Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.

Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (1/407)

1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units).  (+info)

LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (2/407)

During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes.  (+info)

Specific contacts between residues in the DNA-binding domain of the TyrR protein and bases in the operator of the tyrP gene of Escherichia coli. (3/407)

In the presence of tyrosine, the TyrR protein of Escherichia coli represses the expression of the tyrP gene by binding to the double TyrR boxes which overlap the promoter. Previously, we have carried out methylation, uracil, and ethylation interference experiments and have identified both guanine and thymine bases and phosphates within the TyrR box sequences that are contacted by the TyrR protein (J. S. Hwang, J. Yang, and A. J. Pittard, J. Bacteriol. 179:1051-1058, 1997). In this study, we have used missing contact probing to test the involvement of all of the bases within the tyrP operator in the binding of TyrR. Our results indicate that nearly all the bases within the palindromic arms of the strong and weak boxes are important for the binding of the TyrR protein. Two alanine-substituted mutant TyrR proteins, HA494 and TA495, were purified, and their binding affinities for the tyrP operator were measured by a gel shift assay. HA494 was shown to be completely defective in binding to the tyrP operator in vitro, while, in comparison with wild-Type TyrR, TA495 had only a small reduction in DNA binding. Missing contact probing was performed by using the purified TA495 protein, and the results suggest that T495 makes specific contacts with adenine and thymine bases at the +/-5 positions in the TyrR boxes.  (+info)

Large neutral amino acids block phenylalanine transport into brain tissue in patients with phenylketonuria. (4/407)

Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), including phenylalanine (Phe), compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the L-type amino acid carrier. Accordingly, elevated plasma Phe impairs brain uptake of other LNAAs in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Direct effects of elevated brain Phe and depleted LNAAs are probably major causes for disturbed brain development and function in PKU. Competition for the carrier might conversely be put to use to lower Phe influx when the plasma concentrations of all other LNAAs are increased. This hypothesis was tested by measuring brain Phe in patients with PKU by quantitative 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy during an oral Phe challenge with and without additional supplementation with all other LNAAs. Baseline plasma Phe was approximately 1,000 micromol/l and brain Phe was approximately 250 micromol/l in both series. Without LNAA supplementation, brain Phe increased to approximately 400 micromol/l after the oral Phe load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis revealed acutely disturbed brain activity. With concurrent LNAA supplementation, Phe influx was completely blocked and there was no slowing of EEG activity. These results are relevant for further characterization of the LNAA carrier and of the pathophysiology underlying brain dysfunction in PKU and for treatment of patients with PKU, as brain function might be improved by continued LNAA supplementation.  (+info)

Stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport activates a voltage-dependent conductance in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney. (5/407)

1. The swelling induced by Na+-alanine cotransport in proximal tubule cells of the frog kidney is followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). This RVD is inhibited by gadolinium (Gd3+), an inhibitor of stretch-activated channels, but is independent of extracellular Ca2+. 2. In this study, the whole cell patch clamp technique was utilized to examine the effect of Na+-alanine cotransport on two previously identified volume- and Gd3+-sensitive conductances. One conductance is voltage dependent and anion selective (GVD) whilst the other is voltage independent and cation selective (GVI). 3. Addition of 5 mM L-alanine to the bathing solution increased the whole cell conductance and gave a positive (depolarizing) shift in the reversal potential (Vrev, equivalent to the membrane potential in current-clamped cells) consistent with activation of Na+-alanine cotransport. Vrev shifted from -36 +/- 4.9 to +12.9 +/- 4.2 mV (n = 15). 4. In the presence of alanine, the total whole cell conductance had several components including the cotransporter conductance and GVD and GVI. These conductances were separated using Gd3+, which inhibits both GVD and GVI, and the time dependency of GVD. Of these two volume-sensitive conductances, L-alanine elicited a specific increase in GVD, whereas GVI was unaffected. 5. The L-alanine-induced activation of GVD was significantly reduced when cells were incubated in a hypertonic bathing solution. 6. In summary, in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney, on stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport GVD is activated, while GVI is unaffected. Taken with other evidence, this suggests that GVD is activated by cell swelling, consequent upon alanine entry, and may play a role as an anion efflux pathway during alanine-induced volume regulation.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of GABA, proline and quaternary ammonium compound transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/407)

Arabidopsis thaliana grows efficiently on GABA as the sole nitrogen source, thereby providing evidence for the existence of GABA transporters in plants. Heterologous complementation of a GABA uptake-deficient yeast mutant identified two previously known plant amino acid transporters, AAP3 and ProT2, as GABA transporters with Michaelis constants of 12.9 +/- 1.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mM at pH 4, respectively. The simultaneous transport of [1-14C]GABA and [2,3-3H]proline by ProT2 as a function of pH, provided evidence that the zwitterionic state of GABA is an important parameter in substrate recognition. ProT2-mediated [1-14C]GABA transport was inhibited by proline and quaternary ammonium compounds.  (+info)

Differential expressions of glycine transporter 1 and three glutamate transporter mRNA in the hippocampus of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. (7/407)

The extracellular concentrations of glutamate and its co-agonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, glycine, may be under the control of amino acid transporters in the ischemic brain. However, there is little information on changes in glycine and glutamate transporters in the hippocampal CA1 field of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. This study investigated the spatial and temporal expressions of glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1) and three glutamate transporter (excitatory amino acid carrier 1, EAAC1; glutamate/aspartate transporter, GLAST; glutamate transporter 1, GLT1) mRNA in the gerbil hippocampus after 3 minutes of ischemia. The GLYT1 mRNA was transiently upregulated by the second day after ischemia in astrocytelike cells in close vicinity to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, possibly to reduce glycine concentration in the local extracellular spaces. The EAAC1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in almost all pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells in the control gerbil hippocampus, whereas the expression level in CA1 pyramidal neurons started to decrease by the fourth day after ischemia in synchrony with degeneration of the CA1 neurons. The GLAST and GLT1 mRNA were rather intensely expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 field of the control hippocampus, respectively, but they were weakly expressed in the CA1 field before and after ischemia. As GLAST and GLT1 play a major role in the control of extracellular glutamate concentration, the paucity of these transporters in the CA1 field may account for the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to ischemia, provided that the functional GLAST and GLT1 proteins are also less in the CA1 field than in the CA3 field. This study suggests that the amino acid transporters play pivotal roles in the process of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field.  (+info)

Ion transport across the normal and CF neonatal murine intestine. (8/407)

Neonatal mice with cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit a very high mortality due to intestinal obstruction localized primarily to the ileum and colon. It has been hypothesized that lack of Cl(-) secretion and possibly elevated Na(+) absorption contribute to the gut problems in CF neonates. Therefore, intestines (ileum, proximal colon, and distal colon) from normal and CF day-old mouse pups were studied on ultra-small-aperture (0.0135 cm(2)) Ussing chambers. All three regions of the normal neonatal intestine responded to forskolin with an increase in short-circuit current, which was completely absent in the CF intestine. The neonatal distal colon exhibited a high rate of amiloride-sensitive electrogenic Na(+) absorption, which did not differ between the normal and CF preparations. The ileum and proximal colon of both genotypes exhibited a small but significant electrogenic Na(+) absorption. The neonatal proximal colon and ileum also exhibited electrogenic Na(+)-glucose cotransport, which was significantly greater in the normal compared with the CF ileum. In addition, all three intestinal regions exhibited electrogenic Na(+)-alanine cotransport, which was significantly reduced in two of the regions of the CF neonatal intestine. It is speculated that: 1) the reduced rate of Na(+)-nutrient cotransport in the CF intestine contributes to the lower rate of growth in CF pups, whereas 2) the elevated electrogenic Na(+) absorption in the neonatal intestine, coupled with an inability to secrete Cl(-), contributes to the intestinal obstruction in the CF pups.  (+info)

Cystinuria is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cystine across the brush border membrane of renal tubular cells. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that affected individuals must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop symptoms.

There is no cure for cystinuria, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms. These may include medications to reduce the acidity of the urine and prevent infection, as well as surgical procedures to remove stones or repair damaged kidneys. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.

It's important for individuals with cystinuria to drink plenty of water and maintain good hydration to help flush out the urinary tract and prevent stone formation. They should also avoid certain foods that may increase the risk of stone formation, such as oxalate-rich foods like spinach and rhubarb.

Overall, while there is no cure for cystinuria, with proper management and care, individuals with this disorder can lead relatively normal lives and minimize the complications associated with it.

Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients. It is caused by a mutation in the HCN1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cobalamin into the cells.

Symptoms of Hartnup Disease:

The symptoms of Hartnup disease can vary in severity and may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness
* Headaches
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Seizures
* Poor appetite
* Diarrhea

Complications of Hartnup Disease:

If left untreated, Hartnup disease can lead to complications such as:

* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Nerve damage
* Skin problems
* Eye problems
* Hearing loss
* Increased risk of infections

Treatment of Hartnup Disease:

The treatment of Hartnup disease typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements. Patients with the condition may need to follow a strict diet that includes foods high in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. They may also need to take supplements to ensure they are getting enough of this important nutrient. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

Prognosis of Hartnup Disease:

The prognosis for Hartnup disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. With proper management, most patients with Hartnup disease can lead active and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications that can be difficult to reverse.

Inheritance Pattern of Hartnup Disease:

Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated HCN1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a person inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the condition but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers of Hartnup disease can pass the mutated gene on to their children, who have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and developing the condition.

Prevention of Hartnup Disease:

There is no known prevention for Hartnup disease. However, if a person knows they are a carrier of the condition, they can work with their healthcare provider to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 and monitoring their diet to prevent any complications.

In conclusion, Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements, and early diagnosis and management can lead to a good prognosis. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of Hartnup disease, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Also known as: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA synthetase deficiency, and amino acid transporter defects.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.

It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A19 gene. ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
AT heterodimer is the main apical reabsorption system for cystine in the kidney". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283 (3): F540- ... dibasic and neutral amino acid transporters, activator of cystine, dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 1". Pras E ... "Sodium-independent Currents of Opposite Polarity Evoked by Neutral and Cationic Amino Acids in Neutral and Basic Amino Acid ... of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid transport ...
... it was discovered that pregabalin is actively transported across the blood-brain barrier by the system L neutral amino acid ... which usually functions to transport certain amino acids, including leucine, valine and isoleucine, into the brain. This ... were found to also dramatically reduce binding to the system L transporter, and with no assisted transport into the brain, ... Amino acids, Analgesics, Calcium channel blockers, GABA analogues, Pfizer brands). ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... b(0,+)-type amino acid transporter 1, also known as b(0,+)AT1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC7A9 gene. This ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000021488 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
... and l-valine have many functions in the central nervous system. They modify large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport at the ... and the Excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3). They are one of the few drugs that use these amino acid transporters. ... Gabapentinoids are absorbed from the intestines mainly by the Large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, SLC7A5) ... Gabapentinoids are structurally similar to the Branched-chained amino acids L-leucine, and L-isoleucine, both of which also ...
Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... "Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N." EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ...
Amino+Acid-Transporter+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Amino+Acid+Transport+System+L ... "Entrez Gene: SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2". Kucharzik T, ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... SLC3A2 comprises the heavy subunit of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) that is also known as CD98 (cluster of ...
Amino+Acid-Transporter+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Amino+Acid+Transport+System+L ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ...
... amino acid transport systems, neutral MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.100 - amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500 - amino acid transport system l MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... amino acid transport systems, neutral MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.100 - amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500 - amino acid transport system l MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.543.585. ...
"Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells". American ... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ...
Zaia KA, Reimer RJ (Mar 2009). "Synaptic Vesicle Protein NTT4/XT1 (SLC6A17) Catalyzes Na+-coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... Masson J, Sagné C, Hamon M, El Mestikawy S (Sep 1999). "Neurotransmitter transporters in the central nervous system". ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A15 gene. SLC6A15 ... "Entrez Gene: solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter)". Farmer MK, Robbins MJ, Medhurst AD, Campbell DA, ...
... an L-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids". J Biol Chem. 274 ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A8 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 8". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994 ... Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A8 gene. Heterodimeric ... 2000). "LAT2, a new basolateral 4F2hc/CD98-associated amino acid transporter of kidney and intestine". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (49 ...
... possibly by increasing tryptophan transport across the blood-brain barrier. The blood content of certain neutral amino-acids, ... As the serotonergic system may be involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and anxiety, the stimulation of this system by ... Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-gamma-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid- ... gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (or γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid) is a naturally occurring ...
Amino acids are imported into the LCV through various amino acid transporters such as the neutral amino acid transporter B(0). ... the high demand of amino acids is not covered by the transport of free amino acids found in the host cytoplasm. To improve the ... The bacteria use a type IVB secretion system known as Dot/Icm to inject effector proteins into the host. These effectors are ... amino acid permeases, and many proteases, to exploit it. The imported amino acids are used by L. pneumophila to generate energy ...
A high-protein diet can overcome the deficient transport of neutral amino acids in most patients. Poor nutrition leads to more ... Neurologic and psychiatric treatment is needed in patients with severe central nervous system involvement. Citrullinemia ... The defective gene controls the absorption of certain amino acids from the intestine and the reabsorption of those amino acids ... The failure of amino-acid transport was reported in 1960 from the increased presence of indoles (bacterial metabolites of ...
System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is responsible ... Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ...
... complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid ... It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system ... reducing it from a positive to neutral form. In what is essentially the reverse of step two, the electrons push back in the ... the human Tpc and the Drosophila melanogaster have been identified as being responsible for the mitochondrial transport of ThPP ...
... a disease caused by mutations that affect the function of the neutral amino acid transporter A. The classification of L-serine ... Tabatabaie L; Klomp LW; Berger R; de Koning TJ (March 2010). "L-serine synthesis in the central nervous system: a review on ... its transport may also become disrupted. One example is spastic tetraplegia, thin corpus callosum, and progressive microcephaly ... Glucogenic amino acids, NMDA receptor agonists, Glycine receptor agonists, Aldols, Amino alcohols, Inhibitory amino acids). ...
The Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Family (TC# 2.A.3) of transport proteins includes members that function as solute: ... the methylmercury-L-cysteine complex is a substrate for human L-type large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 and LAT2". ... Gasol E, Jiménez-Vidal M, Chillarón J, Zorzano A, Palacín M (July 2004). "Membrane topology of system xc- light subunit reveals ... The Amino Acid Transporter (AAT) Family 2.A.3.2: The Basic Amino Acid/Polyamine Antiporter (APA) Family 2.A.3.3: The Cationic ...
... such as amino acids or amides. Nitrogen can also be transported in the phloem sap as amides, amino acids and ureides; it is ... The root system is less effective without a continuous supply of calcium to newly developing cells. Even short term disruptions ... As with other biological processes, the main useful form of iron is that of iron(II) due to its higher solubility in neutral pH ... membrane trafficking and phloem transport. Sulfur is a structural component of some amino acids (including cystein and ...
Bröer S (2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-86. doi: ... Shennan DB, Thomson J (2008). "Inhibition of system L (LAT1/CD98hc) reduces the growth of cultured human breast cancer cells". ... Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1, also known as 4F2 light chain, or CD98 light chain is a protein that in ... 2009). "L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is frequently expressed in thymic carcinomas but is absent in thymomas". J Surg ...
1998). Iron transport in graminaceous plants. Metal Ions in Biological Systems. pp. 216-238. Walker EL, Connolly EL (October ... Fe3+ is a strong Lewis acid, preferring strong Lewis bases such as anionic or neutral oxygen atoms to coordinate with. Microbes ... Hydroxamate siderophores Catecholate siderophores Mixed ligands Amino carboxylate ligands A comprehensive list of siderophore ... specific active transport systems, or in the case of pathogens deactivated by the host organism. Examples of siderophores ...
Mackenzie B, Erickson JD (February 2004). "Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family ... fatty acid transport proteins (SLC27A1, SLC27A2, SLC27A3, SLC27A4, SLC27A5, SLC27A6) Na+-coupled nucleoside transport (SLC28A1 ... System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SLC38A1, SLC38A2, SLC38A3, SLC38A4, SLC38A5, SLC38A6, SLC38A7, ... cationic amino acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated cationic amino acid transporters (SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A3, SLC7A4) ...
The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not ... If a lysosome were to rupture, the enzymes released would not be very active because of the cytosol's neutral pH. However, if ... These special proteins contain a specialized retention signal made up of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them ...
Lastly, BCAAs share the same transport protein into the brain with aromatic amino acids (Trp, Tyr, and Phe). Once in the brain ... Physiologically, BCAAs take on roles in the immune system and in brain function. BCAAs are broken down effectively by ... The simultaneous reductions in both catecholamine and serotonin synthesis may account for the relatively neutral effect of BCAA ... A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having an aliphatic side-chain with a branch (a central carbon atom bound ...
Amino acid or peptide (out) → Amino acid or peptide (in) 2) Phospholipid (inner monolayer of the plasma membrane) → ... dependent neutral amine and/or oligopeptide transporter. It is predicted to be 444 amino acyl residues in length and exhibits ... The KX Blood-group Antigen (KXA) Family (TC# 2.A.112) consists of transport proteins that are part of the TOG superfamily. The ... Two covalently linked proteins, Kell and XK, constitute the Kell blood group system. Kell, a 93-Kd type II glycoprotein, is ...
PCFT is located on chromosome 17q11.2 and consists of five exons encoding a protein with 459 amino acids and a MW of ~50kDa. ... PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. The low-pH activity and the structural specificity of PCFT (high ... Pemetrexed, an antifolate inhibitor primarily of thymidylate synthase, is a good substrate for PCFT even at neutral pH as ... and its delivery to the central nervous system. ... amino acid identity to the frog (XP415815) and zebrafish ( ...
... were located near the rail network so that the victims could be easily transported. The system of the camps was expanded over ... While most Polish Jews were neutral to the idea of a Polish state, many played a significant role in the fight for Poland's ... The guerrillas were armed with only one machine gun, several dozen pistols, Molotov cocktails and bottles filled with acid. The ... Marina Sorokina; Tarik Cyril Amar (2014). Michael David-Fox; Peter Holquist; Alexander M. Martin (eds.). The Holocaust in the ...
In 2021, food management system expert Sylvain Charlebois remarked on the industry's use of palm oil, given as palmitic acid ... stomach acid. This is because feeding grain to cattle makes their normally pH-neutral digestive tract abnormally acidic; over ... it was remarked that the amino acids differ. Some studies report an increased presence in humans of rBGH and its IGF-1 product ... often affecting stressed cattle during transport and processing. BRD can lead to lung tissue damage and impair the performance ...
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... transport protein - transport vesicle - triiodothyronine - trinucleotide repeat - triose - tropomyosin - troponin - tryptophan ... systems biology T cell - T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence ... neutral theory of molecular evolution - neutron - neutron activation analysis - NF-kappa B - nicotinic receptor - nitrogen - ...
"Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of ... at a neutral pH the solution will be around 75% hypochlorous acid and 25% hypochlorite. Some of the chlorine gas produced will ... One way of addressing the loss of oxygen uptake was by studying the effects of HClO on succinate-dependent electron transport. ... Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a ...
... and amino acids Plasma-assisted prodrug activation One of challenges is the application of non-thermal plasmas directly on the ... In this case, the plasma does not exit the jet, and only the neutral atoms and molecules and photons reach the sample. Most ... The role of the immune system in plasma medicine has recently become very convincing. It is possible that the reactive species ... Uptake mechanisms involve both energy dependent endocytosis and energy independent transport across cell membranes. The primary ...
... except the carboxylic acid group is replaced by an amide. It is classified as a charge-neutral, polar amino acid. It is non- ... Brosnan JT (June 2003). "Interorgan amino acid transport and its regulation". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (6 Suppl 1): 2068S- ... Newsholme P (September 2001). "Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, postinjury, ... Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids ...
Goodman AB (July 2005). "Microarray results suggest altered transport and lowered synthesis of retinoic acid in schizophrenia ... Drugdex system, vol. 128. Greenwood Village (CO): Thomson Micromedex; 2006.[page needed] Georgala S, Katoulis AC, Georgala C, ... Thiboutot, D. M.; Cockerell, C. J. (1 August 2006). "iPLEDGE: A Report from the Front Lines of Dermatologic Practice". AMA ... "Sebaceous glands in acne patients express high levels of neutral endopeptidase". Experimental Dermatology. 11 (3): 241-7. doi: ...
"Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation". Amino Acids. 6 (3): ... and thus inhibits their destruction by the immune system. The HIV virus evades the immune system in part by grafting these ... Exocytosis, fertilization of an egg by sperm activation, and transport of waste products to the lysozome are a few of the many ... This effect is particularly pronounced for charged species, which have even lower permeability coefficients than neutral polar ...
HMGA proteins are polypeptides of ~100 amino acid residues characterized by a modular sequence organization. These proteins ... 2015). "A Uniform System for the Annotation of Vertebrate microRNA Genes and the Evolution of the Human microRNAome". Annual ... Exportin-5-mediated transport to the cytoplasm is energy-dependent, using guanosine triphosphate (GTP) bound to the Ran protein ... implying evolution by neutral drift; however, older microRNAs have a much lower rate of change (often less than one ...
... amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Acute intermittent porphyria Adrenoleukodystrophy (Schilder's disease) Alkaptonuria ... Many skin conditions affect the human integumentary system-the organ system covering the entire surface of the body and ... may be related to loss of melanocytes or the inability of melanocytes to produce melanin or transport melanosomes correctly. ... Neutral lipid storage disease (Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome) Nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (congenital ...
18 people were transported to local hospitals. The herbal "incense" product was determined to be a synthetic cannabinoid called ... The major urinary metabolites in most cases are formed by oxidation of the alkyl side-chain to an alcohol and carboxylic acid ... Uchiyama N, Matsuda S, Wakana D, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Goda Y (2013-01-01). "New cannabimimetic indazole derivatives, N-(1-amino-3 ... List of designer drugs § Synthetic cannabinoids Endocannabinoid enhancer Endocannabinoid system Structural scheduling of ...
Through hydrolysis the complex organic molecules are broken down into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids. Acetate and ... If the plants are regrown, taking the carbon out of the atmosphere once more, the system will be carbon neutral. In contrast, ... Low solids (wet) digesters can transport material through the system using standard pumps that require significantly lower ... Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. In ...
CYP19A1 Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency; 608643; DDC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1; 107970; TGFB3 ... PMP22 Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy; 610717; PNPLA2 Neutropenia, nonimmune chronic idiopathic, of adults; 607847 ... PAX2 Optic nerve hypoplasia and abnormalities of the central nervous system; 206900; SOX2 Optic nerve hypoplasia; 165550; PAX6 ... NME1 Neurodegeneration due to cerebral folate transport deficiency; 613068; FOLR1 Neurodegeneration with brain iron ...
... similarity in amino acid sequences). Moreover, All of the isomers of WAK proteins have epidermal growth factor (EGF) like ... However, Antisense WAK RNA can be induced using the Dex system which contributes to a 50% reduction in WAK protein levels as ... WAK1 is crosslinked in endomembranes, and its transport to the cell surface requires correct cell-wall synthesis. The ... was shown in a mutation in cationic residues in a WAK1 gene to neutral residues which resulted to the loss of binding ...
Historically, nitric acid was produced by combining sulfuric acid with nitrates such as saltpeter. In modern times this is ... The aqueous solution is almost neutral, exhibiting pH 6.2 at 14 °C (57 °F) for a 10% solution of commercial powder. It is not ... Thermal storage medium in power generation systems. Sodium and potassium nitrate salts are stored in a molten state with the ... Operators then gathered the resulting powder and transported it to be concentrated by ebullition in the boiler plant. Besides " ...
... is most available to the body when chelated to amino acids and is also available for use as a common iron supplement. ... Iron Transport from the Continents to the Open Ocean: The Aging-Rejuvenation Cycle. Elements, 7(2), 101-106. doi:10.2113/ ... Another old example of an organoiron compound is iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, in which a neutral iron atom is bound to the ... Iron plays an essential role in marine systems and can act as a limiting nutrient for planktonic activity. Because of this, too ...
... in which two PNA molecules are held together by a flexible linker such as 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (O). The bis-PNA ... This results in the degeneration of the nervous system and spinal cord, impairing the movement of the limbs. To combat this ... H*-DNA has favorable formation conditions at neutral pH and in the presence of divalent cations. This intramolecular ... cells and in vivo in a CF mouse model which resulted in the appearance of CFTR-dependent chloride transport. Triple-stranded ...
Specifically, this strains tRNA and amino acid supply, quality control systems and secretion systems, as well as NADPH required ... and eukaryotic transport system. Because they can be propagated in very high concentrations, it simplifies the process of ... Advantages include high transformation frequencies, the production of proteins at neutral pH, low viscosity of the fermentation ... Collectively, with heterologous expression, when the host translation systems are different from the native system that the ...
This essential amino acid is classified as neutral, and nonpolar because of the inert and hydrophobic nature of the benzyl side ... D-Phenylalanine is absorbed from the small intestine and transported to the liver via the portal circulation. A small amount of ... Jelen, Luke A.; Stone, James M.; Young, Allan H.; Mehta, Mitul A. (2022). "The opioid system in depression". Neuroscience & ... Proteinogenic amino acids, Glucogenic amino acids, Ketogenic amino acids, Aromatic amino acids, Essential amino acids, ...
Interest in biodegradable surfactants has led to much interest in "biosurfactants" such as those derived from amino acids. ... has the property of adsorbing onto the surfaces or interfaces of the system and of altering to a marked degree the surface or ... Metcalfe TL, Dillon PJ, Metcalfe CD (April 2008). "Detecting the transport of toxic pesticides from golf courses into ... "Simultaneous analysis of cationic, anionic and neutral surfactants from different matrices using LC/MS/MS , SHIMADZU (Shimadzu ...
Other mutations can be neutral if they lead to amino acid sequence changes, but the protein still functions similarly with the ... Esvelt KM, Wang HH (2013). "Genome-scale engineering for systems and synthetic biology". Molecular Systems Biology. 9 (1): 641 ... and transport of the transcript from the nucleus. Splicing, followed by CPA, generate the final mature mRNA, which encodes the ... each correspond to a specific amino acid.: 6 The principle that three sequential bases of DNA code for each amino acid was ...
Artificial perspiration is also available for in-vitro testing, and contains 19 amino acids and the most abundant minerals and ... and their fluidic transport to the skin surface. Dissolved in the water are trace amounts of minerals, lactic acid, and urea. ... Sympathetic nervous system stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines have also been associated with diaphoresis. Diaphoresis ... In humans, sweat is hypoosmotic relative to plasma (i.e. less concentrated). Sweat is found at moderately acidic to neutral pH ...
Then the second proton is added with acid transport by the H+/K+ ATPase, and the compound is activated. Recent data suggest the ... The catalytic α subunit has ten transmembrane segments with a cluster of intramembranal carboxylic amino acids located in the ... Optimal compounds would be those that were stable at neutral pH but were quickly activated at low pH. A clear-cut design of ... This is achieved by formulating capsules using the multiple-unit pellet system. Although the (S)-(−)-isomer is more potent in ...
SBD contains a groove with an affinity for neutral, hydrophobic amino acid residues. The groove is long enough to interact with ... In addition, Hsp70 has been shown to be a regulator of the immune system, activating the immune system as an antigen. Thus, ... Hsp70 also aids in transmembrane transport of proteins, by stabilizing them in a partially folded state. It is also known to be ... and tyrosine amino acids are common targets of phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Hsp70 has become a point of greater ...
The substrates that can be transported include ions, amino acids, peptides, sugars, and other molecules that are mostly ... "Vibrio cholerae iron transport systems: roles of heme and siderophore iron transport in virulence and identification of a gene ... Pgp is known to transport organic cationic or neutral compounds. A few ABCC family members, also known as MRP, have also been ... 3.A.1.3 Polar Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (PAAT) 3.A.1.4 Hydrophobic Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (HAAT) 3.A.1.5 Peptide/ ...
... are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ... high-beef diet and of mode of cooking of beef in the diet on fecal bacterial enzymes and fecal bile acids and neutral sterols ... bile acids Cholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid ...
American biochemist Vincent du Vigneaud found that oxytocin is made up of nine amino acids, and he identified its amino acid ... including the dopamine system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system. Individual differences in the ... In a study, participants who received intranasal oxytocin viewed photographs of human faces with neutral expressions and found ... Brownstein MJ, Russell JT, Gainer H (January 1980). "Synthesis, transport, and release of posterior pituitary hormones". ...
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a complex network that regulates blood pressure, electrolyte and fluid homeostasis, as ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral / metabolism* * Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 * Gastrointestinal Tract / immunology* ... ACE2 is the receptor for the SARS coronavirus and ACE2 is essential for expression of neutral amino acid transporters in the ... ACE2 - from the renin-angiotensin system to gut microbiota and malnutrition Microbes Infect. 2013 Nov;15(13):866-73. doi: ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral. 1. 2013. 40. 0.120. Why? Atrophy. 1. 2018. 1499. 0.120. Why? ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral Entry term(s). Neutral Amino Acid Transport Proteins Neutral Amino Acid Transport Systems ... Na+-Independent Neutral Amino Acid Transporter. Neutral Amino Acid Transport Proteins. Neutral Amino Acid Transport Systems. ... Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Zwitterionic Amino Acid Transport Proteins Zwitterionic Amino Acid Transport Systems ... Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL). ...
... neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B 0 AT1). Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The SLC6A19 gene provides instructions for making a protein called system B(0) ... B0AT1 transports the neutral amino acids from food into intestinal cells; from there the amino acids are released into the ... The SLC6A19 gene provides instructions for making a protein called system B(0) neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1). This ...
In addition, MeAIB is transported by system A neutral amino acid transport, which is observed ubiquitously in all types of ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of system A amino acid transport PET imaging, MeAIB-PET, in clinical ... Differential Diagnosis between Low-Grade and High-Grade Astrocytoma Using System A Amino Acid Transport PET Imaging with C-11- ... a system A amino acid transport-specific radiolabeled agents, could provide better assessments for detecting malignant type ...
The system-L protein family [L-type amino acid transporters (LAT)] enables the transport of large neutral amino acids, ... Pregabalin and gabapentin are both derived from GABA, but they have no effect on the GABAergic system. Their mechanism of ... This results in dose-limited absorption, which may be due to saturation of the facilitated transport process. An additional ... Not prone to pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions and, specifically, are not substrates of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, ...
Zwitterionic Amino Acid Transport Systems use Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral Zygadenus use Zigadenus ...
Download L-Type Amino Acid Transporters LAT1 and LAT4 in Cancer: Uptake of 3-O-Methyl-6- 18F-Fluoro-L-Dopa in Human Aden... ... Various specific transport systems for amino acids have been characterized in mammalian cells (27,28). For uptake of neutral ... we investigated both amino acid uptake transport of 18F-OMFD and expression of the amino acid transport systems in 2 different ... Amino acid transport tracers are amino acids that are transported into the cells and do not actually participate in protein ...
... a subtype of amino acid transport system a. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (BBA)-Biomembr. 1467, 1-6 (2000). ... Melone, M., Varoqui, H., Erickson, J. & Conti, F. Localization of the Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in the ... a ubiquitously expressed amino-acid transporter that is widely expressed in the central nervous system and is recruited to the ... SNAT2 silencing prevents the osmotic induction of transport system a and hinders cell recovery from hypertonic stress. FEBS ...
ABC-type branched-chain amino acid transport systems, ATPase component. High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport ATP- ... Transports alanine (characterized). 83%. 100%. 382.9. NatE, component of The neutral amino acid permease, N-1 (transports pro, ... ABC-type branched-chain amino acid transport systems, ATPase component. High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport ATP- ... ABC-type branched-chain amino acid transport systems, ATPase component. High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport ATP- ...
... often the glucose derivative glucuronic acid or the amino acid derivative glutathione. ... Cytochrome P-450 is a member of the large cytochrome family, which is famous in the electron transport system for tweaking all ... All compounds and elements can be either beneficial, neutral or harmful, depending upon the situation and the amount. ... One vital role that arsenic plays in many animals is as an enzyme component to metabolise protein and certain amino acids, ...
... because its required for all forms of life for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and amino acids. ... A neutral iron atom contains 26 protons and 30 neutrons plus 26 electrons in four different shells around the nucleus. As with ... Biological systems are exposed constantly to high concentrations of iron in igneous and sedimentary rocks. Microorganisms can ... In vertebrates, the Fe+2 in hemoglobin is reversibly oxidized to Fe+3, allowing the binding, storage and transport of oxygen ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems 100% * Amino Acids 51% * Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 43% ... Amino acid transporters as emerging therapeutic targets in cancer. Saito, Y. & Soga, T., 2021 8月, In: Cancer science. 112, 8, p ... Alternative genetic code for amino acids and transfer RNA revisited. Hamashima, K. & Kanai, A., 2013 6月 1, In: Biomolecular ... Osana, Y., Fukushima, T., Yoshimi, M. & Amano, H., 2004 8月, In: IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems. E87-D, 8, p. ...
Analysis of IL-7 regulated gene expression revealed that neutral and cationic amino acid transporters were specific ... maintenance of cell size and IL-7 induced growth were specifically dependent on amino acids. Furthermore, cellular amino acid ... Taken together, these data reveal for the first time the central importance of amino acid homeostasis for IL-7 regulated T cell ... Here, we show IL-7 dependent T cell survival does not require either exogenous glucose or amino acids. In contrast, ...
... latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids ... sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a ... In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will ... CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, ...
... invasions into intensively managed cropping systems. Numerical and compositional changes in multiple gene families (gene loss ... The amino acid biosynthesis pathways in MED/Q genome are partitioned among the host and endosymbiont genomes in a manner ... Essential amino acids are represented in pink and non-essential amino acids in black; Portiera genes are in blue boxes. The ... Immune system-related and virus transport genes in phloem- and blood-feeding insects. (DOCX 56 kb) ...
... and is required for the cell surface expression and amino acid transport function of the light chains. CD98 also mediates ... activators of dibasic and neutral amino acidtransport), member 2,4F2 heavy chain antigen ... This product is provided under an agreement between Life Technologies Corporation and R&D Systems, Inc, and the manufacture, ...
... by dietary protein presumably reflects impaired transport from serum across the blood brain barrier by neutral amino acids ( ... amino acids could cause nerve cell destruction resembling the changes in degenerative disorders of the nervous system.. Ive ... Therefore, the amino acid tyrosine is not decarboxylated to tramine which is the first step in producing dopamine in the brain ... Interference with drug action by amino acids and protein. An example is the erratic therapeutic effects when patients with ...
There are three types of amino acids: acidic, basic and neutral; each of these classes has a different transport mediator. ... While both forms are found in biological systems, only the l form is present in proteins. Amino acids are linked together like ... Subject: AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN Amino Acids. AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN Next to water, protein is the most abundant substance in ... These amino acids are just as vital to human metabolism as the "essential" amino acids; so vital that the body can synthesize ...
Herewe investigate the use of amino acids with varying carbon chain lengths as zwitterionic additives that enhancePSC device ... Impact of RbF and NaF Postdeposition Treatments on Charge Carrier Transport and Recombination in Ga-Graded Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Solar ... The average power conversion efficiency - of OPVs based on the ternary system is improved from 14.9% to 15.6% by C60 -SAM ... under Neutral Conditions. , Angewandte Chemie, Vol: 133, Pages: 20979-20984, ISSN: 0044-8249 *Publisher Web Link ...
... for from such a scenario is a racemic polymer of proteinous and non-proteinous amino acids with no relevance to living systems. ... However, the optimal pH for peptide bond formation is typically near neutral or slightly acidic. The presence of both Asp ( ... Furthermore, in modern cells proteins are tagged and transported on molecular highways to their precise destination, where they ... These amino acids are commonly referred to as canonical amino acids.. All Life on Earth is Made up of the Same 20 Amino Acids. ...
Exploring amino acid Auxotrophy in Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1331. ... Analysis of predicted carbohydrate transport systems encoded by Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012; ... Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. ... The interaction of B. bifidum PRL2010 with the host immune system. It has already been established that members of the B. ...
A comparison between coconut tree sap and soy shows that coconut sap contains up to 14 times the amino acid content of soy. ... Coconut helps to aid and support overall Immune System functions.. Below are some fantastic products you can purchase at your ... Coconut fiber slows down the release of glucose, therefore requiring less insulin to utilize the glucose and transport it into ... and has nearly neutral pH. Small batches ensure that organic Coconut Aminos, made from natural sap, is a raw, enzymatically ...
This substance is rich in amino acids, fatty acids and antioxidants to keep hair healthy. ... What happens in case of a nationwide transport strike? In cases where the transport strike is organized nationwide, it will be ... The endocannabinoid system is a vast network of receptors that extends from the brain to the different organs of the body; ... it is necessary to make this molecule neutral, through what is commonly referred to as the "drying process." ...
It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.. Proline. A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from ... Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of ... A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of ... All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and ...
Kakinuma A, Hori M, Isono M, Tamura G, Arima K. Determination of amino acid sequence in surfactin, a crystalline peptidelipid ... 4 spin systems were observed, each a pyranose sugar with an acetylated amino (NHAc) group at carbon 2, identified by 13C signal ... with each repeating unit composed of a proximal neutral β-configuration N-acetyl-d-mannosamine (d-ManNAc) sugar, followed by 3 ... motility on hard surfaces mediated by directed transport and substratum coupling of the Agl-Glt trans-envelope complex [11,12 ...
Soy protein is the only widely available plant protein that supplies all the essential amino acids, in the proper ratios, ... IFF Bakery System Blends for Bread and Rolls. IFF provides Systems with features that give manufacturers the flexibility they ... SUPRO® 90% Protein Nuggets have a neutral flavor and a crispy, crunchy texture that make them ideal for high-protein snacks, ... as water is not transported and up to 5 times less product is needed. GRINDSTED® NG 100 is supported by IFF Application ...
  • In addition, ACE2 has functions independent of the RAS: ACE2 is the receptor for the SARS coronavirus and ACE2 is essential for expression of neutral amino acid transporters in the gut. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of light subunits of amino acid transporters. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of system L amino acid transporters (LAT) is strongly increased in many types of tumor cells. (dadospdf.com)
  • This amino acid tracer offers the opportunity to study system L amino acid transporters (LATs) of human cancer in vivo with PET. (dadospdf.com)
  • Several transporters with system L characteristics have been identified at the molecular level. (dadospdf.com)
  • The first cloned transporters with system L activity were LAT1 and LAT2, which are members of the solute carrier 7 family of transporters (11,12). (dadospdf.com)
  • high confidence medium confidence low confidence transporter - transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging. (lbl.gov)
  • Comment: ABC transporters with 5 components: E. coli livFGHMJ and related systems (but the alternate substrate-binding protein livK does not transport valine). (lbl.gov)
  • Analysis of IL-7 regulated gene expression revealed that neutral and cationic amino acid transporters were specific transcriptional targets of IL-7 signalling. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Manganese-induced downregulation of astroglial glutamine transporter SNAT3 involves ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL). (bvsalud.org)
  • making a protein called system B(0) neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1). (nih.gov)
  • The SLC6A19 gene provides instructions for making a protein called system B(0) neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B 0 AT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Broer S. The role of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19) in Hartnup disorder and protein nutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hartnup disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Results from preclinical studies suggest that gabapentin is transported exclusively by the LAT1 transporter. (slideshare.net)
  • high-affinity branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein LivF. (lbl.gov)
  • branched chain amino acid/phenylalanine ABC transporter ATP binding subunit LivF (EC (lbl.gov)
  • High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport ATP-binding protein BraG, component of Branched chain amino acid uptake transporter. (lbl.gov)
  • CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we review an alternative hypothesis that has recently gained experimental support, focusing on the role of amyloidogenic peptides rather than nucleic acids, in what has been by some termed "the amyloid-world" hypothesis. (catsboard.com)
  • 3-O-methyl-6-18F-fluoro-L-DOPA (18F-OMFD), a phenylalanine derivative, is a suitable 18F-labeled amino acid analog for tumor imaging (6-8). (dadospdf.com)
  • Chronic exposure to excess phenylalanine and aspartic acid can decrease the levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters within several regions of the brain. (wnho.net)
  • This protein transports certain protein building blocks ( amino acids ), namely those with a neutral charge, into cells. (nih.gov)
  • this protein complex absorbs particular protein building blocks ( amino acids ) back into the blood. (nih.gov)
  • L --Methylaminoalanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid that is produced by cyanobacteria, a blue-green algae that is common to many lakes, oceans, and soils, and is found in Cycas circinalis seeds. (nih.gov)
  • L --Methylaminoalanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced naturally by cyanobacteria found in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the mutations that cause Hartnup disease change single amino acids in the B 0 AT1 protein, reducing its activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A mutation that has been identified in multiple affected families replaces the amino acid aspartic acid with the amino acid asparagine at position 173 in the protein (written as Asp173Asn or D173N). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids, and appears to function in the reabsorption of cystine in the kidney tubule. (nih.gov)
  • ET is an excellent technique for examining various biochemical processes in malignant tissues in vivo-for example, enhanced glycolysis, altered protein synthesis rates, and enhanced amino acid transport-by applying certain radiotracers (1). (dadospdf.com)
  • Interference with drug action by amino acids and protein. (wnho.net)
  • The antagonism of levodopa by dietary protein presumably reflects impaired transport from serum across the blood brain barrier by neutral amino acids (Pincus l986). (wnho.net)
  • Commonly described as the "building blocks of protein," amino acids are vitally important to human health. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • Methods: 18F-OMFD uptake kinetics, transport inhibition, and system L messenger RNA expression were studied in vitro in human adenocarcinoma (HT-29), squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu), macrophages (THP1), and primary aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and in vivo in the corresponding mouse tumor xenograft models. (dadospdf.com)
  • Microorganisms can uptake iron from the environment by secreting iron-chelating molecules called siderophores or via membrane-bound proteins that reduce Fe+3 (ferric iron) to a more soluble Fe+2 (ferrous iron) for intracellular transport. (asbmb.org)
  • Furthermore, cellular amino acid uptake was implicated in the mechanism of IL-7 induced growth. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cell uptake behavior was examined using FITC-labeled stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide. (springer.com)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. (nih.gov)
  • When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are the result. (nih.gov)
  • Carrier proteins called ferritins (present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) store, transport and safely release iron in areas of need, preventing excess free radicals generated by high-energy iron. (asbmb.org)
  • Globulins are a diverse group of proteins that transport various substances in the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Involved in the high-affinity, sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system b(0,+)-like activity). (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in this gene cause non-type I cystinuria, a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE . (lookformedical.com)
  • In R. leguminosarum, the proximal braC (Q9L3M3) transports leucine ( PMC135202 ), and likely valine as well. (lbl.gov)
  • Q1MDE9) is a secondary SBP that transports leucine/isoleucine/valine/alanine ( PMID:19597156 ). (lbl.gov)
  • Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. (mdpi.com)
  • An ad by G. D. Searle & Company in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Dec 16, l986) implied that excess activity of these excitatory amino acids could cause nerve cell destruction resembling the changes in degenerative disorders of the nervous system. (wnho.net)
  • This is true of MSG and aspartic acid (40% of the aspartame molecule). (wnho.net)
  • Close to 98% of all fatty acids consumed are composed of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), which are very different from MCFA that have no negative effect on cholesterol ratios and help to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and protect against heart disease. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • In fact, some meteorites have been found to contain more than 200 amino acids, fatty acids, and the nucleobases adenine, guanine, and uracil. (nih.gov)
  • Previous publications have indicated that system L is also present in microvascular endothelial cells of the human brain and plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids (9). (dadospdf.com)
  • Because therapeutic drugs are transported through the bloodstream, their solubility affects their absorption and distribution directly. (springer.com)
  • Improves Digestion and many of the symptoms and inflammatory conditions associated with digestive and bowel disorders, by supporting absorption of other nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and amino acids while also providing beneficial dietary fiber. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • This process is essential to life on Earth, because it's required for all forms of life for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and amino acids. (asbmb.org)
  • The amino acid biosynthesis pathways in MED/Q genome are partitioned among the host and endosymbiont genomes in a manner distinct from other hemipterans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They mediate sodium-independent amino acid exchange and recognize a wide range of large neutral amino acids as substrates (13), expanding to small neutral amino acids in the case of LAT2 (14). (dadospdf.com)
  • The topic of fiber-matrix-filled interendothelial cleft of the Charge effects in the solute transport through pores has been worked transcapillary exchange barrier is modelled with Exchange of Ionized on all this century. (nih.gov)
  • Aromatic l- amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the way signals are passed between certain cells in the nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Carbidopa, levodopa and entacapone tablets, a combination drug consisting of levodopa (aromatic amino acid), carbidopa (aromatic amino acid decarboxylation inhibitor), and entacapone (catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor) is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (nih.gov)
  • from there the amino acids are released into the bloodstream to be used by the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the kidneys, B 0 AT1 reabsorbs neutral amino acids into the bloodstream so they are not released in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, affected individuals are lacking (deficient) in certain amino acids and vitamins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aminoaciduria is an abnormal amount of amino acids in the urine. (nih.gov)
  • This condition is characterized by increased levels of amino acids in the urine (aminoaciduria). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers believe that many of these features are related to a deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin) and one of its main components, the amino acid tryptophan. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is the precursor to several amino acids including glycine and cysteine, and tryptophan in bacteria. (ecmdb.ca)
  • Coconut also assists in relieving stress on the pancreas and enzyme systems of the body, in turn, reducing the risks associated with Diabetes. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • Fabrazyme is a hydrolytic lysosomal neutral glycosphingolipid-specific enzyme indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with confirmed Fabry disease. (nih.gov)
  • The related liv system from Acidovorax, Ac3H11_1692:1695 and Ac3H11_2396, has not been shown to transport valine. (lbl.gov)
  • This test is done to measure amino acid levels in the urine. (nih.gov)
  • Although numerous neurotoxicity studies have been conducted with L-BMAA in mice, rats, chickens, primates, and humans in vivo and several systems in vitro , studies to evaluate other toxicological endpoints, including reproductive, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity effects are lacking. (nih.gov)
  • Although numerous neurotoxicity studies have been conducted with L-BMAA in mice, rats, chickens, primates, and humans in vivo and in several systems in vitro , studies of other toxicological effects, including reproductive, developmental, and genotoxic, are lacking. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that 18F-labeled amino acids, for example, 3-O-methyl-6-18F-fluoro-L-dopa (18F-OMFD), that accumulate in tumors via LAT represent an important class of imaging agents for visualization of tumors in vivo by PET. (dadospdf.com)
  • Antidepressants may have additional mechanisms of action by modulating the immune system, which is heavily involved in neuropathic pain. (slideshare.net)
  • 1985. Effect of dioctyl phthalate on immune system of rat. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the central roles of zinc in cellular growth and differentiation, it is no surprise that the effects of zinc deficiency are pronounced in the rapid turnover of tissues and organs, especially the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Due to its nutritional content, yeast in this form may increase a person's energy, support their immune system, and offer additional health benefits. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Coconut helps to aid and support overall Immune System functions. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • They contribute to the repair and rebuilding of muscle tissue, help to enhance overall brain and nervous system function, and assist in boosting the immune system and physical energy levels. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. (mdpi.com)
  • One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Overview of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders (Merck & Co., Inc. (nih.gov)
  • Overview of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. (nih.gov)
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a type of amino acid metabolism disorder. (nih.gov)
  • While glucose metabolism has previously been implicated in the mechanism of IL-7 induced survival and growth, the role of amino acids has not before been reported. (ox.ac.uk)
  • She noted that complex organic molecules have been around since the dawn of our solar system, and meteorites that have bombarded our planet since its origin are rich in organic compounds and might have brought the important building blocks of life. (nih.gov)
  • compared to neutral molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma amino acids is a screening test, usually done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino acids in the blood. (nih.gov)
  • The reduced B 0 AT1 activity leads to large amounts of neutral amino acids being removed from the body as waste. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 18F-OMFD particularly seems to be a suitable tracer for diagnostic imaging of amino acid transport in poorly differentiated squamous cell head and neck carcinoma with increased LAT1 and LAT4 expression. (dadospdf.com)
  • Studies in rats showed that L-BMAA is rapidly taken up by central nervous system tissues and is eliminated at a much slower rate. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic pain may be nociceptive or neuropathic (i.e., resulting from neuronal maintenance of pain either peripherally or in the central nervous system). (slideshare.net)
  • Their mechanism of action includes binding to the alpha-2/delta-1 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channels in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord in which these channels are expressed. (slideshare.net)
  • Measurements of creatine phosphokinase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • STI was supported by a post-doctoral fellowship (321028) in TM's group at project inception from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research ( https://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/193.html ) and the AMIDEX excellence program of Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/en/public/excellence-initiative ). (plos.org)
  • Research in the lab of TM is funded by a grant (ANR-15-CE13-0006 BACTOCOMPASS) from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) ( https://anr.fr/en/ ), as well as support from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ( http://www.cnrs.fr/ ) and Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/fr ). (plos.org)
  • In this context, radiolabeled amino acids have been proved to be particularly useful for the imaging of brain tumors but also of peripheral tumors such as lymphoma, lung tumors, and breast tumors (3-5). (dadospdf.com)
  • Serine and derivatives are compounds containing serine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of serine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. (ecmdb.ca)
  • PMID- 669647 TI - System cuts red tape for patients from admission to discharge. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, maintenance of cell size and IL-7 induced growth were specifically dependent on amino acids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize emodin-loaded stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO-SA/EMO) and to evaluate its antitumor activity in vitro. (springer.com)
  • In vertebrates, the Fe+2 in hemoglobin is reversibly oxidized to Fe+3, allowing the binding, storage and transport of oxygen throughout the body until it is required for energy production by metabolic oxidation of glucose. (asbmb.org)
  • Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike other fats, the unique properties of coconut also contain a large amount of lauric acid, which is the predominant fatty acid found in mother's milk. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • Exogenous amino acids are essential for interleukin-7 induced CD8 T cell growth. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One of the major factors that makes this system very effective is the ability to control PaCO2 by changes in ventilation. (medscape.com)
  • 1984. Agents affecting the male reproductive system: Effects of structure on activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we show IL-7 dependent T cell survival does not require either exogenous glucose or amino acids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Coconut fiber slows down the release of glucose, therefore requiring less insulin to utilize the glucose and transport it into the cell where it is converted into energy. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is considered a strong acid because it is present only in a completely ionized form in the body, whereas carbonic acid (H2 CO3) is a weak acid because it is ionized incompletely, and, at equilibrium, all three reactants are present in body fluids. (medscape.com)
  • Accordingly, the Chemical Sciences Roundtable of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop on November 8-9, 2018, to (1) explore the chemistry of space-its novel chemicals and reaction mechanisms, (2) discuss information from remote sensing through spectroscopy, and (3) consider discoveries from spacecraft missions in the solar system and laboratory studies of extraterrestrial samples. (nih.gov)
  • Coconut Secret Raw Coconut Aminos Soy-Free Seasoning Sauce has many nutritional benefits, most notably is its impressive amino acid content compared to soy-based sauces. (chemicalfreegal.com)
  • Strong acids are those that are completely ionized in body fluids, and weak acids are those that are incompletely ionized in body fluids. (medscape.com)