Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Rationalization: A defense mechanism operating unconsciously, in which the individual attempts to justify or make consciously tolerable, by plausible means, feelings, behavior, and motives that would otherwise be intolerable.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1: A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Transport System y+Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 4: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 5: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in the RETINA.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
... of large neutral amino acids for transport across the blood-brain barrier through the large neutral amino acid transporter 1 ( ... Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, safe (probably even in all children ... The protein synthesis elicited by the amino acids leads circulating amino acids, including tryptophan, to be incorporated into ... as lysine is one of the most abundant amino acids and tryptophan is one of the least abundant amino acids. While GCDH ...
... a small protein of 71 amino acyl residues of unknown function. A periplasmic binding protein, MppA, essential for the uptake of ... Most of these proteins are of about the same size (180-230 aas) although a few are larger. They exhibit 6 (or in some cases, ... The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family (TC# 2.A.95) is a family of transporters belonging to the Lysine Exporter ... "2.A.95 The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Retrieved 2016-02-25. Drew ...
2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2002). "ATA2-mediated amino acid uptake following partial hepatectomy is regulated by redistribution to the plasma membrane". ... The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi: ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
... making tryptophan preferentially available to the large neutral amino acid transporter at the blood-brain barrier. Uptake of ... This lowers the ratio of these branched-chain amino acids in the bloodstream relative to tryptophan (an aromatic amino acid), ... Insulin stimulates the uptake of valine, leucine, and isoleucine into skeletal muscle, but not uptake of tryptophan. ... The large movement of potassium from the extracellular fluid can lead to a mild hypokalemic state. The effects of hypokalemia ...
"The amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily of transporters specific for amino acids, polyamines and organocations ... of CadB are involved preferentially in cadaverine uptake at neutral pH, while only Tyr(90) of PotE is involved preferentially ... The Amino acid-Polyamine-organoCation (APC) superfamily is the second largest superfamily of secondary carrier proteins ... The most recent families added include the PAAP (Putative Amino Acid Permease), LIVCS (Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation ...
... derived from the related proteinogenic L-amino acid glutamic acid. Theanine is an analog of this amino acid, and its primary ... In addition, it inhibits glutamine transporters and glutamate transporters, and thus blocks the reuptake of glutamine and ... Large studies in humans have not been undertaken; however, several smaller-scale studies (fewer than 100 participants) have ... acid racemization in aqueous media is a well-established chemical process promoted by elevated temperature and non-neutral pH ...
... then interacts with TonB through a 5 amino acid consensus sequence, which induces a change to the N-terminal opening a ... Studies of FhuA, a similar TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter, show that the interaction of the N-terminus domain to the ... Klebba, Phillip E. (2003-09-01). "Three paradoxes of ferric enterobactin uptake". Frontiers in Bioscience. 8: s1422-1436. doi: ... this both alters the 3-dimensional conformation of the molecule and changes the charge from neutral to negative 3. The FepA ...
Kanai Y, Hediger MA (2004). "The glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter family SLC1: molecular, physiological and ... 1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146 . PMID 9110174 ... Danbolt NC (September 2001). "Glutamate uptake". Prog. Neurobiol. 65 (1): 1-105. doi:10.1016/S0301-0082(00)00067-8. PMID ... SLC1A3 is also often called the GLutamate ASpartate Transporter (GLAST) or Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 (EAAT1) . GLAST ...
A common amino acyl motif in these transporters is an asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motif. Aquaporins generally have the NPA ... The third subfamily, with little conserved amino acid sequences around the NPA boxes, include 'superaquaporins' (S-aquaporins ... The Formate-Nitrite Transporter (FNT) Family The MIP family is large and diverse, possessing thousands of members that form ... For example, the glycerol channel, FPS1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates uptake of arsenite and antimonite. Ion ...
Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... transporters play essential roles in the uptake of nutrients, production of energy, chemical metabolism, detoxification, and ... 2006). "Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative ... Gu S, Roderick HL, Camacho P, Jiang JX (2001). "Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and ...
Insulin in turn stimulates the uptake of large neutral branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), but not tryptophan, into muscle, ... The resulting increased tryptophan ratio reduces competition at the large neutral amino acid transporter (which transports both ... High blood plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids prevent the plasma concentration of tryptophan from increasing ... It contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic acid group, and a side chain indole, making it a non-polar aromatic amino acid. ...
Apart from these amino acids, the remainder of the structure is found to be specialised in relation to its functional ... These transmembrane transporters are localised both in the cytoplasmic membrane and in the MM, but in an inverted orientation; ... Instead, individual magnetite crystals in MTB are of a size between 35 and 120 nm, that is, large enough to have a magnetic ... From a thermodynamic point of view, in the presence of a neutral pH and a low redox potential, the inorganic synthesis of ...
PCFT is located on chromosome 17q11.2 and consists of five exons encoding a protein with 459 amino acids and a MW of ~50kDa. ... Keating, E; Lemos, C; Azevedo, I; Martel, F (February 2006). "Comparison of folic acid uptake characteristics by human ... Structurally, there are twelve transmembrane helices with the N- and C- termini directed to the cytoplasm and a large internal ... Pemetrexed, an antifolate inhibitor primarily of thymidylate synthase, is a good substrate for PCFT even at neutral pH as ...
Increased amino acid uptake - forces cells to absorb circulating amino acids; decrease of insulin inhibits absorption. Arterial ... Increased esterification of fatty acids - forces adipose tissue to make neutral fats (i.e., triglycerides) from fatty acids; ... These glucose transporters have a relatively low affinity for glucose, ensuring that the rate of glucose entry into the β-cells ... Children dying from diabetic ketoacidosis were kept in large wards, often with 50 or more patients in a ward, mostly comatose. ...
Uptake and release effects of diethylpropion and its metabolites with biogenic amine transporters Han Yua, Richard B Rothmanb, ... The conclusions are that methedrone, just as most analogs, is stable in acid solutions. However, in neutral and basic solutions ... It could also make the drug less popular, because humans tend to favor drugs that cause large, rapid initial increases in ... Skita, A. (1933). "Eine neue Synthese von 1.2-Amino-ketonen". Chemische Berichte. 66: 858-866. doi:10.1002/cber.19330660615. " ...
Specialized transporter proteins (far left) within the plasma membrane of yeast cells bring amino acid residues and small ... and the near neutral pH of cytoplasm inside the yeast cells. The proton symport proteins in the membrane take in the amino acid ... the ability to produce extracellular protease enzymes that can also breakdown larger peptide chains into their base amino acid ... Also the amount of oxygen exposure will influence the rate of nitrogen uptake by the yeast with wine fermented in complete ...
3.A.1.3 Polar Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (PAAT) 3.A.1.4 Hydrophobic Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (HAAT) 3.A.1.5 Peptide/ ... ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest ... Pgp is known to transport organic cationic or neutral compounds. A few ABCC family members, also known as MRP, have also been ... Opine/Nickel Uptake Transporter (PepT) 3.A.1.6 Sulfate/Tungstate Uptake Transporter (SulT) 3.A.1.7 Phosphate Uptake Transporter ...
... with low net charge or have hydrophobic amino acid groups that are crucial for cellular uptake. The first CPP was discovered ... Two types of neutral ON analogues, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO or Morpholino) ... CPPs found applications as transporters of contrast agents across plasma membranes. These contrast agents are able to label the ... This mechanism explains how key ingredients, such as the cooperation among the peptides, the large positive charge, and ...
... with low net charge or have hydrophobic amino acid groups that are crucial for cellular uptake.[1][2] ... Two types of neutral ON analogues, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO or Morpholino) ... 2.3 As contrast agents transporters *2.3.1 Contrast agents as cargo molecules *2.3.1.1 Quantum dots ... This mechanism explains how key ingredients, such as the cooperation among the peptides, the large positive charge, and ...
This method allows the analysis of all of the protein patterns overall, rather than a single change in an amino acid. Western ... Compared to simple 2D page, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry can handle a larger range of protein species size, but it ... The proteins being mapped here include ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and molecule transporters. Along the plasma ... proteins are run across an immobile gel with a pH gradient until they stop at the point where their net charge is neutral. ...
... derived from the related proteinogenic L-amino acid glutamic acid. Theanine is an analog of this amino acid, and its primary ... it inhibits glutamine transporters and glutamate transporters, and thus blocks the reuptake of glutamine and glutamate.[17][21] ... acid racemization in aqueous media is a well-established chemical process promoted by elevated temperature and non-neutral pH ... Addition of sugar and small quantities of milk make no significant difference, while larger quantities of milk reduced the ...
It contains hydrophilic amino acid residues aligned along one side and hydrophobic amino acid residues aligned along the ... ATP-binding cassette transporters import antimicrobial peptides and the resistance-nodulation cell-division efflux pump exports ... electrically neutral) surface of the bacterial membranes, which act only as a minor effect in this case. In contrast, the outer ... and a large proportion (generally >50%) of hydrophobic residues. The secondary structures of these molecules follow 4 themes, ...
High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... "Evidence for significant contribution of a newly identified monoamine transporter (PMAT) to serotonin uptake in the human brain ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... The 5-HTTLPR gene codes for the number of serotonin transporters in the brain, with more serotonin transporters causing ...
It has a structure similar to that of amino acids, and is amphiphilic: it is able to bind to cell membranes through charge- ... Larger doses may be required for some patients in order to reduce LIC levels. The ability of deferasirox to effectively reduce ... It binds iron, decreasing the toxic reactions catalysed by the unbound metal, and it also decreases the uptake of iron by ... DFP, however, can do so and forms a soluble, neutral iron-drug complex that can cross cell membranes by non-facilitated ...
... organic acids, and trace gases in the presence of unabsorbed fructose. The presence of gases and organic acids in the large ... Fructose undergoes the Maillard reaction, non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids. Because fructose exists to a greater extent ... Fructose absorption occurs in the small intestine via the GLUT-5 (fructose only) transporter, and the GLUT2 transporter, for ... Uptake of fructose by the liver is not regulated by insulin. However, insulin is capable of increasing the abundance and ...
Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. PMID 11901210 ...
... is absorbed from the intestines by an active transport process mediated via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5), a transporter for amino acids such as L-leucine and L-phenylalanine.[10][90][95] Very few (less than 10 drugs) are known to be transported by this transporter.[96] Gabapentin is transported solely by the LAT1,[95][97] and the LAT1 is easily saturable, so the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin are dose-dependent, with diminished bioavailability and delayed peak levels at higher doses.[10] Gabapentin enacarbil is transported not by the LAT1 but by the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), and no saturation of bioavailability has been observed with the drug up to a dose ...
... is absorbed from the intestines by an active transport process mediated via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5), a transporter for amino acids such as L-leucine and L-phenylalanine.[10][90][95] Very few (less than 10 drugs) are known to be transported by this transporter.[96] Gabapentin is transported solely by the LAT1,[95][97] and the LAT1 is easily saturable, so the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin are dose-dependent, with diminished bioavailability and delayed peak levels at higher doses.[10] Gabapentin enacarbil is transported not by the LAT1 but by the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), and no saturation of bioavailability has been observed with the drug up to a dose ...
... , also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in transporting glutamate across plasma membranes in neurons. In the brain, excitatory amino acid transporters are crucial in terminating the postsynaptic action of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and in maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as glutamate-aspartate transport ...
... is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in transporting glutamate across plasma membranes in neurons. In the brain, excitatory amino acid transporters are crucial in terminating the postsynaptic action of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and in maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as glutamate-aspartate transport defect.[6] EAAT3 is also the major route of neuronal cysteine uptake. Cysteine is a component of the major antioxidant glutathione, and mice lacking EAAT3 exhibit reduced levels of glutathione in neurons, increased oxidative stress, and age-dependent loss of neurons, especially neurons of the substantia nigra. ...
Hoshide R, Ikeda Y, Karashima S, Matsuura T, Komaki S, Kishino T, Niikawa N, Endo F, Matsuda I (Mar 1997). "Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of human cationic amino acid transporter 2 (HCAT2)". Genomics. 38 (2): 174-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0613. PMID 8954799 ...
Hyperuricemia in Dalmatians (as in all breeds) is inherited, but unlike other breeds, the "normal" gene for a uric acid transporter that allows for uric acid to enter liver cells and be subsequently broken down is not present in the breed's gene pool. Therefore, there is no possibility of eliminating hyperuricemia among pure-bred Dalmatians. The only possible solution to this problem must then be crossing Dalmatians with other breeds to reintroduce the "normal" uric acid transporter gene. This led to the foundation of the Dalmatian-Pointer Backcross Project, which aims to reintroduce the normal uric acid transporter gene into the Dalmatian breed. The backcross used a single English Pointer; subsequent breedings have all been to purebred Dalmatians. This project was started in 1973 by Dr. Robert Schaible. The first cross (F1) ...
... is absorbed from the intestines by an active transport process mediated via the large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5), a transporter for amino acids such as L-leucine and L-phenylalanine.[10][90][95] Very few (less than 10 drugs) are known to be transported by this transporter.[96] Gabapentin is transported solely by the LAT1,[95][97] and the LAT1 is easily saturable, so the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin are dose-dependent, with diminished bioavailability and delayed peak levels at higher doses.[10] Gabapentin enacarbil is transported not by the LAT1 but by the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), and no saturation of bioavailability has been observed with the drug up to a dose ...
... s are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins which export amino acids, lipids and heavy metal ions. They provide ionic homeostasis, play a role in cell envelope assembly, and protect from excessive concentrations of heavy metals in cytoplasm. The superfamily was named based on the early discovery of the LysE carrier protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum. 2.A.75 - The L-Lysine Exporter (LysE) Family 2.A.76 - The Resistance to Homoserine/Threonine (RhtB) Family 2.A.77 - The Cadmium Resistance (CadD) Family 2.A.95 - The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family 2.A.106 - The Ca2+:H+ Antiporter-2 (CaCA2) Family 2.A.107 - The Mn2+ exporter (MntP) Family 2.A.108 - The Iron/Lead Transporter (ILT) Family 2.A.109 - The Tellurium Ion Resistance (TerC) Family 2.A.113 - The Nickel/Cobalt Transporter (NicO) ...
Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. PMID 11901210 ...
வேதியியலில், அமினோ அமிலம் அல்லது அமினோக் காடி (amino acid) என்பது, அமைன் (-NH2), கார்பாக்சைல் (-COOH) ஆகிய இரண்டு வேதி வினைக்குழுக்கள் கொண்ட ஒரு மூலக்கூறு ஆகும். அமினோ அமிலத்தில் காணப்படும் முதன்மையான தனிமங்களாக கார்பன் (கரிமம்), ஐதரசன், ஆக்சிசன், நைதரசன் போன்றவை காணப்படுகின்றன, பிற சில தனிமங்கள், ஒரு சில அமினோ அமிலங்களின் பக்கச்சங்கிலிகளில் காணப்படுகின்றன. மரபுக்குறியீட்டில் 20 அமினோ ...
... s are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins which export amino acids, lipids and heavy metal ions. They provide ionic homeostasis, play a role in cell envelope assembly, and protect from excessive concentrations of heavy metals in cytoplasm. The superfamily was named based on the early discovery of the LysE carrier protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum. 2.A.75 - The L-Lysine Exporter (LysE) Family 2.A.76 - The Resistance to Homoserine/Threonine (RhtB) Family 2.A.77 - The Cadmium Resistance (CadD) Family 2.A.95 - The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family 2.A.106 - The Ca2+:H+ Antiporter-2 (CaCA2) Family 2.A.107 - The Mn2+ exporter (MntP) Family 2.A.108 - The Iron/Lead Transporter (ILT) Family 2.A.109 - The Tellurium Ion Resistance (TerC) Family 2.A.113 - The Nickel/Cobalt Transporter (NicO) ...
The α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis (synthesis of glutamate, glutamine, proline and arginine) begins with α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Citric Acid Cycle. The concentration of α-ketoglutarate is dependent on the activity and metabolism within the cell along with the regulation of enzymatic activity. In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly inhibited by α-ketoglutarate feedback inhibition and can be inhibited by DPNH as well high concentrations of ATP.[5] This is one of the initial regulations of the α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis. The regulation of the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is subject to regulatory control of the Citric Acid Cycle ...
Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood- ... Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0010207,Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 ... Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. Details. Name. Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. ... lcl,BSEQ0010208,Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 (SLC7A5) ...
Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood- ... HCA RNA Cell Line for Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. ... Compartment GO Terms for Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1. ... Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and ...
Finally, the computational model was shown to explain the trans-stimulation of LNAA uptake across the BBB observed upon ISF ... transporters expressed in the neurovascular unit (NVU), among which SLC7A5/LAT1 is considered to be the major contributor in ... Finally, the computational model was shown to explain the trans-stimulation of LNAA uptake a... ... transporters expressed in the neurovascular unit (NVU), among which SLC7A5/LAT1 is considered to be the major contributor in ...
13752-1-AP. Tested in Western Blot (WB) and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P)) applications. This antibody reacts with ... Solute carrier family 7 member 5 also known as large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 is a protein that in ... when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc.It involved in cellular amino acid uptake and the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain ... amino acid transmembrane transporter activity neutral amino acid transmembrane transporter activity L-amino acid transmembrane ...
Herein, we report the uptake characteristics of Phe, using SIRC cells to identify a large neutral amino acid transporter on the ... large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1 and LAT2 (L-type amino acid transporter 1 and 2 respectively), have recently been ... a large neutral amino acid, was used as a model substrate to investigate the functional presence of a large neutral amino acid ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ...
... we identified and verified large neutral amino acid transporter 1, gene symbol solute carrier family 7 member 5 (LAT1/) as a ... The uptake of deferiprone in MDCK-hOCTs and mock cells did not show significant difference. Deferiprone of 100 μmol/L did not ... While reduction of LAT1 protein levels by miR-328-3p did not alter homeostasis of amino acids within OS cells, suppression of ... in normal uric acid group,4 cases of grade Ⅱ in normal uric acid group and 3 cases of grade Ⅳ in hyperuricemia group,the ...
The affinity of LAT1 for large, neutral amino acids is higher than that of LAT2. LAT1 also transports small, neutral amino ... is an Na+-independent transporter for neutral and basic amino acids that also recognizes the diamino acid cystine.17 The ... Gomes P, Soares-da-Silva P. Na+-independent transporters, LAT-2 and b0, +, exchange l-DOPA with neutral and basic amino acids ... uptake in renal epithelial cells is promoted through the type 2 L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2), and this might rate-limit ...
These Hg complexes are then ported into cells either with the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT), or the organic anion ... Hg uptake was reached. I consider it very unlikely that there is some unknown protein in the brain that is sequestering Hg ... the methylmercury-L-cysteine complex is a substrate for human L-type large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 and LAT2. ... If hair cells lacked amino acid transporters for cysteine, hair could not grow. If the ASD individual lacked such transporters ...
... we identified and verified large neutral amino acid transporter 1, gene symbol solute carrier family 7 member 5 (LAT1/) as a ... Bioengineered miR-328-3p modulates GLUT1-mediated glucose uptake and metabolism to exert synergistic antiproliferative effects ... While reduction of LAT1 protein levels by miR-328-3p did not alter homeostasis of amino acids within OS cells, suppression of ... Drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and nuclear receptors are essential for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and ...
... a small protein of 71 amino acyl residues of unknown function. A periplasmic binding protein, MppA, essential for the uptake of ... Most of these proteins are of about the same size (180-230 aas) although a few are larger. They exhibit 6 (or in some cases, ... The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family (TC# 2.A.95) is a family of transporters belonging to the Lysine Exporter ... "2.A.95 The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Retrieved 2016-02-25. Drew ...
Organic Anion Transporters Medicine & Life Sciences * Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 Medicine & Life Sciences ... Cellular Uptake of Levocetirizine by Organic Anion Transporter 4. Noguchi, S., Nishimura, T., Mukaida, S., Benet, L. Z., ... Transport of Pregabalin Via L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (SLC7A5) in Human Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Line. Takahashi ... Quantification of ENT1 and ENT2 Proteins at the Placental Barrier and Contribution of These Transporters to Ribavirin Uptake. ...
LARGEST FOREX LIQUIDITY PROVIDER Enforex camps #### Fiscalite des plus values des stock options ... Amino acids are transferred into the CNS via specialized transporters that mediate the uptake of neu- tral compounds. Påhlman ... Liquidity provider forex largest 13). Tomography the largest forex liquidity provider Malluche. MB, largest forex liquidity ... However, if a hapten largest forex liquidity provider attached to a larger immunogenic molecule (a carrier), responses can be ...
... of large neutral amino acids for transport across the blood-brain barrier through the large neutral amino acid transporter 1 ( ... Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, safe (probably even in all children ... The protein synthesis elicited by the amino acids leads circulating amino acids, including tryptophan, to be incorporated into ... as lysine is one of the most abundant amino acids and tryptophan is one of the least abundant amino acids. While GCDH ...
... transport of large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The effect is believed to result from the occupation of V1... ... Amino Acid Level Arginine Vasopressin Amino Acid Uptake Large Neutral Amino Acid Brain Extracellular Fluid These keywords were ... further evidence of the effect of the peptide on the L system transporter at the blood-brain barrier. (submitted) Google ... transport of large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The effect is believed to result from the occupation of V1 receptors at the ...
... we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1... ... Large neutral amino acid transporter enables brain drug delivery via prodrugs. J Med Chem. 2008;51(4):932-6.PubMedCrossRef ... Transport of gabapentin, a γ-amino acid drug, by system L α-amino acid transporters: a comparative study in astrocytes, ... we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB ...
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2. General function:. Involved in transport. Specific function:. Sodium- ... Plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when ... independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, ... Free amino acid and dipeptide changes in the body fluids from Alzheimers disease subjects. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb;32(2):213-24 ...
Amino acid entry into the brain is regulated by a sodium-independent large neutral amino acid transporter type 1 (LAT1) [36]. ... Increased cerebral uptake of tryptophan and phenylalanine, compared with that of other large neutral amino acids, leads to ... Tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor for serotonin, competes with several large neutral amino acids (for example, ... Availability of large neutral amino acids. Neurotransmitter levels and function can be affected by changes in the plasma ...
Another key amino acid transporter is system L, which transports large neutral amino acids in a sodium-independent manner (33, ... Amino acid uptake assay.. The activity of the system A and L amino acid transporters was measured in cultured trophoblast cells ... Amino acid transport system A is ubiquitously expressed and mediates the cellular uptake of small, neutral amino acids by ... and studies show that regulation of large neutral amino acid transporter 1 involves protein kinase C or intracellular calcium ...
Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, ... Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. ... Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence ... Solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2 antibody ...
PAT1 mediates uptake of GABA, other small neutral amino acids (e.g., proline, glycine, and taurine), and a large number of ... The H+-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 acts as a high-capacity, absorptive route for small neutral amino acids, such as ... 2006) Substrate specificity of the amino acid transporter PAT1. Amino Acids 31:111-117. ... β-alanine uptake by ALA was concentration-dependent (Fig. 4B). The IC50 for ALA inhibition of apical amino acid uptake in Caco- ...
Large neutral amino acids transporter antibody; Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 antibody; LAT1 antibody; ... It involved in the uptake of methylmercury(MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence ... cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5 UniProt Protein Name Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit ... Sodium independent neutral amino acid transporter antibody; Sodium independent neutral amino acid transporter LAT1 antibody; ...
To investigate this, time-resolved in vivo data on Phe and competing large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentrations in neurons ... To investigate this, time-resolved in vivo data on Phe and competing large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentrations in neurons ... is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high concentrations of the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine ( ... is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high concentrations of the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine ( ...
... large neutral non-aromatic L-amino acids bind to this transporter. Uptake of leucine is sodium-dependent. In contrast to other ... Cl--independent reabsorption of neutral amino acids. Many neutral L-amino acids bind with ~0.5 mM affinities Leu is the ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT2 (Sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter NTT73) ( ... Sodium-dependent vesicular neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A17 (Sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter NTT4/BOAT3) ( ...
... exchangers which mediate the cellular efflux of cationic amino acids and the Na+-dependent uptake of large neutral amino acids ... Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter ... besides participating in amino acid uptake/secretion in many cell types, is the basolateral amino acid exchanger involved in ... We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids ...
... in which the substrate is translocated across the cell membrane by a large displacement of the transport domain, whereas a ... How the human Alanine Serine Cysteine Transporter 2 (ASCT2) binds its substrates, neutral amino acids, and releases them on the ... is a neutral amino acid exchanger that belongs to the solute carrier family 1 (SLC1A). SLC1A structures have revealed an ... The structures reveal that SLC1A transporters work as one-gate elevators. Unassigned densities near the gate and surrounding ...
  • SIRC uptake of l -Phe was found to be saturable, with K m of 73 ± 9 μM, V max of 2.0 ± 0.1 nanomoles/min per milligram protein, and K d of 0.44 ± 0.6 μL/min per milligram protein. (arvojournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. (mybiosource.com)
  • This sodium-independent transporter is formed when the light subunit encoded by this gene dimerizes with the heavy subunit transporter protein SLC3A2. (mybiosource.com)
  • The cloned gene, snatA, encodes a protein of 216 amino acid residues, SnatA (TC# 2.A.95.1.4), with six membrane-spanning segments (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The other unit consists of an operon, marRAB, encoding (1) the MarR repressor which binds marO and negatively regulates marRAB expression, (2) MarA, a transcriptional activator that activates expression of other genes such as acrAB (encoding the principal E. coli multidrug efflux pump of the RND superfamily (TC #2.A.6.2)) and the mar regulon itself, and (3) MarB, a small protein of 71 amino acyl residues of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A periplasmic binding protein, MppA, essential for the uptake of the cell wall murein tripeptide, L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate via the Opp permease, regulates mar regulon expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solute carrier family 7 member 5, also known as Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 or SLC7A5 is a protein that in humans is encodes by the SLC7A5 gene. (mybiosource.com)
  • OsNRT1 is a new member of a growing transporter family called PTR, which consists not only of nitrate transporters from higher plants that are homologs of the Arabidopsis CHL1 (AtNRT1) protein, but also peptide transporters from a wide variety of genera including animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As the name "proteinogenic" (literally, protein building) suggests, these amino acid are encoded by the standard genetic code and participate in the process of protein synthesis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • If you have just eating a protein-rich meal, there will be many other amino acids vying for use of this shuttle and very little 5-HTP will make it across the border. (blueprintfitness.co.uk)
  • At lower concentrations that had no direct effect on viability, the FXR agonist GW4064 induced expression of mRNA for the FXR target genes, small heterodimer partner (SHP), intestinal bile acid binding protein, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2), and repressed the expression of the SHP target gene aromatase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, a number of new reports have shown that some organic anions are also substrates of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), implying MDR1 and BCRP could also be involved in the biliary excretion of organic anions in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although Rxt1/NTT4 was previously thought to function as a sodium-dependent plasma membrane transporter, recent studies localized the protein to synaptic vesicles of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
  • Lactococcus lactis, a model lactic acid bacterium that is widely used in the dairy industry, which proves beneficial due to its easy protein secretion and purification. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The causative gene, CTNS , encodes cystinosin, a seven-transmembrane-domain protein, which we recently showed to be a lysosomal cystine transporter. (asm.org)
  • ElMokh and colleagues target the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways in in vitro studies and a murine model to induce radioiodine uptake for treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. (snmmi.org)
  • The major human high-affinity copper uptake protein, human copper transporter hCTR1, was recently shown to be at the basolateral or blood side of both intestinal and renal epithelial cell lines and thus does not play a direct role in this initial step. (physiology.org)
  • The special environment of low pH, low concentration of protein, and protonation of amino acids in the early intestinal lumen make this pathway especially important in dietary copper acquisition. (physiology.org)
  • Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
  • We have also shown in the remnant model and a podocyte injury induced model (puromycin aminonucleoside, PAN) that the protein abundance of the transporter involved in L-Arg secretion is reduced in addition to impaired uptake by endothelial cells. (ufl.edu)
  • 1 The corneal epithelium itself is composed of five to six layers of columnar epithelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • 14 The proximal tubules, but not distal segments of the nephron, are endowed with high aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, and epithelial cells of proximal tubules have been demonstrated to synthesize dopamine from circulating or filtered l -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l -DOPA). (ahajournals.org)
  • Apart from its cation selectivity, it appears to be related to the amino acid transport system B previously characterized in vertebrate epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • Plays an essential role in the reabsorption of neutral amino acids from the epithelial cells to the bloodstream in the kidney. (uniprot.org)
  • Feeding of C. elegans with [U-(13)C]-labelled E. coli revealed a decreased de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in pept-1(lg601) and reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Originally identified through its activation by high levels of farnesol, an isoprenoid cholesterol synthesis intermediate, FXR has since been characterized as a bile acid receptor ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Synthesis of fluorescent polyisoprene nanoparticles and their uptake into various cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Adenosine triphosphate‑binding cassette transporters and scavenger receptor class B type I were found to be associated with the synthesis of HDL. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Inhibition studies were conducted in the presence of other l - and d -amino acids and metabolic inhibitors, such as ouabain and sodium azide, and in the absence of sodium to delineate the mechanism of uptake and transport. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 Solute transport through a transporter or a receptor is a mechanism of translocating hydrophilic compounds across lipid bilayers. (arvojournals.org)
  • These results indicate that MeHg is transported in the worm by a conserved mechanism dependent on functioning amino acid transporters. (elsevier.com)
  • We here provide evidence for a central mechanism by which the PEPT-1/NHX-2 system strongly influences the in vivo fat content of C. elegans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A 3D homology model of NIS based on the structure of the bacterial Na + /galactose transporter identifies G93 as a critical player in the mechanism of the transporter: the changes from an outwardly to an inwardly open conformation during the transport cycle use G93 as a pivot. (pnas.org)
  • Omp35 is a putative porin in the OM of MR-1 that is markedly upregulated anaerobically by a post-transcriptional mechanism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Elucidating their transport mechanism would further the understanding of these transporters and promote drug design as they provide compelling targets for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and may have a direct role in the treatment of conditions involving glutamate excitotoxicity. (portlandpress.com)
  • A gene encoding a small neutral amino acid transporter was cloned from the genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized reaction catalyzed by SnatA is: Amino acid (in) → Amino acid (out) MarC is encoded by a gene at the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern: mutated copies of the gene GCDH must be provided by both parents to cause glutaric acidemia type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the central nervous system, glutamate transporters are critically important in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentration below neurotoxic levels, and defects of the human D2 gene have been shown to account for the formation of kidney stones in patients with cystinuria. (biologists.org)
  • As a first step toward that goal, we have cloned a nitrate transporter gene from rice called OsNRT1 . (plantphysiol.org)
  • Candidate genes and gene pathways have been identified for fertility in model species, and recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms within these genes are associated with reproduction traits in American Yorkshire/Large White and Landrace populations. (animalsciencepublications.org)
  • Resistance was due to a mutation in the nsy-1 gene, orthologous to the mammalian ASK-1 MAPKKK. (stanford.edu)
  • We identified an Arabidopsis gene encoding a nucleotide sugar transporter (designated GONST1 ) that we have shown by transient gene expression to be localized to the Golgi. (plantcell.org)
  • Omp35 was purified from the OM of anaerobically grown cells, the gene encoding Omp35 was identified, and an omp35 null mutant (OMP35-1) was isolated and characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a prime and most fundamental process that may account for the increased fat content in pept-1(lg601) we identified a highly accelerated absorption of free fatty acids from the bacterial food in the intestine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Loss of PEPT-1 decreases intestinal proton influx leading to a higher uptake of free fatty acids with fat accumulation whereas loss of NHX-2 causes intracellular acidification by the PEPT-1 mediated proton/dipeptide symport with an almost abolished uptake of fatty acids and a lean phenotype. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lipids in Blood-brain Barrier Models in Vitro II: Influence of Glial Cells on Lipid Classes and Lipid Fatty Acids In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12762838 Lipids of brain tissue and brain microvascular endothelial cells contain high proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (long PUFAs). (jove.com)
  • Dopamine of renal origin exerts natriuretic and diuretic effects by activating D 1 -like receptors located at various regions in the nephron. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), dopamine D 1 -like receptor-mediated natriuretic and diuretic responses are diminished under normal conditions as well as during short-term volume expansion (5% body weight) compared with those in normotensive, control, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • The hypothesis we explored in the present study concerns the occurrence of adaptations in renal l -DOPA transporters in hypertension and their putative role in enhanced renal dopamine formation in genetic hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their prodrug properties were examined in vitro . (springer.com)
  • The brain uptake after intravenous administration and the dopamine-releasing ability in the rat striatum after intraperitoneal administration were also determined for the most promising prodrug. (springer.com)
  • The substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), is a widely used drug of abuse that induces non-exocytotic release of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine through their cognate transporters as well as blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitter by the same transporters. (tcdb.org)
  • The neurotransmitter/sodium symporter (NSS) family [TC code 2.A.22 ( Saier, 1999 )] includes transporters that are responsible for the termination of neurotransmission through uptake of various neurotransmitters, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA, and glycine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A subset of this family, the biogenic amine transporters, which include the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT), are the molecular targets for psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine and for many antidepressants. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Studies with brush-border membrane vesicles have shown that there are several transport systems in the larval intestine with distinct amino acid and cation specificities. (biologists.org)
  • IGFBP1 , IGFBP2 , IGFBP3 , IGFBP5 , CPTIA (carnitine O -palmitoyltransferase I), COX2 (PG-endoperoxide synthase 2, also known as cyclooxygenase-2), and SLC22A5 [organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (solute carrier family member I), OCTN2 ]. (animalsciencepublications.org)
  • Transport and uptake characteristics of [ 3 H]- l -phenylalanine were determined at various concentrations and pH. (arvojournals.org)
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high concentrations of the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine (Phe) in blood plasma caused by reduced activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.95 The 6TMS Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (NAAT) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Division of Molecular Medicine, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, The CAS Key Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Chronic Disease, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China. (sciencemag.org)
  • Information on molecular mechanisms regulating placental nutrient transporters is critical for understanding the development of pregnancy complications, as well as how maternal nutrition and metabolic disturbances affect fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • Using similar approaches, we are investigating the molecular characteristics of K(+)-coupled amino acid transporters in the larval lepidopteran insect midgut. (biologists.org)
  • The molecular cloning of these transporters is now in progress. (biologists.org)
  • Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. (tcdb.org)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • It encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes for the uptake and utilization of various sugars and organic nitrogen compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the majority of current intervention strategies for depression and cognitive impairment utilize drugs which target downstream enzymes, transporters, and receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs), but particularly the basal ganglia, which are regions that help regulate movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, circulating AVP is also known to reduce amino acid levels in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) as measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (springer.com)
  • Oldendorf, W.H. Measurement of brain uptake of radiolabelled substances using a tritiated water internal standard. (springer.com)
  • Brain uptake of ketoprofen-lysine prodrug in rats. (springer.com)
  • Critical care clinicians have historically been attuned to pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction as a source of morbidity and mortality in ICU patients but have underestimated the impact of brain dysfunction [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: The vesicular B(0)AT3 transporter (SLC6A17), one of the members of the SLC6 family, is a transporter for neutral amino acids and is exclusively expressed in brain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additionally, glutamate molecules can promote connections among brain cells and remove unnecessary ones [ 1 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Recently, a significant amount of work has been reported on membrane transporters and receptors in various tissues. (arvojournals.org)
  • Bearss JJ, Limke TL, Atchison WD (2001) Methylmercury (MeHg) causes calcium release from smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptors in rat cerebellar granule neurons. (springer.com)
  • Nutrient transporters on the retina have also been identified. (arvojournals.org)
  • Detailed information on the mechanisms by which placental nutrient transporters are regulated will therefore help us to better understand how important pregnancy complications develop and may provide a foundation for designing novel intervention strategies. (hindawi.com)
  • In human pregnancies complicated by either intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or fetal overgrowth many key placental nutrient transporters are specifically regulated (Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in BM or MVM activity or placental expression of nutrient transporters and lipases in pregnancies complicated by abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Many core metabolic pathways and nutrient transporters were upregulated in the Δ phcA mutant, which grew faster than the wild-type strain in tomato xylem sap and on dozens of specific metabolites, including 36 found in xylem. (asm.org)
  • Initial structural inferences suggest that the biogenic amine transporters exhibit cytoplasmic NH2 and COOH tails, 12 putative transmembrane domains (TMDs), and a large extracellular loop between TMDs III and IV containing multiple sites for N-glycosylation ( Nelson, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Regions of low sequence identity between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transporters were aligned with the aid of a number of bioinformatics tools, and the resulting alignments were validated by comparison with experimental data. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cysteine may at some point be recognized as an essential or conditionally essential amino acid (Wikipedia). (hmdb.ca)
  • These women are more likely give birth to babies with increased birth weight ( 1 ), traumatic birth injuries ( 2 ), and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There continue to be large gaps in understanding which metabolic pathways are altered in cancer, whether these alterations benefit the tumor in a substantive way, and how this information could be used in clinical oncology. (jci.org)
  • Uptake from buffered saline solutions at neutral pH (but not at lower pH) is inhibited by either d - or l -histidine, unaltered by the removal of sodium ions, and inhibited by ∼90% when chloride ions are replaced by gluconate or sulfate. (physiology.org)
  • Chloride-dependent copper uptake occurs with Cu(II) or Cu(I), although Cu(I) uptake is not inhibited by histidine, nor by silver ions. (physiology.org)
  • In the larval midgut, K+ is actively secreted into the lumen through the concerted action of an apical H+ V-ATPase and an apical K+/2H+ antiporter, thereby providing the driving force for absorption of amino acids. (biologists.org)