Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Covalent cross-linking of proteins without chemical reagents. (1/67)

A facile method for the formation of zero-length covalent cross-links between protein molecules in the lyophilized state without the use of chemical reagents has been developed. The cross-linking process is performed by simply sealing lyophilized protein under vacuum in a glass vessel and heating at 85 degrees C for 24 h. Under these conditions, approximately one-third of the total protein present becomes cross-linked, and dimer is the major product. Chemical and mass spectroscopic evidence obtained shows that zero-length cross-links are formed as a result of the condensation of interacting ammonium and carboxylate groups to form amide bonds between adjacent molecules. For the protein examined in the most detail, RNase A, the cross-linked dimer has only one amide cross-link and retains the enzymatic activity of the monomer. The in vacuo cross-linking procedure appears to be general in its applicability because five different proteins tested gave substantial cross-linking, and co-lyophilization of lysozyme and RNase A also gave a heterogeneous covalently cross-linked dimer.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved charged amino acid residues in ClpB from Escherichia coli. (2/67)

ClpB is a member of a multichaperone system in Escherichia coli (with DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that reactivates strongly aggregated proteins. The sequence of ClpB contains two ATP-binding domains, each containing Walker consensus motifs. The N- and C-terminal sequence regions of ClpB do not contain known functional motifs. In this study, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected charged residues within the Walker A motifs (Lys212 and Lys611) and the C-terminal region of ClpB (Asp797, Arg815, Arg819, and Glu826). We found that the mutations K212T, K611T, D797A, R815A, R819A, and E826A did not significantly affect the secondary structure of ClpB. The mutation of the N-terminal ATP-binding site (K212T), but not of the C-terminal ATP-binding site (K611T), and two mutations within the C-terminal domain (R815A and R819A) inhibited the self-association of ClpB in the absence of nucleotides. The defects in self-association of these mutants were also observed in the presence of ATP and ADP. The four mutants K212T, K611T, R815A, and R819A showed an inhibition of chaperone activity, which correlated with their low ATPase activity in the presence of casein. Our results indicate that positively charged amino acids that are located along the intersubunit interface (this includes Lys212 in the Walker A motif of the N-terminal ATP-binding domain as well as Arg815 and Arg819 in the C-terminal domain) participate in intersubunit salt bridges and stabilize the ClpB oligomer. Interestingly, we have identified a conserved residue within the C-terminal domain (Arg819) which does not participate directly in nucleotide binding but is essential for the chaperone activity of ClpB.  (+info)

Both acidic and basic amino acids in an amphitropic enzyme, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, dictate its selectivity for anionic membranes. (3/67)

Amphitropic proteins are regulated by reversible membrane interaction. Anionic phospholipids generally promote membrane binding of such proteins via electrostatics between the negatively charged lipid headgroups and clusters of basic groups on the proteins. In this study of one amphitropic protein, a cytidylyltransferase (CT) that regulates phosphatidylcholine synthesis, we found that substitution of lysines to glutamine along both interfacial strips of the membrane-binding amphipathic helix eliminated electrostatic binding. Unexpectedly, three glutamates also participate in the selectivity for anionic membrane surfaces. These glutamates become protonated in the low pH milieu at the surface of anionic, but not zwitterionic membranes, increasing protein positive charge and hydrophobicity. The binding and insertion into lipid vesicles of a synthetic peptide containing the three glutamates was pH-dependent with an apparent pK(a) that varied with anionic lipid content. Glutamate to glutamine substitution eliminated the pH dependence of the membrane interaction, and reduced anionic membrane selectivity of both the peptide and the whole CT enzyme examined in cells. Thus anionic lipids, working via surface-localized pH effects, can promote membrane binding by modifying protein charge and hydrophobicity, and this novel mechanism contributes to the membrane selectivity of CT in vivo.  (+info)

The Est1 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase makes multiple contributions to telomere length maintenance. (4/67)

The telomerase-associated Est1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates enzyme access by bridging the interaction between the catalytic core of telomerase and the telomere-binding protein Cdc13. In addition to recruiting telomerase, Est1 may act as a positive regulator of telomerase once the enzyme has been brought to the telomere, as previously suggested by the inability of a Cdc13-Est2 fusion protein to promote extensive telomere elongation in an est1-Delta strain. We report here three classes of mutant Est1 proteins that retain association with the telomerase enzyme but confer different in vivo consequences. Class 1 mutants display a telomere replication defect but are capable of promoting extensive telomere elongation in the presence of a Cdc13-Est2 fusion protein, consistent with a defect in telomerase recruitment. Class 2 mutants fail to elongate telomeres even in the presence of the Cdc13-Est2 fusion, which is the phenotype predicted for a defect in the proposed second regulatory function of EST1. A third class of mutants impairs an activity of Est1 that is potentially required for the Ku-mediated pathway of telomere length maintenance. The isolation of mutations that perturb separate functions of Est1 demonstrates that a telomerase holoenzyme subunit can contribute multiple regulatory roles to telomere length maintenance.  (+info)

Mutation of charged residues in the TR3 death domain does not perturb interaction with TRADD. (5/67)

Members of the death receptor family play a prominent role in developmental and pathological neuronal cell death. The death signal is transduced via interaction between the death domain of the receptor and an intracellular adapter, TRADD. We performed alanine-scanning mutagenesis of specific charged residues in the TR3 death domain to determine whether they play a crucial role in TR3-TR3 and TR3-TRADD interaction. Mutation of charged residues in the second and third helices of the TR3 death domain failed to perturb self-interaction or interaction with TRADD. These data suggest that despite some similarity between the death domains of TR3 and TNFR1 the nature of the interaction with TRADD differs from that reported for TNFR1.  (+info)

Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant of Rab3A/Rab27A recognition by Rim2. (6/67)

Rabphilin, Rim, and Noc2 have generally been believed to be the Rab3 isoform (Rab3A/B/C/D)-specific effectors that regulate secretory vesicle exocytosis in neurons and in some endocrine cells. The results of recent genetic analysis of rabphilin knock-out animals, however, strongly refute this notion, because there are no obvious genetic interactions between Rab3 and rabphilin in nematoda (Staunton, J., Ganetzky, B., and Nonet, M. L. (2001) J. Neurosci. 21, 9255-9264), suggesting that Rab3 is not a major ligand of rabphilin in vivo. In this study, I tested the interaction of rabphilin, Rim1, Rim2, and Noc2 with 42 different Rab proteins by cotransfection assay and found differences in rabphilin, Rim1, Rim2, and Noc2 binding to several Rab proteins that belong to the Rab functional group III (Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab26, Rab27A/B, and Rab37) and/or VIII (Rab8A and Rab10). Rim1 interacts with Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab10, Rab26, and Rab37; Rim2 interacts with Rab3A/B/C/D and Rab8A; and rabphilin and Noc2 interact with Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab8A, and Rab27A/B. By contrast, the synaptotagmin-like protein homology domain of Slp homologue lacking C2 domains-a (Slac2-a)/melanophilin specifically recognizes Rab27A/B but not other Rabs. I also found that alternative splicing events in the first alpha-helical region (alpha(1)) of the Rab binding domain of Rim1 alter the Rab binding specificity of Rim1. Site-directed mutagenesis and chimeric analyses of Rim2 and Slac2-a indicate that the acidic cluster (Glu-50, Glu-51, and Glu-52) in the alpha(1) region of the Rab binding domain of Rim2, which is not conserved in the synaptotagmin-like pro tein homology domain of Slac2-a, is a critical determinant of Rab3A recognition. Based on these results, I propose that Rim, rabphilin, and Noc2 function differently in concert with functional group III and/or VIII Rab proteins, including Rab3 isoforms.  (+info)

A PAR domain transcription factor is involved in the expression from a hematopoietic-specific promoter for the human LMO2 gene. (7/67)

The transcription factor LMO2 is believed to exert its effect through the formation of protein-protein interactions with other DNA-binding factors such as GATA-1 and TAL1. Although LMO2 has been shown to be critical for the formation of the erythroid cell lineage, the gene is also expressed in a number of nonerythroid tissues. In this report, we demonstrate that the more distal of the 2 promoters for the LMO2 gene is highly restricted in its pattern of expression, directing the hematopoietic-specific expression of this gene. Deletion and mutation analyses have identified a critical cis element in the first untranslated exon of the gene. This element is a consensus-binding site for a small family of basic leucine zipper proteins containing a proline and acidic amino acid-rich (PAR) domain. Although all 3 members of this family are produced in erythroid cells, only 2 of these proteins, thyrotroph embryonic factor and hepatic leukemia factor, can activate transcription from this LMO2 promoter element. These findings represent a novel mechanism in erythroid gene regulation because PAR proteins have not previously been implicated in this process.  (+info)

Close pairs of carboxylates: a possibility of multicenter hydrogen bonds in proteins. (8/67)

Covalent attachment of hydrogen to the donor atom may be not an essential characteristic of stable hydrogen bonds. A positively charged particle (such as a proton), located between the two negatively charged residues, may lead to a stable interaction of the two negative residues. This paper analyzes close Asp-Glu pairs of residues in a large set of protein chains; 840 such pairs of residues were identified, of which 28% were stabilized by a metal ion, 12% by a positive residue nearby and 60% are likely to be stabilized by a proton. The absence of apparent structural constraints, secondary structure preferences, somewhat lower B-factors and a distinct correlation between pH and the minimal O-O distance in carboxylate pairs suggest that most of the abnormally close pairs could indeed be stabilized by a shared proton. Implications for protein stability and modeling are discussed.  (+info)

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Glutamic acid Name L-Glutamic acid Molecular Weight 147.12926 g/mol Molecular Formula XLogP -3.3 CAS No. 56-86-0m.p.205℃pK1(25℃)2.10pK2(25℃)9.47pKR(25℃)4.07 Links * Amino acid * Acidic amino acid * Aspartic acid * Glutamic acid *
Determination of the molecular mass of M.EcoP1I by size-exclusion chromatography under nondenaturing conditions. (a) The standard curve Ve/Vo versus log molecul
DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 3A) is a |i|de novo|/i| DNA methyltransferase responsible for establishing CpG methylation patterns within the genome. DNMT3A activity is essential for normal development, and its dysfunction has been linked to developmental disorders and cancer. DNMT3A is frequently mu …
Here, the mechanism of action of an antioxidant peptide rich in acidic amino acid residues in controlling lipid oxidation is discussed. Firstly, in the presence of this peptide, the fluorescence intensity of lipid peroxide in samples of walnut oil was very low, indicating that the peptide prevented the formation of lipid peroxides. Secondly, the production of lipid-derived radicals of oil was redu ...
The algal PIPs show many similarities with the PIPs of land plants and it is tempting to make the assumption that PIPs, with those shared features, were present already some 1000 MYA at the split of the chlorophytes and the streptophytes [10-12]. Land plant PIPs are known to be regulated by pH, Ca2+ and phosphorylation and a molecular gating mechanism has been suggested. In this, several of the residues have overlapping functions in controlling the D-loop conformation in response to the different signals. However, the evolution of the gating mechanism is likely to have been a stepwise process, starting out from a primitive regulatory mechanism and then sequentially adding further functionality. The presence of an among all PIPs conserved histidine crucial for pH gating [H193 in SoPIP2;1; 20, 21] in the algal PIPs, implies that this regulatory feature might be such a primitive mechanism. Contrary to this, the acidic amino acid residues responsible for Ca2+ binding (D28 and E31 in SoPIP2;1) are ...
Here, the mechanism of action of an antioxidant peptide rich in acidic amino acid residues in controlling lipid oxidation is discussed. Firstly, in the presence of this peptide, the fluorescence intensity of lipid peroxide in samples of walnut oil was very low, indicating that the peptide prevented the formation of lipid peroxides. Secondly, the production of lipid-derived radicals of oil was redu ...
The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days and following removal of a major afferent system. Two weeks after a unilateral hippocampal aspiration, the 22Na efflux induc
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Distributed leadership offers a new thinking in transforming schools leadership. Professional learning community has been identified to have a strong influence on the teaching quality of teachers. This article examines the relationship of distributed leadership of secondary school administrators with professional learning community. The literatures suggest that distributed leadership perspective is a good alternative strategy to improve the quality of educational institutions, but empirical evidence shows the relationship of distributed leadership and professional learning community is limited. Data were collected from 592 teachers working in secondary schools in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data analysis was done based on Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS software. The study found that distributed leadership (DL) has a positive and strong correlation relationship with professional learning community (PLC), r = 0.844, p 0.001. Regression weight analysis for DL -> PLC shows that regression
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This report provides a guide to the development and presentation of 2014-2016 NSDUH substate estimates. A summary of the estimation methodology is included as well as sample sizes, response rates, and population estimates. This shapefile includes geographic boundaries of the 2014-2016 NSDUH substate regions along with prevalence rates, map group.... ...
This report provides a guide to the development and presentation of 2014-2016 NSDUH substate estimates. A summary of the estimation methodology is included as well as sample sizes, response rates, and population estimates. This shapefile includes geographic boundaries of the 2014-2016 NSDUH substate regions along with prevalence rates, map group.... ...
The protein encoded by this gene is an aminopeptidase which prefers acidic amino acids, and specifically favors aspartic acid over glutamic acid. It is thought to be a cytosolic protein involved in general metabolism of intracellular proteins. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
What are zinc supplement health benefits are also such that you can increase it by having dairy products, eating wholegrain foods, lentils, pulses. Also even pumpkin is a very good source of zinc. Also zinc lozenges are easily available in drug stores which are mostly taken if you have cough or cold. What are zinc supplement health benefits is not a question to worry now so let me tell you what is the daily dose recommended for each person to be taken. For adults and teenage males it os preferred to be 9-12mg, pregnant women is to be 15mg, children from 1-10 years 3-9mg, and infants are preferred to take 2-3mg. So What are zinc supplement health benefits is now true. Also while seeing What are zinc supplement health benefits let me tell you that excess of anything is always harmful now this can be just anything. So excess of zinc in our body can prove to be fatal as it is toxic and reduces the function of iron and the iron levels in our body. So relating to What are zinc supplement health ...
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I know that there are polar uncharged amino acids (serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine) and polar charged amino acids (the basic and acidic amino acids). Does the charge on the acidic and basic amino acids make them more polar and hydrophilic than the uncharged polar amino acids? Moreover, cysteine is classified as an uncharged amino acid, but because it has an ionizable side chain, would it be more polar than serine, asparagine, etc.? ...
A conserved substitution (K385R) did not affect either the apparent glycine EC50 (40 ± 1 versus 41 ± 0.5 μM) or the ethanol-induced potentiation (53 ± 5 versus 46 ± 5%) of the human α1 GlyR. On the other hand, replacement of this residue with glutamic acid (K385E), an acidic amino acid, reduced the potentiation of the GlyR to 10 ± 1%. Furthermore, mutations with a hydrophobic leucine (K385L), a hydrogen bond donor glutamine (K385Q), or a neutral residue (K385A) also reduced ethanol modulation. ...
May catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate, cysteine sulfinic acid, and cysteic acid to beta-alanine, hypotaurine and taurine, respectively. Does not exhibit any decarboxylation activity toward glutamate.
植物 miRNA 與 mRNA 完全或接近完全的配對結合後, 會引起目標基因在配對的第十位核酸上發生剪切,進行基因表達的調控。 伴隨第二代定序的進步,利用 PARE* (Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends) 方法, 以降解組定序(Degradome Sequencing)測出剪切位點, 被剪切的 3 片段以 RNA 連接酶連接上 5 adaptor 後, 經反轉錄形成雙股 cDNA, 再以 EcoP 15I** 酵素切位接上 3 adaptor 後往下進行定序分析。 目前此方法已成功應用於阿拉伯芥,水稻等植物的降解組定序上 ...
Rabphilin 3a is a Rab 3-GTP binding protein concentrated on secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells. There is evidence that rabphilin 3a undergoes cycles of association-dissociation with membranes and that recruitment of rabphilin 3a to secretory vesicles is mediated by Rab 3a, suggesting that rabphilin 3a is a downstream effector of this Rab. In this study we have investigated whether a membrane-anchored form of rabphilin 3a mimics the action of rabphilin 3a on secretion and bypasses the need for Rab 3 function. Overexpression of both wild-type rabphilin 3a and of a transmembrane anchored form of rabphilin 3a stimulated (about 2-fold) evoked secretion of coexpressed human proinsulin from clonal HIT-T15 cells. A similar transmembrane-anchored protein which lacked the Rab 3 binding region stimulated secretion even more effectively. Unexpectedly, a rabphilin 3a deletion mutant missing the Rab 3 binding domain was also stimulatory on secretion, although a further deletion of rab
Eukaryotic cells contain a huge variety of internally specialized subcellular compartments. Stoichiogenomics aims to reveal patterns of elements usage in biological macromolecules. However, the stoichiogenomic characteristics and how they adapt to various subcellular microenvironments are still unknown. Here we first updated the definition of stoichiogenomics. Then we applied it to subcellular research, and detected distinctive nitrogen content of nuclear and hydrogen, sulfur content of extracellular proteomes. Specially, we found that acidic amino acids (AAs) content of cytoskeletal proteins is the highest. The increased charged AAs are mainly caused by the eukaryotic originated cytoskeletal proteins. Functional subdivision of the cytoskeleton showed that activation, binding/association, and complexes are the three largest functional categories. Electrostatic interaction analysis showed an increased electrostatic interaction between both primary sequences and PPI interfaces of 3D structures, in the
Electrophoresis Package 1/8 is needed but not provided. __________________________________________________________. Here is a sample of the Student Manual:. IND-24 (Part A). Identifying Unknowns by Electrophoresis. Background Information. Many different types of biological molecules are charged at neutral pH as shown in the table below. For example, four of the twenty amino acids found in proteins are charged. The basic amino acids lysine and arginine carry a positive charge while the acidic amino acids aspartate and glutamate carry a negative one. Likewise synthetic dyes, which are similar in size to amino acids, are often acidic or basic. These dyes are commonly used to stain tissue sections, as food coloring agents and for coloring fabrics in the clothing industry. Proteins are composed of amino acids and thus basic proteins are generally rich in lysine and arginine and deficient in aspartate and glutamate while the reverse is true for acidic proteins. DNA and RNA molecules always carry a ...
The Company has decided to join ECOP to establish it as a platform/education system for employees to be updated on all matters regarding employment, rights of workers, industrial relations, global trends, strategies on grueling CBA negotiations, and critical issues surrounding businesses. ECOP has provided support for the companies not just on the aspect of human resources (HR) but also on the strategic operations of the business as a whole. ECOP serves as the voice of the employers in legislative hearings to help the cause of both local and foreign investors. As a proof of a fruitful partnership with ECOP, Daiwa Seiko Philippines Corporation served as host of interviews with a representative from the International Labor Organization (ILO), a plant tour in Occupational Safety and Health and is even selected as a proponent of the Business Action for Family Planning (BAFP) in the Philippines with the support of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Finally, ECOP gave me an opportunity to acquire ...
The gene encodes a 336 amino acid acidic glycoprotein. It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system ... Fy-a and Fy-b differ by in a single amino acid at position 42: glycine in Fy-a and aspartic acid in Fy-b (guanine in Fy-a and ... The mouse ortholog has been cloned and exhibits 63% homology to the human gene at the amino acid level. The mouse gene is ... consisting of the amino acid substitution of arginine for a cysteine at position 89 of the protein diminishes the ability to ...
Watkins, J. C. (November 1962). "The synthesis of some acidic amino acids possessing neuropharmacological activity". Journal of ... Dicarboxylic acids, Amino acid derivatives, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Secondary amino acids). ... N-methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA ... NMDA is a water-soluble D-alpha-amino acid - an aspartic acid derivative with an N-methyl substituent and D-configuration - ...
J chain is a small (~137 amino acids), acidic protein. As shown, J chain joins two µ chains via disulfide bonds involving ... also approximately 110 amino acids long). The µ heavy chain of IgM is a protein of ~576 amino acids, and includes a variable ... 220 amino acids, composed of a variable domain, VL (a segment of approximately 110 amino acids), and a constant domain, CL ( ... 110 amino acids), four distinct constant region domains (Cµ1, Cµ2, Cµ3, Cµ4, each ~110 amino acids) and a "tailpiece" of ~20 ...
v t e (Acidic amino acids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... Amino acid activation (also known as aminoacylation or tRNA charging) refers to the attachment of an amino acid to its ... During amino acid activation, each amino acid (aa) is attached to its corresponding tRNA molecule. The coupling reaction is ... Amino acid activation was first characterized by Mahlon Hoagland, who found that amino acids could be activated by certain ...
"Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 15066. doi: ... Meierhenrich, Uwe (2008). Amino acids and the asymmetry of life caught in the act of formation. Berlin: Springer. pp. 76-78. ... and D-amino acids. Rhombohedral faces are not chiral. Calcite is transparent to opaque and may occasionally show ... Calcite, like most carbonates, will dissolve in acids via the reaction CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + H2O + CO2(g) The carbon ...
Examples of zwitterions are amino acids, many metabolites, peptides, and proteins. Solid salts tend to be transparent, as ... Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic. Zwitterions contain an anionic and a cationic centre in the ... carbonic acid) Chloride Cl− (hydrochloric acid) Citrate HOC(COO− )(CH 2COO− ) 2 (citric acid) Cyanide C≡N− (hydrocyanic acid) ... nitric acid) Nitrite NO− 2 (nitrous acid) Oxide O2− (water) Phosphate PO3− 4 (phosphoric acid) Sulfate SO2− 4 (sulfuric acid) ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-6879-5. (Neurochemistry, Molecular neuroscience, Amino acids, Acidic amino acids, Neurotransmitters, Amino acid ... An amino acid neurotransmitter is an amino acid which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse. Neurotransmitters ( ... Excitatory amino acids (EAA) will activate post-synaptic cells. inhibitory amino acids (IAA) depress the activity of post- ... Amino acid non-protein functions Monoamine neurotransmitter "Axon Terminal : on Medical Dictionary Online". Archived from the ...
Conditioners are frequently acidic, as low pH protonates the keratin's amino acids. The hydrogen ions give the hair a positive ... Organic acids such as citric acid are usually used to maintain acidity. Anointing Brilliantine Brylcreem Pomade Shampoo André O ... The surface of keratin contains negatively charged amino acids. Hair conditioners therefore usually contain cationic ... In contact with acidic environment, the hair's somewhat scaly surface tightens up, as the hydrogen bonds between the keratin ...
Raasakka A, Mahootchi E, Winge I, Luan W, Kursula P, Haavik J (January 2018). "Structure of the mouse acidic amino acid ... Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in mammals and plays roles as an antioxidant, membrane stabilizer and neurotransmitter ... Ripps H, Shen W (2012). "Review: taurine: a "very essential" amino acid". Molecular Vision. 18: 2673-86. PMC 3501277. PMID ... GADL1 has 61% homology with another PLP-dependent enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD). CSAD plays a role in ...
It is an odorless, white crystalline powder that is derived from the two amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is ... It is more stable in somewhat acidic conditions, such as in soft drinks. Though it does not have a bitter aftertaste like ... When eaten, aspartame is metabolized into its original amino acids. Because it is so intensely sweet, relatively little of it ... When cooked or stored at high temperatures, aspartame breaks down into its constituent amino acids. This makes aspartame ...
Lanthorn, T.H.; Fagg, G.E. (April 1989). "Gostatin blocks physiological actions and binding of acidic amino acids in rat brain ... Amino acids, Secondary amino acids, Dicarboxylic acids, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... Its structure is a dihydro-4-pyridone analog of glutamic acid. ...
Sv-LAAOs are present in the acidic, basic, and neutral forms of the protein. Studies that look at x-ray crystal structures have ... In enzymology, an L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an L-amino acid + ... The mechanism proceeds via oxidative deamination of the L-amino acid, which affords an imino acid intermediate. Following ... The specific activities of sv-LAAOs with various L-amino acids have been explored. Many studies show that a number of sv-LAAOs ...
Overall, the protein is composed mainly of charged amino acids, both acidic and basic. There were no regions of sustained non- ... It also comes in a second isoform that is 156 amino acids long. The gene contains a G-patch domain and the DUF 4138 domain. The ... In addition, it is low in amino acids such as valine, threonine, phenylalanine, and proline. It is a soluble protein and has a ... GPATCH11 has a molecular weight of about 33.3 kdal and is 285 amino acids long. ...
Its conformation is retained mainly by disulfide bonds, as virtually all cysteine amino acids are found in the disulfide form, ... Hyalin is a large, acidic protein which aids in embryonic development. The protein has strong adhesive properties which can ... Within its sequence is a region containing tandem repeats of about 84 amino acids. This sequence is highly conserved between ... It encodes for approximately 25% acidic residues with only 3.5% basic residues. ...
These domains are rich in acidic and basic amino acid residues. The carboxy terminal domains of NFM and NFH are the longest and ... The amino terminal domains of the neurofilament proteins contain numerous phosphorylation sites and appear to be important for ... these proteins and is particularly extreme for neurofilament proteins M and H due to their high content of charged amino acids ... Type III contains the proteins vimentin, desmin, peripherin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Type IV consists of the ...
... may also cause mucosal damage during weakly acidic or non-acid gastric reflux. Weak or non-acid reflux is correlated ... positions refer to the amino acid residues immediately next to the bond to be cleaved, on the carboxyl and amino side ... Amino acid residues 1 - 3 (Gln-Phe-Leu) of mature PI-3 bind to P1' - P3' positions of pepsin. The N-terminus of PI-3 in the PI- ... "Acid and non-acid reflux in patients with persistent symptoms despite acid suppressive therapy: a multicentre study using ...
Many cyanobacterial plastocyanins have 107 amino acids. Although the acidic patches are not conserved in bacteria, the ... These hydrophobic and acidic patches are believed to be the recognition/binding sites for the other proteins involved in ... In plant plastocyanins, acidic residues are located on either side of the highly conserved tyrosine-83. Algal plastocyanins, ... and those from vascular plants in the family Apiaceae, contain similar acidic residues but are shaped differently from those of ...
This extreme acidity is achieved by its amino acid sequence. Many portions of its chain are repeating -D-S-S- (aspartic acid- ... Phosphophoryn is the most acidic protein ever discovered and has an isoelectric point of 1. ...
... and showed amino acid features common to all three. The role of neutral and acidic amino acids was shown for the first time in ... two clusters of basic amino acids, separated by a spacer of about 10 amino acids. Both signals are recognized by importin α. ... "Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids". Curr. Biol. ... This PY-NLS motif, so named because of the proline-tyrosine amino acid pairing in it, allows the protein to bind to Importin β2 ...
Acidic pH causes protonation of specific amino acids that initiate certain rearrangement of the proteins. The protonated amino ... of a serine amino acid, with the help of two other amino acids (histidine and aspartic acid), on the carbonyl group of the ... The fatty acid, stearic acid, was detected to be the prevailing fatty acid attached to HEF, whereas the fatty acid palmitic ... aspartic acid 352 and histidine 355 are the important amino acids for the esterase activity. Also, early studies showed that ...
Aspartic acid (aspartate) is one of the most common amino acids in the typical diet. As with methanol and phenylalanine, intake ... Under strongly acidic or alkaline conditions, aspartame may generate methanol by hydrolysis. Under more severe conditions, the ... Aspartame is a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. ... Nelson G, Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, Feng L, Zhao G, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS (March 2002). "An amino-acid taste receptor". Nature. 416 ...
A short stretch of acidic amino acids located between the D1 and D2 domains has auto-inhibitory functions. This 'acid box' ... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-8. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... These proteins had a high degree of sequence homology among their amino acid chains, but were determined to be distinct ... Gimenez-Gallego G, Rodkey J, Bennett C, Rios-Candelore M, DiSalvo J, Thomas K (Dec 1985). "Brain-derived acidic fibroblast ...
... and amino acid composition. For example, tropomyosin is an acidic protein that migrates abnormally on SDS-PAGE gels. This is ... Nucleic acid molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through a matrix of ... Nucleic acids are often denatured by including urea in the buffer, while proteins are denatured using sodium dodecyl sulfate, ... The most common being, for nucleic acids Tris/Acetate/EDTA (TAE), Tris/Borate/EDTA (TBE). Many other buffers have been proposed ...
... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-8. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs) are proteins that are made of acidic polypeptides and belongs to the TGF-B family. BMPs ... Gimenez-Gallego G, Rodkey J, Bennett C, Rios-Candelore M, DiSalvo J, Thomas K (December 1985). "Brain-derived acidic fibroblast ...
It contains 374 amino acid residues. Its N-terminus is highly acidic and starts with an acetyled aspartate in its amino group. ... an analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal tryptic peptide". Journal of Molecular Biology. 126 (4): 783 ... The amino acid sequencing of actin was completed by M. Elzinga and co-workers in 1973. The crystal structure of G-actin was ... This calcium is coordinated with six water molecules that are retained by the amino acids Asp11, Asp154, and Gln137. They form ...
The protein it encodes for is 344 amino acids in length. The protein itself is very acidic and is very rich in aspartic acid ... The alanines are located adjacent to each other, amino acid number 233 and 234. Alanine 233 is highly conserved throughout the ... and glutamic acid. It is also very deficient in alanine, containing only two alanines in the entire sequence. ...
... the hydrolysis can be suppressed by adding an acid such as nitric acid, making the solution more acidic. Hydrolysis may proceed ... The hydrolysis of peptides gives amino acids. Many polyamide polymers such as nylon 6,6 hydrolyze in the presence of strong ... Strong acids also undergo hydrolysis. For example, dissolving sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in water is accompanied by hydrolysis to ... Trivalent ions like Al3+ and Fe3+ are weak acids whose pKa is comparable to that of acetic acid. Solutions of salts such as ...
... or isoaspartic acid, which is a beta amino acid (in green at bottom right). However, there is a concern that aspartic acid can ... "Mildly acidic conditions eliminate deamidation artifact during proteolysis: digestion with endoprotease Glu-C at pH 4.5". Amino ... asparagine is converted to aspartic acid or isoaspartic acid. Glutamine is converted to glutamic acid or pyroglutamic acid (5- ... Deamidation is a chemical reaction in which an amide functional group in the side chain of the amino acids asparagine or ...
The ionizable groups in amino acids are able to become ionized when changes in pH occur. A pH change to more acidic or more ... Mechanical agitation Picric acid Radiation Temperature Acidic nucleic acid denaturants include: Acetic acid HCl Nitric acid ... Acetic acid Trichloroacetic acid 12% in water Sulfosalicylic acid Bases work similarly to acids in denaturation. They include: ... A protein is created by ribosomes that "read" RNA that is encoded by codons in the gene and assemble the requisite amino acid ...
The high ratio of basic to acidic amino acids contributes to the protein's higher isoelectric point. C16orf95 is predicted to ... C16orf95 has a large number of amino acid changes over time, indicating it is a quickly evolving protein. There are no proteins ... The longest isoform of the C16orf95 protein has 239 amino acids. It has a conserved domain of unknown function spanning ...
DasSarma, Shiladitya; Capes, Melinda D.; Karan, Ram; DasSarma, Priya (2013-03-11). "Amino Acid Substitutions in Cold-Adapted ... NRC-1. This work showed that its proteins are highly acidic, providing an understanding of how proteins may function in high ...
Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able ... These highly acidic proteins are overwhelmingly negative in charge and are able to remain in solution even at high salt ... to metabolize other amino acids, as well. H. salinarum have been reported to be unable to grow on sugars, and therefore need to ... To prevent the salting out of proteins, H. salinarum encodes mainly acidic proteins. The average isoelectric point of H. ...
... (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) is an acidic (in particular ulosonic) amino sugar ... Sialic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid Blanco, Antonio; Blanco, Gustavo (2017-01-01), Blanco, Antonio; ... Neuraminic acid may also be visualized as the product of an aldol-condensation of pyruvic acid and D-mannosamine (2-amino-2- ... As a family, these residues are known as sialic acids. For example, N-acetylneuraminic acid, Neu5Ac, is typical in human ...
... a single transmembrane region of about 17 amino acids in length, a small stem region of about 40 amino acids in length, and a ... Selection for specific tyrosine residues requires a generally accessible tyrosine residue, and acidic residues within +5 or -5 ... Both are quite similar with an approximately 63% amino acid identity, but show slightly different protein substrate ... an arginine residue acts as a catalytic acid, and serine and lysine residues are used to stabilize the SN2-like intermediate. ...
... free amino acid contents, and free fatty acid contents of some wild edible mushrooms from Querétaro, México". Journal of ... although the cuticle of the cap may taste acidic. Chemical analysis of fresh fruit bodies collected in Mexico showed them to ... The majority of this total was oleic acid (1.95%), followed by linoleic acid (1.68%) and palmitic acid (1.69%). Other red- ... The free fatty acid content of dried fruit bodies was 4.5%, slightly more than the common button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), ...
... is able to endure the rapid acidificiation in the phagosome to pH 4.0-4.5 by expressing metabolism genes mainly for amino acid ... The acidic pH is actually essential for replication of the bacteria by inducing major virulence genes of the virB operon and ... Since B. suis is unable to grow in a strongly acidic medium, it could be protected from acidification by the ammonia. Summary: ... Nickel is essential for many enzymatic reactions, including ureolysis to produce ammonia which in turn may neutralize acidic pH ...
As the proportion of amino acids rises, the sake tastes more savory. This number is determined by titration of the sake with a ... The result is usually a more acidic, "greener" sake. Fukurozuri (袋吊り) is a method of separating sake from the lees without ... Iron will bond with an amino acid produced by the kōji to produce off flavors and a yellowish color. Manganese, when exposed to ... aldehydes and amino acids, among other unknown factors. Tōji (杜氏) is the job title of the sake brewer, named after Du Kang. It ...
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal ... Additionally, each repeat has highly conserved acidic residues which it uses to coordinate a single calcium ion in an ... The cytosolic C-terminal domain contains ~50 amino acids, including a signal sequence important for localizing the receptors to ... contains roughly 40 amino acids, including 6 cysteine residues that form disulfide bonds within the repeat. ...
... , however, is composed of a different acidic amino sugar, which is N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid. This ... The different amino acids cause antibiotics, that target cell walls like penicillin, to be ineffective against ... These sugars are made of different amino acids, and the peptide cross-links within pseudopeptidoglycan are formed with ... different amino acids. The peptide bond is formed between the lysine of a N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid and a glutamine of a ...
... and two interactions involving acidic amino acids in the enzyme with each hydrogen atom of the amide group. This mechanism is ... Both enzyme families however target a shared amino acid sequence asparagine--any amino acid except proline-serine or threonine ... 2015, p. 6. Bause E, Legler G (June 1981). "The role of the hydroxy amino acid in the triplet sequence Asn-Xaa-Thr(Ser) for the ... The enzyme activity is further influenced by the amino acids around the sequon, with beta-loop structures especially important ...
... both are phosphorylation sites with locations at amino acid 210 and 224. A natural variant is found at amino acid 110 (Glutamic ... Before post-translational modifications, C3orf62 is an acidic protein. No charge clusters are present in C3orf62, and no ... C3orf62 human protein (Q6ZUJ4) is 267 amino acids long, and has a molecular mass of 30,194 Daltons. The isoelectric point of ... Valproic acid, and Decitabine. Interstitial deletions of chromosome 3 are rare, and only a few patients with a microdeletion of ...
... stomach acid. This is because feeding grain to cattle makes their normally pH-neutral digestive tract abnormally acidic; over ... it was remarked that the amino acids differ. Some studies report an increased presence in humans of rBGH and its IGF-1 product ... Meat from grass-fed cattle has higher levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the omega-3 fatty acids, ALA, EPA, and DHA. ... If humans ingest this acid-resistant E. coli via grain-feed beef, a large number of them may survive past the stomach, causing ...
... which has raised questions about whether TDP must be deprotonated by a basic amino acid at a second site away from the ... lactis: impact of acidic conditions on the transcriptional levels of the oxalyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase and formyl-CoA ... a TPP-dependent enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids in certain organisms. Sequence alignments ... A key feature of the cofactor TPP is the relatively acidic proton bound to the carbon atom between the nitrogen and sulfur in ...
The Ugi reaction using an isonitrile, amino acid, aldehyde and amine, can produce a dipeptide in equally high yield and optical ... 2,5-DKPs epimerize under basic, acidic and thermal conditions. The composition of the cis and trans isomers in the equilibrium ... As a consequence of their predominant biosynthetic origin from L-α-amino acids most naturally occurring 2,5-DKPs are cis ... This approach is useful for the production of unnatural amino acids with stereochemical control. The diketopiperazine skeleton ...
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... acetic acid - acetyl CoA - acetylcholine - acetylcysteine - acid - acidic fibroblast growth factor - acrosin - actin - action ... nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ... essential amino acid - ester - estradiol receptor - estrogen receptor - ethanol - ether - eukaryote - evolution - evolutionary ...
... from the amino acid glycine and succinyl-CoA from the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). The rate-limiting enzyme responsible for ... becomes positively charged under acidic conditions (which are caused by dissolved CO2 in working muscles, etc.), releasing ... In addition, a unique sulfonamide ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group ... For example, the ability of hemoglobin to effectively deliver oxygen to tissues is due to specific amino acid residues located ...
Enteroviruses are stable under acidic conditions, thus they are able to survive exposure to gastric acid. In contrast, ... to 25-amino acid-long viral protein linked to the VPg to initiate polymerase activity, where the primer is covalently bound to ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid is released. The acid forms a pore in ... and ribonucleic acid". Secondly, the name derives from pico-, which designates a very small unit of measurement (equivalent to ...
... reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a ... Dichlorine monoxide: the corresponding acidic oxide Hypofluorous acid Perchloric acid Harris, Daniel C. (2009). Exploring ... The reaction of aqueous hypochlorous acid with alpha-amino acids and dipeptides". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 313 (1): 170- ... The first reaction yields sulfenic acid (R-SOH) then sulfinic acid (R-SO2H) and finally R-SO3H. Sulfenic acids form disulfides ...
Key amino acids responsible for its catalytic function have been identified. The residue Tyr363 functions as the acid-base ... "Aldolase directly interacts with ARNO and modulates cell morphology and acidic vesicle distribution". American Journal of ... Freemont PS, Dunbar B, Fothergill-Gilmore LA (1988). "The complete amino acid sequence of human skeletal-muscle fructose- ... the key catalytic amino acid residues involved in the reaction are lysine and tyrosine. The tyrosine acts as an efficient ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... In addition to a zone 8 climate or warmer, tea plants require at least 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall per year and prefer acidic ... Williamson G, Dionisi F, Renouf M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ... acidic soils, and long brewing. Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and subtropical climates ...
... which consists of a conserved 6-amino acid sequence of the following formula: YxLxP, where "x" can be any amino acid ... Also, TERF2 has a basic N-terminus, differing from TERF1's acidic N-terminus, and was found to be much more conserved, ... where the amino acid Y (tyrosine) is replaced with F (phenylalanine). TERF2 has also been shown to interact with: Ku70, MRE11A ... Nucleic Acids Research. 24 (7): 1294-303. doi:10.1093/nar/24.7.1294. PMC 145771. PMID 8614633. Bilaud T, Brun C, Ancelin K, ...
... with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, and lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals ... Brazil's vast inland cerrado region was regarded as unfit for farming before the 1960s because the soil was too acidic and poor ... For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content permitted the ...
They contain 75% of the minerals, amino acids, proteins, phytohormones and biological catalysts (enzymes) found in the tree. ... In contrast, acidic soils tend to have their pH raised by RCW applications. While some species, such as black locust and black ...
Regulatory domains promoting gene transcription are usually acidic activators, composed of acidic and hydrophobic amino acids, ... are composed of 30 amino acids, can bind to non-palindromic sequences, and contain 3 to 4 critical amino acids at positions 1, ... composed of repeating 34 amino acids long segments forming a peptide ranging in total length from 340 to 510 amino acids. Each ... Because zinc fingers are only 30 amino acids long they are easier to deliver, and multiple zinc fingers can be linked together ...
In the laboratory, it can be converted to amino acids and short dipeptides may have facilitated the formation of complex sugars ... In acidic or basic solution, the compound undergoes reversible tautomerization to form 1,2-dihydroxyethene. It is the only ... Pizzarello, Sandra; Weber, A. L. (2004). "Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts". Science. 303 (5661): 1151. CiteSeerX ... This is converted to 5-hydroxyisourate, which decarboxylates to allantoin and allantoic acid. After hydrolyzing one urea, this ...
... is a thin, elongated monomer that consists of an amino-terminal acidic (NTA) region; 37-residue-long segments that ... It binds to Arp2/3 with an aspartic acid-aspartic acid-tryptophan (DDW) sequence in its NTA region, a motif that is often seen ...
Previous studies have reported that proteins with a high content of glutamate (E) and/or aspartate (D), amino acids with acidic ... It was subsequently renamed "E-rich 3" as a result of the high content of glutamate (E) in its encoded amino acid sequence. ... The C1orf173 protein in humans is 1,530 amino acids (aa) in length and contains two domains of unknown function, DUF4590 and ... it was found that C1orf173 is slightly acidic ranging from a pH of 4.6-5 for most orthologs. Further analysis using the NetPhos ...
Apart from amino-acids, PBM reaction can also be used to prepare carboxylic acids, albeit with unconventional mechanisms. In ... Lactamization reactions are commonly employed to form the heterocycles, usually under strongly acidic conditions. When a α- ... When used as nitrogen nucleophiles, amino acids can furnish various iminodicarboxylic acid derivatives. High ... Amino Acids from Alkenyl Boronic Acids". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119 (2): 445-446. doi:10.1021/ja963178n. Petasis, N. A.; Zavialov, I ...
Finally, the enzyme-like activity of the poly-amino acid segments is suggestive of a role of the reaction in the prebiotic ... compounds with acidic protons on the α or α' positions. electron rich olefins. The nucleophilic epoxidation is naturally ... Chiral amino acids, including leucine, have been generated in electrical discharge experiments designed to mimic the prebiotic ... Both poly-L- and poly-D-amino acids are available and cause the opposite stereoinduction. The original poly-leucine catalysts ...
Since the exact sites of receptor phosphorylation by beta-ARK are poorly defined, the identification of substrate amino acids ... Role of acidic amino acids in peptide substrates of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase and rhodopsin kinase Biochemistry. 1991 ... A family of peptides was synthesized to further study the role of acidic amino acids in peptide substrates of beta-ARK. By ... Removal of the negatively charged amino acids surrounding a cluster of serines in this alpha 2-peptide resulted in a complete ...
... and amino acid cartridges are suited for protein & peptides synthesis applications ... AMINO ACIDS & SYNTHESIS REAGENTS. Standard Amino Acids (D & L). Our collection of standard D & L, and amino acid cartridges are ... Each amino acid carries a unique R group that renders it with specific chemical properties. In turn, the amino acids in a ... L amino acids are the natural form (designated by upper case letters), and D amino acids are the unnatural form (designated by ...
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 * Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein * Microfilament Proteins * Olig2 protein, mouse ...
The GFAP gene provides instructions for making a protein called glial fibrillary acidic protein. Learn about this gene and ... amino acids) used to make glial fibrillary acidic protein. A few mutations add or remove two amino acids in the protein. All of ... The GFAP gene provides instructions for making a protein called glial fibrillary acidic protein. This protein is a member of ... As a result, the abnormal glial fibrillary acidic protein may accumulate in astroglial cells, contributing to the formation of ...
Plus for Lawns in Acidic & Hard Soil is a unique soil amendment for lawns to rapidly raise pH, loosen compaction and stimulate ... Fortified with: Highly soluble calcium carbonate, fast-acting gypsum, humates, iron, and amino acids ... Jonathan Green Mag-I-Cal® Plus for Lawns in Acidic & Hard Soil contains calcium carbonate in a completely soluble form that is ... Lawns thrive in soil with slightly acidic to neutral pH levels ranging from 6.2 to 7.0. When pH levels drop between 4.0 to 6.0 ...
... to amino acids 5-14 of Aβ; 4G8 (Senetek) to amino acids 17-24 of Aβ; AT-8 (Polymed, Chicago, IL) to phosphorylated tau; with a ... monoclonal antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN); and with polyclonal ... antibodies R163 to the C-terminal 8 amino acids of Aβ40, and R165 to the C-terminal 8 amino acids of Aβ42 (Pankaj Mehta, ...
8] Termed PD-1, this mutation codes for a substitution of threonine for alanine at amino acid 53. These individuals were ... However, when bound to membranes or vesicles containing acidic phospholipids, it takes on an alpha-helical structure. Normally ... Alpha-synuclein is a 140-amino-acid protein that is unfolded at neutral pH. ... producing a substitution of proline for alanine at amino acid 30) confirmed that mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene can ...
excitatory amino acid transporter 2. GFAP. glial fibrillary acidic protein. H&E. hematoxylin & eosin. IgG. immunoglobulin G. MS ...
2S)-2-[3-(AMINOMETHYL)PHENYL]-3-{(S)-HYDROXY[(1R)-2-METHYL-1-{[(2-PHENYLETHYL)SULFONYL]AMINO}PROPYL]PHOSPHORYL}PROPANOIC ACID: ... pKa (Strongest Acidic). 1.52. Chemaxon. pKa (Strongest Basic). 9.23. Chemaxon. Physiological Charge. -1. Chemaxon. ... Amine / Amino acid / Amino acid or derivatives / Aminosulfonyl compound / Aralkylamine / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound / ... Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organophosphorus compounds ...
Introduction The organic compounds that contain both the carboxyl and amino groups are Amino acids. So there are ... ... They are dipolar since they contain both acidic and basic functional groups. So it is a zwitterion. And also they can ... 1. Which is the smallest amino acid structure?. The nonessential amino acid, glycine is the smallest among the amino acids. ... There are mainly two types of amino acids that are essential and nonessential amino acids. Essential amino acids need to be ...
Susceptibility of influenza A viruses to baloxavir can be affected by changes at amino acid residue 38 in polymerase acidic (PA ... The aORs varied by maternal BMI, smoking status, and folic acid use. CONCLUSION: We observed modest associations between CLDs ... and folic acid use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted restricting to those with a residence closer to an air monitor. RESULTS ...
Kynurenic acid inhibits synaptic and acidic amino acid-induced responses in the rat hippocampus and spinal cord. Brain Res. ... Quinolinic acid: a potent endogenous excitant at amino acid receptors in CNS. Eur J Pharmacol. 1981;72(4):411-412.. View this ... Synthesis of quinolinic acid by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase in rat brain tissue in vitro. J Neurochem. 1986;47(1):23-30 ... 3-dioxygenase-mediated oxidative catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan in peripheral tissues and the central ...
Amino acid general formula and classification • Amino acids consist of: • a basic amino group ( -NH 2) • an acidic carboxyl ... aliphatic amino acids b) all amino acids c) Non-polar amino acids d) aromatic amino acids Online Practice test on. Amino acids ... glucogenic amino acid B. ketogenic amino acid C. ketogenic and glucogenic amino acid D. keto-gluco amino acid. non active amino ... the match in amino acid sequencs is perfect, except for the amino acids at 3 positions. Amino acid X and amino acid Y both have ...
... similar amino acid residues are shaded in red; the Leu zipper is indicated by a yellow underline; the acidic region is ... Identical amino acid residues in this alignment are shaded in blue, and similar amino acid residues are shaded in red. The F- ... Identical amino acid residues in this alignment are shaded in blue, and similar amino acid residues are shaded in red. The F- ... Identical amino acid residues in this alignment are shaded in blue; similar amino acid residues are shaded in red; the Leu ...
Polymerase acidic protein Chain: A Molecule details › Chain: A. Length: 471 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 53.87 KDa. Source ... Length: 30 amino acids. Theoretical weight: 3.19 KDa. Source organism: Influenza A virus. Expression system: Escherichia coli. ...
Free amino acids formed by treating soybeans with an acidic solution.. An excellent replacement for tamari, worcestershire and ... Which amino acids are found in Bragg Liquid Aminos?. Bragg Liquid Aminos contains 16 amino acids: alanine; arginine; aspartic ... acid; glutamic acid; glycine; histidine; isoleucine; lysine; leucine; methionine; phenylalanine; proline; serine; threonine; ...
The full-length YETI amino acid sequence is 241 amino acids in lenght; 3XFLAG::YETI-Nter corrisponds to residues 1-166, while ... Such unusual mobility on SDS/PAGE was found to be due to an acidic stretch located at the N-terminal region of the protein15. ... How to explain this result? It is important to point out that at the amino acid level the highest identity between the two ... However, both bands have an apparently molecular weight higher than expected; in particular CFDP1 is 299 amino acids long and ...
Amino Acids [D12.125]. *Amino Acids, Acidic [D12.125.067]. *Glutamates [D12.125.067.625]. *Amino Acids, Dicarboxylic [D12.125. ... Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that ...
Unfortunately, these black smokers are very acidic, which prevents amino-acid stabilization, and thus the formation of organic ... Scientists believe amino acids could have stabilized in the mud volcanoes of Isua. ...
During the fermentation around 22 °C (72 °F),[12] the pH of the milk decreases (it becomes more acidic). Amino acids at the ... meaning the state at which half the ionizable surface amino acids of the proteins are positively charged and half are negative. ... Regulations on preservatives used are that either sorbic acid, or propionic acid may be used independently or combined, but ... Lactic acid bacteria are added to pasteurized and homogenized milk. ...
... amino acids. The hydrolysis reactions were studied in acidic med... ... A series of new Iron(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes derived from the condensation of amino acid and sodium 2- ... Kinetic study of acid hydrolysis of some hydrophilic Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes with antibacterial properties was ... Kinetics of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of some high-spin Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes were followed ...
Expression of neutral and acidic amino acid transporters in ovine uteri and peri-implantation conceptuses. Biol. Reprod. 80: ... Amino acids and gaseous signaling. Amino Acids 37:65-78.. Kim, S.W. and G. Wu. 2009. Regulatory role for amino acids in mammary ... Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition. Amino Acids 37:1-17.. Li, X.L., F.W. Bazer, H. Gao, W. Jobgen, G.A. Johnson ... Amino Acids 37:169-175.. Wang, J.J., G. Wu, H.J. Zhou, and F.L. Wang. 2009. Emerging technologies for amino acid nutrition ...
There are also over a dozen different amino acids. All of these components give kelp its healing properties. These properties ... The immune system works more efficiently when the ph in the body is regulated between acidic and alkaline.. Iodine is important ... If the body becomes too acidic, that is when illness develops. Kelp has alkaline properties so it helps keep the body from ... becoming too acidic. This helps prevent some illnesses and helps enhance the immune system. ...
Acidic amino acids as counterions of ciprofloxacin: Effect on growth and pigment production in Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 ... Accurate estimation of isoelectric point of protein and peptide based on amino acid sequences. Audain, E., Ramos, Y., Hermjakob ... Acid glia provide a synaptic boost. Parri, R., 1 Apr 2021, In: Journal of Physiology. 599, 7, p. 1939-1940 2 p.. Research ... Acetic acid ketonization over Fe3O4/SiO2 for pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. Bennett, J., Parlett, C., Isaacs, M., Durndell, L. J. ...
Step 3 - DNA, RNA and amino acid changes in cancer cells. In step 3, DNA and RNA in an acidic medium lose positive and negative ... In addition, the nucleic acids and amino acids entering, and those within the cell, are altered [mutate]. ... The lactic acid produced by fermentation lowers the cell pH (acid/alkaline balance) and destroys the ability of DNA and RNA to ... 10 and was this all ascorbic acid? That would be an enormous amount of acid! The amount of 50 grams could still be ingested but ...
However, I do think you are all underestimating the acidic properties of amino acids. It is true that their solutions are only ... The Akabori refers to the reaction between an aldehyde & amino acid to yield the corresponding amino alcohol. For this run, the ... HCl until the acid remain acidic upon settling. Temperature before acid addition was 10 C, after addition the temperature had ... This could indicate a target dilution, as well as an aldehyde to amino acid ratio, to aim for in order to decrease aldehyde ...
... concentration regardless of content in acidic amino acids. Biophysical Journal 120 (13), S. 2746 - 2762 (2021) ... Robalo, J. R.; Vila Verde, A.: Unexpected Trends in the Hydrophobicity of Fluorinated Amino Acids Reflect Competing Changes in ... The multiple origins of the hydrophobicity of fluorinated apolar amino acids. Chem 3 (5), S. 881 - 897 (2017) ...
... benzenesulfonic acid coupled with 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid under acidic conditions, further coupled ... 4-amino-6-[(E)-2-{5-[(4-fluoro-6-{[2-(2-hydroxyethanesulfonyl)ethyl](phenyl)amino}-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]-2-sulfophenyl} ... Reaction products of diazotised 2-amino-5-{[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]sulfonyl} ... diazen-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-3-[(E)-2-{2-sulfo-4-[2-(sulfooxy)ethanesulfonyl]phenyl}diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid. ...
  • A family of peptides was synthesized to further study the role of acidic amino acids in peptide substrates of beta-ARK. (
  • While there were no significant differences between glutamic and aspartic acid residues, serine-containing peptides were 4-fold better substrates than threonine. (
  • Comparing a variety of kinases, only rhodopsin kinase and casein kinase II exhibited significant phosphorylation of the acidic peptides. (
  • Our collection of standard D & L, and amino acid cartridges are suited for protein & peptides synthesis applications. (
  • KLC1 TPR binds Y-acidic peptides with low micromolar affinity. (
  • During the process of digestion, these enzymes, each of which is specialized in severing links between particular types of amino acids , collaborate to break down dietary proteins into their components, i.e., peptides and amino acids, which can be readily absorbed by the small intestine . (
  • Substance obtained by acidic, alkaline, or enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed animals composed primarily of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. (
  • The constituents of viscera (amino, acids, peptides, proteins, etc.) and plant materials do not interfere with the test. (
  • The 20 standard amino acids are "proteinogenic" meaning they are naturally genetically encoded and can be incorporated into proteins during translation. (
  • Amino acids are the basic constituent of proteins. (
  • And proteins are formed when amino acids combine. (
  • The functions of the compound amino acids are many they are a synthesis of porphyrin, synthesis of proteins, synthesis of plant hormones, synthesis of vitamins, etc. (
  • The human craniofacial development protein 1 (CFDP1) is a 299 amino acid long polypeptide which belongs to the evolutionarily conserved family of Bucentaur (BCNT) proteins ( Fig. 1 ) characterized by a highly conserved C- terminal BCNT domain 1 , 2 . (
  • Amino acids at the surface of the proteins begin losing charge and become neutral, turning the fat micelles from hydrophilic to hydrophobic state and causing the liquid to coagulate . (
  • Proteins maintain hydration at high [KCl] concentration regardless of content in acidic amino acids. (
  • There are also exopeptidases which remove individual amino acids at both ends of proteins ( carboxypeptidases produced by the pancreas and aminopeptidases secreted by the small intestine). (
  • When proteins bind to Coomassie blue in acid solution their positive charges suppress the protonation and a blue colour results. (
  • Proteins enriched in the brain included those involved in acidic amino acid metabolism, Golgi apparatus, and ion and phospholipid transport. (
  • Basidiocarps of A. hygrometricus are rich in proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, crude fibre and essential amino acids with lower concentration of fat. (
  • 4 Edible mushrooms are low calorie-low fat food supplement with generous amount of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals amino acids 5 and dietary fibre. (
  • Five novel Cu(II) complexes derived from the condensation between 5-bromosalicylaldehyde (bs) and α-amino acids (L-alanine, l-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-histidine and L-arginine) were synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, mass and electronic spectra, conductance and magnetic measurements. (
  • The studied ligands were derived from the condensation of 5-bromosalicylaldehyde with different four amino acids (phenylalanine, aspartic acid, histidine, and arginine). (
  • Contrary, for PAM250 the value for the amino acid subsitution Histidine to Aspartic acid is average. (
  • Example of essential amino acid is histidine, valine, etc. (
  • 22) Consider all possible tripeptides made of the amino acids tyrosine, histidine and proline. (
  • In acidic conditions, Coomassie dye primarily binds basic amino acids (arginine, lysine and histidine). (
  • Lawns thrive in soil with slightly acidic to neutral pH levels ranging from 6.2 to 7.0. (
  • cells were best adapted when maximal oxygenation of the culture was maintained in slightly acidic pH, any deviation necessitated more extensive readjustment to additional stress factors. (
  • is an ectomycorrhizal 13 non-cultivable wild edible mushroom, belonging to Astraeaceae family 14 , 15 , growing symbiotically with the Shorea robusta G.f. roots during monsoon and post monsoon period in slightly acidic (pH 5.5 - 6.0) red lateritic forest soil and sandy loam soil 16 Figure 1 . (
  • Remember that cannabis plants thrive better if the ground is well-oxygenated, porous, and slightly acidic (pH 6 - pH 6.8). (
  • Read Online Amino Acid Metabolism Mcqs And Answers Multiple Choice Questions- Amino acid and protein chemistry 1-A mutation has changed an isoleucine residue of a protein to Glutamic acid, which statement best describes its location in a endobj Biology MCQs for Class 12 Chapter Wise with Answers PDF Download was Prepared Based on Latest Exam Pattern. (
  • Results Yeast populations grown in the presence of rapamycin reached higher cell densities complemented by an increase in their chronological lifespan, and these physiological adaptations were associated with a rewiring of the amino acid metabolism, particularly that of arginine. (
  • Its aqueous solution is acidic.The Primary role of vitamin B6 is to act as a coenzyme to many other enzymes in the body that are involved in metabolism. (
  • And it is involved in amino acid, glucose and lipid metabolism processes. (
  • It is rich in Protein and has all the amino acid that your body needs for proper metabolism. (
  • The hydrolysis reactions were studied in acidic med. (
  • Kinetic study of acid hydrolysis of some hydrophilic Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes with antibacterial properties was performed using spectrophotometry. (
  • Kinetics of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of some high-spin Fe(II) Schiff base amino acid complexes were followed spectrophotometrically at 298 K under pseudo-first-order conditions. (
  • Gelatin is a protein that contains essential amino acids and comes from the hydrolysis of collagen from natural sources. (
  • Indoxacarb (I) on acid hydrolysis yield its metabolites namely 4-trifloro-methoxy-phenyl amine (II), Oxidiazine (III) and acetic acid (IV). (
  • In the APTES/L-AA/water ternary phase, the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of APTES occurred under acidic conditions to form spherical FOS NBs with an average diameter of 426.8 nm. (
  • Gallic acid is a powerful antioxidant with multiple therapeutic applications, usually obtained from the acidic hydrolysis of tannins produced by many plants. (
  • Metabolites including lysine, arginine, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, adenosine, and fumaric acid were responsible for the separation of E. coli ATCC 25922. (
  • b) The requirement for dietary protein is for individual amino acids, not simply the total amount of protein in the diet. (
  • This bacteria breaks down gelatin polymer into individual amino acids for nutrient. (
  • Here, using X-ray crystallography, we show how kinesin-1 recognizes a novel class of adaptor motifs that we call 'Y-acidic' (tyrosine flanked by acidic residues), in a KLC-isoform specific manner. (
  • The cleavage specificity of pepsin is broad, but some amino acids like tyrosine , phenylalanine and tryptophan increase the probability of cleavage. (
  • Removal of the negatively charged amino acids surrounding a cluster of serines in this alpha 2-peptide resulted in a complete loss of phosphorylation by the kinase. (
  • In turn, the amino acids in a peptide sequence dictate the peptide properties such as hydrophobicity, solubility, and charge. (
  • Peptide Complex is known for supporting skin's own collagen and elastin, but when joined forces with Botanical Hyaluronic Acid, Plant Stem Cells, and Licorice Extract, it becomes the gold standard in eye skincare. (
  • Tri means three, Peptide means essentially amino acid. (
  • Unlike beta-ARK, RK preferred acid residues localized to the carboxyl-terminal side of the serine. (
  • To overcome this condition, the kidneys are summoned in to remove these acidic residues by borrowing essential minerals from our storage, or bones and then making you urinate more often. (
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. (
  • β-alanine is naturally occurring β-amino acid (amino group is at the β position not in the α position) 7. (
  • Once no more impurities (l-alanine mostly) were seen to fall out of solution, the mixture was carefully removed, 3* 50 ml cold toluene was used to rinse the unreacted l-alanine, the pooled toluene extracts were then shaken with 15% HCl until the acid remain acidic upon settling. (
  • Kelp has alkaline properties so it helps keep the body from becoming too acidic. (
  • The immune system works more efficiently when the ph in the body is regulated between acidic and alkaline. (
  • The lactic acid produced by fermentation lowers the cell pH (acid/alkaline balance) and destroys the ability of DNA and RNA to control cell division… the cancer cells begin to multiply unchecked. (
  • This method is based on modified Edman reaction, which uses the effect of N-alkylated amino acids being able to form Edman products in neutral or alkaline conditions without changing the pH to acidic conditions required in conventional Edman reaction procedures. (
  • Perspiration begins as acidic substance but later decomposes to an alkaline condition. (
  • Able to be used for both saliva and urine, these ultra-sensitive strips give an accurate reading of your body’s current pH status in just 15 seconds, allowing you to test your acid-alkaline balance right in your own home. (
  • The organic compounds that contain both the carboxyl and amino groups are Amino acids. (
  • Amino acids are crystalline colourless organic compounds. (
  • Unfortunately, these black smokers are very acidic, which prevents amino-acid stabilization, and thus the formation of organic molecules. (
  • Underneath an APB biofilm, the local pH is much more acidic than in the bulk-fluid pH, leading to organic acid attacks. (
  • One way is we like to look at organic acids testing. (
  • Those are going to be some of the best ways to test it on the organic acids. (
  • So when you look on the organic acids section, it gives you about five different organic acids that are that are very, very helpful at looking at glutathione the big three of the ones I just mentioned, I'll pull up a couple others that I use as well, that are more on the precursor side for glycine. (
  • These form in people with certain hereditary disorders that cause them to excrete too much cysteine, an amino acid, in their kidneys. (
  • 5 ] reported that Plasmodium falciparum -derived cysteine protease, falcipain-2, cleaves host erythrocyte hemoglobin at acidic pH and specific components of the membrane skeleton at neutral pH. (
  • a) aliphatic amino acids b) all amino acids c) Non-polar amino acids d) aromatic amino acids Online Practice test on. (
  • Ile is much bigger than Ser and also branched, because it is an aliphatic amino acid. (
  • Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride 58 sigma aldrich D9628-5G 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine 59 sigma aldrich 340200-25G 3-Amino-5-methylpyrazole 60 sigma aldrich 68524-100MG 4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 61 sigma aldrich D15405-5G 4,5-Diamino-2,6-dimercaptopyrimidine 62 sigma aldrich D17807-25G 4,5-Diamino-6-hydroxy-2-mercaptopyrimidine 63 sigma aldrich D176605-5G 4,5-Dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine 64 sigma aldrich D8417-5MG 4? (
  • Also search for moisturizing skin care creams that have added vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids to replenish moisture. (
  • Basidiocarp of this macrofungi contains considerable amount of carbohydrate, protein, fibre, minerals, vitamins, essential amino acids and very minute concentration of fat. (
  • And when Vitamins C and E join forces with Hyaluronic Acid and MSM, they're known to encourage collagen production and boost radiance for truly nourished and healthy-feeling skin. (
  • Extremely rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, potassium and vitamins A, B, D and E. Strongly moisturizes, nourishes and firms the skin, helping it regenerate. (
  • Seachem Nourish provides the vitamins, amino acids and trace elements to support their health in this type of setting. (
  • In 1962, Pedrini et al isolated and identified KS in the urine of three patients with Morquio syndrome and reported that this metabolic disorder differs from that observed in Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type I [MPS I]).[3] In 1965, McKusick et al classified Morquio syndrome, as well as Hurler and Hunter syndromes, as hereditary acid mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS I to MPS VI). (
  • This type of stone forms when your urine is too acidic. (
  • If you have uric acid stones, you want to avoid making your urine more acidic, so you may want to try adding orange to your water instead. (
  • 7] demonstrated that acidic urine pH increased the level of both free ABZ and the dGp-ABZ adduct in exfoliated urothelial cells of workers exposed to benzidine and benzidine-based dyes, and that ABZ strongly correlated with adduct levels. (
  • have shown that this compound is extremely acid labile with its half-life reduced to several minutes under acidic conditions in urine. (
  • 8][9] In contrast, it is unlikely that DNA adduct formation would have been influenced by urine acidity if NOHN-acetylbenzidine-N-glucuronide was the only adduct forming agent, because this glucuronide is much more stable under acidic pH conditions, with a long half-life. (
  • In addition, N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine itself may be excreted unconjugated in urine and it is known to react rapidly with DNA at acidic pH to form dGp-ABZ (this is how this adduct was originally characterized). (
  • It is readily absorbed when given by mouth and is excreted in the urine as carbonate which makes it effective in treating the pain and frequency of highly acidic urine. (
  • Several molecules of glial fibrillary acidic protein bind together to form the type of intermediate filament found in astroglial cells. (
  • Amino acids have important applications in the human body since they help in food digestion, repairing tissues, proper functioning of enzymes, promoting muscle growth, transportation of molecules, etc. (
  • Amino acids are polar molecules and will dissolve in water and ethanol. (
  • 2009. Select nutrients in the ovine uterine lumen: I. Amino acids, glucose and ions in uterine lumenal flushings of cyclic and pregnant ewes. (
  • When the medium is inoculated with a bacterium that is able to ferment dextrose (glucose), acids are produced that lower the pH of the medium, and change the color of the indicator from purple to yellow. (
  • This minimizes the release of the volatile vapors - called amino acid sulfoxides - that mix with other chemicals to produce a mildly acidic compound that irritates our eyes. (
  • It may be necessary to treat the area locally with mildly acidic stain removal agents or tannin formulas. (
  • Amino acids in a polypeptide Nucleic acids in a nucleotide Answer- Nucleic acids in a nucleotide Q10) Which one of the following is a non-reducing carbohydrate? (
  • Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure. (
  • Perspiration is composed of mainly water, but it also contains other substances, such as chloride salts, amino acids, and ammonium compounds. (
  • By kinetic analyses of the phosphorylation reactions, beta-ARK exhibited a marked preference for negatively charged amino acids localized to the NH2-terminal side of a serine or threonine residue. (
  • The following pictures display that the original amino acid Serine looks different to Isoleucine. (
  • In this case, the substitution of Serine to Isoleucine acid has very low value that is nearer to the values for the rarest subsitution for PAM1. (
  • Generally, hydrophobic amino acids at P1 and P1' positions increase cleavage probability. (
  • Lactic acid bacteria are added to pasteurized and homogenized milk. (
  • MIC by acid-producing bacteria (APB) belongs to a different type of MIC because the oxidant (proton) is reduced outside the cells on the steel surface rather than in the cytoplasm ( Gu, 2012 ). (
  • Also discovered, was the presence of Lactic Acid Bacteria. (
  • Lactic Acid Bacteria, also known as Lactobacillus Acidophilus, is the good intestinal bacteria. (
  • Acid-fast staining: Acid-fast staining is a differential staining technique that is used to identify certain types of bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis. (
  • Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH. (
  • Quantitation of the acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct is performed using octapeptides with the same amino acid sequence as the N-terminal of the beta-chain of hemoglobin and with acrylamide and glycidamide attached at the valine (AA-VHLTPEEK, GA-VHLTPEEK) and the corresponding stable isotope labeled AA-Val(13C5 15N)-HLTPEEK and GA-Val(13C5 15N)-HLTPEEK as internal standards. (
  • The GII.12 P2 sequences were similar to sequence analysis demonstrated the emergence of a 2 GII.12 strains detected in sporadic cases in Australia ( 7 ) recombinant strain without novel amino acid substitutions and Hungary in 2009 (Figure 1). (
  • Light chains are divided into 2 major classes based on the amino acid sequence in the constant portion of the polypeptide chain and are designated as kappa and lambda. (
  • These are further divided into at least 10 subtypes (4 kappa and 6 lambda) based on the amino acid sequence in the variable region of the polypeptide chain. (
  • What sequence of amino acids results after translation occurs? (
  • Our best-selling and award winning Vitamin C Serum intentionally pairs this respected antioxidant with three of skin's best buds-Vitamin E, Hyaluronic Acid, and MSM. (
  • Botanical Hyaluronic Acid is a naturally-occurring humectant that supports skin hydration & health while Plant Stem Cells helps fight against free radicals & premature aging. (
  • It has highly moisturizing properties, thanks to which it maintains an appropriate level of hyaluronic acid in the skin. (
  • were prepared based on … Carboxylic group provides an acidic property to the amino acid while amino group gives it … Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. (
  • The carbon has an amino group, carboxylic group, hydrogen and variable R group. (
  • Bonking, often referred to as "hitting the wall" is an unfortunate but common race-day phenomenon that occurs when carbohydrates and amino acids are completely depleted. (
  • When soil is compacted or too acidic, air, water, and nutrients are unable to reach the roots, making it very difficult for grass to flourish. (
  • Probably the best studied example of a specific "behavior modifying" substance in our foods is the essential amino acid tryptophan. (
  • The most important factor determining the total amount of tryptophan that does enter the brain is the concentration of other large-molecule amino acids concurrently present in the blood. (
  • Large-molecule amino acids, among them tryptophan, compete with each other to enter "gates" between the circulating blood stream and the relatively confined brain fluids. (
  • Conversely, a low-protein, carbohydrate-rich diet (full of starches, vegetables, and fruits) results in the highest levels of serotonin in the brain, because fewer large-molecule amino acids are competing with tryptophan to enter the brain. (
  • The GFAP gene provides instructions for making a protein called glial fibrillary acidic protein. (
  • If brain or spinal cord cells are injured through trauma or disease, astroglial cells react by rapidly producing more glial fibrillary acidic protein. (
  • Although its function is not fully understood, glial fibrillary acidic protein is probably involved in controlling the shape, movement, and function of astroglial cells. (
  • Most of these mutations change one of the building blocks (amino acids) used to make glial fibrillary acidic protein. (
  • All of these changes alter the structure of glial fibrillary acidic protein. (
  • As a result, the abnormal glial fibrillary acidic protein may accumulate in astroglial cells, contributing to the formation of Rosenthal fibers, which impair cell function. (
  • The Alexander disease-causing glial fibrillary acidic protein mutant, R416W, accumulates into Rosenthal fibers by a pathway that involves filament aggregation and the association of alpha B-crystallin and HSP27. (
  • 1984. The reversal potential of excitatory amino acid action on granule cells of the rat dentate gyrus. (
  • Expression of neutral and acidic amino acid transporters in ovine uteri and peri-implantation conceptuses. (
  • Glutamic acid dependent system was the major acid resistance mechanism of this strain. (
  • It contains bitter almond oil, hydrolyzed collagen (amino acids) and has a pH of 8.5. (
  • They are dipolar since they contain both acidic and basic functional groups. (
  • There are a few natural oils that are rich in fatty acids. (
  • Almond oil is extremely rich in fatty acids, specifically oleic and linoleic fatty acids. (
  • These are essential fatty acids that your skin requires to achieve that full, youthful look. (
  • As the essential fatty acids are depleted with age, the cell membranes of your skin are affected. (
  • In an analysis of a sample of green tripe by a Woodson-Tenant Lab in Atlanta, Georgia, it was discovered that the calcium:phosphorus ratio is 1:1, the overall pH is on the acidic side which is better for digestion, protein is 15.1, fat 11.7 and it contained the essential fatty acids, Linoleic and Linolenic, in their recommended proportions. (
  • With a very high level of unsaturated fatty acids (over 90%) and a rich source of vitamin E. This oil is completely absorbed through the skin, it does not leave an unpleasant oily surface. (
  • Pepsin cleaves the 44 amino acids from pepsinogen to create more pepsin. (
  • Potassium Sorbate a potassium salt of sorbic acid, a naturally occurring antimicrobial compound. (
  • Sulfur rich amino acids and you're not going to find a lot of these amino acids by the way in in plant based products, you're going to find the mainly in animal based products. (
  • A lot of plant based products tend to be lower in sulfur amino acids and you actually have to combine them to even get them appropriately right. (
  • So there are two functional groups present in this molecule they are amino (-NH 2 ) and carboxyl groups (-COOH). (
  • And also they can participate in chemical reactions which involve the use of the functional groups' carboxyl and an amino group. (
  • Some of them cannot be synthesized by our body and are given the name essential amino acids since we need to consume them through food. (
  • Apart from the nine essential amino acids all the other amino acids are synthesized in the cells present in our body itself and are given the name nonessential amino acids. (
  • These 20 amino acids that are essential and nonessential differ from each other in the side chain of the R or hydrocarbon group. (
  • Non-essential amino acids. (
  • The amino acid that would not be synthesized or produced by our body but is needed for the proper functioning of the human body is an essential amino acid. (
  • The structure of essential and nonessential amino acids is shown below. (
  • List the essential and nonessential amino acids. (
  • Examples of Essential and nonessential amino acids are shown below. (
  • 1. There are 9 essential amino acids and 11 non-essential amino acids. (
  • An acid-base reaction between water and ammonia occurs such that the dominant form of ammonia in water, at environmentally relevant pHs, is the ammonium ion. (
  • 2003. Developmental changes of amino acids in ovine fetal fluids. (
  • Jonathan Green Mag-I-Cal ® Plus for Lawns in Acidic & Hard Soil contains calcium carbonate in a completely soluble form that is immediately available to adjust soil pH upwards. (
  • Creatine first exists in amino acid form when it's produced by our liver, kidneys and pancreas. (
  • Recently I've been experimenting with the Akabori reaction, just curious to see if the process for making amino alcohols can be improved upon. (
  • The Akabori refers to the reaction between an aldehyde & amino acid to yield the corresponding amino alcohol. (
  • This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of carbon-containing defects, which act as luminescent centers formed by the reaction between amino groups in the APTES and l -ascorbic acid reductant. (
  • If the organism produces the appropriate enzyme, the amino acid in the medium is degraded, yielding a corresponding amine. (
  • If the organism does not produce the appropriate enzyme, the medium remains acidic (yellow). (
  • Therefore we created a picture for the original amino acid, for the new mutated amino acid and finally for both together in one picture whereas the mutation is white colored. (
  • It is again swallowed and then passed through the reticulum and omasum into the abomasum, where it is then further broken down by the gastric juices, amino acids, and other digestive enzymes. (