.. PY - 2010/5/27. Y1 - 2010/5/27. N2 - A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting a splice junction of the murine PTEN primary transcript was covalently conjugated to various basic peptides. When systemically administered to healthy mice, the conjugates displayed sequence-specific alteration of PTEN mRNA splicing as well as inhibition of full length PTEN protein expression. Correlating activity with drug concentration in various tissues indicated strong tissue-dependence, with highest ...
This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module for conversion of three-carbon compounds from glyceraldehyde-3P to pyruvate [MD:M00002], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. This KEGG module is the most conserved one in the KEGG MODULE database and is found in almost all the completely sequenced genomes. The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001, RM033, RM032, and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple ...
This map presents a modular architecture of the biosynthesis pathways of twenty amino acids, which may be viewed as consisting of the core part and its extensions. The core part is the KEGG module for conversion of three-carbon compounds from glyceraldehyde-3P to pyruvate [MD:M00002], together with the pathways around serine and glycine. This KEGG module is the most conserved one in the KEGG MODULE database and is found in almost all the completely sequenced genomes. The extensions are the pathways containing the reaction modules RM001, RM033, RM032, and RM002 for biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (left) and basic amino acids (bottom), and the pathways for biosynthesis of histidine and aromatic amino acids (top right). It is interesting to note that the so-called essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in human and other organisms generally appear in these extensions. Furthermore, the bottom extension of basic amino acids appears to be most divergent containing multiple ...
Summary: Flagella from Bacillus firmus RAB, an alkalophilic bacterium, were purified to homogeneity. The flagella were shown to consist of a single protein subunit (flagellin) with an apparent molecular weight of 40000. The amino acid composition of B. firmus RAB flagellin was similar to that of other bacilli except that the former had far fewer basic amino acids. The paucity of basic amino acics may render the flagella more stable at external pH values as high as 11.0.
I know that there are polar uncharged amino acids (serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine) and polar charged amino acids (the basic and acidic amino acids). Does the charge on the acidic and basic amino acids make them more polar and hydrophilic than the uncharged polar amino acids? Moreover, cysteine is classified as an uncharged amino acid, but because it has an ionizable side chain, would it be more polar than serine, asparagine, etc.? ...
This little video clip that I put together shows how a growth factor binds to its receptor. Heparin mediates the process. The growth factors bind to receptors in pairs with the heparin threaded through all four proteins and holding the complex together. The receptors would be embedded in the membrane at the bottom. This clip starts with a single receptor to which the heparin binds first, followed by the first growth factor. The basic amino acids, arginine and lysine are shown in blue. In the first image, the amino acid backbone is shown as a ribbon with blue bars. In the second, the atoms of the amino acid side chains are filled in and the blue bars become blue atomic balls that reveal the surface of the protein. The blue areas are positively charged and groups on the surface are heparin-binding domains. The heparin is shown as a polysaccharide with atoms colored by element, O-red, S-orange, N-blue. The proteins bind to the heparin like beads on a string. Pairing of the receptors in a particular ...
Most people I know who buy iMacs tend to keep them for longer than your average computer. Given that, if youre in the market for a new iMac today and you can afford this one, you should absolutely buy the iMac with Retina display. Theres no question whatsoever that Retina is the future of the iMac, that developers will continue to up-res and support these gorgeous new displays. The iMac with Retina display is the rare gadget that will actually get better over time, as there are more things to do more beautifully ...
Since the first confirmed case of H7N9 infection was reported in China, there have been five epidemic waves of human H7N9 infections between 2013 and 2017. The fifth wave differed from the previous four waves in that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site were detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples. The HPAI H7N9 viruses were genetically and antigenically distinct from previous H7N9 viruses. Therefore, a new candidate vaccine virus(CVV) derived from a HPAI A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus was proposed by the World Health Organization(WHO). According to the WHO recommendations, we constructed a new CVV using reverse genetic technology, with a (6+2) gene constitution. The (6+2) reassortant virus possessed hemagglutinin(HA) with multiple basic amino acids removed and the neuraminidase from A/Guangdong/SF003/2016 in a high-yield A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus backbone. Sequence analysis confirmed that no mutations had ...
From NCBI Gene:. This gene encodes a secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the semaphorin class 3 family of neuronal guidance cues. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal sema domain, integrin and immunoglobulin-like domains, and a C-terminal basic domain. Homodimerization and proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminal propeptide are necessary for the function of the encoded protein. It binds a neuropilin co-receptor before forming a heterotrimeric complex with an associated plexin. An increase in the expression of this gene correlates with an increase in cancer cell invasion and adhesion. Naturally occurring mutations in this gene are associated with Hirschsprung disease. [provided by RefSeq, May 2017]. From UniProt: ...
Information on the #E9EFC2 html color code with its RGB and HSL make up, lighter and darker colors, analogous colors, and trinary colors.
Yes could be any cable you disconnected, go over your connections again. Many times DIYers think they have solid connections when they are not square or complete. If this answer is acceptable please remember to return and mark it. - iMac Intel 20 EMC 2133 and 2210

Su YH et al. (2004), 
		
		
			Molecular and functional characterization of a ... -
		
		Xenbase Paper
	Su YH et al. (2004), Molecular and functional characterization of a ... - Xenbase Paper

... basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino ... the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of ... the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid ... The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/literature/article.do?method=display&articleId=2997

Amino Acid Analyzer Market 2020 by Size, Production Capacity, Revenue, Price, Gross Margin and Forecast to 2024 by Absolute...Amino Acid Analyzer Market 2020 by Size, Production Capacity, Revenue, Price, Gross Margin and Forecast to 2024 by Absolute...

The report represents a basic overview of the Amino Acid Analyzer market size, share, and competitor segment with a basic ... to profile the top manufacturers of Amino Acid Analyzer, with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Amino Acid ... Chapter 4, the Amino Acid Analyzer breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by ... Global "Amino Acid Analyzer Market" research report 2020-2024 is a historical overview and in-depth study on the current and ...
more infohttps://icrowdnewswire.com/2020/05/22/amino-acid-analyzer-market-2020-by-size-production-capacity-revenue-price-gross-margin-and-forecast-to-2024-by-absolute-reports/

There Is No Excuse - Why BCAAs Are A Must Have Supplement / Resource  | Monster SupplementsThere Is No Excuse - Why BCAAs Are A 'Must Have' Supplement / Resource | Monster Supplements

... of your overall amino acid count. The body is able toproduce the other 60-65% but without proper nutrition and supplementation ... in a little more depth.BCAAs are metabolised in the muscle and as a result the body is able to utilisethe essential amino acids ... itwill not be able to benefit from the essential amino acids. These are known asleucine, isoleucine and valine. When you ... have a high concentrationin leucine are generally more beneficial due to the increase anti-cataboliceffects this amino acid can ...
more infohttps://monstersupplements.com/resource/2012/03/there-is-no-excuse-why-bcaas-are-a-must-have-supplement-2/

The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid...The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid...

4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid residues and their antihypoxic activity ... 4. Moldvai, I., Gács-Baitz, E., Balázs, M., Incze, M., Szántay, C. (1996). Chemistry of Indoles Carrying a Basic Function, Part ... The synthesis of spiro-2-oxindole-derivative imides of pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid with biogenous sulfur amino acid ... 4-dicarboxylic acid imides with residues of biogenic sulfur-containing α-amino acids and study their anti-hypoxic activity. ...
more infohttp://ophcj.nuph.edu.ua/article/view/ophcj.17.914

Basic amino acids - Biology-Online DictionaryBasic amino acids - Biology-Online Dictionary

An amino acid containing a second basic group (usually an amino group); e.g., lysine, arginine, ornithine. ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Basic_amino_acids&oldid=57326" ... Basic amino acid ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Basic_amino_acids

Earth Times: show/173960,basic-amino-acids-found-in-another-galaxy.htmlEarth Times: show/173960,basic-amino-acids-found-in-another-galaxy.html

The Earth Times site and content have been updated. We do apologise, as this may mean that the article or page you were looking for has changed. The Earth Times now focuses on producing and publishing our own unique content on environmental issues, which is written by our own team of expert authors and journalists. We now publish environmental news articles and information on various environmental problems. You can use the site search at the top of each page, otherwise there are links to some of the main site categories and green blogs we publish included on this page.. Some of the environmental topics and categories that we now focus on include climate change and the effects of global warming, including their various impacts on both people and the planet as well as conservation issues and news articles relating to nature and wildlife. The site puts an emphasis on sustainability issues, including the use and technological progress made with various types of alternative or renewable energy. Earth ...
more infohttp://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/173960,basic-amino-acids-found-in-another-galaxy.html

All Basic Amino Acids | MontiffAll Basic Amino Acids | Montiff

... plus precursor Ornithine-Ketoglutarate and Alpha Lipoic Acid for. ... unique blend of 20 highest quality L-Crystalline singular amino ... All-Basic Powder 350 gms , Montiff. All-Basic-Plus 750 mg 500 caps. Dietary Supplement. • Advanced L-Crystalline Amino Acid ... All-Basic Powder 350 gms , Montiff. A unique blend of 20 highest quality L-Crystalline singular amino acids, plus precursor ... Desiccant pads are included in All-Basic Amino Acid Formula, as well as all of Montiffs highest quality nutraceuticals, to ...
more infohttps://www.forresthealth.com/all-basic-amino-acid-powder.html

Basic amino acid antiporter family - WikipediaBasic amino acid antiporter family - Wikipedia

The Basic Amino Acid Antiporter (ArcD) family (TC# 2.A.118) is a constituent of the IT superfamily. This family consists of ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.118 The Basic Amino Acid Antiporter ... Ion transporter superfamily Amino acid transporters DcuC ArsB and ArsAB Transporter Classification Database Lolkema, Juke S.; ... The proteins are of about 480 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and have 10-12 putative transmembrane segments (TMSs). ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_amino_acid_antiporter_family

Amino Acid Transporter Laboratory - Institute of Basic Medical SciencesAmino Acid Transporter Laboratory - Institute of Basic Medical Sciences

Amino Acid Transporter Laboratory. This research group is focused on transport and cycling of neurotransmitters and amino acids ... Amino acids, and in particular glutamine, are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways. Glutamine is the most abundant amino ... It is a major carbon and nitrogen donor, and it contributes to the formation of other amino acids, nucleotides and the anti- ... We investigate molecular mechanisms involved in glutamine (and other amino acids) transport across cell membranes subsequent ...
more infohttps://www.med.uio.no/imb/english/research/groups/amino-acid-transporters/index.html

Genosphere : Amino Acid Basic PropertiesGenosphere : Amino Acid Basic Properties

Amino Acid Basic Properties. Name, Abbreviations, Chemical classification, Relative Abundance, and Acid-Base properties of each ... 2) Isotopic average of neutral amino acyl residu in a peptide bond. (3) In peptides in aqueous solution. N-terminus: pKa=7.8 & ...
more infohttps://www.genosphere-biotech.com/technical-notes/custom-peptides/amino-acid-basic-properties/

Genosphere : Amino Acid Basic PropertiesGenosphere : Amino Acid Basic Properties

Amino Acid Basic Properties. Name, Abbreviations, Chemical classification, Relative Abundance, and Acid-Base properties of each ... 2) Isotopic average of neutral amino acyl residu in a peptide bond. (3) In peptides in aqueous solution. N-terminus: pKa=7.8 & ...
more infohttps://www.genosphere-biotech.com/fr/technical-corner/custom-peptides/amino-acid-basic-properties/

Human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis | PNASHuman gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis | PNAS

The amino acid sequence of human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein without known function, was determined by automated Edman ... Human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis. A Grubb and H Löfberg ... Human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis ... Human gamma-trace, a basic microprotein: amino acid sequence and presence in the adenohypophysis ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/79/9/3024.long

basic amino acid - oibasic amino acid - oi

Influence of Proline and Basic Amino Acid Residues at Selected Positions The basic C-terminal amino acids of calcium-binding ... basic amino acid amino acids, basic basic amino acids Substitution of Basic Amino Acids in the Basic Region Stabilizes DNA ... basic amino acid can also refer to... amino acids, basic basic amino acids ... Basic amino acids as modulators of an O-linked glycosylation signal of the herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC: ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095450658

Basics for: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids | Physics ForumsBasics for: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids | Physics Forums

Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just dont... ... I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these ... Made only of amino acids. Make up structure of your body. Can be used for energy.. Amino Acids - made of the same elements as ... Related Threads on Basics for: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids Can your body synthesise protein from ... I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/basics-for-carbohydrates-proteins-amino-acids-and-lipids.796425/

Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of  Are Involved in Triggering Substate of RyR1Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in Triggering Substate of RyR1

Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in Triggering Substate of RyR1. In Ra Seo,1,2 Dae Eun Kang,1,2 Dong ... In Ra Seo, Dae Eun Kang, Dong Woo Song, and Do Han Kim, "Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2011/386384/cta/

Category:Basic amino acidsCategory:Basic amino acids

Basic amino acids There are 5 pages in this section of this category. A ArginineArgininosuccinic acidH ... Pages in category "Basic amino acids". There are 5 pages in this section of this category. ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Category:Basic_amino_acids.html

Basic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins Flashcards by Paige Johnson | BrainscapeBasic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins Flashcards by Paige Johnson | Brainscape

Study Basic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins flashcards from Paige Johnson ... Basic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins Flashcards Preview Biochem , Basic Concepts, Amino Acids, Proteins , Flashcards ... The pH at which the net charge on an amino acid is 0 ... linear polymers of α-amino acids bound together by peptide ... Helical structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds (b/t amino and carboxyl O atom of 2nd AA 4 residues down the chain) ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/basic-concepts-amino-acids-proteins-5302808/packs/7901636

Slc3a1 - Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Slc3a1 gene & proteinSlc3a1 - Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Slc3a1 gene & protein

Involved in the high-affinity sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system B(0,+)-like ... Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBATAdd BLAST. 685. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,Q91WV7,SLC31_MOUSE Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Slc3a1 PE=1 SV=1 ... Amino-acid transport, Transport. Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q91WV7

Basic Amino Acids|J&K ScientificBasic Amino Acids|J&K Scientific

Product List : "Basic Amino Acids". .a-search td { padding: 3px; } .a-search input { border: 1px solid #ddd; background-color ...
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Is glutamine a basic amino acid? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTapIs glutamine a basic amino acid? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap

Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). People take it for various reasons as a dietary supplement. It ... In brief: Glutamine amino acid Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). ... In brief: Glutamine amino acid Glutamine is an Amino Acid (basic building block of proteins). ... if I am also taking the amino acid supplements L-tyrosine and L-glutamine? I took the amino acids roughly 5 hours ago. ...
more infohttps://www.healthtap.com/user_questions/167197-is-glutamine-a-basic-amino-acid

A cluster of basic amino acid residues in calcineurin b participates in the binding of calcineurin to phosphatidylserine...A cluster of basic amino acid residues in calcineurin b participates in the binding of calcineurin to phosphatidylserine...

A cluster of basic amino acid residues in calcineurin b participates in the binding of calcineurin to phosphatidylserine ... In the present study we tested the effects of mutations of calcineurin B subunit amino acid residues K(20)K(21), K(24)R(25), K( ... These results indicate that calcineurin B contains an amino terminal basic residue cluster that is involved in the binding of ... Interactions between phospholipid membranes and the acyl chain and specific amino acid residues of myristoylated proteins are ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11328610?dopt=Abstract

Recombinant Human Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) FURIN-605H - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) FURIN-605H - Creative BioMart

FURIN furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme) [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms:. FURIN; furin (paired basic amino acid ... paired basic amino acid residue-cleaving enzyme; EC 3.4.21.75; paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme (furin, membrane ... Recombinant Human Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme). Download Datasheet See All FURIN Products. Bring this ... Furin is also known as PACE (Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme).. ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_7086_17.htm

Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine...Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine...

All but one of thirty mutants were allelic, and were specifically deficient in the basic amino acid permease. This mechanism of ... Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine ... Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine ... Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/138/3/649

Paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme | definition of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme by Medical dictionaryPaired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme | definition of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme by Medical dictionary

What is paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme? Meaning of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme medical term. What does ... paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of paired basic amino acid ... Paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme , definition of paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme by Medical dictionary https:// ... redirected from paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme) FURIN. A gene on chromosome 15q26.1 that encodes a ubiquitous ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/paired+basic+amino+acid+cleaving+enzyme

Frontiers | BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 gene expression modulates arginine and urea content and stress recovery in Arabidopsis...Frontiers | BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 gene expression modulates arginine and urea content and stress recovery in Arabidopsis...

The Arabidopsis nuclear gene BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 (BAC2) encodes a mitochondria-located carrier that transports basic ... The Arabidopsis nuclear gene BASIC AMINO ACID CARRIER 2 (BAC2) encodes a mitochondria-located carrier that transports basic ... When BAC2 is overexpressed in vivo, it triggers catabolism of arginine, a basic amino acid, leading to arginine depletion and ... When BAC2 is overexpressed in vivo, it triggers catabolism of arginine, a basic amino acid, leading to arginine depletion and ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00330/full
  • We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that accumulation depends upon both the ΔpH and the membrane potential components of the proton motive force. (deepdyve.com)
  • PROLINE is major amino acid found in cartilage and is important for maintaining youthful skin as well as repair of muscle, connective tissue and skin damage. (forresthealth.com)
  • Besides functioning in our body as a protein building block, Amino acids have are biological molecules, forming parts of enzymes, coenzymes, biosynthesis precursors for molecules and more. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • The tissue localization and amino acid sequence of gamma-trace indicated that this protein is connected with the peptidergic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine system. (pnas.org)
  • Furin is a calcium dependent serine endoprotease that processes numerous proproteins of different secretory pathways into their mature forms by cleaving at the carboxyl side of the recognition sequence, R-Xaa-(K/R)-R, where Xaa can be any amino acid. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • The â€Å"Non-proteinogenic amino acids†(like carnitine, GABA, or Carnosine) are not coded or not used in the standard genetic code. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • ALPHA LIPOIC ACID, a powerful antioxidant included for extra protection against free radicals and cell damage. (forresthealth.com)
  • Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.118 The Basic Amino Acid Antiporter (ArcD) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. (genetics.org)
  • This research group is focused on transport and cycling of neurotransmitters and amino acids. (uio.no)
  • Involved in the high-affinity sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system B(0,+)-like activity). (uniprot.org)
  • Neurospora mutants affecting polyamine-dependent processes and basic amino acid transport mutants resistant to the polyamine inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine. (genetics.org)
  • The depolarizations are considered to reflect H + -amino acid co-transport, and the spontaneous repolarizations are believed to be caused by subsequent electrogenic H + extrusion. (deepdyve.com)
  • The body makes protein from 20 different â€Å"free amino acids†not from dietary protein, through a process called translation. (colloidsforlife.com)
  • Each amino acid to function properly must be in their â€Å"free form†state (singular molecule) to move around and perform their individual task. (colloidsforlife.com)