Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.

Covalent cross-linking of proteins without chemical reagents. (1/67)

A facile method for the formation of zero-length covalent cross-links between protein molecules in the lyophilized state without the use of chemical reagents has been developed. The cross-linking process is performed by simply sealing lyophilized protein under vacuum in a glass vessel and heating at 85 degrees C for 24 h. Under these conditions, approximately one-third of the total protein present becomes cross-linked, and dimer is the major product. Chemical and mass spectroscopic evidence obtained shows that zero-length cross-links are formed as a result of the condensation of interacting ammonium and carboxylate groups to form amide bonds between adjacent molecules. For the protein examined in the most detail, RNase A, the cross-linked dimer has only one amide cross-link and retains the enzymatic activity of the monomer. The in vacuo cross-linking procedure appears to be general in its applicability because five different proteins tested gave substantial cross-linking, and co-lyophilization of lysozyme and RNase A also gave a heterogeneous covalently cross-linked dimer.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved charged amino acid residues in ClpB from Escherichia coli. (2/67)

ClpB is a member of a multichaperone system in Escherichia coli (with DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that reactivates strongly aggregated proteins. The sequence of ClpB contains two ATP-binding domains, each containing Walker consensus motifs. The N- and C-terminal sequence regions of ClpB do not contain known functional motifs. In this study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected charged residues within the Walker A motifs (Lys212 and Lys611) and the C-terminal region of ClpB (Asp797, Arg815, Arg819, and Glu826). We found that the mutations K212T, K611T, D797A, R815A, R819A, and E826A did not significantly affect the secondary structure of ClpB. The mutation of the N-terminal ATP-binding site (K212T), but not of the C-terminal ATP-binding site (K611T), and two mutations within the C-terminal domain (R815A and R819A) inhibited the self-association of ClpB in the absence of nucleotides. The defects in self-association of these mutants were also observed in the presence of ATP and ADP. The four mutants K212T, K611T, R815A, and R819A showed an inhibition of chaperone activity, which correlated with their low ATPase activity in the presence of casein. Our results indicate that positively charged amino acids that are located along the intersubunit interface (this includes Lys212 in the Walker A motif of the N-terminal ATP-binding domain as well as Arg815 and Arg819 in the C-terminal domain) participate in intersubunit salt bridges and stabilize the ClpB oligomer. Interestingly, we have identified a conserved residue within the C-terminal domain (Arg819) which does not participate directly in nucleotide binding but is essential for the chaperone activity of ClpB.  (+info)

Both acidic and basic amino acids in an amphitropic enzyme, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, dictate its selectivity for anionic membranes. (3/67)

Amphitropic proteins are regulated by reversible membrane interaction. Anionic phospholipids generally promote membrane binding of such proteins via electrostatics between the negatively charged lipid headgroups and clusters of basic groups on the proteins. In this study of one amphitropic protein, a cytidylyltransferase (CT) that regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis, we found that substitution of lysines to glutamine along both interfacial strips of the membrane-binding amphipathic helix eliminated electrostatic binding. Unexpectedly, three glutamates also participate in the selectivity for anionic membrane surfaces. These glutamates become protonated in the low pH milieu at the surface of anionic, but not zwitterionic membranes, increasing protein positive charge and hydrophobicity. The binding and insertion into lipid vesicles of a synthetic peptide containing the three glutamates was pH-dependent with an apparent pK(a) that varied with anionic lipid content. Glutamate to glutamine substitution eliminated the pH dependence of the membrane interaction, and reduced anionic membrane selectivity of both the peptide and the whole CT enzyme examined in cells. Thus anionic lipids, working via surface-localized pH effects, can promote membrane binding by modifying protein charge and hydrophobicity, and this novel mechanism contributes to the membrane selectivity of CT in vivo.  (+info)

The Est1 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase makes multiple contributions to telomere length maintenance. (4/67)

The telomerase-associated Est1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates enzyme access by bridging the interaction between the catalytic core of telomerase and the telomere-binding protein Cdc13. In addition to recruiting telomerase, Est1 may act as a positive regulator of telomerase once the enzyme has been brought to the telomere, as previously suggested by the inability of a Cdc13-Est2 fusion protein to promote extensive telomere elongation in an est1-Delta strain. We report here three classes of mutant Est1 proteins that retain association with the telomerase enzyme but confer different in vivo consequences. Class 1 mutants display a telomere replication defect but are capable of promoting extensive telomere elongation in the presence of a Cdc13-Est2 fusion protein, consistent with a defect in telomerase recruitment. Class 2 mutants fail to elongate telomeres even in the presence of the Cdc13-Est2 fusion, which is the phenotype predicted for a defect in the proposed second regulatory function of EST1. A third class of mutants impairs an activity of Est1 that is potentially required for the Ku-mediated pathway of telomere length maintenance. The isolation of mutations that perturb separate functions of Est1 demonstrates that a telomerase holoenzyme subunit can contribute multiple regulatory roles to telomere length maintenance.  (+info)

Mutation of charged residues in the TR3 death domain does not perturb interaction with TRADD. (5/67)

Members of the death receptor family play a prominent role in developmental and pathological neuronal cell death. The death signal is transduced via interaction between the death domain of the receptor and an intracellular adapter, TRADD. We performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis of specific charged residues in the TR3 death domain to determine whether they play a crucial role in TR3-TR3 and TR3-TRADD interaction. Mutation of charged residues in the second and third helices of the TR3 death domain failed to perturb self-interaction or interaction with TRADD. These data suggest that despite some similarity between the death domains of TR3 and TNFR1 the nature of the interaction with TRADD differs from that reported for TNFR1.  (+info)

Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant of Rab3A/Rab27A recognition by Rim2. (6/67)

Rabphilin, Rim, and Noc2 have generally been believed to be the Rab3 isoform (Rab3A/B/C/D)-specific effectors that regulate secretory vesicle exocytosis in neurons and in some endocrine cells. The results of recent genetic analysis of rabphilin knock-out animals, however, strongly refute this notion, because there are no obvious genetic interactions between Rab3 and rabphilin in nematoda (Staunton, J., Ganetzky, B., and Nonet, M. L. (2001) J. Neurosci. 21, 9255-9264), suggesting that Rab3 is not a major ligand of rabphilin in vivo. In this study, I tested the interaction of rabphilin, Rim1, Rim2, and Noc2 with 42 different Rab proteins by cotransfection assay and found differences in rabphilin, Rim1, Rim2, and Noc2 binding to several Rab proteins that belong to the Rab functional group III (Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab26, Rab27A/B, and Rab37) and/or VIII (Rab8A and Rab10). Rim1 interacts with Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab10, Rab26, and Rab37; Rim2 interacts with Rab3A/B/C/D and Rab8A; and rabphilin and Noc2 interact with Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab8A, and Rab27A/B. By contrast, the synaptotagmin-like protein homology domain of Slp homologue lacking C2 domains-a (Slac2-a)/melanophilin specifically recognizes Rab27A/B but not other Rabs. I also found that alternative splicing events in the first alpha-helical region (alpha(1)) of the Rab binding domain of Rim1 alter the Rab binding specificity of Rim1. Site-directed mutagenesis and chimeric analyses of Rim2 and Slac2-a indicate that the acidic cluster (Glu-50, Glu-51, and Glu-52) in the alpha(1) region of the Rab binding domain of Rim2, which is not conserved in the synaptotagmin-like pro tein homology domain of Slac2-a, is a critical determinant of Rab3A recognition. Based on these results, I propose that Rim, rabphilin, and Noc2 function differently in concert with functional group III and/or VIII Rab proteins, including Rab3 isoforms.  (+info)

A PAR domain transcription factor is involved in the expression from a hematopoietic-specific promoter for the human LMO2 gene. (7/67)

The transcription factor LMO2 is believed to exert its effect through the formation of protein-protein interactions with other DNA-binding factors such as GATA-1 and TAL1. Although LMO2 has been shown to be critical for the formation of the erythroid cell lineage, the gene is also expressed in a number of nonerythroid tissues. In this report, we demonstrate that the more distal of the 2 promoters for the LMO2 gene is highly restricted in its pattern of expression, directing the hematopoietic-specific expression of this gene. Deletion and mutation analyses have identified a critical cis element in the first untranslated exon of the gene. This element is a consensus-binding site for a small family of basic leucine zipper proteins containing a proline and acidic amino acid-rich (PAR) domain. Although all 3 members of this family are produced in erythroid cells, only 2 of these proteins, thyrotroph embryonic factor and hepatic leukemia factor, can activate transcription from this LMO2 promoter element. These findings represent a novel mechanism in erythroid gene regulation because PAR proteins have not previously been implicated in this process.  (+info)

Close pairs of carboxylates: a possibility of multicenter hydrogen bonds in proteins. (8/67)

Covalent attachment of hydrogen to the donor atom may be not an essential characteristic of stable hydrogen bonds. A positively charged particle (such as a proton), located between the two negatively charged residues, may lead to a stable interaction of the two negative residues. This paper analyzes close Asp-Glu pairs of residues in a large set of protein chains; 840 such pairs of residues were identified, of which 28% were stabilized by a metal ion, 12% by a positive residue nearby and 60% are likely to be stabilized by a proton. The absence of apparent structural constraints, secondary structure preferences, somewhat lower B-factors and a distinct correlation between pH and the minimal O-O distance in carboxylate pairs suggest that most of the abnormally close pairs could indeed be stabilized by a shared proton. Implications for protein stability and modeling are discussed.  (+info)

*Immunoglobulin M

137 amino acids), acidic protein. As shown, J chain joins two µ chains via disulfide bonds involving cysteines in the ... also approximately 110 amino acids long). The µ heavy chain of IgM is a protein of ~576 amino acids, and includes a variable ... 220 amino acids, composed of a variable domain, VL (a segment of approximately 110 amino acids), and a constant domain, CL ( ... 110 amino acids), four distinct constant region domains (Cµ1, Cµ2, Cµ3, Cµ4, each ~110 amino acids) and a "tailpiece" of ~20 ...

*D-amino acid oxidase

The enzyme is most active toward neutral D-amino acids, and not active toward acidic D-amino acids. DAAO is a candidate ... DAO DAOA-AS1 D-amino acid dehydrogenase D-amino acid oxidase activator D-aspartate oxidase Diamine oxidase D-Amino-Acid Oxidase ... It is not present in plants or in bacteria which instead use D-amino acid dehydrogenase. Its function is to oxidize D-amino ... this is then hydrolysed to yield ammonia and the corresponding a-keto acid." Recently, mammalian D-amino acid oxidase has been ...

*Duffy antigen system

The gene encodes a 336 amino acid acidic glycoprotein. It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system ... Fy-a and Fy-b differ by in a single amino acid at position 42: glycine in Fy-a and aspartic acid in Fy-b (guanine in Fy-a and ... The mouse ortholog has been cloned and exhibits 63% homology to the human gene at the amino acid level. The mouse gene is ... consisting of the amino acid substitution of arginine for a cysteine at position 89 of the protein diminishes the ability to ...

*GPATCH11

Overall, the protein is composed mainly of charged amino acids, both acidic and basic. There were no regions of sustained non- ... It also comes in a second isoform that is 156 amino acids long. The gene contains a G-patch domain and the DUF 4138 domain. The ... In addition, it is low in amino acids such as valine, threonine, phenylalanine, and proline. It is a soluble protein and has a ... GPATCH11 has a molecular weight of about 33.3 kdal and is 285 amino acids long. ...

*Fibroblast growth factor

A short stretch of acidic amino acids located between the D1 and D2 domains has auto-inhibitory functions. This 'acid box' ... "acidic fibroblast growth factor" (FGF1) and "basic fibroblast growth factor" (FGF2). These proteins had a high degree of amino ... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-8. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... These proteins were found to be identical to the acidic and basic FGFs described by Gospodarowicz, et al. FGFs are ...

*Nuclear localization sequence

... and showed amino acid features common to all three. The role of neutral and acidic amino acids was shown for the first time in ... two clusters of basic amino acids, separated by a spacer of about 10 amino acids. Both signals are recognized by importin α. ... "Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localisation signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids". Curr. Biol. ... This PY-NLS motif, so named because of the proline-tyrosine amino acid pairing in it, allows the protein to bind to Importin β2 ...

*Aspartyl aminopeptidase

"An aminopeptidase from mouse brain cytosol that cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acid residues". J. Neurochem. 40 (6): 1727-1734 ...

*FGF1

Gimenez-Gallego G, Conn G, Hatcher VB, Thomas KA (Jul 1986). "The complete amino acid sequence of human brain-derived acidic ... Gautschi-Sova P, Müller T, Böhlen P (Nov 1986). "Amino acid sequence of human acidic fibroblast growth factor". Biochemical and ... Zhu X, Komiya H, Chirino A, Faham S, Fox GM, Arakawa T, Hsu BT, Rees DC (Jan 1991). "Three-dimensional structures of acidic and ... "Entrez Gene: FGF1 fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic)". Suh JM, Jonker JW, Ahmadian M, Goetz R, Lackey D, Osborn O, Huang Z, ...

*C16orf95

The high ratio of basic to acidic amino acids contributes to the protein's higher isoelectric point. C16orf95 is predicted to ... C16orf95 has a large number of amino acid changes over time, indicating it is a quickly evolving protein. There are no proteins ... The longest isoform of the C16orf95 protein has 239 amino acids. It has a conserved domain of unknown function spanning ...

*Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase

Cho WH, Lee YJ, Kong SI, Hurwitz J, Lee JK (2006). "CDC7 kinase phosphorylates serine residues adjacent to acidic amino acids ...

*PepB aminopeptidase

"Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium peptidase B is a leucyl aminopeptidase with specificity for acidic amino acids". J. ... Release of an N-terminal amino acid, Xaa, from a peptide or arylamide. Xaa is preferably Glu or Asp, but may be other amino ... acids, including Leu, Met, His, Cys and Gln. Mathew, Z.; Knox, T.M.; Miller, C.G. (2000). " ...

*Glutamyl endopeptidase II

Nagata, K.; Yoshida, N.; Ogata, F.; Araki, M.; Noda, K. (1991). "Subsite mapping of an acidic amino acid-specific endopeptidase ... "Purification and characterization of an acidic amino acid specific endopeptidase of Streptomyces griseus obtained from a ... Svendsen, I.; Jensen, M.R.; Breddam, K. (1991). "The primary structure of the glutamic acid-specific protease of Streptomyces ... Breddam, K.; Meldal, M. (1992). "Substrate preferences of glutamic-acid-specific endopeptidases assessed by synthetic peptide ...

*Mucus

The ionic charges of mucin are mainly provided by acidic amino acids including aspartic acids (pKa=3.9) and glutamic acids (pKa ... 4.2). The charges of acidic amino acids will change with environmental pH value due to acid dissociation and association. ... effect of mucus is largely affected by the pH value of solution due to the charge variation of acidic amino acid residues on ... leading to the deprotonation of aspartic acids and glutamic acids, i.e., from neutral to negative-charged. The negative charges ...

*60S ribosomal protein L22

Shu-Nu C, Lin CH, Lin A (October 2000). "An acidic amino acid cluster regulates the nucleolar localization and ribosome ...

*Urotensin-II

Unlike URP, U-II has an acidic amino acid (Glutamic or Aspartic) that precedes the core sequence. While the amino acid isn't ... In humans U-II length is 11 amino acids. The peptide sequence that is needed for biological function for both U-II and ... Also just like URP the amino terminus can be modified without any loss in pharmacological activity suggesting that it is not ...

*Wallemia ichthyophaga

... which contain an unusually high proportion of acidic amino acids. High proportion of acidic amino acids is thought to be an ...

*SAG (gene)

Lee KB, Ptasienski JA, Bunemann M, Hosey MM (2000). "Acidic amino acids flanking phosphorylation sites in the M2 muscarinic ... cDNA, amino acid, intron, exon, promoter, in vitro transcription, retina, and pineal gland". J Biol Chem. 265 (34): 20757-62. ...

*Hydrophobin

High proportion of acidic amino acids is thought to be an adaptation of proteins to high concentrations of salt. Hydrophobins ... revealed that these species contain predicted hydrophobins with unusually high proportion of acidic amino acids and therefore ... Class II hydrophobins have overall a more conserved amino acid sequence between the different types and, contrary to class, I ... Hydrophobins are a group of small (~100 amino acids) cysteine-rich proteins that are expressed only by filamentous fungi. They ...

*Urotensin II-related peptide

Unlike UII, URP doesn't have an acidic amino acid (either glutamic acid or aspartic acid) preceding its core. It is still a ... receptor which suggests that this acidic amino acid is not required for activation of the receptor. The peptide sequence for ... On the other hand, the amino terminus of URP doesn't seem to contain any relevant information because it can be modified ...

*Hair conditioner

Conditioners are frequently acidic, as low pH protonates the keratin's amino acids. The hydrogen ions gives the hair a positive ... The surface of keratin contains negatively charged amino acids. Hair conditioners therefore usually contain cationic ... Organic acids such as citric acid are usually used to maintain acidity. Anointing Brilliantine Brylcreem Pomade Shampoo "Argan ... The surfactants are based on long, straight aliphatic fatty acid chains similar to saturated fatty acids. Their molecules have ...

*Transactivation domain

Hence, the TADs in Gal4 and Gcn4 are referred to as acidic or hydrophobic The activation domains, respectively. Nine-amino-acid ... TADs are named after their amino acid composition. These amino acids are either essential for the activity or simply the most ... Transactivation by the Gal4 transcription factor is mediated by acidic amino acids, whereas hydrophobic residues in Gcn4 play a ... "acid blobs" or "negative noodles", rich in D and E amino acids, present in Gal4, Gcn4 and VP16) - glutamine-rich domains ( ...

*Complement component 4B

Pan Q, Ebanks RO, Isenman DE (Sep 2000). "Two clusters of acidic amino acids near the NH2 terminus of complement component C4 ... Blom AM, Webb J, Villoutreix BO, Dahlbäck B (Jul 1999). "A cluster of positively charged amino acids in the C4BP alpha-chain is ...

*Beefy meaty peptide

However, the umami taste is produced by combinations of acidic and basic amino acid residues, such as Lys-Gly-Asp. More ... the umami taste found in BMP is generated by the combination of lysine at the N-terminus and the acidic amino acids (Asp-Glu- ... Position of the amino acids also play a role in taste intensity, as a Glu-Asp dipeptide registers at a threshold value of 3.14 ... At the time of the experiment (1978), both methods were used in order to determine the amino acid composition and order of the ...

*DBP (gene)

DBP is a member of the PAR bZIP (Proline and Acidic amino acid-Rich basic leucine ZIPper) transcription factor family. DBP ... Lamprecht C, Mueller CR (Jun 1999). "D-site binding protein transactivation requires the proline- and acid-rich domain and ...

*Cell wall

In Halobacterium, the proteins in the wall have a high content of acidic amino acids, giving the wall an overall negative ... the cross-linking peptides are L-amino acids rather than D-amino acids as they are in bacteria. A second type of archaeal cell ... Oomycete cell walls also contain the amino acid hydroxyproline, which is not found in fungal cell walls. The dictyostelids are ... However, unlike peptidoglycan, the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid is replaced by N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid, and the two sugars ...

*N-myristoyltransferase 1

1995). "Amino-terminal basic residues of Src mediate membrane binding through electrostatic interaction with acidic ... Liu J, Sessa WC (1994). "Identification of covalently bound amino-terminal myristic acid in endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... Zhou W, Parent LJ, Wills JW, Resh MD (1994). "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ...
9781158327492 Our cheapest price for Acidic Amino Acids : Glutamic Acid, Aspartic Acid, Amino Acid is $6.89. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Determination of the molecular mass of M.EcoP1I by size-exclusion chromatography under nondenaturing conditions. (a) The standard curve Ve/Vo versus log molecul
The algal PIPs show many similarities with the PIPs of land plants and it is tempting to make the assumption that PIPs, with those shared features, were present already some 1000 MYA at the split of the chlorophytes and the streptophytes [10-12]. Land plant PIPs are known to be regulated by pH, Ca2+ and phosphorylation and a molecular gating mechanism has been suggested. In this, several of the residues have overlapping functions in controlling the D-loop conformation in response to the different signals. However, the evolution of the gating mechanism is likely to have been a stepwise process, starting out from a primitive regulatory mechanism and then sequentially adding further functionality. The presence of an among all PIPs conserved histidine crucial for pH gating [H193 in SoPIP2;1; 20, 21] in the algal PIPs, implies that this regulatory feature might be such a primitive mechanism. Contrary to this, the acidic amino acid residues responsible for Ca2+ binding (D28 and E31 in SoPIP2;1) are ...
The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days and following removal of a major afferent system. Two weeks after a unilateral hippocampal aspiration, the 22Na efflux induc
Glutamic acid (Glu) and aspartic acid (Asp) are dicarboxylic amino acids and are negatively charged at physiological pH. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism and serves as metabolic fuel in the body. It is also the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system and it is believed to be involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory retention...The present study was designed to investigate an enzymatic route for synthesis of aspartate and glutamate homo-oligopeptides. Synthesis route involved the use of a readily available proteolytic enzyme papain that has been used for synthesis of non-polar and basic amino acid peptides--Abstract, leaf iii.
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The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, ...
This report provides a guide to the development and presentation of 2014-2016 NSDUH substate estimates. A summary of the estimation methodology is included as well as sample sizes, response rates, and population estimates. This shapefile includes geographic boundaries of the 2014-2016 NSDUH substate regions along with prevalence rates, map group.... ...
What are zinc supplement health benefits are also such that you can increase it by having dairy products, eating wholegrain foods, lentils, pulses. Also even pumpkin is a very good source of zinc. Also zinc lozenges are easily available in drug stores which are mostly taken if you have cough or cold. What are zinc supplement health benefits is not a question to worry now so let me tell you what is the daily dose recommended for each person to be taken. For adults and teenage males it os preferred to be 9-12mg, pregnant women is to be 15mg, children from 1-10 years 3-9mg, and infants are preferred to take 2-3mg. So What are zinc supplement health benefits is now true. Also while seeing What are zinc supplement health benefits let me tell you that excess of anything is always harmful now this can be just anything. So excess of zinc in our body can prove to be fatal as it is toxic and reduces the function of iron and the iron levels in our body. So relating to What are zinc supplement health ...
The crystal structure of the ribonuclease (RNase) H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) has been determined at a resolution of 2.4 A and refined to a crystallographic R factor of 0.20. The protein folds into a five-stranded mixed beta sheet flanked by an asymmetric distribution of four alpha helices. Two divalent metal cations bind in the active site surrounded by a cluster of four conserved acidic amino acid residues. The overall structure is similar in most respects to the RNase H from Escherichia coli. Structural features characteristic of the retroviral protein suggest how it may interface with the DNA polymerase domain of p66 in the mature RT heterodimer. These features also offer insights into why the isolated RNase H domain is catalytically inactive but when combined in vitro with the isolated p51 domain of RT RNase H activity can be reconstituted. Surprisingly, the peptide bond cleaved by HIV-1 protease near the polymerase-RNase H junction of p66 is completely inaccessible to ...
I know that there are polar uncharged amino acids (serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine) and polar charged amino acids (the basic and acidic amino acids). Does the charge on the acidic and basic amino acids make them more polar and hydrophilic than the uncharged polar amino acids? Moreover, cysteine is classified as an uncharged amino acid, but because it has an ionizable side chain, would it be more polar than serine, asparagine, etc.? ...
A conserved substitution (K385R) did not affect either the apparent glycine EC50 (40 ± 1 versus 41 ± 0.5 μM) or the ethanol-induced potentiation (53 ± 5 versus 46 ± 5%) of the human α1 GlyR. On the other hand, replacement of this residue with glutamic acid (K385E), an acidic amino acid, reduced the potentiation of the GlyR to 10 ± 1%. Furthermore, mutations with a hydrophobic leucine (K385L), a hydrogen bond donor glutamine (K385Q), or a neutral residue (K385A) also reduced ethanol modulation. ...
AVT-Anéla Dissertatieprijs 2017. De Algemene Vereniging voor Taalwetenschap (AVT) en de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Toegepaste Taalwetenschap (ANéLA) reiken jaarlijks een prijs uit voor een dissertatie op het gebied van de taalwetenschap. Ook dit jaar zal er weer een AVT/ANéLA-dissertatieprijs worden uitgereikt. Voor de AVT/AnéLA dissertatieprijs 2017 komen in aanmerking alle dissertaties verdedigd tussen 16 juli 2016 en 15 juli 2017.. Wij nodigen u uit om (gemotiveerde) voordrachten te doen voor kandidaten voor de prijs. De voordrachten dienen uiterlijk 15 augustus 2017 te worden ingediend. Dit kan online:. http://www.hum.leidenuniv.nl/onderzoek/avt/dissertatieprijs-formulier. Het reglement van de AVT/Anéla dissertatieprijs vindt u op:. http://anela.nl/prijzen/dissertatieprijs/reglement-dissertatieprijs. Secretaris van de jury is dr. Nivja de Jong (namens het ANéLA-bestuur). De tweede secretaris is dr. Lotte Hogeweg (namens het AVT-bestuur). Voor meer informatie over de ...
May catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate, cysteine sulfinic acid, and cysteic acid to beta-alanine, hypotaurine and taurine, respectively. Does not exhibit any decarboxylation activity toward glutamate.
Tofu is prepared by changing de nature of native soy proteins (Gwycinin and β-congwycinin) in soy miwk to form a gew. In de tofu making process, de denaturation of soy proteins happens during de heating processing unit where soy miwk is steamed to 75-95 degrees C. The soy protein endawpies of denaturation range from 0.2 to 3.0 J/gram protein for 7S fraction containing β-congwycinin and from 0.2 to 6.0 J/gram protein for 11S fraction incwuding gwycinin, uh-hah-hah-hah.[66] Upon denaturation, β-congwycinin and congwycinin unfowd and expose de hydrophobic acidic amino acid side chains to promote protein aggregation, uh-hah-hah-hah.[67]. Soymiwk particwe composition (cooking). When tawking about de particwes in soymiwk, researchers commonwy refer to de particwes in de soymiwk system based on particwe size and fractionation, uh-hah-hah-hah. The precipitated fraction refers to particuwate protein particwes dat are ,40 nm in size, de supernatant fraction contains sowubwe proteins ,40 nm and aww ...
植物 miRNA 與 mRNA 完全或接近完全的配對結合後, 會引起目標基因在配對的第十位核酸上發生剪切,進行基因表達的調控。 伴隨第二代定序的進步,利用 PARE* (Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends) 方法, 以降解組定序(Degradome Sequencing)測出剪切位點, 被剪切的 3 片段以 RNA 連接酶連接上 5 adaptor 後, 經反轉錄形成雙股 cDNA, 再以 EcoP 15I** 酵素切位接上 3 adaptor 後往下進行定序分析。 目前此方法已成功應用於阿拉伯芥,水稻等植物的降解組定序上 ...
Electrophoresis Package 1/8 is needed but not provided. __________________________________________________________. Here is a sample of the Student Manual:. IND-24 (Part A). Identifying Unknowns by Electrophoresis. Background Information. Many different types of biological molecules are charged at neutral pH as shown in the table below. For example, four of the twenty amino acids found in proteins are charged. The basic amino acids lysine and arginine carry a positive charge while the acidic amino acids aspartate and glutamate carry a negative one. Likewise synthetic dyes, which are similar in size to amino acids, are often acidic or basic. These dyes are commonly used to stain tissue sections, as food coloring agents and for coloring fabrics in the clothing industry. Proteins are composed of amino acids and thus basic proteins are generally rich in lysine and arginine and deficient in aspartate and glutamate while the reverse is true for acidic proteins. DNA and RNA molecules always carry a ...

Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...

Basic (l-arginine) and acidic (l-glutamate) amino acids did not significantly alter the transport of [3H]-l-Phe, confirming our ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ... Su, TZ, Lunney, E, Campbell, G, et al (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system L alpha-amino acid ... Uchino, H, Kanai, Y, Kim, DK, et al (2002) Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2181705

9781158327492 - Acidic Amino Acids : Glutamic Acid, | eCampus.com9781158327492 - Acidic Amino Acids : Glutamic Acid, | eCampus.com

Glutamic Acid, Aspartic Acid, Amino Acid is $6.89. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00. ... Acidic Amino Acids : Glutamic Acid, Aspartic Acid, Amino Acid Neurotransmitter, Amino Acid Activation. by Not Available *ISBN13 ... 9781158327492 Our cheapest price for Acidic Amino Acids : ...
more infohttp://www.ecampus.com/acidic-amino-acids-glutamic-acid-aspartic/bk/9781158327492

Effects of Acidic Amino Acids on Hydroxyapatite MorphologyEffects of Acidic Amino Acids on Hydroxyapatite Morphology

Variation in the morphology of nanoparticles could be consistent with the difference in the affinity of amino acids binding at ... Hydroxyapatite synthesized with aspartic acid showed smooth flake-like morphology at pH= 11 and flake-like morphology with ... stripes at pH= 8. However, hydroxyapatite synthesized in the present of glutamic acid showed rod-like morphology at both pH ... Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of two kinds of acidic amino acids in order to investigate the ...
more infohttps://www.scientific.net/KEM.336-338.2096

Patent US3927047 - Novel N-long chain acyl-acidic amino acid diester - Google PatentsPatent US3927047 - Novel N-long chain acyl-acidic amino acid diester - Google Patents

... polyoxyalkylene higher alcohol ethers and polyalkyleneglycol higher fatty acid monoesters. These diesters are useful as oil- ... N-long chain acyl-acidic glutamic or aspartic acid diesters having an acyl group of 8-22 carbon atoms, the ester part of which ... an acidic amino acid is reacted with an alcohol in the presence of an acidic catalyst to form a corresponding acidic amino acid ... or fatty acids (including branched fatty acids) obtainable by snythesis. The acidic amino acid component may be either an ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US3927047?dq=6004266

GADL1 - Acidic amino acid decarboxylase GADL1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - GADL1 gene & proteinGADL1 - Acidic amino acid decarboxylase GADL1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - GADL1 gene & protein

... cysteine sulfinic acid, and cysteic acid to beta-alanine, hypotaurine and taurine, respectively. Does not exhibit any ... Acidic amino acid decarboxylase GADL1Add BLAST. 521. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... sp,Q6ZQY3,GADL1_HUMAN Acidic amino acid decarboxylase GADL1 OS=Homo sapiens GN=GADL1 PE=1 SV=4 ... R-HSA-70614. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination). Miscellaneous databases. ChiTaRS: a database of human, ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6ZQY3

Protection of Hippocampal Neurons from Ischemic Insult in Vitro by Acidic Amino Acid Antagonists | SpringerLinkProtection of Hippocampal Neurons from "Ischemic" Insult in Vitro by Acidic Amino Acid Antagonists | SpringerLink

Acidic amino acid antagonists and phencyclidine (PCP) agonists... ... Kynurenic acid inhibits synaptic and acidic amino acid-induced ... Acidic amino acid antagonists and phencyclidine (PCP) agonists were evaluated for their ability to protect neurons from the ... Hippocampal Neuron Hippocampal Slice Acidic Amino Acid Population Spike Stratum Pyramidale These keywords were added by machine ... Olney, J. W., Ho, O. C., and Rhee, V., 1971, Cytotoxic effects of acidic and sulphur containing amino acids on the infant mouse ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5562-5_39

Molecular Mechanisms of Acidic Amino Acid Release from Mossy Fiber Terminals of Rat Cerebellum | SpringerLinkMolecular Mechanisms of Acidic Amino Acid Release from Mossy Fiber Terminals of Rat Cerebellum | SpringerLink

Arachidonic Acid Mossy Fiber Acidic Amino Acid Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Exogenous Fatty Acid These keywords were added by ... Levi, G., Gordon, R. D., Gallo, V., Wilkin, G. P. and Balazs, R., Putative acidic amino acid transmitters in the cerebellum I. ... Terrian D.M., Bischoff S.B., Schwartz M.A., Dorman R.V. (1987) Molecular Mechanisms of Acidic Amino Acid Release from Mossy ... Molecular Mechanisms of Acidic Amino Acid Release from Mossy Fiber Terminals of Rat Cerebellum. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7618-7_18

Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of  Are Involved in Triggering Substate of RyR1Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in Triggering Substate of RyR1

Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in Triggering Substate of RyR1. In Ra Seo,1,2 Dae Eun Kang,1,2 Dong ... In Ra Seo, Dae Eun Kang, Dong Woo Song, and Do Han Kim, "Both Basic and Acidic Amino Acid Residues of Are Involved in ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2011/386384/cta/

RCSB PDB 









- 1JQZ: Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor. 141 Amino Acid Form with Amino Terminal His Tag. Structure...RCSB PDB - 1JQZ: Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor. 141 Amino Acid Form with Amino Terminal His Tag. Structure...

Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor. 141 Amino Acid Form with Amino Terminal His Tag.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1jqz/pdb ... acidic fibroblast growth factor A, B 146 Homo sapiens Gene Name(s): FGF1 Gene View FGFA ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/explore.do?structureId=1JQZ

Structure Cluster 









- 1JTC: Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor. 141 Amino Acid Form with Amino Terminal His Tag AND...Structure Cluster - 1JTC: Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor. 141 Amino Acid Form with Amino Terminal His Tag AND...

Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor. 141 Amino Acid Form with Amino Terminal His Tag AND LEU 44 REPLACED BY PHE (L44F). ... Acids Res. 2008 36: D419-D425 * [4] Alexandrov N., Shindyalov I. (2003). PDP: protein domain parser.. Bioinformatics 2003 Feb; ... Description: acidic fibroblast growth factor protein , Length: 146 No structure alignment results are available for 1JTC.A, ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/structureCluster.do?structureId=1JTC

Classification and properties of acidic amino acid receptors in hippocampus. III. Supersensitivity during the postnatal period...Classification and properties of acidic amino acid receptors in hippocampus. III. Supersensitivity during the postnatal period...

The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days ... Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of amino acids and ammonia.. 12173653 - Enantioselective uptake of amino acids using ... Glutamic Acid. Hippocampus / growth & development, metabolism*. Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Receptors, Amino Acid. Receptors, ... Classification and properties of acidic amino acid receptors in hippocampus. III. Supersensitivity during the postnatal period ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Classification-properties-acidic-amino-acid/6136903.html

A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses - 
		
		FluTrackers...A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses - FluTrackers...

Epub ahead of print] A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses. ... A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses.. Bae JY1, Lee I1, Kim ... A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses April 14th, 2018, 01: ... A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses. ...
more infohttps://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/welcome-to-the-scientific-library/viral-mechanisms/pathogenicity-virulence-status/793039-a-single-amino-acid-at-the-polymerase-acidic-protein-determines-the-pathogenicity-of-influenza-b-viruses

Electrical Evidence for Different Mechanisms of Uptake for Basic, Neutral, and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles | 10.1104...Electrical Evidence for Different Mechanisms of Uptake for Basic, Neutral, and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles | 10.1104...

... and Acidic Amino Acids in Oat Coleoptiles" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands ... and Acidic Amino Acids... Thomas B. Kinraide and Bud Etherton 1980-06-01 00:00:00 The application of neutral or acidic amino ... acidic, and basic amino acids. We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that ... acidic, and basic amino acids. We suggest that the neutral amino acids are co-transported with a single H + and that ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/american-society-of-plant-biologist/electrical-evidence-for-different-mechanisms-of-uptake-for-basic-FZoVXHSei9?impressionId=5dd484230d147&i_medium=docview&i_campaign=references&i_source=references

The role of aromatic and acidic amino acids in the electron transfer reaction catalyzed by spinach ferredoxin-dependent...The role of aromatic and acidic amino acids in the electron transfer reaction catalyzed by spinach ferredoxin-dependent...

... suggesting that an aromatic amino acid is not absolutely essential at position 65, but that glutamate 94 is essential for ... with a non-aromatic amino acid, or replacement of the glutamate at ferredoxin position 94, decreased the turnover number ... without detectable modification of other amino acids, and inhibits enzyme activity by 85% with either reduced ferredoxin or ... The role of aromatic and acidic amino acids in the electron transfer reaction catalyzed by spinach ferredoxin-dependent ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-role-of-aromatic-and-acidic-amino-acids-in-the-Hirasawa-Hurley/b265b1de7983275c952850283ea54ca55e510cdf

Acidic Amino Acids China Manufacturers & Suppliers & FactoryAcidic Amino Acids China Manufacturers & Suppliers & Factory

We are Professional Manufacturer of Acidic Amino Acids company, Factory & Exporters specialize in Acidic Amino Acids wiht High- ... Find Acidic Amino Acids Manufacturers & Suppliers from China. ... Acidic Amino Acids , acidic amino acids , Amino Acids , Our ... acidic amino acids , Amino Acids , We are seeking the chances to meet all the friends from both at home and abroad for the win- ... Special for Natural Amino Acids Powder, Amino Acids Particles/ Tablets L-Leucine export to Belarus Manufacturer ...
more infohttp://www.sinochemnutrition.com/dp-acidic-amino-acids.html

JAIRO | Rapid and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to-Acidic Flash Switching in a Micro-flow...JAIRO | Rapid and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to-Acidic Flash Switching in a Micro-flow...

Acidic Flash Switching in a Micro-flow ReactorRapid and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to-Acidic ... Rapid and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to-Acidic Flash Switching in a Micro-flow Reactor. ... Rapid and Mild Synthesis of Amino Acid N-Carboxy Anhydrides Using Basic-to- ...
more infohttp://jairo.nii.ac.jp/0083/00266338/en

Asparagine of acidic amino acids R-group - food-grade-additives.comAsparagine of acidic amino acids R-group - food-grade-additives.com

The amide is rather easily hydrolyzed, converting asparagine to aspartic acid. This process is thought to be one o ... Asparagine is the amide of aspartic acid. The amide group does not carry a formal charge under any biologically relevant pH ... Asparagine of acidic amino acids R-group. Asparagine is the amide of aspartic acid. The amide group does not carry a formal ... Tryptophan FunctionTryptophan is one of the 22 standard amino acids and an essential amino acid in .. ...
more infohttp://www.food-grade-additives.com/News/388/

Gentaur Molecular :Prosci \ D-site-binding protein (DBP) is a member of the PAR bZIP (proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic...Gentaur Molecular :Prosci \ D-site-binding protein (DBP) is a member of the PAR bZIP (proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic...

... proline and acidic amino acid-rich basic leucine zipper) transcription factor family. \ 27-516 for more molecular products just ... amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP662: Amino Acid metabolism. WP7: Sulfur Amino Acid biosynthesis. WP715: amino acid ... WP1008: amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP1127: amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP1252: amino acid conjugation ... WP1287: amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. WP1531: Vitamin D synthesis. WP1577: amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid. ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product1951875-search-D_site_binding_protein_

An acidic amino acid cluster regulates the nucleolar localization and ribosome assembly of human ribosomal protein L22An acidic amino acid cluster regulates the nucleolar localization and ribosome assembly of human ribosomal protein L22

... Chang, ... Acidic cluster; Ribosomal protein; Nuclear retention signal; Yeast two-hybrid; Ribosome assembly Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se: ... RpL22 normally enters the nucleolus via a compulsory sequence of KKYLKK (I-domain, positions 88-93). An acidic residue cluster ...
more infohttp://kau.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:449117

Amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region plays a crucial role in antibacterial activity of HMGB1 | Journal...Amino acid residues 201-205 in C-terminal acidic tail region plays a crucial role in antibacterial activity of HMGB1 | Journal...

... amino acid residues 1-85), B boxes (amino acid residues 88-162) and a C-terminal acidic tail (amino acid residues 186-215). ... The sequence of HMGB1 amino acid residues 201-205 is EDEED which are all acidic amino acid residues but no data and references ... is also called C-terminal acidic tail because it is full of acidic amino acid residues such as aspartate and glutamic acid [5-8 ... eleven different deleted mutants lacking several amino acid residues in C-terminal acidic tail of HMGB1 (rHMGB1 lacking amino ...
more infohttps://jbiomedsci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1423-0127-16-83

Determination of inter- and intra-subtype/species varia-tions in polymerase acidic protein from influenza A virus using amino...Determination of inter- and intra-subtype/species varia-tions in polymerase acidic protein from influenza A virus using amino...

The amino-acid pair predictability was used to transfer 2432 polymerase acidic proteins into 2432 scalar data. The one-way ... Thus, an important question is if these classifications are numerically distinguishable with respect to the polymerase acidic ... The polymerase acidic protein is an important family of proteins from influenza A virus, which is classified as many different ... ANOVA found these polymerase acidic proteins distinguish-able in terms of subtypes and species. However, the large residuals in ...
more infohttps://file.scirp.org/Html/575.html

Amino acid sequence data on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA); implications for the subdivision of intermediate filaments...Amino acid sequence data on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA); implications for the subdivision of intermediate filaments...

Amino acid sequence data on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA); implications for the subdivision of intermediate filaments ... Amino acid sequence data on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA); implications for the subdivision of intermediate filaments ... Geisler, N., & Weber, K. (1983). Amino acid sequence data on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA); implications for the ...
more infohttps://pure.mpg.de/pubman/faces/ViewItemFullPage.jsp?itemId=item_3034329

Amines ,amides, amino acids and polymers Flashcards by Beatrix Huissoon | BrainscapeAmines ,amides, amino acids and polymers Flashcards by Beatrix Huissoon | Brainscape

... amino acids and polymers flashcards from Beatrix Huissoon ... Amines ,amides, amino acids and polymers Flashcards Preview OCR ... A-level Chemistry A , Amines ,amides, amino acids and polymers , Flashcards ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/amines-amides-amino-acids-and-polymers-6754569/packs/10234289

Amino Acids (UPDATE: 2018) | 14 Things You Need to KnowAmino Acids (UPDATE: 2018) | 14 Things You Need to Know

Amino acids are essential for the overall development of the body since they are building blocks of protein joined together by ... Acidic and Basic Amino Acids. Aspartic and glutamic acid are referred to as acidic amino acids while arginine, histidine, and ... Facts About Amino Acids. Are amino acids proteins?. Amino acids and proteins are constantly confusing. Amino acids are building ... Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs). Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs). These are essential amino acids that trigger the ...
more infohttps://www.dietspotlight.com/amino-acids/

AAP6 - Amino acid permease 6 - Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) - AAP6 gene & proteinAAP6 - Amino acid permease 6 - Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) - AAP6 gene & protein

... and neutral and acidic amino acids. Have an affinity for aspartate in a physiological range. Involved in the uptake of amino ... Amino acid-proton symporter. Stereospecific transporter with a broad specificity for tryptophan, proline, ... acids diffusing out of the xylem tracheids into the xylem parenchyma. ... "A mutation in amino acid permease AAP6 reduces the amino acid content of the Arabidopsis sieve elements but leaves aphid ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92934
  • Rothman, S. M. 1984, Synaptic release of excitatory amino acid transmitter mediates anoxic neuronal death. (springer.com)
  • Together, the results from the denervation and development studies suggest a different localization and different modes of regulation for various classes of excitatory amino acid receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Alanine Serine Cysteine Transporter 2 (ASCT2) belongs to the solute carrier family 1 (SLC1A) of transporters, which in mammals consists of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1-EAAT5 (SLC1A1-3, 6-7) and the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1-ASCT2 (SLC1A4-5) 1 . (nature.com)
  • Antibacterial assays showed that both the full length rHMGB1 and the synthetic C peptide alone could efficiently inhibit bacteria proliferation, but rHMGB1 A box and B box, and tHMGB1 lacking the C-terminal acidic tail had no antibacterial function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We showed that the recombinant human HMGB1 (rHMGB1) and the synthetic C-terminal acidic tail (C peptide) presented antibacterial activity, nevertheless, the A box, B box domains of the molecule and the truncated HMGB1 lacking its C-terminal acidic tail failed to inhibit bacterial multiplication, which demonstrated that the C-terminal acidic tail is the key region for the antibacterial activity of HMGB1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, it has been suggested that an obligatory step in neurotransmitter release is the accumulation of unesterified, polyunsaturated fatty acids following the depolarization-induced degradation of phospholipids. (springer.com)
  • Terrian D.M., Bischoff S.B., Schwartz M.A., Dorman R.V. (1987) Molecular Mechanisms of Acidic Amino Acid Release from Mossy Fiber Terminals of Rat Cerebellum. (springer.com)
  • The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days and following removal of a major afferent system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AAPs are distantly related to plasma membrane amino acid transport systems N and A and to vesicular transporters such as VGAT from mammals. (deepdyve.com)
  • AAP3 and AAP5 are the only transporters mediating efficient transport of the basic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • D-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (D-AP7) and 15mM Mg 2+ , but not MK-801 or 5mM Mg 2+ , delayed or blocked anoxic depolarization. (springer.com)
  • Depolarization of cerebral synaptosomes results in the Ca 2+ -dependent release of free arachidonic acid (Lazarewicz et al. (springer.com)
  • ASCT2 plays a role in cancer cell growth by providing glutamine as an alternative carbon source for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, for fatty-acid production, and by contributing to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1) 11 . (nature.com)
  • The Ca 2+ dependent release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from cerebral synaptosomes has also been shown to require the accumulation of free arachidonic acid and this release can be mimicked with exogenous arachidonic acid, but not other free fatty acids (Asakura and Matsuda, 1984). (springer.com)
  • Substances that can act as either an acid or a base are defined as what and are referred to as what? (scribd.com)
  • 1983), suggesting that the Ca 2+ is required for phospholipid degradation and fatty acid accumulation. (springer.com)
  • Several amino acids induced distinct but diminished depolarizations in the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol or cyanide, but the repolarizations were generally eliminated. (deepdyve.com)
  • Amino acids that have an asymmetric center at the α-carbon can exist in two forms, designated D and L, that are mirror images of each other. (scribd.com)
  • The alpha carbon of each amino acid is attached to four different chemical groups and is therefore considered to be what type of carbon atom? (scribd.com)
  • The alpha carbon of each amino acid is attached to four different chemical groups and is therefore considered to be a chiral carbon or optically active carbon.its alpha carbon has 2 hydrogens attached 27. (scribd.com)
  • In this study, recombinant human HMGB1 A box and B box (rHMGB1 A box, rHMGB1 B box), recombinant human HMGB1 (rHMGB1) and the truncated C-terminal acidic tail mutant (tHMGB1) were prepared by the prokaryotic expression system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this reason, there is need to understand why amino acids are important, how they are broken down by enzymes, their benefits, and side effects. (dietspotlight.com)
  • Cysteine's side chain has a -SH group which is an important component of the active site of many enzymes, which other amino acid has a side chain that is an important component of the active site of many enzymes? (scribd.com)
  • polyoxyalkylene higher alcohol ethers and polyalkyleneglycol higher fatty acid monoesters. (google.com)
  • The release of neurotransmitters induced by exogenous fatty acids does not require Ca 2+ (Rhoads et al. (springer.com)
  • The depolarizations induced by the other amino acids, in contrast, were more strongly affected by the pH changes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Note: At pH values less than the pKa the protonated acid form (CH3-COOH) is the predominant species. (scribd.com)
  • Czuczwar, S. J. and Meldrum, B. S., 1982, Protection against chemically induced seizure by 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid. (springer.com)
  • An acidic residue cluster at the C-terminal end (C-domain) plays a nuclear retention role. (diva-portal.org)