Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.

A fast method for predicting amino acid mutations that lead to unfolding. (1/210)

Amino acid mutation(s) that cause(s) partial or total unfolding of a protein can lead to disease states and failure to produce mutants. It is therefore very useful to be able to predict which mutations can retain the conformation of a wild-type protein and which mutations will lead to local or global unfolding of the protein. We have developed a fast and reasonably accurate method based on a backbone-dependent side-chain rotamer library to predict the (folded or unfolded) conformation of a protein upon mutation. This method has been tested on proteins whose wild-type 3D structures are known and whose mutant conformations have been experimentally characterized to be folded or unfolded. Furthermore, for the cases studied here, the predicted partially folded or denatured mutant conformation correlate with a decrease in the stability of the mutant relative to the wild-type protein. The key advantage of our method is that it is very fast and predicts locally or globally unfolded states fairly accurately. Hence, it may prove to be useful in designing site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography and drug design experiments as well as in free energy simulations by helping to ascertain whether a mutation will alter or retain the wild-type conformation.  (+info)

Bicarbonate enhances peroxidase activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase. Role of carbonate anion radical and scavenging of carbonate anion radical by metalloporphyrin antioxidant enzyme mimetics. (2/210)

Much evidence exists for the increased peroxidase activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in oxidant-induced diseases. In this study, we measured the peroxidase activity of SOD1 by monitoring the oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) to dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Bicarbonate dramatically enhanced DCFH oxidation to DCF in a SOD1/H(2)O(2)/DCFH system. Peroxidase activity could be measured at a lower H(2)O(2) concentration ( approximately 1 microm). We propose that DCFH oxidation to DCF is a sensitive index for measuring the peroxidase activity of SOD1 and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis SOD1 mutants and that the carbonate radical anion (CO(3)) is responsible for oxidation of DCFH to DCF in the SOD1/H(2)O(2)/bicarbonate system. Bicarbonate enhanced H(2)O(2)-dependent oxidation of DCFH to DCF by spinal cord extracts of transgenic mice expressing SOD1(G93A). The SOD1/H(2)O(2)/HCO(3)(-)-dependent oxidation was mimicked by photolysis of an inorganic cobalt carbonato complex that generates CO(3). Metalloporphyrin antioxidants that are usually considered as SOD1 mimetic or peroxynitrite dismutase effectively scavenged the CO(3) radical. Implications of this reaction as a plausible protective mechanism in inflammatory cellular damage induced by peroxynitrite are discussed.  (+info)

A possible role for pi-stacking in the self-assembly of amyloid fibrils. (3/210)

Amyloid fibril formation is assumed to be the molecular basis for a variety of diseases of unrelated origin. Despite its fundamental clinical importance, the mechanism of amyloid formation is not fully understood. When we analyzed a variety of short functional fragments from unrelated amyloid-forming proteins, a remarkable occurrence of aromatic residues was observed. The finding of aromatic residues in diverse fragments raises the possibility that pi-pi interactions may play a significant role in the molecular recognition and self-assembly processes that lead to amyloid formation. This is in line with the well-known central role of pi-stacking interactions in self-assembly processes in the fields of chemistry and biochemistry. We speculate that the stacking interactions may provide energetic contribution as well as order and directionality in the self-assembly of amyloid structures. Experimental data regarding amyloid formation and inhibition by short peptide analogs also support our hypothesis. The pi-stacking hypothesis suggests a new approach to understanding the self-assembly mechanism that governs amyloid formation and indicates possible ways to control this process.  (+info)

Exploring the active site of plant glutaredoxin by site-directed mutagenesis. (4/210)

Six mutants (Y26A, C27S, Y29F, Y29P, C30S and Y26W/Y29P) have been engineered in order to explore the active site of poplar glutaredoxin (Grx) (Y26CPYC30). The cysteinic mutants indicate that Cys 27 is the primary nucleophile. Phe is a good substitute for Tyr 29, but the Y29P mutant was inactive. The Y26A mutation caused a moderate loss of activity. The YCPPC and WCPPC mutations did not improve the reactivity of Grx with the chloroplastic NADP-malate dehydrogenase, a well known target of thioredoxins (Trxs). The results are discussed in relation with the known biochemical properties of Grx and Trx.  (+info)

Charged amino acids conserved in the aromatic acid/H+ symporter family of permeases are required for 4-hydroxybenzoate transport by PcaK from Pseudomonas putida. (5/210)

Charged amino acids in the predicted transmembrane portion of PcaK, a permease from Pseudomonas putida that transports 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA), were required for 4-HBA transport, and they were also required for P. putida to have a chemotactic response to 4-HBA. An essential amino acid motif (DGXD) containing aspartate residues is located in the first transmembrane segment of PcaK and is conserved in the aromatic acid/H+ symporter family of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters.  (+info)

Aromatic-aromatic interactions in and around alpha-helices. (6/210)

To understand the role of aromatic-aromatic interactions in imparting specificity to the folding process, the geometries of four aromatic residues with different sequence spacing, located in alpha-helices or five residues from helical ends, interacting with each other have been elucidated. The geometry is found to depend on the sequence difference. Specific interactions (C-H...pi and N-H...pi) which result from this geometry may cause a given pair of residues (such as Phe-His) with a particular sequence difference to occur more than expected. The most conspicuous residue in an aromatic pair in the context of helix stability is His, which is found at the last (C1) position or the two positions (Ncap and Ccap) immediately flanking the helix. An alpha-helix and a contiguous 3(10)-helix or two helices separated by a non-helical residue can have interacting aromatic pairs, the geometry of interaction and the relative orientation between the helices being rather fixed. Short helices can also have interacting residues from either side.  (+info)

The ARO4 gene of Candida albicans encodes a tyrosine-sensitive DAHP synthase: evolution, functional conservation and phenotype of Aro3p-, Aro4p-deficient mutants. (7/210)

The enzyme 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase catalyses the first step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in prokaryotes, plants and fungi. Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain two catalytically redundant DAHP synthases, encoded by the genes ARO3 and ARO4, whose activities are feedback-inhibited by phenylalanine and tyrosine, respectively. ARO3/4 gene transcription is controlled by GCN4. The authors previously cloned an ARO3 gene orthologue from Candida albicans and found that: (1) it can complement an aro3 aro4 double mutation in S. cerevisiae, an effect inhibited by excess phenylalanine, and (2) a homozygous aro3-deletion mutant of C. albicans is phenotypically Aro(+), suggesting the existence of another isozyme(s). They now report the identification and functional characterization of the C. albicans orthologue of S. cerevisiae Aro4p. The two Aro4p enzymes share 68% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis places the fungal DAHP synthases in a cluster separate from prokaryotic orthologues and suggests that ARO3 and ARO4 arose from a single gene via a gene duplication event early in fungal evolution. C. albicans ARO4 mRNA is elevated upon amino acid starvation, consistent with the presence of three putative Gcn4p-responsive elements (GCREs) in the gene promoter sequence. C. albicans ARO4 complements an aro3 aro4 double mutation in S. cerevisiae, an effect inhibited by excess tyrosine. The authors engineered Deltaaro3/Deltaaro3 Deltaaro4/MET3p::ARO4 cells of C. albicans (with one wild-type copy of ARO4 placed under control of the repressible MET3 promoter) and found that they fail to grow in the absence of aromatic amino acids when ARO4 expression is repressed, and that this growth defect can be partially rescued by aromatic amino acids and certain aromatic amino acid pathway intermediates. It is concluded that, like S. cerevisiae, C. albicans contains two DAHP synthases required for the first step in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway.  (+info)

Refined molecular hinge between allosteric and catalytic domain determines allosteric regulation and stability of fungal chorismate mutase. (8/210)

The yeast chorismate mutase is regulated by tyrosine as feedback inhibitor and tryptophan as crosspathway activator. The monomer consists of a catalytic and a regulatory domain covalently linked by the loop L220s (212-226), which functions as a molecular hinge. Two monomers form the active dimeric enzyme stabilized by hydrophobic interactions in the vicinity of loop L220s. The role of loop L220s and its environment for enzyme regulation, dimerization, and stability was analyzed. Substitution of yeast loop L220s in place of the homologous loop from the corresponding and similarly regulated Aspergillus enzyme (and the reverse substitution) changed tyrosine inhibition to activation. Yeast loop L220s substituted into the Aspergillus enzyme resulted in a tryptophan-inhibitable enzyme. Monomeric yeast chorismate mutases could be generated by substituting two hydrophobic residues in and near the hinge region. The resulting Thr-212-->Asp-Phe-28-->Asp enzyme was as stable as wild type, but lost allosteric regulation and showed reduced catalytic activity. These results underline the crucial role of this molecular hinge for inhibition, activation, quaternary structure, and stability of yeast chorismate mutase.  (+info)

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, poses a serious health threat to rodents and human beings. TyrR is a transcriptional regulator that controls the metabolism of aromatic amino acids in Escherichia coli. In this paper, TyrR played an important role in Y. pestis virulence. Inactivation of tyrR did not seem to affect the in vitro growth of this organism, but resulted in at least 10,000-fold attenuation compared with the wild-type (WT) strain upon subcutaneous infection to mice. In addition, loads of tyrR mutant within mice livers and spleens significantly decreased compared with the WT strain. Transcriptome analysis revealed that TyrR, directly or indirectly, regulated 29 genes encoded on Y. pestis chromosome or plasmids under in vitro growth condition. Similar to the regulatory function of this protein in E. coli, five aromatic-pathway genes (aroF-tyrA, aroP, aroL, and tyrP) were significantly reduced upon deletion of the tyrR gene. Two genes (glnL and glnG) that encode sensory histidine
How is Aromatic Amino Acids abbreviated? AAA stands for Aromatic Amino Acids. AAA is defined as Aromatic Amino Acids somewhat frequently.
Tyrosine is one of 3 aromatic amino acids. All aromatic amino acids are relatively nonpolar. To different degrees, all aromatic amino acids absorb ultraviolet light. Tyrosine and tryptophan absorb more than do phenylalanine; tryptophan is responsible for most of the absorbance of ultraviolet light ( 280 nm = UV) by proteins. Tyrosine is the only one of the aromatic amino acids with a photo-ionizable side chain. Tyrosine is one of three hydroxyl-containing amino acids. When dopamine is made any other way chemically or substrate substituted the brain and cells cannot control its concentration properly and many side effects result. It turns out other chemicals with disulfide bonds are critical in working properly with dopamine. When it is made by the interaction between UV light and tyrosine as designed by nature the perfect balance occurs photo-chemically. This is why taking exogenous glutathione is risky. The amount of light released has to be quantized with other chemicals in the local cell ...
The inner membrane protein YddG of Escherichia coli is a homologue of the known amino acid exporters RhtA and YdeD. It was found that the yddG gene overexpression conferred resistance upon E. coli cells to the inhibiting concentrations of l-phenylalanine and aromatic amino acid analogues, dl-p-fluor …
The present disclosure relates to engineered microorganisms that produce amino acids and amino acid intermediates. In particular, the disclosure relates to recombinant nucleic acids encoding operons that increase production of aromatic amino acids and the aromatic amino acid intermediate shikimate; microorganisms with increased production of aromatic amino acids and the aromatic amino acid intermediate shikimate; and methods related to the production of aromatic amino acids, the aromatic amino acid intermediate shikimate, and commodity chemicals derived therefrom.
Klebsiella aerogenes utilized aromatic amino acids as sole sources of nitrogen but not as sole sources of carbon. K. aerogenes abstracted the alpha-amino group of these compounds by transamination and excreted the arylpyruvate portions into the medium. When tryptophan was utilized as the sole source …
Ion channels are proteins that traverse the cell membrane and form gated pores that open and close in response to various stimuli. In order to experimentally probe aspects of ion channel functionality, we performed subtle structure function studies using the in vivo nonsense suppression method, which allows for the incorporation of synthetically accessible unnatural amino acids and hydroxy acids into an ion channel at a site of interest. Fluorinated aromatic amino acids are good probes for a cation-π interaction because fluorine substituents reduce the binding affinity of the aromatic for a cation in a linear, step-wise fashion. In collaboration with Professor Richard Horn at the Thomas Jefferson University, we substituted a series of fluorinated phenylalanines for important tyrosines in the Shaker B K+ channel and experimentally determined that TEA was binding to the residues through a cation-π interaction. We also determined that Ca2+ binds to and blocks the NaV1.4 channel through a ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
We investigated 1060 possible anion-pi interactions in a data set of 41 superoxide dismutase active centers. Our observations indicate that majority of the aromatic residues are capable to form anion-pi interactions, mainly by long-range contacts, and that there is preference of Trp over other aromatic residues in these interactions. Furthermore, 68% of total predicted interactions in the dataset are multiple anion-pi interactions. Anion-pi interactions are distance and orientation dependent. We analyzed the energy contribution resulting from anion-pi interactions using ab initio calculations. The results showed that, while most of their interaction energies lay in the range from -0 to -4 kcal mol(-1), those energies can be up to -9 kcal mol(-1) and about 34% of interactions were found to be repulsive. Majority of the suggested anion-pi interacting residues in ternary complexes are metal-assisted. Stabilization centers for these proteins showed that all the six residues found in predic...ted ...
Enzymes are biological catalysts that are essential to life: they are largely very efficient and exquisitely specialised to their substrate. They are, however, predicted to have evolved from simple promiscuous catalysts (able to catalyse multiple reactions on multiple substrates). The goal of this thesis was to explore the multiple models of evolution with three model enzymes. In a complementary model for enzyme evolution, it is hypothesised that some ancient enzymes may have exhibited higher catalytic rates than their extant descendants. This model was investigated through the reconstruction of core bacterial enzymes AroA (aromatic amino acid biosynthesis) and MurA (peptidoglycan biosynthesis), from the common ancestor of modern Streptoccocci species. The ~300 million year old ancestral enzyme conformed to the model, with 20-fold higher activity than MurA enzymes in modern Streptococci. Several models for enzyme evolution, both primordial and contemporary, require a multifunctional precursor ...
The low affinity aromatic amino acid (Tyr, Trp, Phe) transporter, TAT1 (T-type amino acid transporter), MCT10, Slc16a10. Also transports N-methyl amino acids and thyroid hormones. Essential for aromatic amino acid homeostasis in various tissues of mice (Mariotta et al. 2012). MCT10 is 58% identical to MCT8. Both transporters mediate T3 transport, but while MCT8 also transports rT3 and T4, these compounds are not efficiently transported by MCT10. A few amino acyl residue substitutions in the human orthologue broadens the substrate specificity of this porter (Johannes et al. 2016 ...
ABCC10 is an efflux pump that confers multidrug resistance to cells by extruding a variety of natural and nucleosides analogues using energy from ATP hydrolysis. The objective of this project is to understand the detailed relationship between ATP hydrolysis and drug transport for ABCC10 and how ABCC10s ATPase activity is regulated. For this study, we mutated aromatic residues to polar residues in the Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBDs) of ABCC10 to determine how these residues are involved in the transport of ABCC10 substrates. Prior, structural analyses of several bacterial ABC-transporters indicated that aromatic amino acid residues in NBDs are needed for ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis. In these studies, substitution of these aromatic residues completely abolished ATP-dependent transport. Prior work on ABCC1 has shown that substitutions such as W (tryptophan) to C (cytidine) or Y (tyrosine) to C (cytidine) decreased ABCC1s affinity for ATP, and ATP-dependent LTC4 transport activities. ...
Program: needle # Rundate: Mon 8 Mar 2010 06:21:36 # Commandline: needle # -asequence dna-align/BSNT_00855.1.24716.seq # -bsequence dna-align/BPUM_0575___yddG.2.24716.seq # -gapopen 10 # -gapextend 0.5 # -outfile dna-align/BSNT_00855-BPUM_0575___yddG.aln # Align_format: srspair # Report_file: dna-align/BSNT_00855-BPUM_0575___yddG.aln ######################################## #======================================= # # Aligned_sequences: 2 # 1: BSNT_00855 # 2: BPUM_0575___yddG # Matrix: EDNAFULL # Gap_penalty: 10.0 # Extend_penalty: 0.5 # # Length: 2865 # Identity: 1502/2865 (52.4%) # Similarity: 1502/2865 (52.4%) # Gaps: 906/2865 (31.6%) # Score: 3388.0 # # #======================================= BSNT_00855 1 ATGAAGAA---AAAAAGAATTCTAATTGTGTCGGCTATCGTGTTGCTGTT 47 ,,,,,,,, ,,,...,,,..,,,.,.,.,..,,,.,.,,,.,,.,,., BPUM_0575___y 1 ATGAAGAAGAGAAACTTAATAATAACTTTCTTAGCTCTAGTGATGTTGGT 50 BSNT_00855 48 TTTAACTGTCGCTTCAGCTGTAACAGTATTTTCGGCTGAT---------G 88 ,, ,,, ,,,,,,,..,..,,,..,,,,,, , BPUM_0575___y 51 ...
Autori: Breunig, H.J.; Haddad, N.; Lork, E.; Mehring, M.; Mügge, C.; Nolde, C.; Rat, C.I.; Schürmann. Editorial: Organometallics, 28, p.1202-, 2009.. Rezumat:. Cuvinte cheie: Bismuth, m-Terphenyl, X-ray structure. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/om800934c. ...
you can put all atoms in the aromatic groups in separate charge groups, but that will make the simulation slightly slower. Further, putting all of the atoms in each aromatic side chain into their own charge group could slightly change the equilibrium properties of a peptide or protein since aromatic residues would then be more strongly attracting near the cutoff distance than they are when assigned the regular charge groups of a force field. Most force fields (except GROMOS) have probably been parametrized without charge groups. Therefore having smaller charge groups is always more accurate, unless you have a buffer region, which is now possible in 4.0. (This all assumes that you use PME and not cut-off or reaction-field for electrostatics). However, this is probably not a serious issue.. One might try ...
Acids, Amino Acids, Aromatic Amino Acids, Association, Behavior, Bilirubin, Collagen, Concentration, Jaundice, Methods, Nature, Tissues
CH-π aromatic interactions are ubiquitous in nature and are capable of regulating important chemical and biochemical processes. Solvation and aromatic substituent effects are known to perturb the CH-π aromatic interactions. However, the nature by which the two factors influence one another is relatively unexplored. Here we demonstrate experimentally that there is a quantitative correlation between substituent effects in CH-π interactions and the hydrogen-bond acceptor constant of the solvating molecule. The CH-π interaction energies were measured by the conformational study of a series of aryl-substituted molecular balances in which the conformational preferences depended on the relative strengths of the methyl and aryl CH-π interactions in the folded and unfolded states, respectively ...
A team led by scientists at the Scripps Research Institute have now succeeded in solving the X-ray crystallographic structure of murine Pgp, a result that they hope will help chemists to design more effective drugs. The 3.8Å structure of the apo protein revealed an internal cavity of ca 6000Å3, with a 30Å separation of the two nucleotide-binding domains. Two additional structures with bound inhibitors showed that hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids form distinct drug-binding sites which are capable of stereo-recognition. The apo and drug-bound Pgp structures are open to the cytoplasm and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer for drug entry, representing initial stages of the transport cycle. The overall structure of Pgp is very similar to that of the bacterial protein, MsbA, which transports lipids out of bacteria, suggesting that Pgp may work in a similar way. In the bacterial transporter, binding of ATP changes the accessibility of the carrier from cytoplasmic (inward) facing to ...
ex1 Increase chi1 rotamer sampling for buried* residues +/- 1 standard deviation - RECOMMENDED -ex1_aro Increase chi1 rotamer sampling for buried* aromatic** residues +/- 1 standard deviation -ex2 Increase chi2 rotamer sampling for buried* residues +/- 1 standard deviation - RECOMMENDED -ex2_aro Increase chi2 rotamer sampling for buried* aromatic** residues +/- 1 standard deviation -ex3 Increase chi3 rotamer sampling for buried* residues +/- 1 standard deviation -ex4 Increase chi4 rotamer sampling for buried* residues +/- 1 standard deviation -ex1:level ,int, Increase chi1 sampling for buried* residues to the given sampling level*** -ex1_aro:level ,int, Increase chi1 sampling for buried* aromatic residues to the given sampling level -ex2:level ,int, Increase chi1 sampling for buried* residues to the given sampling level -ex2_aro:level ,int, Increase chi1 sampling for buried* aromatic residues to the given sampling level -ex3:level ,int, Increase chi1 sampling for buried* residues to the given ...
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To understand the cation-π interaction in aromatic amino acids and peptides, the binding of M+ (where M+ = Li+, Na+, and K+) to phenylalanine (Phe) is studied at the best level of density functional theory reported so far. The different modes of M+ binding show the same order of binding affinity (Li+ > Na+ > K+), in the approximate ratio of 2.2:1.5:1.0. The most stable binding mode is one in which the M+ is stabilized by a tridentate interaction between the cation and the carbonyl oxygen (O=C), amino nitrogen (-NH2), and aromatic π ring; the absolute Li+, Na+, and K+ affinities are estimated theoretically to be 275, 201, and 141 kJ mol-1, respectively. Factors affecting the relative stabilities of various M +-Phe binding modes and conformers have been identified, with ion-dipole interaction playing an important role. We found that the trend of π and non-π cation bonding distances (Na+-π > Na +-N > Na+-O and K+ -π > K +-N > K+-O) in our theoretical Na+/K +-Phe structures ...
Biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine proceeds via a common pathway to chorismate, at which point the pathway branches (CITS:[Jones][1943992]). One branch proceeds to tryptophan, and the other to tyrosine and phenylalanine (CITS:[Jones]). The series of reactions to chorismate, called the shikimate pathway, and the series of reactions from chorismate to tryptophan have been found to be common to all eukaryotes and prokaryotes studied thus far (as reported in (CITS:[1943992])). In contrast, there appears to be two separate routes from chorismate to tyrosine and phenylalanine, only one of which has been found in S. cerevisiae (CITS:[1943992]). Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae is controlled by a combination of feedback inhibition, activation of enzyme activity, and regulation of enzyme synthesis (CITS:[Jones][1943992]). The first step in the tryptophan branch is feedback inhibited by tryptophan, and the first step in the ...
In this work, we have analyzed the influence of cation-pi interactions to the stability of Sm/LSm assemblies and their environmental preferences. The number of interactions formed by arginine is higher than lysine in the cationic group, while histidine is comparatively higher than phenylalanine and tyrosine in the pi group. Arg-Tyr interactions are predominant among the various pairs analyzed. The furcation level of multiple cation-pi interactions is much higher than that of single cation-pi interactions in Sm/LSm interfaces. We have found hot spot residues forming cation-pi interactions, and hot spot composition is similar for all aromatic residues. The Arg-Phe pair has the strongest interaction energy of -8.81 kcal mol(-1) among all the possible pairs of amino acids. The extent of burial of the residue side-chain correlates with the Delta Delta G of binding for residues in the core and also for hot spot residues cation-pi bonded across the interface. Secondary structure of the cation...-pi ...
The expression of plant shikimate kinase (SK; EC 2.7.1.71), an intermediate step in the shikimate pathway to aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, is induced under specific conditions of environmental stress and developmental requirements in an isoform-specific manner. Despite their important physiological role, experimental structures of plant SKs have not been determined and the biochemical nature of plant SK regulation is unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two SKs, AtSK1 and AtSK2. We demonstrate that AtSK2 is highly unstable and becomes inactivated at 37 degrees C whereas the heat-induced isoform, AtSK1, is thermostable and fully active under identical conditions at this temperature. We determined the crystal structure of AtSK2, the first SK structure from the plant kingdom, and conducted biophysical characterizations of both AtSK1 and AtSK2 towards understanding this mechanism of thermal regulation. The crystal structure of AtSK2 is generally conserved with bacterial SKs with the ...
Chorismate synthase; Catalyzes the anti-1,4-elimination of the C-3 phosphate and the C-6 proR hydrogen from 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) to yield chorismate, which is the branch point compound that serves as the starting substrate for the three terminal pathways of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. This reaction introduces a second double bond into the aromatic ring ...
The role of aromatic and nonaromatic amino acids in amyloid formation has been elucidated by calculating interaction energies between β-sheets in amyloid model systems using density functional theory (B3LYP-D3/6-31G*). The model systems were based on experimental crystal structures of two types of amyloids: (1) with aromatic amino acids, and (2) without aromatic amino acids. Data show that these two types of amyloids have similar interaction energies, supporting experimental findings that aromat
The present invention is directed to a polypeptide that binds to the androgen receptor, the polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence Ar-X-X-Z-Ar, or Ser-β-Ar- X-Δ-Ψ-Ar; or Ser-β-Ar-Δ-X-Ψ-Ar; or Ser-X-Ar-X-X-Ψ-Ar; wherein Ar is an aromatic amino acid; X is any amino acid; and Z is a hydrophobic amino acid (Ψ) or an aromatic amino acid (Ar), β is a basic amino acid; and A is an acidic amino acid. The present invention is also directed to methods of analyzing the surface conformation of a protein using one or more of the above polypeptide sequences; methods of identifying modulators of protein function using one or more of the above polypeptide sequences; and pharmaceutical compositions comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and one or more of the above polypeptide sequences.
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Sep 30, 2019· Chymotrypsin is a digestive enzyme belonging to a super family of enzymes called serine proteases. It uses an active serine residue to perform hydrolysis on the C-terminus of the aromatic amino acids of other proteins. Chymotrypsin is a protease enzyme that cleaves on the C-terminal phenylalanine (F), tryptophan (W), and tyrosine (Y) on peptide ...
The enzyme plays a key role in an alternative pathway of the biosynthesis of 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), which is involved in the canonical pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. The enzyme can also catalyse the reaction of EC 4.1.2.13, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase ...
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of melanin; dopamine; noradrenalin (norepinephrine), and thyroxine. [PubChem]
Alternative selectivity to alkyl bonded phases, recommended for aromatic groups. Compatible with highly aqueous mobile phases to facilitate the retention and separation of polar compounds.
Correct Answer: D.. Aromatic compounds follow four rules: (1) They are conjugated-there needs to one p orbital from each atom in the ring, so each atom must be either sp2 or sp hybridized; 2) They are cyclic: linear systems are not aromatic; 3) They are planar: there is good overlap/interaction between p orbitals; 4) they follow the The Huckel Rule-4n+2 pi electrons in the cyclic conjugated pi system (n = 0, 1, 2, 3 etc ...
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ARO 2011 - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: Not sure if this is right forum, so pls advise if not. I recently acquired ARO 2011, although not sure how! Ive had loads of problems since, especially with opening up web pages. I managed to uninstall ARO this morning & since then, my PC keeps shutting down to black screen before re-starting. Any advice on whether this is linked, & how I can remove its influence? Thanks
JP Morgan reiterated its Neutral rating on Aeropostale (NYSE: ARO) and reduced its price target from $14.00 to $13.00. JP Morgan commented, [A]lthough ARO ...
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Živjo sem novi lastnik aro-ta letnik 88 1,4 bencin. Kako(v kater polžaj ročko) se vklopi 4 pogon ,reduktor,in kaj se vklaplja na kolesih.? Je pa to aro 10. ...
Todas medidas e marcas de pneus nacionais e importados para moto aro 14. Enviamos para todo Brasil, consulte! GUAPOR PNEUS LONDRINA (43) 3032-1921.
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Un pasionat de design a realizat un concept interesant de ARO. Chiar daca aceasta companie auto romaneasca nu mai exista de ani buni, fiind adusa la faliment de guvernul Nastase, pasionati si iubitori
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The transamination of aromatic l-amino acids (5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine and kynurenine) was shown to be catalysed by enzyme preparations from rat small intestine. On the basis of the partial purification and characterization of these aromatic amino acid transaminases, it is suggested that rat small intestine contains several kinds of aromatic amino acid transaminases.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets. T2 - The preventing overweight using novel dietary strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial. AU - Xu, Min. AU - Qi, Qibin. AU - Liang, Jun. AU - Bray, George A.. AU - Hu, Frank B.. AU - Sacks, Frank M.. AU - Qi, Lu. PY - 2013/3/26. Y1 - 2013/3/26. N2 - Background-Circulating branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids were recently related to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in prospective cohorts. We tested the effects of a genetic determinant of branched-chain amino acid/ aromatic amino acid ratio on changes in body weight and insulin resistance in a 2-year diet intervention trial. Methods and Results-We genotyped the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 near the PPM1K gene in 734 overweight or obese adults who were assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient content. At 6 months, dietary fat ...
0050] The hydroprocessed aviation biofuel or other hydroprocessed biofuel fraction(s) as described above, also advantageously share a number of important characteristics with their petroleum derived counterpart components. In terms of energy content, these fractions may have a lower heating value generally from about 42 MJ/kg (18,100 BTU/lb) to about 46 MJ/kg (19,800 BTU/lb) and typically from about 43 MJ/kg (18,500 BTU/lb) to about 45 MJ/kg (19,400 BTU/lb). While these hydroprocessed biofuel fractions can meet various standards required of their petroleum derived counterparts, their carbon footprint is greatly reduced according to U.S. government GHG emission accounting practices, in which emissions associated with the combustion of biomass derived fuels are not reported in the GHG emission value based on LCA, as discussed above. According to particular embodiments of the invention, in which the hydroprocessed biofuel or other hydroprocessed biofuel fraction(s) is derived completely from ...
Mutations in the basic branch of the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway proved to be efficient in attenuating virulence, e.g., in Listeria monocytogenes (57), Shigella dysenteriae (62), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (9), and Bacillus anthracis (27), but they failed to do so in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (41). The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether an aro mutant of S. aureus could be attenuated and immunogenic. To do this, mutagenesis by transposition was chosen as a preliminary method. The results obtained in this investigation encourage us to begin the construction of an unmarked aroA deletion mutant of S. aureus to be utilized in field trials.. Target genes may be inactivated by integration of a transposable element. Such inactivation is usually the consequence of transcriptional interruption or of a negative polar effect on the expression of genes located downstream (15, 20). In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of an S. ...
Researches at Prof. Gad Galili s lab elicited a significant increase in the direct products of the shikimate pathway and in the aromatic amino acid Phenylalanine. A central regulator in the shikimate pathway is the first committed enzyme of the pathway; 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS). The bacterial DAHPS is feedback inhibited by a separate amino acid. At the core of this technology is the dominant isoform that is the AroG gene which is under the regulation of Phenylalanine and responsible for 80% of the total DAHPS activity.. By expressing a mutant bacterial AroG gene encoding a feedback insensitive DAHPS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, researchers achieved increased levels of the shikimate direct metabolites, products and aromatic amino acids. Detailed analysis revealed that while no metabolite exhibited decreased levels in the transgenic plants, the levels of shikimate intermediate metabolites, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and a verity of secondary metabolites ...
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Inborn errors of BH4 metabolism lead to severe insufficiency of brain monoamine neurotransmitters while augmentation of BH4 by supplementation or stimulation of its biosynthesis is thought to ameliorate endothelial NOS (eNOS) dysfunction, to protect from (cardio-) vascular disease and/or prevent obesity and development of the metabolic syndrome. We have previously reported that homozygous knock-out mice for the 6-pyruvolytetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS; Pts-ko/ko) mice with no BH4 biosynthesis die after birth. Here we generated a Pts-knock-in (Pts-ki) allele expressing the murine PTPS-p.Arg15Cys with low residual activity (15% of wild-type in vitro) and investigated homozygous (Pts-ki/ki) and compound heterozygous (Pts-ki/ko) mutants. All mice showed normal viability and depending on the severity of the Pts alleles exhibited up to 90% reduction of
Description: The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of phenylalanine and tyrosine from other compounds, including chorismate, via the intermediate prephenate.. ...
High fasting plasma concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine have been associated with increased risk of hyperglycaemia and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Whether these associations are diet or metabolism driven is unknown. We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. We used a crossover design with twenty-one healthy individuals and four different isocaloric test meals, containing proteins from different dietary sources (dairy, fish, meat, and plants). Analysis of the postprandial DMAAs concentrations was performed using targeted mass spectrometry. A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to
In 5187 persons from the Cardiovascular Health Study, there was no significant association of dietary intakes of aromatic amino acids (AAA) with areal BMD of the hip or body composition. However, those who had the lowest dietary intakes of AAA were at increased risk for incident hip fractures. Prior studies of the association of protein intake with osteoporosis are conflicting and have not directly examined the relationship of aromatic amino acids (AAA) with fractures, areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and body composition. We sought to determine the relationship of dietary intakes of AAA with osteoporosis parameters in elderly men and women. 5187 men and women aged ≥ 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) with dietary intakes of AAA (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine) estimated by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were included. We examined the relationship between a one-time estimate of daily dietary AAA intake with risk of incident hip fractures over a median of 13.2 years ...
Here, we investigate the strengths of R-X···π interactions, involving both chlorine and bromine, in model systems derived from protein-ligand complexes found in the PDB. We find that the strengths of these interactions can vary significantly, with binding energies ranging from −2.01 to −3.60 kcal/mol. Symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) analysis shows that, as would be expected, dispersion plays the largest role in stabilizing these R-X···π interactions, generally accounting for about 50% to 80% of attraction. R-Br···π interactions are, for the most part, found to be stronger than R-Cl···π interactions, although the relative geometries of the interacting pair and the halogens chemical environment can also have a strong impact. The two factors that have the strongest impact on the strength of these R-X···π interactions is the distance between the halogen and the phenyl plane as well as the size of the halogen σ-hole.
Cation-π interaction is a non-covalent binding force that plays a significant role in protein stability and drug-receptor interactions. In this work, we have investigated the structural role of cation-π interactions in sugar-binding proteins (SBPs). We observed 212 cation-π interactions in 53 proteins out of 59 SBPs in dataset. There is an average one energetically significant cation-π interaction for every 66 residues in SBPs. In addition, Arg is highly preferred to form cation-π interactions, and the average energy of Arg-Trp is high among six pairs. Long-range interactions are predominant in the analyzed cation-π interactions. Comparatively, all interaction pairs favor to accommodate in strand conformations. The analysis of solvent accessible area indicates that most of the aromatic residues are found on buried or partially buried whereas cationic residues were found mostly on the exposed regions of protein. The cation-π interactions forming residues were found that around 43% of cation-π
Carbohydrate - receptor interactions are an integral part of biological events. They play an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell differentiation and in-cell signaling. Carbohydrates can interact with a receptor by using several types of intermolecular interactions. One of the most important is the interaction of a carbohydrates apolar part with aromatic amino acid residues, known as dispersion interaction or CH/π interaction. In the study presented here, we attempted for the first time to quantify how the CH/π interaction contributes to a more general carbohydrate - protein interaction. We used a combined experimental approach, creating single and double point mutants with high level computational methods, and applied both to Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL) lectin complexes with α-l-Me-fucoside. Experimentally measured binding affinities were compared with computed carbohydrate-aromatic amino acid residue interaction energies. Experimental binding affinities for
To paraphrase, occasionally a protein is valuable in and of by itself, and at other periods it is effective for the person amino acids that it consists of. You can find ongoing debates about the best way to evaluate the wellness Positive aspects affiliated with the amino acid information of proteins. These debates fall under the heading of protein good quality, and you may find out more relating to this difficulty inside our amino acids profile . However, regardless of the certain approach thats taken to protein top quality, we feel that it is useful to take in proteins which are loaded in a variety of diverse amino acids. One example is, we feel that sulfur-made up of amino acids Have got a Distinctive price all their own individual, in the same way as branched-chain amino acids or aromatic amino acids. The best way to get a wealthy range of amino acids from every one of these scaled-down amino acid subgroups is usually to often take pleasure in a variety of foods. A lot more especially, we ...
TWIGASATE is a broad spectrum, systemic and non-selective post-emergence herbicide for control of annual and perennial grasses and broad-leaved weeds in crops.The active ingredient(glyphosate) is quickly absorbed by foliage and green stems upon application with rapid translocation through the phloem to the growing points of the plant, above and below the soil (shoots, roots, rhizomes, stolons). It acts by inhibiting synthesis of essential aromatic amino acids which are needed for protein biosynthesis. This is vital for growth and survival of plants. TWIGASATE is inactivated on contact with soil. Weed growth stops within 24 hours after application with visual symptoms of control(chlorosis) being noticed 3-7 days after application. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Lingtao Kong.. Aromatic oligomers constitute a distinct and promising class of synthetic foldamers - oligomers that adopt stable folded conformations. Single helical structures are, to a large extent, predictable, show unprecedented conformational stability, and represent convenient building blocks to elaborate synthetic, very large (protein-sized) folded architectures. This lecture will give an overview of our current efforts to design abiotic tertiary structures based on aromatic scaffolds,[1] to prepare and select (as opposed to design) aromatic foldamer-peptide hybrid architectures,[2,3] and to use aromatic foldamers to recognize sizeable protein surfaces.[4,5]. References:. [1] S. De et al., Designing cooperatively folded abiotic uni- and multimolecular helix bundles, Nat. Chem. 2018, 10, 51. [2] J. M. Rogers, S. Kwon et al. Ribosomal synthesis and folding of peptide-helical aromatic foldamer hybrids, Nat. Chem. 2018, 10, 405. [3] M. ...
A fuel composition comprising a major amount of a normally liquid fuel and a minor amount of at least one compound of the general formula ##STR1## wherein each Ar is independently an aromatic group having from 4 to about 30 carbon atoms and from 0 to 3 optional substituents selected from the group consisting of amino, hydroxy- or alkyl- polyoxyalkyl, nitro, aminoalkyl, carboxy or combinations of two or more of said optional substituents, each R is independently a hydrocarbyl group, R1 is H or a hydrocarbyl group, R2 and R3 are each, independently, H or a hydrocarbyl group, R4 is a monovalent terminating group, each m is independently 0 or an integer ranging from 1 to about 10, x ranges from 0 to about 8, and each Z is independently OH, lower alkoxy, (OR5)b OR6 or O- wherein each R5 is independently a divalent hydrocarbyl group, R6 is H or hydrocarbyl and b is a number ranging from 1 to about 30 and c ranges from 1 to about 3, y is a number ranging from 1 to about 10 and wherein the sum m+c does not
Azapeptide analogues of growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) exhibit promising affinity, selectivity, and modulator activity on the cluster of differentiation 36 receptor (CD36). For example, [A(1), azaF(4)]- and [azaY(4)]-GHRP-6 (1a and 2b) were previously shown to bind selectively to CD36 and exhibited respectively significant antiangiogenic and slight angiogenic activities in a microvascular sprouting assay using choroid explants. The influences of the 1- and 4-position residues on the affinity, anti-inflammatory, and antiangiogenic activity of these azapeptides have now been studied in detail by the synthesis and analysis of a set of 25 analogues featuring Ala(1) or His(1) and a variety of aromatic side chains at the aza-amino acid residue in the 4-position ...
Porat Y, Abramowitz A, Gazit E. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by polyphenols: structural similarity and aromatic interactions as a common inhibition mechanism ...
WK23 is an inhibitor based on four aromatic groups and able to efficiently fill the binding pockets of MDM2/MDMX, its median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values to MDM2/MDMX are 1.17 and 36 uM, respectively
Hughes, ME; Abruzzi, KC; Allada, R; Anafi, R; Arpat, AB; Asher, G; Baldi, P; de Bekker, C; Bell-Pedersen, D; Blau, J; Brown, S; Ceriani, MF; Chen, Z; Chiu, JC; Cox, J; Crowell, AM; DeBruyne, JP; Dijk, D-J; DiTacchio, L; Doyle, FJ; Duffield, GE; Dunlap, JC; Eckel-Mahan, K; Esser, KA; FitzGerald, GA; Forger, DB; Francey, LJ; Fu, Y-H; Gachon, F; Gatfield, D; de Goede, P; Golden, SS; Green, C; Harer, J; Harmer, S; Haspel, J; Hastings, MH; Herzel, H; Herzog, ED; Hoffmann, C; Hong, C; Hughey, JJ; Hurley, JM; de la Iglesia, HO; Johnson, C; Kay, SA; Koike, N; Kornacker, K; Kramer, A; Lamia, K; Leise, T; Lewis, SA; Li, J; Li, X; Liu, AC; Loros, JJ; Martino, TA; Menet, JS; Merrow, M; Millar, AJ; Mockler, T; Naef, F; Nagoshi, E; Nitabach, MN; Olmedo, M; Nusinow, DA; Ptáček, LJ; Rand, D; Reddy, AB; Robles, MS; Roenneberg, T; Rosbash, M; Ruben, MD; Rund, SSC; Sancar, A; Sassone-Corsi, P; Sehgal, A; Sherrill-Mix, S; Skene, DJ; Storch, K-F; Takahashi, JS; Ueda, HR; Wang, H; Weitz, C; Westermark, PO; Wijnen, ...
Indian Army ARO & ARO Bareilly CEE Result AnnouncedIndian Army has announced the result for ARO and ARO Bareilly post 2019 on 9th August 2019.Name Of T
One of our premier creations with its rich taste. Hinting towards the aromatic side, there is no aromatic tasted or aroma - just quality and character.
Aro 241 is an enlength version of Aro 240, one of the base models.. Aro 241 este un model de bază al familiei Aro 24. Acesta este un model cu patru uşi şi prelată în partea din spate. ...
Aro 241 is an enlength version of Aro 240, one of the base models.. Aro 241 este un model de bază al familiei Aro 24. Acesta este un model cu patru uşi şi prelată în partea din spate. ...
Returns the number of aromatic rings in the molecule. This number is calculated from the smallest set of smallest aromatic rings (SSSAR), which might contain rings that are not part of the standard SSSR ring set. As a consequence, the sum of the aliphatic ring count and the aromatic ring count can sometimes be greater than the ring count value. The difference is the sign of a macroaromatic ring system. ...
UPLA RO ARO Result 2017 UP Legislative Assembly RO ARO Merit ListUPLA Review officer (Samiksha Adhikari) & Assistant Review Officer (Sahayak Samiksha Adhikari) 2017 Result
Modificat si ranforsat sasiul, modificat suspensii, fuzete si bascule facute la comanda, inlocuit frane tambur cu discuri fata si spate si etriere Brembo de la Mercedes, montat motor Mercedes 3200 Diesel, cutie Mercedes cuplata prin cardan intermediar (construit din 2 cardane, Mercedes si Aro) cu reductor Aro, jante 17. Merge impecabil si franeaza incredibil ...
Stream Ire the new song from Danskid ft Aro Dollar. Featuring: Aro Dollars Producer: Danskid ft Aro Dollar. Album: Naijasoundbaze. Release Date: October 31, 2020.
Daca instanta va admite cererea fostilor salariati, ARO Campulung ar putea intra in faliment. In caz contrar, cea mai buna solutie pentru ARO este lichidarea voluntara, sustine AVAS - In cazul in...
Playa de Aro is situated in the heart of the Costa Brava has an array of hidden coves, spectacular views and crystal clear water making it the perfect destination...
Ingredients, allergens, additives, nutrition facts, labels, origin of ingredients and information on product Gingembre moulu - ARO - 500g
Kharisma Aro is using Eventbrite to organize 3 upcoming events. Check out Kharisma Aros events, learn more, or contact this organizer.
Aro 244 Andoria 4CT90 TD. Informatii generale, dotari standard si optionale, afla detaliile amanuntite pentru modelul ales de tine.
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ARO is the highest rated rafting company in two categories of the "'Adirondacks Best of 2018."  We are tops in the "Best kayaking...
Content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivs (by-nc-nd) License, except where otherwise noted ...
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Sprenger GA (2007). "Aromatic Amino Acids". Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Pathways, Regulation and Metabolic Engineering (1st ed.). ... In excessive quantities, supplementation can interfere with the production of serotonin and other aromatic amino acids[citation ... which naturally produces aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine. The quantity of L-phenylalanine produced commercially has ... The corresponding enzymes in for those compounds are the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase family and nitric oxide synthase. ...
diamond (microscopic). amino acids. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ferromagnesian minerals are isolated and show no ... For instance, amino acids have been detected. This is a very important fact in the ongoing search for the origin of life. CI ...
Schulz AR, Oliner L (1967). "The possible role of thyroid aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in thyroxine biosynthesis". Life ... Lovenberg W, Weissbach H, Udenfriend S (1962). "Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase". J. Biol. Chem. 237: 89-93. PMID 14466899 ... aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, and L-phenylalanine carboxy-lyase. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine metabolism. ...
Fitzpatrick PF (2000). "The aromatic amino acid hydroxylases". Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology. ...
... amino acids) In Dumas' laboratory, he studied potato essence. In fact, from a single impure sample of one liter belonging to ... but this time to cuminic acid. Their interest in benzoic compounds led to the discovery of numerous aromatic compounds ... after having been treated with CO2 under high pressure and with sulfuric acid, forms salicylic acid. It was later, when he was ... The technique he used to obtain this acid was repeated many times by other scientists who also wished to obtain it, before ...
The Dakin-West reaction is a chemical reaction that transforms an amino-acid into a keto-amide using an acid anhydride and a ... Dakin, Henry Drysdale; West, Randolph (1928). "Some Aromatic Derivatives of Substituted Acetylaminoacetones". The Journal of ... Modern variations on the Dakin-West reaction permit many enolizable carboxylic acids - not merely amino acids - to be converted ... With some acids, this reaction can take place even in the absence of an α-amino group. This reaction should not be confused ...
PAH is one of three members of the biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, a class of monooxygenase that uses ... Flatmark T, Stevens RC (August 1999). "Structural Insight into the Aromatic Amino Acid Hydroxylases and Their Disease-Related ... PAH is unusual among the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases for its involvement in catabolism; tyrosine and tryptophan ... Fitzpatrick PF (December 2003). "Mechanism of aromatic amino acid hydroxylation". Biochemistry. 42 (48): 14083-91. doi:10.1021/ ...
"Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: diagnostic methodology" (PDF). Clinical Chemistry. 38 (12): 2405-10. PMID ... L-DOPA (/ˌɛlˈdoʊpə/), also known as levodopa (/ˌlɛvoʊˈdoʊpə/) or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and ... it is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, also known as DOPA decarboxylase. Pyridoxal ... Dopamine is formed by the decarboxylation of L-DOPA by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). ...
CYP19A1 Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency; 608643; DDC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1; 107970; TGFB3 ... FREM1 Bile acid malabsorption, primary; 613291; SLC10A2 Bile acid synthesis defect, congenital, 2; 235555; AKR1D1 Bile acid ... SBDS Sialic acid storage disorder, infantile; 269920; SLC17A5 Sialidosis, type I; 256550; NEU1 Sialidosis, type II; 256550; ... SLC7A7 Lysosomal acid phosphatase deficiency; 200950; ACP2 Lysyl hydroxylase 3 deficiency; 612394; PLOD3 Machado-Joseph disease ...
... is a synthetic aromatic amino acid. It is a chiral molecule and thus has two potential configurations, as (R)- and (S ... 69-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Owen DR, Wood DM, Archer JR, Dargan PI (September 2016). "Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid ... As such, its chemical name is β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid, which can be abbreviated as β-phenyl-GABA. The presence of the ... The medication is structurally related to the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and hence is a GABA analogue. ...
Herrmann K, Entus R (2001). "Shikimate Pathway: Aromatic Amino Acids and Beyond". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. doi:10.1038/ ... each of which sensitive to one of the amino acids produced in the shikimate pathway. In a study of DAHP synthase sensitive to ... which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Since it is the first ... 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase, 3-deoxy-D-arabino-2-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate synthetase, 3- ...
i) amino acid decarboxylase. *(i) aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. *(i) Australian Antarctic Data Centre ...
"Amino Acids - Tyrosine". www.biology.arizona.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-31. Pencharz PB, Hsu JW, Ball RO (June 2007). "Aromatic ... which in turn can be oxidized by the citric acid cycle or be used for fatty acid synthesis. Phloretic acid is also a urinary ... It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word "tyrosine" is from the Greek tyrós, meaning cheese, as it ... L-Tyrosine or tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells ...
... is constituted by thirty-seven amino acids. These amino acids have different characteristics; some are ... Others, for example Phenylalanine, are aromatic and hydrophobic; therefore, they repel water. There are also positively charged ... amino acids (Arginine and Lysine) and a negatively charged one (Aspartic acid). The rest are polar compounds with no charge ( ... Amino Acids. 49 (10): 1705-1717. doi:10.1007/s00726-017-2469-3. ISSN 0939-4451. PMID 28836148. Vasu S, McGahon MK, Moffett RC, ...
... meaning that they must obtain these essential amino acids through their diet. Aromatic Amino acids include Phenylalanine, ... The aromatic amino acids produced by the shikimate acid pathway are used by higher plants as protein building blocks and as ... The shikimate pathway was determined to be a major biosynthetic route for the production of aromatic amino acids through the ... The shikimate pathway is a biosynthetic pathway that allows plants, fungi, and bacteria to produce aromatic amino acids. ...
... aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; sulfonic and phosphonic acids; amino, hydroxycarboxylic, and carboxylic acids; purines and ... as well as the amino acids, nucleobases, and many other compounds in meteorites, carry deuterium (2H) and isotopes of carbon, ... has revealed that the interstellar medium contains a suite of complex gas-phase carbon compounds called aromatic hydrocarbons, ...
3.0 3.1 Nonprotein amino acids from spark discharges and their comparison with the Murchison Meteorite amino acids. Kvenvolden ... Aromatic hydrocarbons. 3319. Fullerenes. ,100. Carboxylic acids. ,300. Hydrocarboxylic acids. 15. Purines and pyrimidines. 1.3 ... Murchison contains over 15 amino acids.[3] All the amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite have been synthesised in ... Phosphonic acids. 2. Research in 2005 showed that an amino acid like L-proline is capable of catalyzing the formation of chiral ...
... especially amino acids, in the stomach. Aromatic amino acids are particularly powerful stimuli for gastrin release. ... five amino acid sequence identical to the last five amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end of gastrin. The numbers refer to ... Factors influencing secretion of gastrin can be divided into 2 categories: Stimulatory factors: dietary protein and amino acids ... The presence of gastrin stimulates parietal cells of the stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl)/gastric acid. This is done ...
It inhibits a plant enzyme involved in the synthesis of three aromatic amino acids: tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. It ... Glyphosate is an aminophosphonic analogue of the natural amino acid glycine and, like all amino acids, exists in different ... an essential precursor for the amino acids mentioned above. These amino acids are used in protein synthesis and to produce ... Maeda H, Dudareva N (2012). "The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino Acid biosynthesis in plants". Annual Review of Plant ...
"EC 4.1.1.28 - Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. July 2016. ... meta-Tyramine is produced in humans via aromatic amino acid decarboxylase-mediated metabolism of meta-tyrosine. meta-Tyramine ...
Eventually this results in organism death from lack of aromatic amino acids the organism requires to survive. A version of the ... Maeda H, Dudareva N (2012). "The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino Acid biosynthesis in plants". Annual Review of Plant ... EPSP synthase participates in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan via the ... Basic and amino acids in the active site are involved in deprotonation of the hydroxyl group of PEP and in the proton-exchange ...
"Aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, The shikimate pathway - synthesis of chorismate". Metabolic Plant Physiology Lecture notes. ... which instead obtain aromatic amino acids from their diet. Roundup Ready Soybeans express a version of EPSPS from the CP4 ... Genetic modifications increased the amount of oleic acid and stearic acid and decreased the amount of linolenic acid. By ... These amino acids are called "essential" because animals cannot make them; only plants and micro-organisms can make them and ...
The optical resolution of aromatic amino-acids on paper chromatograms". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 3940. doi: ... Many of the building blocks of biological systems such as sugars and amino acids are produced exclusively as one enantiomer. As ... Chiral chromatography was introduced a year later by Dalgliesh, who used paper chromatography to separate chiral amino acids. ... A slight excess of the levorotary form of the product of the reaction, 2-methylbutyric acid, was produced; as this product is ...
... s originate from the aromatic amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. They tend to absorb ultraviolet-B ...
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase Ornithine decarboxylase Calculated using Advanced Chemistry Development (ACD/Labs) Software ... The α-amino group of the amino acid substrate displaces the ε-amino group of the active-site lysine residue in a process known ... Pyridoxal phosphate is a cofactor of aromatic L-amino acids decarboxylase. This allows for conversion of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5 ... Specificity is conferred by the fact that, of the four bonds of the alpha-carbon of the amino acid aldimine state, the bond ...
Levodopa is a prodrug for dopamine, which reduces Parkinson symptoms; carbidopa and benserazide are aromatic L-amino acid ... It melts at 143 to 146 °C (289 to 295 °F), is practically insoluble in water and acids but soluble in 0.1 M aqueous sodium ... hydroxylation by CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 with subsequent oxidation to a carboxylic acid, and possibly a minor path with reduction to ... in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid / ethanol). Its chemical name is 3,4-dihydroxy-4'-methyl-5-nitrobenzophenone. A synthesis of ...
Identification of a critical aromatic amino acid residue at position 33". The FEBS Journal. 274 (5): 1256-64. doi:10.1111/j. ... using uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid. Together with UGT2B4, UGT2B7 is capable of glucosidation of hyodesoxycholic acid in ... Generally, the C-terminus of UGT enzymes is highly conserved and binds the UDP-glucuronic acid cofactor, while the N-terminus ( ... This first resolved structure indicated that the C-terminus of one of the two dimers projected into the UDP-glucuronic acid ...
Identification of a critical aromatic amino acid residue at position 33". The FEBS Journal. 274 (5): 1256-64. doi:10.1111/j. ... An unusual glycoform variation is seen in neuronal cell adhesion molecule, NCAM involving polysialic acids, PSA. G-actin: ...
Identification of a critical aromatic amino acid residue at position 33". FEBS J. 274 (5): 1256-64. doi:10.1111/j.1742- ... Identification of a critical aromatic amino acid residue at position 33". FEBS J. 274 (5): 1256-64. doi:10.1111/j.1742- ... UGT2B4 is mainly involved in the glucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid, and catechol-estrogens, such as 17- ... a nuclear receptor which is activated by bile acids. These same bile acids are substrates for the UGT2B4 enzyme. Hence ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... Aromatic ketones can be prepared in the Friedel-Crafts acylation,[12] the related Houben-Hoesch reaction,[13] and the Fries ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ... Acids as weak as pyridinium cation (as found in pyridinium tosylate) with a pKa of 5.2 are able to serve as catalysts in this ...
Sprenger, George A. (May 2007). "Aromatic amino acids". Amino acid biosynthesis: pathways, regulation and metabolic engineering ... "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". Recommendations on Organic & Biochemical Nomenclature, Symbols & ...
Momordica charantia extracts inhibit uptake of monosaccharide and amino acid across rat everted gut sacs in-vitro.». Biological ... Gurib-Fakim, A.; Sewraj, M.; F., Narod; Menut, C.. «Aromatic Plants of Mauritius: Volatile Constituents of the Essential Oils ... Gurib-Fakim, A.; Demarne, F.. «Aromatic Plants of Mauritius: Volatile Constituents of the Leaf Oils of Citrus aurantium L., ... Rangasamy, O.; Mahomoodally, F. M.; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Quetin-Leclercq, J.. «Two anti-staphylococcal triterpenoid acids isolated ...
Chirality is easily incorporated by using 2-amino alcohols prepared by the reduction of amino acids; which are both optically ... The method has been shown to be effective for a wide range of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes however electron rich aromatic R ... From acid chlorides[edit]. A routine route to oxazolines entails reactions of acyl chlorides with 2-amino alcohols. Thionyl ... Aminomethyl propanol is the classical precursor to oxazolines using acid chloride method.[12] As applied to fatty acids, the ...
... a gain of function after protein expansion from around 400 amino acids in Caulobacter crescentus to more than 800 amino acids ... Included are those involved in chemotaxis, outer membrane channel function, degradation of aromatic ring compounds, and the ...
... al-anbiq al-ama), aludel (al-uthal), goblets (qadah), flasks (qarura atau quwarir), flask air mawar (ma wariyya), cauldron ( ... satu-satunya acid yang diketahui pada orang zaman silam adalah vinegar), dari alkali, dari garam merkuri, dari antimoni dan ... dengan sodium hydroxide dan aromatics (seperti minyak daun thyme). Rumusan ini dicipta oleh ahli kimia Islam, dan berlainan ... untuk membuat nitric acid dan oleh al-Razi dan yang lain. Saltpeter telah digelar "natrun" tetapi juga mempunyai gelaran lain ...
Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... Unsaturation show less activity in position 5 and alicyclic and aromatic rings show less potency. Polar substiuents (-NH2, -OH ... pyrimidinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 23 (3): 480-7. doi:10.1016/j.bmc. ... Barbituric acid is the parent compound of barbiturate drugs although barbituric acid itself is not pharmacologically active. ...
... it was shown that the ability of the Coomassie dye to target amino acids with aromatic groups (phenylalanine, tyrosine, ... This provides a simpler method for fingerprint analysis by reducing the number of amino acids needed to be analyzed from 23 to ... A protein sample is added to a solution of the dye in phosphoric acid and ethanol. Under the acid conditions the dye is ... The two sulfonic acid groups have extremely low pKa and will normally be negatively charged, thus at a pH of around zero the ...
... a mixture of amino acids may be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. Under a particular set of conditions, the amino acids ... Aromatic Hydrocarbons; Aryl Halides. Polyhalogenated Hydrocarbons. Ethers. Esters. Aldehydes and Ketones. Alcohols. Acids and ... Acetic Acid. Water Eluent[edit]. The eluent or eluant is the "carrier" portion of the mobile phase. It moves the analytes ...
Two enzymes convert L-amino acids to D-amino acids. D-Amino-acid racemase, a PLP-dependent enzyme, racemizes amino acids via ... D-Amino acids are amino acids where the stereogenic carbon alpha to the amino group has the D-configuration. For most naturally ... L-amino-acid oxidases convert L-amino acids to the alpha-ketoacids, which are susceptible to reductive amination. Some amino ... L- and D-amino acids are usually enantiomers. The exceptions are two amino acids with two stereogenic centers, threonine and ...
The amino-group makes this compound a weak base, capable of reacting with acids to form salts. One common salt of N- ... Chemically, N-methylphenyethanolamine is an aromatic compound, an amine, and an alcohol. ... The amino-ketone was reduced with lithium aluminum hydride to the corresponding amino-alcohol, and the N-benzyl group finally ... α-amino acid chlorides. Application to the preparation of β-arylalkylamines and 3-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... Tea (Hokkien: tê) is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia ... Or, because tea easily retains odours by placing it in close proximity to an aromatic ingredient to absorbs its aroma (as in ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting product is a straight-chain hydrocarbon with a high cetane number, low in aromatics and sulfur and does not ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, ...
The microbes are also responsible for metabolising the carbohydrates and amino acids present in the tea leaves.[15][16][17] ... Young raw pu'erh: The ideal liquors should be aromatic with a light but distinct odors of camphor, rich herbal notes like ... Wet pile fermented pu'er has higher levels of caffeine and much higher levels of gallic acid compared with traditionally aged ... young raw pu'erh is known and expected to be strong and aromatic, yet very bitter and somewhat astringent when brewed, since ...
Important primary alkyl amines include, methylamine, most amino acids, and the buffering agent tris, while primary aromatic ... carboxylic acid. −. ,. H. −. N. +. ,. R. 2. R. 1. ,. −. H. +. R. 3. −. COO. −. ⏟. substituted-ammonium. carboxylate salt. →. d ... Protonated amino groups (-NH+. 3) are the most common positively charged moieties in proteins, specifically in the amino acid ... Primary aromatic amines are used as a starting material for the manufacture of azo dyes. It reacts with nitrous acid to form ...
... then pouring the mixture into hydrochloric acid. The magnesium silicide reacts with the acid to produce silane gas, which burns ... It is a colourless, pyrophoric, toxic gas with a sharp, repulsive smell, somewhat similar to that of acetic acid.[5] Silane is ... In all cases, these substances react with Brønsted-Lowry acids to produce some type of hydride of silicon that is dependent on ... In addition, contact with eyes may form silicic acid with resultant irritation.[24] ...
Rao MR, Palada MC, Becker BN (2013). "Medicinal and aromatic plants in agroforestry systems". In Nain PK, Rao MR, Buck LE (eds ... 17α-hydroxyyohimban-16α-carboxylic acid methyl ester. CAS Number. *146-48-5 Y ... 2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. *2-Aminoindane. *5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole. *2-Aminotetralin ...
Analysis of nucleic acids structures[edit]. Psoralens can reversibly crosslink nucleic acids double helices, and therefore have ... The aromatic ring in 6 is activated at positions ortho to the hydroxyl group, and is alkylated by 5, an alkylating agent. The ... The synthetic amino-psoralen, amotosalen HCl, has been developed for the inactivation of infectious pathogens (bacteria, ... such as ring opening by alkali to give a coumarinic acid or coumaric acid derivative. Potassium permanganate causes oxidation ...
... can also be prepared by oxidation of aniline using peroxymonosulfuric acid (Caro's acid)[5] or Oxone.[6] It is ... "Asymmetric O− and N− Nitroso Aldol Reaction - an efficient access to a-oxy and a-amino carbonyl compound" (PDF).. ... Beaudoin, D.; Wuest, J. D. (2016). "Dimerization of Aromatic C-Nitroso Compounds". Chemical Reviews. 116: 258-286. doi:10.1021/ ... H. D. Anspon (1955). "p-Phenylazobenzoic Acid". Organic Syntheses.. ; Collective Volume, 3, p. 711. ...
Isocyanic acid. *Isothiocyanic acid. *Ketenyl. *Methylene amidogen. *Methyl radical. *Propynylidyne. *Protonated carbon dioxide ...
Amino acid-RNA ligation. The ability to conjugate an amino acid to the 3'-end of an RNA in order to use its chemical groups or ... Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have been formed in giant red stars or in interstellar dust and ... As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino-acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... as no amino acid molecules lie within 18Å of the enzyme's active site,[15] and, when the majority of the amino acids in the ...
Some cases of anemia, possibly related to folic acid deficiency, have been described.[18] ... Pentamidine is in the aromatic diamidine family of medications.[4] While the way the medication works is not entirely clear, it ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... Some are aromatic, while others are not. Some are flexible, while others are rigid. ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ... Such artificial flavours include methyl salicylate which creates the wintergreen odor and lactic acid which gives milk a tart ...
Flatmark T, Stevens RC (August 1999). "Structural Insight into the Aromatic Amino Acid Hydroxylases and Their Disease-Related ... an enzyme composed of 62 amino acid residues per monomer". 》The Journal of Biological Chemistry》 267 (25): 17716-21. PMID ... "Nucleic Acids Research》 41 (Database issue): D764-72. doi:10.1093/nar/gks1049. PMC 3531171. PMID 23203881.. ... Smith S (December 1994). "The animal fatty acid synthase: one gene, one polypeptide, seven enzymes". 》FASEB Journal》 8 (15): ...
amino acid. A class of organic compounds containing an amine group and a carboxylic acid group which function as the ... with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at position 2). ... In humans, a set of nine amino acids, two fatty acids, thirteen vitamins, and fifteen minerals are considered essential ... A polypeptide chain of amino acids. It is a body-building nutrient.. protist. psychobiology. Also called behavioral ...
Discovery of asparagine, the first amino-acid ever identified[edit]. In the fall of 1805, Robiquet, then a young help working ... This discovery was opening the door to the huge family of aromatic molecules, that are based on the cyclic 6 carbon benzenoic ... Asparagine will turn out to be one of the 22 amino acids that build-up all living matter on earth, the first ever identified ... Progress in isolating the other amino acids will be very slow, with less than a handful in total during the whole 19th century ...
Conjugate acid Hydrocyanonium Conjugate base Cyanide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ...
cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ... The active site pocket of human aldose reductase is relatively hydrophobic, lined by seven aromatic and four other non-polar ... AKR1B1 consists of 316 amino acid residues and weighs 35853Da. It does not possess the traditional dinucleotide binding fold. ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 17 (20): 8368. doi:10.1093/nar/17.20.8368. PMC 334974. PMID 2510130.. ...
amino acids Amino acids Shikimate Aromatic amino. acids & histidine Ascorbate. (vitamin C) ... Citric acid cycle. Main article: Citric acid cycle. This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When ... Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the ... Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ...
It is biosynthesized from the amino acid L-phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation via the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)[3][4]. Metabolism. Primarily: MAO-B[3][4][5]. Other enzymes: MAO-A,[5][6] SSAOs ( ... phenylalanine by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase at approximately the same rate as dopamine is produced.[4] Because of the ... the gene for aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the major enzyme involved in the synthesis of the trace amines, is ...
Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the way signals are passed between ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/aromatic-l-amino-acid-decarboxylase-deficiency/ Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the way signals are passed between ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase enzyme activity in deficient patients and heterozygotes. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 Apr;90(4): ...
... amino acids (tryptophan and histidine), flavine compounds (FMN and FAD), aromatic amino acid metabolites (gentisic acid, ... Cooking reduced the total aromatic and non-essential amino acid content whereas roasting reduced the total essential amino acid ... Similar amino acid content was found in both raw and treated flours with glutamic acid, glycine, arginine, and aspartic acid ... 間以上,問題となるジスキネジアが1時間以上あれば考慮すべきである.さらに,近未来
Cross-references: Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (IPR010977). The following external resources were found for this entry: ...
An aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, DDCI and AAADI) is a medication which ... inhibits the synthesis of dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, AAAD, or DOPA decarboxylase). ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase_inhibitor&oldid=907336753" ...
... animals have lost these costly metabolic pathways for aromatic amino acids synthesis and must instead obtain the amino acids ... Herbicides and antibiotics take advantage of this by inhibiting enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid synthesis, thereby ... All plants and micro-organisms synthesize their own aromatic amino acids to make proteins. However, ... Kynurenic acid, a kynurenine, produced along the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway, is an antagonist at excitatory amino acid ...
An aromatic amino acid (AAA) is an amino acid that includes an aromatic ring. Among the 20 standard amino acids, the following ... Media related to Aromatic amino acids at Wikimedia Commons Aromatic+Amino+Acids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Animals obtain aromatic amino acids from their diet, but all plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino ... the compound is still aromatic. Aromatic amino acids absorb ultraviolet light at a wavelength above 250 nm and produce ...
... animals have lost these costly metabolic pathways for aromatic amino acids synthesis and must instead obtain the amino acids ... All plants and micro-organisms synthesize their own aromatic amino acids to make proteins (Braus, 1991; Tzin and Galili, 2010 ... Herbicides take advantage of this by inhibiting enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid synthesis, thereby making them toxic to ... aromatic amino acids serve as precursors for the synthesis of many biologically/neurologically active compounds that are ...
... an aromatic-amino-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.57) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aromatic amino acid + 2- ... an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are aromatic amino acid and 2-oxoglutarate, whereas ... Other names in common use include aromatic amino acid aminotransferase, aromatic aminotransferase, and ArAT. This enzyme ... Mavrides C, Orr W (1975). "Multispecific aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases in Escherichia coli". J. Biol. ...
Hyland K, Clayton PT (1990), Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency in twins. J Inherit Metab Dis 13: 301-304.Google ... Chang YT, Mues G, McPherson JD, Bedell J, Marsh JL, Hyland K (1998) Mutations in the human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase ... Jahng JW, Wessel TC, Houpt TA, Son JH, Joh TH (1996) Alternate promoters in the rat aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene ... Abeling NG, van Gennip AH, Barth PG, van Cruchten A, Westra M, Wijburg FA (1998) Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency ...
A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of ... The postprandial AUC for the DMAA score and all the three amino acids strongly associated with fasting glucose level and ... all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to ... how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids ( ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of amino acids. ... Journal of Amino Acids is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal ... Separation of Aromatic Amino Acids on Reversed-Phase Columns. Figure 2 shows a chromatogram of a standard solution of amino ... For the determination of the concentration of the respective amino acids, the ratio of the peak areas of the amino acid and the ... This means that "total amino acid analysis" has no closed mass balance and some assumptions about the sequence or amino acid ...
Recent studies revealed strong evidence that branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are closely associated ... Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid profiles and diabetes risk in Chinese populations Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 5;6:20594. doi: ... Recent studies revealed strong evidence that branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are closely associated ...
... aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Mouse Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, DDC ELISA Kit *Detection Target: dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid ... Your search returned 67 dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ... dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA Kits. dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ...
Action of Carboxypeptidase Toward Peptides Containing Unnatural Aromatic Amino Acids Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded ...
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5- ... Pons R, Ford B, Chiriboga CA, Clayton PT, Hinton V, Hyland K, Sharma R, De Vivo DC (Apr 2004). "Aromatic L-amino acid ... Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid+Decarboxylases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, a class of anti-Parkinson drugs ...
Background Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a disorder of biogenic amine metabolism resulting in ... References to electronic databases: Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: OMIM #608643. Aromatic l-amino acid ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: unusual neonatal presentation and additional findings in organic acid analysis ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a disorder of biogenic amine metabolism resulting in generalized ...
K. aerogenes abstracted the alpha-amino group of these compounds by transamination and excreted the arylpyruvate portions into ... Klebsiella aerogenes utilized aromatic amino acids as sole sources of nitrogen but not as sole sources of carbon. ... Klebsiella aerogenes utilized aromatic amino acids as sole sources of nitrogen but not as sole sources of carbon. K. aerogenes ... Tryptophan metabolism in Klebsiella aerogenes: regulation of the utilization of aromatic amino acids as sources of nitrogen J ...
... showing immunoreactivity to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the convers ... Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases / analysis*. Cats / anatomy & histology*. Dopamine / metabolism. Female. Immunoenzyme ... 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 50-67-9/Serotonin; EC 4.1.1.28/Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases ... showing immunoreactivity to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the conversion of L-3, 4- ...
The neurochemical consequences of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency Author: Allen, G. F. G. ISNI: 0000 0004 2729 ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalyses the conversion of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and L-3,4- ...
AAA stands for Aromatic Amino Acids. AAA is defined as Aromatic Amino Acids somewhat frequently. ... Aromatic amino acids (AAA) [1] are amino acids that include an aromatic ring. Examples include: Among 20 standard amino acids: ... Aromatic amino acids are relatively nonpolar. To different degrees, all aromatic amino acids absorb ultraviolet light. Tyrosine ... Ultra- Violet Absorption Spectra of Aromatic Amino-Acids. 199 The nitrogen content of the d-l-phenylalanine was 8.68 per cent. ...
Protein target information for Aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferase (Paracoccus denitrificans). Find diseases associated with ...
Aromatic amino acid transaminase in rat intestine. Jun Nakamura, Tomoo Noguchi, Ryo Kido ... Aromatic amino acid transaminase in rat intestine Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical ... The transamination of aromatic l-amino acids (5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine and kynurenine) was ... On the basis of the partial purification and characterization of these aromatic amino acid transaminases, it is suggested that ...
Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. By Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Kai- ... Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency. By Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Sheng-Hong Tseng, Kai- ... Gene Therapy for Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. ...
To delineate the clinical and genetic features of two pedigrees affected with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) ... Determining Total Aromatic Amino Acid Requirements in Pregnant Women. Phenylalanine and tyrosine are aromatic amino acids that ... Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors. Compounds and drugs that block or inhibit the enzymatic action of AROMATIC AMINO ... Aromatic-l-amino-acid Decarboxylases. An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic ...
Drug Information available for: Amino acids Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Aromatic L-amino Acid ... A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency Using AAV2-hAADC - An Expansion. The ... A Clinical Trial for Treatment of Aromatic L-amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency Using AAV2-hAADC - An Expansion (NTUH- ... Genetics Home Reference related topics: Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency ...
... temperature facilitates the ESI-source H/D exchange at non-labile sites of hydroxybenzoic acids and aromatic amino acids ... temperature facilitates the ESI-source H/D exchange at non-labile sites of hydroxybenzoic acids and aromatic amino acids A. ... 4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, gallic acid, DOPA), and only when water was used as a solvent. We hypothesized that the detected ... and 5-acetylsalicylic acid. 2H NMR spectroscopy has confirmed keto-enolic transformations of the model compounds leading to the ...
Riley, K.E.; Tran, K.-A. Strength and Character of R-X···π Interactions Involving Aromatic Amino Acid Sidechains in Protein- ... Riley KE, Tran K-A. Strength and Character of R-X···π Interactions Involving Aromatic Amino Acid Sidechains in Protein-Ligand ... Strength and Character of R-X···π Interactions Involving Aromatic Amino Acid Sidechains in Protein-Ligand Complexes Derived ... "Strength and Character of R-X···π Interactions Involving Aromatic Amino Acid Sidechains in Protein-Ligand Complexes Derived ...
... here shown how these systems can be used to selectively and efficiently separate mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic amino acids ... Based on the particular ability of aliphatic amino acids to form aqueous biphasic systems with ionic liquids, it is ... Effective separation of aromatic and aliphatic amino acid mixtures using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems ... Effective separation of aromatic and aliphatic amino acid mixtures using ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems E. V. ...
AADC stands for aromatic-l-amino-acid-decarboxylase. AADC is defined as aromatic-l-amino-acid-decarboxylase rarely. ... How is aromatic-l-amino-acid-decarboxylase abbreviated? ... aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase. *aromatic-L-amino-acid ... An aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, DDCI and AAADI) is a drug which ... n.d.) Acronym Attic. (2020). Retrieved June 2 2020 from https://www.acronymattic.com/aromatic_l_amino_acid_decarboxylase-(AADC ...
... ... Nanospheres made of aromatic amino acids: The most rigid organic nanostructures to date. by Wiley ... Citation: Nanospheres made of aromatic amino acids: The most rigid organic nanostructures to date (2010, September 30) ... phys.org/news/2010-09-nanospheres-aromatic-amino-acids-rigid.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair ...
  • The primary herbicidal function of glyphosate is to inhibit a key plant enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), which participates in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (including phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) via the shikimate pathway in bacteria, fungi, and plants. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Aromatic amino acids, like other proteinogenic amino acids, are the building blocks of proteins and include phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kynurenic acid, a kynurenine, produced along the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway, is an antagonist at excitatory amino acid receptors and plays a role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tryptophan is another aromatic amino acid, which can be oxidized by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase in the initial step in tryptophan catabolism in animals and humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we would like to propose a simple HPLC/UV method based on a reversed-phase separation of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr), phenylalanine (Phe), and optionally tryptophan (Trp) without any derivatization. (hindawi.com)
  • Extra determination of cysteine, tryptophan, and other difficult amino acids would increase the cost and effort so much that this is nearly never performed. (hindawi.com)
  • Aromatic L -amino acid decarboxylase ( AADC or AAAD ), also known as DOPA decarboxylase ( DDC ), tryptophan decarboxylase , and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase , is a lyase enzyme ( EC 4.1.1.28 ). (wikidoc.org)
  • The transamination of aromatic l -amino acids (5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine and kynurenine) was shown to be catalysed by enzyme preparations from rat small intestine. (biochemj.org)
  • One such interaction involves an aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), or tyrosin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE), tryptophan, and hydroxytryptophan. (bioportfolio.com)
  • L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan are aromatic amino acids that are widely used in industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. (purdue.edu)
  • The present work involves a further investigation of a Neurospora mutant, C-86, previously mentioned by Lein, Mitchell and Houlahan (1) as one that can utilize anthranilic acid, indole, tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and nicotinic acid as supplements for growth. (unl.edu)
  • The enzyme also acts on some other aromatic L-amino acids, including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Metabolites produced from tryptophan by a cell-free extract of Lactococcus lactis S3 were indolepyruvic acid, indoleacetic acid and indole-3-aldehyde. (usu.edu)
  • Treatment of the ferredoxin-dependent, spinach glutamate synthase with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modifies 2 mol of tryptophan residues per mol of enzyme, without detectable modification of other amino acids, and inhibits enzyme activity by 85% with either reduced ferredoxin or reduced methyl viologen serving as the source of electrons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among the 20 standard amino acids, the following are aromatic: phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine, tryptophan, and histidine are essential amino acids for animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a protein, cation-π interactions can occur between the cationic sidechains of either lysine (Lys, K) or arginine (Arg, R) and the aromatic sidechains of phenylalanine (Phe, F), tyrosine (Tyr, Y) or tryptophan (Trp, W). Because histidine can participate in cation-π interactions as either a cation or as a π-system, depending on its protonation state, we do not consider histidine in this study. (pnas.org)
  • The shikimate pathway is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria , fungi , algae , parasites, and plants for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids ( phenylalanine , tyrosine , and tryptophan ). (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore, phenylalanine and tryptophan represent essential amino acids that must be obtained from the animal's diet (animals can synthesise tyrosine from phenylalanine, and therefore is not an essential amino acid except for individuals unable to hydroxylate phenylalanine to tyrosine ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine amino-transferase specific activities (μmol product formed/mg protein/min) ranged from 0.30 to 2.8 10 -3 , 0.93 to 7.3 10 -3 and 1.5 to 7.2 10 -3 , respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • The aromatic family of essential amino acids includes phenylalanine and tryptophan. (livestrong.com)
  • In this study the SRM method has been developed to quantitate the amount of 3 aromatic amino acids (Tryptophan, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine) in maize crop. (vproteomics.com)
  • The amino acids phenylalanine and tryptophan are valuable as feed additives. (purdue.edu)
  • Guanine and adenine charge transfer reactions with aromatic amino acids (histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine) have been studied. (udg.edu)
  • Tryptophan is the best aromatic amino acid to extract cationic charges from guanine and adenine.The studied interactions have been shown to be extremely sensitive to conformational fluctuations. (udg.edu)
  • Influence of some aromatic amino acids (histidine, phenylalanine and tryptophan) on the swelling behavior of acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel (AAm/MA) prepared by gamma-radiation was investigated. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • I]iodo-α-methyl-l-tyrosine) have been used clinically due to their high selectivity to cancer-specific amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5). (nii.ac.jp)
  • I]iodo-a-methyl-l-tyrosine), is supported by their selectivity for LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) which is specifically expressed in tumor cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • L-Tyrosine is an aromatic amino acid synthesized de novo in plants and microbes via two alternative routes mediated by a TyrA family enzyme, prephenate, or arogenate dehydrogenase, typically found in microbes and plants, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Purification and characterisation of tyrosine decarboxylase and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. (nih.gov)
  • Microbial tyrosine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.25) and mammalian aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28) catalyse the formation of tyramine from L-tyrosine. (nih.gov)
  • By FPLC chromatofocusing, tyrosine decarboxylase eluted at pH 4.3 and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase at pH 5.0. (nih.gov)
  • FPLC gel filtration resulted in molecular weights 143,000 and 86,000, respectively, for tyrosine decarboxylase and aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. (nih.gov)
  • Phenylalanine and tyrosine are aromatic amino acids that people need to obtain in their diets. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The ratio of branched (valine, leucine, isoleucine) to aromatic (tyrosine, phenylalanine) amino acids increased significantly. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Thus, high levels of phenolic aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) have been associated with the development of encephalopathy in patients with liver diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, in addition to being aromatic, tyrosine can be classified as a polar amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyramine is produced from the amino acid tyrosine, particularly that present in the dairy protein, casein. (foodintolerancepro.com)
  • The non-heme iron-containing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyze the hydroxylation of the aromatic side chains of their respective substrates. (uky.edu)
  • Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the way signals are passed between certain cells in the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of a new inborn error of neurotransmitter amine synthesis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • AADC deficiency is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations in the gene of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme responsible for the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Abeling NG, van Gennip AH, Barth PG, van Cruchten A, Westra M, Wijburg FA (1998) Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: a new case with a mild clinical presentation and unexpected laboratory findings. (springer.com)
  • Fiumara A, Wevers RA, Barone R, et al (1998) Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: the first italian case. (springer.com)
  • Hyland K, Clayton PT (1990), Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency in twins. (springer.com)
  • Hyland K, Chang YT, Arnold LA, Bräutigam C, Sharma RK, Hoffmann G (1998) Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency responsive to levodopa: identification of an active site glycine in exon three. (springer.com)
  • Korenke GC, Christen HJ, Hyland K, Hunneman DH, Hanefeld F (1997) Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: an extrapyramidal movement disorder with oculogyric crises. (springer.com)
  • Aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a disorder of biogenic amine metabolism resulting in generalized combined deficiency of serotonin, dopamine and catecholamines. (springer.com)
  • Abdenur JE, Abeling NG, Specola N, etal (2006) Aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: unusual neonatal presentation and additional findings in organic acid analysis. (springer.com)
  • Anselm IA, Darras BT (2006) Catecholamine toxicity in aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. (springer.com)
  • Brautigam C, Wevers R, Hyland K, etal (2000) The influence of l -dopa on methylation capacity in aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. (springer.com)
  • Brautigam C, Hyland K, Wevers R, etal (2002) Clinical and laboratory findings in twins with neonatal epileptic encephalopathy mimicking aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. (springer.com)
  • Burlina AB, Burlina AP, Hyland K, Bonafe L, Blau N (2001) Autistic syndrome and aromatic l -aminoacid decarboxylase deficiency. (springer.com)
  • Clinical and genetic analysis of two pedigrees affected with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Defects in this gene are the cause of aromatic;L-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD). (creative-biogene.com)
  • Aromatic-l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an ultra-rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sharply reduced synthesis of dopamine as well as other neurotransmitters. (uzh.ch)
  • First characterized 30 years ago, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare, genetic disorder that affects the central nervous systems of young patients. (checkrare.com)
  • Biochemical investigation surprisingly showed the clinical phenotype to be caused by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. (elsevier.com)
  • The influence of L-Dopa on methylation capacity in aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: biochemical findings in two patients. (ru.nl)
  • This report presents the case of an adult male with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency who developed serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during treatment with intravenous dopamine and norepinephrine for severe hypotension . (symptoma.com)
  • DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor , DDCI and AAADI ) is a medication which inhibits the synthesis of dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, AAAD, or DOPA decarboxylase). (rug.nl)
  • In CSF all patients revealed the pattern typical of AADC with decreased concentrations of homovanillic and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and elevated concentration of 3- ortho -methyldopa. (springer.com)
  • In rose flowers, 2-phenylethanol (2PE) is biosynthesized from l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) via phenylacetaldehyde (PAld) by the actions of two enzymes, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR). (nih.gov)
  • By indirect immunohistochemistry, the present study examined the distribution of neuronal structures in the cat medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, showing immunoreactivity to aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the conversion of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin (5HT). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalyses the conversion of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) to the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine respectively. (bl.uk)
  • Aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters. (medscape.com)
  • Benserazide hydrochloride (Serazide) is commonly used in Parkinson's disease and is an inhibitor of peripheral aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase ( AADC ). (medchemexpress.com)
  • The presence of aromatic 1-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) in nerve cell bodies of the intrinsic plexuses of the guinea-pig small intestine was demonstrated by incubating segments of intestine with 1-dopa in the presence of an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, pargyline. (edu.au)
  • Functional characterization of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase involved in 2-phenylethanol biosynthesis in isolated rose petal protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • Herbicides and antibiotics work by inhibiting these enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, thereby rendering them toxic to plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to destroying greens, Glyphosate can easily affect the maintenance of the gut microbiota in host organisms by specifically inhibiting the 5-enolpyruvylshikinate-3-phosphate synthase which prevents the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The locus-typical growth factor requirements of mutants allowed a preliminary allocation of genes to reaction sequences in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • High circulating concentrations of branched chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are associated with several characteristics of diabetes, such as increased glycaemia and insulin resistance [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent studies revealed strong evidence that branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are closely associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in several Western countries. (nih.gov)
  • Besides standard liver function tests, circulating levels of ammonia, total, branched chain and aromatic amino acids, the presence and severity of hepatic encephalopathy, and number connection test were measured before and after each treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histidine has a unique chemical structure unlike the other essential amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • We here report that Rosa 'Yves Piaget' aromatic amino acid aminotransferase produced phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) from l-Phe in isolated petal protoplasts. (nih.gov)
  • We have cloned three full length cDNAs (RyAAAT1-3) of aromatic amino acid aminotransferase families based on rose EST database and homology regions. (nih.gov)
  • At least four separate aromatic aminotransferase activities were found in K. aerogenes. (nih.gov)
  • None of the other aminotransferase activities in the cells could substitute for aromatic aminotransferase in this regard. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, the aromatic aminotransferase activity in cells varied less than 2-fold in response to 10-fold or greater changes in the levels of glutamine synthetase. (nih.gov)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is aromatic-amino-acid:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include aromatic amino acid aminotransferase, aromatic aminotransferase, and ArAT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis, we propose three structural characteristics found in natural products required for the suppressive activity against Aβ42 aggregation (i.e., oligomerization by targeting specific amino acid residues on this protein). (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this project, the mechanism of interheme electron transfer of cytochrome c_3 from D. vulgaris Miyazaki F was investigated with a special enphasis on the roles of aromatic amino acid residues. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the first place, the proton signals due to the aromatic residues were identified by amino acid-selective deuterataion of the protein in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • On the basis of this assignment, the role of some aromatic residues in the electron transfer was partially elucidated. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] J.-S.-Park,M.Enoki,A.Ohbu,K.Fan,K.Niki,H.Akutsu,Y.Kyogoku: 'Properties of aromatic residues in ferricytochrome C_3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyuzaki F studied by ^1H NMR' J.Mol.Str.242. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Like other MRPs, MRP4 is organic anion transporter, but it has the unique ability to transport cyclic nucleotides and some nucleoside monophosphate analogs.This study was carried out to screen for inhibitors of MRP4 as well as to determine the contribution of conserved aromatic amino acid residues (Trp216, Trp230 and Phe 324) to the activity of MRP4.Our data showed that purine or azapurine analogs are able to inhibit MRO4 activity. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In addition, mutations of the conserved aromatic amino residues led to the loss of transport activity as well as the loss of resistance to nucleoside analog. (nus.edu.sg)
  • In addition, explicit studies of Arg interacting with aromatic residues have been reported by Flocco and Mowbray ( 18 ) and by Thornton ( 14 ), and other efforts to search the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for cation-π interactions between ligands and proteins have been reported ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • A variant of this structure has been proposed in which additional hydrophobic residues are positioned three amino acids from the leucines (producing a 4-3 repeat of hydrophobic amino acids). (elsevier.com)
  • We have used site-directed mutagenesis to explore the role of aromatic acids in the structure of the Bcd-HD and to evaluate the proposal that interactions between the strictly conserved Trp residue in HDs and nearby aromatic residues are responsible for the fluorescence quenching in the native state. (mpg.de)
  • Assays were performed for the quantity of isocyanate bound to protein, protein content, amino acid residues, and free amino groups. (cdc.gov)
  • The only significant change in amino acid residues recovered from HSA before and after reaction with HDI occurred in the lysyl residues. (cdc.gov)
  • We examined how the dietary protein source affects the postprandial circulating profile of these three diabetes associated amino acids (DMAAs) and tested whether the postprandial DMAA profiles are associated with fasting glycaemia. (hindawi.com)
  • The postprandial area under the curve (AUC) of all the three amino acids and the DMAA score was significantly greater after intake of the meal with dairy protein compared to intake of the three other meals. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acid analysis is considered to be the gold standard for quantitative peptide and protein analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • The method was validated with certified reference materials (CRM) of amino acids and of a pure protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). (hindawi.com)
  • AAAA can be used for the quantification of aromatic amino acids, isolated peptides or proteins, complex peptide or protein samples, such as serum or milk powder, and peptides or proteins immobilized on solid supports. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks for protein, are are therefore required to form tissues i. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Based on the particular ability of aliphatic amino acids to form aqueous biphasic systems with ionic liquids, it is here shown how these systems can be used to selectively and efficiently separate mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic amino acids usually present in protein hydrolysates or in fermentation broths. (rsc.org)
  • This was accomplished by modifying the amino acid sequence of PilA, the structural pilin protein. (asm.org)
  • Amino acid sequencing located the N-terminus of the mature protein. (biochemj.org)
  • We utilized the well-established 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) CKD model in rats and submitted the animals for 5 weeks to either the control diet (18% casein protein) or to diets containing 8% casein supplemented with 10% of a mix of free amino acids, representing all or only a subset of the amino acids contained in casein. (uzh.ch)
  • A basal 12% protein diet of dextrose, corn starch, dried whey, L-glutamic acid, solka floc, soybean oil, amino acids, minerals and vitamins was fed at a rate of 1.82 kg/d. (iastate.edu)
  • In addition, a protein without aromatic amino acids will not have an absorption maximum at approximately 280 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of nucleic acids in the protein can further decrease the method's accuracy due to the presence of purine and pyrimidine rings, which have an absorption maximum at approximately 260 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aromatic amino acids also play a crucial role in glycan-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excessive intake of aromatic amino acids far beyond levels obtained through normal protein consumption might lead to hypertension, something which could go un-noticed for a long time in healthy individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cation-π interactions are found to be common among structures in the Protein Data Bank, and it is clearly demonstrated that, when a cationic sidechain (Lys or Arg) is near an aromatic sidechain (Phe, Tyr, or Trp), the geometry is biased toward one that would experience a favorable cation-π interaction. (pnas.org)
  • Previous protein database searches relied on geometric definitions of sidechain interactions, focusing on when a cationic sidechain displayed a certain distance/angle relationship to an aromatic sidechain. (pnas.org)
  • Dietary protein provides the chemical building blocks, called amino acids, to manufacture the many different types of proteins your body needs to function. (livestrong.com)
  • Insufficient amounts of aromatic amino acids in your diet - from soybeans or other protein sources - may slow the rate of production of serotonin, dopamine and epinephrine. (livestrong.com)
  • Browse other questions tagged proteins enzymes amino-acids protein-structure or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
  • As a result, the investigation of the aromatic amino acids gains great significance and can provide people some practical ideas in the researching works about protein. (mun.ca)
  • Amino acids are best-known as the building blocks for protein, and that reputation is well-deserved. (whfoods.org)
  • With tens of thousands of proteins in our body-and all of them constructed from amino acids-the protein-related role of amino acids is definitely critical in support of our health (and especially the health of our immune system). (whfoods.org)
  • While some people may take this group for granted and assume that it involves interesting but unnecessary details related to protein, and while others may imagine it as a very specialized area related to body building and physical performance, amino acids are actually spotlight nutrients that all of us would do well to consider when making routine food choices. (whfoods.org)
  • Amino acids are most commonly described as the building blocks of protein . (whfoods.org)
  • It does not matter whether a protein is very small and contains several dozen amino acids, or very large and contains more than 10,000 amino acids, or just average-sized and composed of 200-300 amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Twenty core amino acids are all that it takes to make every single protein in our body. (whfoods.org)
  • The list below shows all 20 of these core protein-building amino acids in alphabetical order. (whfoods.org)
  • The method that scientists have used to determine the protein-building role of these 20 core amino acids involves our genetic code. (whfoods.org)
  • Within our genes can be found direct instructions for making all 20 of these core protein-building amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • The three additional protein-building amino acids are selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, and N-formylmethionine. (whfoods.org)
  • What's perhaps most surprising about these 23 protein-building amino acids is the fact that they only account for about 2% of all amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Some non-protein building amino acids have been well-researched from the standpoint of metabolism, but less well investigated from the standpoint of food. (whfoods.org)
  • We expect non-protein building amino acids to become the subject of increased research attention in future studies on foods and meal planning. (whfoods.org)
  • When making nutritional recommendations for our everyday diet, health scientists have expressed much more confidence in estimating our total protein needs than in estimating our need for individual amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • The authors conclude that reaction time is the most important factor in protein conjugation with aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
  • The present thesis models nucleobase-amino acid charge transfer reactions, which can serve as base for future computational investigations of charge transfer processes in DNA-protein systems. (udg.edu)
  • Hyland K. Inherited disorders affecting dopamine and serotonin: critical neurotransmitters derived from aromatic amino acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of dopa to dopamine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 6] Blood testing and cerebrospinal fluid analysis will show very low levels of specific chemicals (e.g., 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) related to the production of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. (checkrare.com)
  • RyAAAT3 had an optimal activity at pH 9 and at 45-55°C with α-ketoglutaric acid, and was found to be a PLP dependent enzyme based on the inhibition test using Carbidopa, an inhibitor of PLP-dependent enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • In enzymology, an aromatic-amino-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.57) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are aromatic amino acid and 2-oxoglutarate, whereas its two products are aromatic oxo acid and L-glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHQ is dehydrated to 3-dehydroshikimic acid by the enzyme 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase , which is reduced to shikimic acid by the enzyme shikimate dehydrogenase , which uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as a cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can anyone think of an enzyme - or perhaps a small catalytically active fragment of one - which has no aromatic amino acids? (stackexchange.com)
  • In animals and humans, aromatic amino acids serve as precursors for the synthesis of many biologically/neurologically active compounds that are essential for maintaining normal biological functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • K. aerogenes abstracted the alpha-amino group of these compounds by transamination and excreted the arylpyruvate portions into the medium. (nih.gov)
  • This research may explain whether a shortage of three special compounds called aromatic amino acids is responsible for the severe illness and high death rate of children with the kwashiork. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Compounds and drugs that block or inhibit the enzymatic action of AROMATIC AMINO ACID DECARBOXYLASES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To support this hypothesis, the H/D exchange experiments were run in deuterated water under base-catalyzed conditions for three model compounds, which showed the most intensive exchanges in the MS experiments: DOPA, 2,4-DHB, and 5-acetylsalicylic acid. (rsc.org)
  • This can be stimulated by the use of complex forming compounds in the apolar phase, which mask the polar group present in any amino acids and thus leave the rest group as the most exposed and differentiating moiety to the solvent. (wur.nl)
  • Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names? (ed.gov)
  • Includes information for 19 amino acids, 17 aromatic compounds, and 21 carboxylic acids. (ed.gov)
  • eg oxaloacetate decarboxylase from Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus (which - maybe no surprise - eats aromatic compounds). (stackexchange.com)
  • Also a more recent development is the use of ICP-MS [ 16 - 20 ] and hence the detection of the sulphur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All plants and micro-organisms synthesize their own aromatic amino acids to make proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interaction between methionine and two aromatic amino acids is an abundant and multifunctional motif in proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The metabolism of dietary proteins generates waste products that are excreted by the kidney, in particular nitrogen-containing urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine, and other metabolites such as phosphates, sulfates, and protons. (uzh.ch)
  • The present study aimed at identifying potential differences between amino acid (AA) groups constituting dietary proteins regarding their impact on RPF, GFR, and CKD progression. (uzh.ch)
  • Most proteins will have an absorption maximum at 280 nm due to the presence of aromatic amino acids in their primary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following work by Levitt and Perutz ( 6 - 8 ) suggesting a hydrogen bond between aromatic and amino groups, Burley and Petsko identified the "amino aromatic" interaction ( 9 ), in which NH-containing groups tend to be positioned near aromatic rings within proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Although many animal proteins provide you with the full complement of amino acids, soybeans and quinoa are the only plant-derived foods that contain all nine essential amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • The addition of phosphate to amino acids like threonine is important in activating and deactivating proteins. (livestrong.com)
  • Strings of amino acids fold onto one another, giving different proteins specific shapes. (livestrong.com)
  • I did a quick search in UniProt, and - somewhat surprisingly - there are very few proteins without aromatic amino acids, let alone any enzymes. (stackexchange.com)
  • proteins with no aromatic AAs. (stackexchange.com)
  • The human database contains a few proteins (~20): for example many metallothioneins, proline-rich proteins, and HMG proteins have no aromatic AAs. (stackexchange.com)
  • begingroup$ A control for your assumption of selective pressure would be info on proteins that lack other amino acids or groups thereof. (stackexchange.com)
  • Why aren't D-amino acids used in proteins? (stackexchange.com)
  • There are tens of thousands of unique proteins in our body, and every one of these proteins is constructed from amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • This relationship between amino acids and proteins has been the driving force behind nutritional research on these fascinating nutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • Amino acids that are used to make proteins are referred to as "proteinogenic" amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • In addition to these 20 core amino acids, there are three additional amino acids that can be used by our bodies to make proteins. (whfoods.org)
  • Researchers estimate that an additional 750-1,000 amino acids are present in living things and are routinely used for a wide variety of purposes not related to the building of proteins. (whfoods.org)
  • To different degrees, all aromatic amino acids absorb ultraviolet light. (acronymattic.com)
  • Aromatic amino acids absorb ultraviolet light at a wavelength above 250 nm and produce fluorescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of amino acids generally absorb ultraviolet light. (aminoacidstoday.com)
  • Interheme Electron Transfer in cytochrome C_3 and The Role of Aromatic Amino Acids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Animals obtain aromatic amino acids from their diet, but all plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino acids through the metabolically costly shikimate pathway in order to make them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathway starts with two substrates , phosphoenol pyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate and ends with chorismate , a substrate for the three aromatic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herbicides and antibiotics take advantage of this by inhibiting enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid synthesis, thereby making them toxic to micro-organisms and plants but not to animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many enzymes involved in aromatic amino acids metabolism have been drug targets for diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia, and cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, the articles that were received for this topic: "Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism," including a collection of original research and review articles, provided updated information regarding the aromatic amino acid metabolism, and addressed their synthesis and catabolism in plants and microbes, metabolic enzymes in animals and humans, and structure and function relationships of enzymes involved in the metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • To determine the pathways of aromatic amino acid catabolism in lactococci and effects of Cheddar cheese ripening conditions on catabolic enzymes and products, eight starter lactococcal strains were screened. (usu.edu)
  • Are there any enzymes without aromatic amino acids? (stackexchange.com)
  • If not - this is maybe a more general question - what makes aromatic amino acids apparently necessary for most enzymes? (stackexchange.com)
  • Spectrophotometric titrations have been performed in order to determine the stability constants of inclusion complexation of some aliphatic amino acids with four structurally related organoselenium-modified β-cyclodextrins: mono(6-phenylseleno- 6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin (1a), mono[6-(p-methoxyphenylseleno)- 6-deoxy]-β-cyclodextrin (1b), mono(2-phenylseleno- 2-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin (2a), and mono[2-(p-methoxyphenylseleno)- 2-deoxy]-β-cyclodextrin (2b). (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Moreover, other aromatic amino acid -leucines, Phe-Leu and Trp-Leu, also exhibited antidepressant-like activities, suggesting that the structure of aromatic amino acid -leucine may be important for antidepressant activity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, these β-cyclodextrin derivatives displayed considerable enantioselectivity towards L/D-amino acid isomers, giving the highest L-enantioselectivity (up to 8.4) for inclusion complexation between leucine and 2a. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Soybeans, tofu, soy milk and other soy products contain the pyruvate family of essential amino acids, including leucine, isoleucine and valine. (livestrong.com)
  • Analysis of the primary amino acid sequences of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases identifies three highly conserved regions possessing leucine zipper or coiled-coil characteristics. (elsevier.com)
  • However, animals have lost these costly metabolic pathways for aromatic amino acids synthesis and must instead obtain the amino acids through their diet. (frontiersin.org)
  • A Metabolic Relationship Between the Aromatic Amino Acids" by Joseph F. Nyc, Francis A. Haskins et al. (unl.edu)
  • Lysine, methionine and threonine are members of the aspartate family of essential amino acids, and are found in both immature and mature soybeans. (livestrong.com)
  • Methionine is one of only two amino acids that contain sulfur. (livestrong.com)
  • McLean, J. R. / The presence of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in certain intestinal nerve cells . (edu.au)
  • On the basis of the partial purification and characterization of these aromatic amino acid transaminases, it is suggested that rat small intestine contains several kinds of aromatic amino acid transaminases. (biochemj.org)
  • This thesis presents a comprehensive study on the characterization and crystallization of aromatic amino acids. (mun.ca)
  • In addition, since animals or humans that do not possess the enzymatic machinery for the de novo synthesis of aromatic amino acids must obtain these primary metabolites from their diet, the metabolism of aromatic amino acid by both the host animal and the resident microflora are important for the health of humans and all animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase: EC 4.1.1.28. (springer.com)
  • In animals receiving essential amino acids (EAAs) containing both BCAAs and AAAs, there was only a small increase in RPF. (uzh.ch)
  • These animals receiving BCAAs also showed an increase in plasma free fatty acids pointing to a problem at the level of energy metabolism. (uzh.ch)
  • Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is often used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy and low albuminemia in Japan. (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated the effect of the molar ratios of BCAAs to aromatic amino acids (AAAs) on the growth and albumin mRNA expression of cultured human liver cancer cell lines, HCC-M, HCC-T, PLC/PRF/5, and Hep G2. (elsevier.com)
  • Maller A, Hyland K, Milstien S, Biaggioni I, Butler IJ (1997) Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deffciency: clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of a second family. (springer.com)
  • Whereas the RPF and GFR measured in free moving animals remained stable during the course of the diet in rats receiving the control mix, these parameters decreased in animals receiving the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and increased in the ones receiving the aromatic amino acids (AAAs). (uzh.ch)
  • Aromatic amino acids often serve as the precursors to other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your search returned 67 dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • DDC has several biochemical functions, for example, L-dopa decarboxylase activity, amino acid binding, aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • included in this topic, describes the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathways in plants and microbes, catabolism in plants, degradation via the monoamine and kynurenine pathways in animals, and catabolism via the 3-aryllactate and kynurenine pathways in animal-associated microbes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aromatic amino acid catabolism by lactococci" by S. Gao, D. H. Oh et al. (usu.edu)
  • While catabolism of amino acids is believed to play an important role in cheese flavor development, the pathways present in cheese microflora are poorly understood. (usu.edu)
  • Steele, J. L. / Aromatic amino acid catabolism by lactococci . (elsevier.com)
  • Currently, heterotrophic microorganisms are fed require an organic source of carbon to produce amino acids, photosynthetic bacteria are investigated. (purdue.edu)
  • Product Description Amino Acid organic fertilizer A new type of organic nitrogen fertilizer it s efficient and green fertilizer and made from residue of monosodium glutamate after pressing through using advanced production equipment to granulate it under high temperature It provides organic matter. (sinochemnutrition.com)
  • However, you will find recommended food sources for different types of amino acids (including branched chain, sulfur-containing, aromatic, and others) in the Summary of Food Sources section of this article. (whfoods.org)
  • A DMAA score was defined as the sum of all the three amino acid concentrations. (hindawi.com)
  • In fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), the development of hepatic encephalopathy is associated with grossly abnormal concentrations of plasma amino acids (PAA). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This characteristic is used in quantitative analysis, notably in determining the concentrations of these amino acids in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentrations of amino acids in CSF and serum were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effects of albumin dialysis on hepatic encephalopathy and circulating levels of amino acids in severe alcoholic hepatitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the mechanisms responsible for this improvement, and their relationship with circulating levels of amino acids, are poorly identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effect of albumin dialysis on hepatic encephalopathy and on the circulating levels of amino acids and ammonia in patients with severe liver failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To examine whether delirium in hip fracture patients was associated with changes in the levels of amino acids and/or monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine if delirium was associated with changes in the levels of amino acids and/or monoamine metabolites in CSF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is study to investigate the plasma free amino acids profile in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy and its relation to the nutritional state of thes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Albumin dialysis results in a significant decrease in circulating phenolic aromatic amino acids and improvement of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with severe liver failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changes in phenolic aromatic amino acids and the Fischer's ratio were more prominent in patients with encephalopathy and higher bilirubin removal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Are there examples of PTMs that add different chemical groups (and mass) to different amino acids? (stackexchange.com)
  • Importantly, you can also find milligram amounts for 18 different amino acids in all 100 of our food profiles by clicking on the in-depth nutritional profile link toward the end of each food profile. (whfoods.org)
  • Pinto W, Rodrigues V, Dinis MTeresa, Aragão C . Can dietary aromatic amino acid supplementation be beneficial during fish metamorphosis? . (ualg.pt)
  • Why are amino acids in biology homochiral? (stackexchange.com)
  • The aromatic amino acids play a vital role in both biology and pharmacology areas. (mun.ca)
  • These aromatic amino acids are the derivatives of many secondary metabolites, all essential to a plant's biological functions, such as the hormones salicylate and auxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normalization of the ratio of branched-chain amino acids to aromatic amino acids (Fischer's ratio) correlates with clinical improvement. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Klebsiella aerogenes utilized aromatic amino acids as sole sources of nitrogen but not as sole sources of carbon. (nih.gov)
  • Difficulties in cultivation of many of these auxotrophs were largely overcome by using a minimal medium with L-glutamic acid as sole nitrogen source. (microbiologyresearch.org)