Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System y+beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Transport System y+LMembrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Leucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Amino Acids, DiaminoCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.MethylglucosidesPseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).PhloretinInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.TritiumMaltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.MethylglycosidesDepression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Neutral Red: A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.

Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (1/407)

1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units).  (+info)

LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (2/407)

During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes.  (+info)

Specific contacts between residues in the DNA-binding domain of the TyrR protein and bases in the operator of the tyrP gene of Escherichia coli. (3/407)

In the presence of tyrosine, the TyrR protein of Escherichia coli represses the expression of the tyrP gene by binding to the double TyrR boxes which overlap the promoter. Previously, we have carried out methylation, uracil, and ethylation interference experiments and have identified both guanine and thymine bases and phosphates within the TyrR box sequences that are contacted by the TyrR protein (J. S. Hwang, J. Yang, and A. J. Pittard, J. Bacteriol. 179:1051-1058, 1997). In this study, we have used missing contact probing to test the involvement of all of the bases within the tyrP operator in the binding of TyrR. Our results indicate that nearly all the bases within the palindromic arms of the strong and weak boxes are important for the binding of the TyrR protein. Two alanine-substituted mutant TyrR proteins, HA494 and TA495, were purified, and their binding affinities for the tyrP operator were measured by a gel shift assay. HA494 was shown to be completely defective in binding to the tyrP operator in vitro, while, in comparison with wild-Type TyrR, TA495 had only a small reduction in DNA binding. Missing contact probing was performed by using the purified TA495 protein, and the results suggest that T495 makes specific contacts with adenine and thymine bases at the +/-5 positions in the TyrR boxes.  (+info)

Large neutral amino acids block phenylalanine transport into brain tissue in patients with phenylketonuria. (4/407)

Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), including phenylalanine (Phe), compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the L-type amino acid carrier. Accordingly, elevated plasma Phe impairs brain uptake of other LNAAs in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Direct effects of elevated brain Phe and depleted LNAAs are probably major causes for disturbed brain development and function in PKU. Competition for the carrier might conversely be put to use to lower Phe influx when the plasma concentrations of all other LNAAs are increased. This hypothesis was tested by measuring brain Phe in patients with PKU by quantitative 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy during an oral Phe challenge with and without additional supplementation with all other LNAAs. Baseline plasma Phe was approximately 1,000 micromol/l and brain Phe was approximately 250 micromol/l in both series. Without LNAA supplementation, brain Phe increased to approximately 400 micromol/l after the oral Phe load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis revealed acutely disturbed brain activity. With concurrent LNAA supplementation, Phe influx was completely blocked and there was no slowing of EEG activity. These results are relevant for further characterization of the LNAA carrier and of the pathophysiology underlying brain dysfunction in PKU and for treatment of patients with PKU, as brain function might be improved by continued LNAA supplementation.  (+info)

Stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport activates a voltage-dependent conductance in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney. (5/407)

1. The swelling induced by Na+-alanine cotransport in proximal tubule cells of the frog kidney is followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). This RVD is inhibited by gadolinium (Gd3+), an inhibitor of stretch-activated channels, but is independent of extracellular Ca2+. 2. In this study, the whole cell patch clamp technique was utilized to examine the effect of Na+-alanine cotransport on two previously identified volume- and Gd3+-sensitive conductances. One conductance is voltage dependent and anion selective (GVD) whilst the other is voltage independent and cation selective (GVI). 3. Addition of 5 mM L-alanine to the bathing solution increased the whole cell conductance and gave a positive (depolarizing) shift in the reversal potential (Vrev, equivalent to the membrane potential in current-clamped cells) consistent with activation of Na+-alanine cotransport. Vrev shifted from -36 +/- 4.9 to +12.9 +/- 4.2 mV (n = 15). 4. In the presence of alanine, the total whole cell conductance had several components including the cotransporter conductance and GVD and GVI. These conductances were separated using Gd3+, which inhibits both GVD and GVI, and the time dependency of GVD. Of these two volume-sensitive conductances, L-alanine elicited a specific increase in GVD, whereas GVI was unaffected. 5. The L-alanine-induced activation of GVD was significantly reduced when cells were incubated in a hypertonic bathing solution. 6. In summary, in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney, on stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport GVD is activated, while GVI is unaffected. Taken with other evidence, this suggests that GVD is activated by cell swelling, consequent upon alanine entry, and may play a role as an anion efflux pathway during alanine-induced volume regulation.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of GABA, proline and quaternary ammonium compound transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/407)

Arabidopsis thaliana grows efficiently on GABA as the sole nitrogen source, thereby providing evidence for the existence of GABA transporters in plants. Heterologous complementation of a GABA uptake-deficient yeast mutant identified two previously known plant amino acid transporters, AAP3 and ProT2, as GABA transporters with Michaelis constants of 12.9 +/- 1.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mM at pH 4, respectively. The simultaneous transport of [1-14C]GABA and [2,3-3H]proline by ProT2 as a function of pH, provided evidence that the zwitterionic state of GABA is an important parameter in substrate recognition. ProT2-mediated [1-14C]GABA transport was inhibited by proline and quaternary ammonium compounds.  (+info)

Differential expressions of glycine transporter 1 and three glutamate transporter mRNA in the hippocampus of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. (7/407)

The extracellular concentrations of glutamate and its co-agonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, glycine, may be under the control of amino acid transporters in the ischemic brain. However, there is little information on changes in glycine and glutamate transporters in the hippocampal CA1 field of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. This study investigated the spatial and temporal expressions of glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1) and three glutamate transporter (excitatory amino acid carrier 1, EAAC1; glutamate/aspartate transporter, GLAST; glutamate transporter 1, GLT1) mRNA in the gerbil hippocampus after 3 minutes of ischemia. The GLYT1 mRNA was transiently upregulated by the second day after ischemia in astrocytelike cells in close vicinity to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, possibly to reduce glycine concentration in the local extracellular spaces. The EAAC1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in almost all pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells in the control gerbil hippocampus, whereas the expression level in CA1 pyramidal neurons started to decrease by the fourth day after ischemia in synchrony with degeneration of the CA1 neurons. The GLAST and GLT1 mRNA were rather intensely expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 field of the control hippocampus, respectively, but they were weakly expressed in the CA1 field before and after ischemia. As GLAST and GLT1 play a major role in the control of extracellular glutamate concentration, the paucity of these transporters in the CA1 field may account for the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to ischemia, provided that the functional GLAST and GLT1 proteins are also less in the CA1 field than in the CA3 field. This study suggests that the amino acid transporters play pivotal roles in the process of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field.  (+info)

Ion transport across the normal and CF neonatal murine intestine. (8/407)

Neonatal mice with cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit a very high mortality due to intestinal obstruction localized primarily to the ileum and colon. It has been hypothesized that lack of Cl(-) secretion and possibly elevated Na(+) absorption contribute to the gut problems in CF neonates. Therefore, intestines (ileum, proximal colon, and distal colon) from normal and CF day-old mouse pups were studied on ultra-small-aperture (0.0135 cm(2)) Ussing chambers. All three regions of the normal neonatal intestine responded to forskolin with an increase in short-circuit current, which was completely absent in the CF intestine. The neonatal distal colon exhibited a high rate of amiloride-sensitive electrogenic Na(+) absorption, which did not differ between the normal and CF preparations. The ileum and proximal colon of both genotypes exhibited a small but significant electrogenic Na(+) absorption. The neonatal proximal colon and ileum also exhibited electrogenic Na(+)-glucose cotransport, which was significantly greater in the normal compared with the CF ileum. In addition, all three intestinal regions exhibited electrogenic Na(+)-alanine cotransport, which was significantly reduced in two of the regions of the CF neonatal intestine. It is speculated that: 1) the reduced rate of Na(+)-nutrient cotransport in the CF intestine contributes to the lower rate of growth in CF pups, whereas 2) the elevated electrogenic Na(+) absorption in the neonatal intestine, coupled with an inability to secrete Cl(-), contributes to the intestinal obstruction in the CF pups.  (+info)

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The kidneys excrete the daily acid load mainly by generating and excreting ammonia but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we evaluated the role of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit Kir4.2 (Kcnj15 gene product) in this process. In mice, Kir4.2 was present exclusively at the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells and disruption of Kcnj15 caused a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis associated with a reduced threshold for bicarbonate in the absence of a generalized proximal tubule dysfunction. Urinary ammonium excretion rates in Kcnj15- deleted mice were inappropriate to acidosis under basal and acid-loading conditions, and not related to a failure to acidify urine or a reduced expression of ammonia transporters in the collecting duct. In contrast, the expression of key proteins involved in ammonia metabolism and secretion by proximal cells, namely the glutamine transporter SNAT3, the phosphate-dependent glutaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
Catalyzes the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular L-proline. This protein is also capable of using lithium as the transport cation. Also catalyzes the uptake of propionate.
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Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
DelveInsights,Glycine Transporter Type-1 (Glyt-1) Inhibitors-Pipeline Insights, 2014, report provides comprehensive insights about pipeline drugs across this mechanism of action (MOA). A key objective of the report is to establish the understanding for all the pipeline drugs that fall under Glycine Transporter Type-1 (Glyt-1) Inhibitors – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 6c0eab-NmI3M
Cystinosis is presented in patients with a range of CTNS mutations; as of 2017, over 100 have been identified.[15][16] The most common mutation is a 57,257 base pair deletion commonly referred to as the 57 kb deletion. This was formally known as the 65 kb deletion; a misnomer originating from early incorrect estimates.[17][18] Other reported mutations include other deletions, missense mutations, and in-frame deletions and insertions.[19][20] The type and extent of mutation determines the type and severity of cystinosis in the carrier.[21] This is a result of the degree of transport inhibition caused by the misfolding of cystinosin.[19] For example, mild cystinosis is typically associated with mutations that do not affect the amino acids in the transmembrane domains of cystinosin.[7] In contrast, infantile nephropathic cystinosis, the most severe form of the disease, is most commonly associated with a total loss of activity.[19] Gene deletion resulting in the absence of either of the sorting ...
AbbVie is developing therapeutics targeting glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) for use in neurological disorders. GlyT1 is believed to potentiate NMDA receptors and
Feature :. BAC transgenic mouse expresses EGFP under the transcriptional control of the neuronal glycine transporter gene GlyT2 (i.e. in glycinergic neurons).. ...
Giacopo, Andrea Di; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Cantone, Alessandra; Artunc, Ferruh; Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Gehring, Nicole; Stange, Gerti; Jaenecke, Isabel; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Closs, Ellen I; Palacín, Manuel; Nunes, Virginia; Daniel, Hannelore; Lang, Florian; Capasso, Giovambattista; Wagner, Carsten A (2013). Differential cystine and dibasic amino acid handling after loss of function of the amino acid transporter b0,+AT (Slc7a9) in mice. American Journal of Physiology. Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, 305(12):F1645-F1655.. Mariotta, Luca; Ramadan, Tamara; Singer, Dustin; Guetg, Adriano; Herzog, Brigitte; Stoeger, Claudia; Palacín, Manuel; Lahoutte, Tony; Camargo, Simone M R; Verrey, François (2012). T-type amino acid transporter TAT1 (Slc16a10) is essential for extracellular aromatic amino acid homeostasis control. Journal of Physiology, 590(Pt 24):6413-6424.. ...
proline transport protein: MW 100-KDa peptide; facilitates transport of proline in cytoplasmic membrane vesicles; RefSeq NM_053996 (rat); NM_201353 (mouse)
Background In critically sick sufferers intravascular quantity pulmonary and position edema have to be quantified at the earliest opportunity. and assessed CVP. Supplementary endpoint: interobserver relationship and contract between 1092539-44-0 supplier R1 and R2. Outcomes Precision of CT-estimation of GEDVI (< 680, 680-800, > 800 mL/m2) was 33%(R1)/27%(R2). For R1 and R2 awareness for medical diagnosis of low GEDVI (< 680 mL/m2) was 0% (specificity 100%). Awareness for prediction of raised GEDVI (> 800 mL/m2) was 86%(R1)/57%(R2) using a specificity of 57%(R1)/39%(R2) (positive predictive worth 38%(R1)/22%(R2); harmful predictive worth 93%(R1)/75%(R2)). Approximated CT-GEDVI and TPTD-GEDVI had been significantly different displaying. ...
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Carbohydrates, together with fats and proteins make up a large percentage of nutrition. In addition to their central role as an energy source, they are also an important structural component especially in plants (e.g. Cellulose). Ribose, a monosaccaride with five carbons (C5H10O5) is an essential element of coenzymes (such as ATP, FAD and NAD) and a structural component of RNA. Desoxyribose (a ribose derivative) is a structural component of DNA.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive oxygen species modulate Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 expression in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. AU - Dikalova, Anna E.. AU - Aschner, Judy L.. AU - Zhang, Yongmei. AU - Kaplowitz, Mark R.. AU - Fike, Candice D.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - We have previously shown that Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from newborn piglets. Specifically, the ability to increase NO production in response to the L-arginine-NO precursor L-citrulline is dependent on SNAT1 expression. Elucidating factors that regulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs could provide new insights and therapeutic targets relevant to NO production. Our major goals were to determine if reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs from newborn piglets and to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and uncoupled endothelial NO synthase, enzymatic sources of ROS, ...
Iminoglycinuria, sometimes called familial iminoglycinuria, is an autosomal recessive disorder of renal tubular transport affecting reabsorption of the amino acid glycine, and the imino acids proline and hydroxyproline. This results in excess urinary excretion of all three acids (-uria denotes "in the urine"). Iminoglycinuria is a rare and complex disorder, associated with a number of genetic mutations that cause defects in both renal and intestinal transport systems of glycine and imino acids. Imino acids typically contain an imine functional group, instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike others, it has a secondary amine. This feature, unique to proline, identifies proline also as an imino acid. Hydroxyproline is another imino acid, made from the naturally occurring hydroxylation of proline. The primary characteristic of iminoglycinuria is the presence of glycine and imino acids in the urine. Otherwise, it is ...
Catalyzes the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular L-proline. Since most S.aureus strains are L-proline auxotrophs, this transporter may aid the bacterial persistence during an infection of tissues with low proline concentrations.
In keeping with our vehicle example, look at this website if GABA is the brake on the nerve in neuropathy and Glutamate imitate the gas pedal, a 3rd chemical known as Glycine may be thought of as the transmission. Glycine slows the worried system down. Think about shifting the nerve into low gear. Glycine down shifts the nerve in neuropathy straight thus decreasing and inhibiting uncomfortable transmission of nerve signals, but likewise it likewise may indirectly contend with Glutamate. The system by which Glycine might offer relief to clients suffering from neuropathy is a little less direct. The nerves would slow down if a client would take a big dose of Glycine. This impact would not last long nevertheless, due to the fact that in the nerve system Glycine is brought away from the nerve by exactly what is called a Glycine Transporter. The Glycine Transporter has the net impact of eliminating Glycine which effectively shifts the nerve system back into high equipment. This Glycine Transporter ...
ID Q3Z507_SHISS Unreviewed; 457 AA. AC Q3Z507; DT 27-SEP-2005, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 27-SEP-2005, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 82. DE SubName: Full=Proline permease transport protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87155.1}; GN Name=proY {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87155.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=SSON_0379 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87155.1}; OS Shigella sonnei (strain Ss046). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Shigella. OX NCBI_TaxID=300269 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87155.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87155.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Ss046 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AAZ87155.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002529}; RX PubMed=16275786; DOI=10.1093/nar/gki954; RA Yang F., Yang J., Zhang X., Chen L., Jiang Y., Yan Y., Tang X., RA Wang J., Xiong Z., Dong J., Xue Y., Zhu Y., Xu X., Sun L., Chen S., RA Nie H., Peng J., Xu J., Wang Y., Yuan ...
The Vitiello lab studies phenotypes that occur when ERS1, which encodes the cystine transporter, is absent in ers1-∆ cells. The human ortholog of Ers1p is Cystinosin, which is mutated in patients with a pediatric lysosomal storage disorder called Cystinosis. In the yeast model, cystine is transported out of the vacuole by Ers1p where the cystine is reduced to cysteine in the cytoplasm, which in turn is used in various processes such as glutathione synthesis. Using qPCR, students have measured differential gene expression in ers1-Δ versus the parental strain to find pathways are perturbed in the mutant. Students will also use various molecular genetic techniques to understand these genetic interactions. Alternatively, students may use molecular genetic techniques to characterize the thioredoxins in yeast. Dr. Vitiellos collaborators on these projects include Drs. David Pearce, Sergio Padilla-Lopez, Marianna Madeo, and Peter Vitiello at Sanford Research. Dr. Vitiello also collaborates with Dr. ...
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In brain cells, glutamine transporters are vital to monitor and control the levels of glutamate and GABA. There are 11 members of the SLC38 family of amino acid transporters of which eight have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the first histological and functional characterization of the previously orphan member, SLC38A10. We used pairwise global sequence alignments to determine the sequence identity between the SLC38 family members. SLC38A10 was found to share 20-25% transmembrane sequence identity with several family members, and was predicted to have 11 transmembrane helices. SLC38A10 immunostaining was abundant in mouse brain using a custom-made anti-SLC38A10 antibody and colocalization of SLC38A10 immunoreactivity with markers for neurons and astrocytes was detected. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes overexpressing SLC38A10, we show that SLC38A10 mediates bidirectional transport of L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-glutamate, and D-aspartate, and efflux of L-serine. This profile mostly ...
Plasma membrane System A-like neutral amino acid transporter, SA1, SAT2 or SNAT2 (transports small, neutral aliphatic amino acids including α-(methylamino)isobutyrate, mAIB with Na+ (1:1 stoichiometry; Km = 200-500 μM)). Asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the transporter (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). The C-terminal domain regulates transport activity through a voltage-dependent process (Zhang et al., 2011). An 11 TMS topology has been experimentally demonstrated (Ge et al. 2018 ...
I have always heard rumors about DNA inserts that are toxic to host cells, but I have never encountered one - and certainly not one that would be toxic in an environment that is not actively promoting protein expression in the bacteria. Does anyone have any experience with anything like this? Ive tried growing in TB and growing for 24 hours, with no increase in culture turbidity. Would it grow better in another strain? Different temperature? Different vector? Is T7 leaky in DH5alpha cells? Could one glycine transporter be more toxic than a closely related family member? HOW??? Is there a resource for this besides word of mouth and tall tales told over cocktails ...
Hurd TW, Otto EA, Mishima E, Gee HY, Inoue H, Inazu M, Yamada H, Halbritter J, Seki G, Konishi M, Zhou W, Yamane T, Murakami S, Caridi G, Ghiggeri G, Abe T, Hil
myNavigation :: TwoD a (Maybe a) myNavigation = makeXEventhandler $ shadowWithKeymap navKeyMap navDefaultHandler where navKeyMap = M.fromList [ ((0,xK_Escape), cancel) ,((0,xK_Return), select) ,((0,xK_slash) , substringSearch myNavigation) ,((0,xK_Left) , move (-1,0) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_h) , move (-1,0) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_Right) , move (1,0) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_l) , move (1,0) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_Down) , move (0,1) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_j) , move (0,1) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_Up) , move (0,-1) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_y) , move (-1,-1) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_i) , move (1,-1) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_n) , move (-1,1) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_m) , move (1,-1) ,, myNavigation) ,((0,xK_space) , setPos (0,0) ,, myNavigation) ] -- The navigation handler ignores unknown key symbols navDefaultHandler = const myNavigation ...
Otency status, despite the fact that the absence of LIF seemed to be far more detrimental, the outcomes for AP staining and Oct4 at the same time as Nanog
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Recombinant Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1320502 bestellen.
Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli can utilize proline as a sole carbon or nitrogen source. Proline utilization requires the expression of the two genes in the put operon: the putP gene, which encodes proline permease, and the putA gene, which encodes a bifunctional membrane-associated dehydrogenase that degrades proline to glutamate. The PutA protein also autogenously regulates transcription of the put operon. Induction of the put operon requires proline, oxygen (or another terminal electron acceptor), and available membrane binding sites. A simple model explains the regulation: under inducing conditions the PutA protein binds to the membrane where it is enzymatically active, but when the intracellular concentration of proline is low or when few functional membrane binding sites are available, the PutA protein accumulates in the cytoplasm where it represses transcription of the put operon. This change in cellular localization seems to be at least partly induced by changes in the redox ...
The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to treat leukemic disorders is well established in the treatment of systemic diseases. Similarly, the use of HSCT to treat genetic diseases, caused by the lack or abnormal expression of a gene, such as in sickle cell anemia, is another clinical indication for this form of cell-based therapy. In fact, the use of HSCT to treat this inherited disease is associated with a better rate of engraftment, survival, and decreased complications. Therefore, the use of HSCT to treat genetic inherited diseases has a great potential. The work reported by Cherqui et al.1 demonstrated that the use of HSCT to treat the ophthalmic manifestations is promising and, moreover, shows that the eye can be used to monitor success of engraftment in monitoring clinical response and to dissect mechanisms of action. Cystinosis is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal cystine transporter, cystinosin (CTNS gene), resulting in cystine crystal accumulation in tissues that ...
Proline catabolism is a common function in both prokaryotes and in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. In Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli proline can be utilized as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen or energy. Proline utilization (put) requires the expression of the two genes of the put operon: the putP gene, which encodes proline permease, and the putA gene, which encodes a multifunctional membrane-associated dehydrogenase that degrades proline to glutamate. PutA protein also autogenously regulates transcription of the put operon. The deduced amino acid sequence of PutA exhibits similarities to eukaryotic protein kinases and to other dehydrogenases which catalyze reactions similar to those of PutA. Induction of the put operon requires proline, oxygen, or another terminal electron acceptor, and available membrane binding sites. The following model explains the regulation: under inducing conditions, PutA binds to the membrane where it is enzymatically active, but when the ...
The invention provides novel compounds of the formula I below: (I), wherein the meaning of each substituent is defined in the application. The compounds are useful as inhibitors of the glycine transporter and useful in the treatment of diseases responsive to the inhibition of the glycine transporter. The invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of Formula I as defined above and the use of compounds as above for the manufacture of medicaments for treatment of diseases responsive to ligands of the glycine transporter ...
abstract = {The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonists glycine, d-serine and l-proline play crucial roles in NMDAR-dependent neurotransmission and are associated with a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. We conducted the first genome-wide association study of concentrations of these coagonists and their enantiomers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human subjects from the general population (N=414). Genetic variants at chromosome 22q11.2, located in and near PRODH (proline dehydrogenase), were associated with l-proline in plasma ($beta$=0.29; P=6.38 $times$ 10(-10)). The missense variant rs17279437 in the proline transporter SLC6A20 was associated with l-proline in CSF ($beta$=0.28; P=9.68 $times$ 10(-9)). Suggestive evidence of association was found for the d-serine plasma-CSF ratio at the d-amino-acid oxidase (DAO) gene ($beta$=-0.28; P=9.08 $times$ 10(-8)), whereas a variant in SRR (that encodes serine racemase and is associated with schizophrenia) constituted the most ...
Scientists studying the rare and deadly genetic disease cystinosis, have shown that transplantation of adult bone marrow stem cells appears to virtually halt the disease in a mouse model. Cystine is a byproduct of the lysosomal breakdown of cellular components the body no longer needs. Normally, cystine is shunted out of cells, but in cystinosis a gene defect of the lysosomal cystine transporter causes cystine to build up, forming crystals that are especially damaging to the kidneys and eyes. The only available drug to treat cystinosis, cysteamine, while slowing the progression of kidney degradation, does not prevent it, and end-stage kidney failure is inevitable. "Cysteamine must be given every six hours, so children have to be woken up each night to take this drug, which has unpleasant side effects, and many others to treat various symptoms," said Dr. Stephanie Cherqui, the senior author of the study. "So although there is treatment, it is difficult treatment that does not cure the disease." ...
Disease: (OMIM: 138500 242600 608331) Defects in SLC36A2 are a cause of hyperglycinuria (HG) [MIM:138500]. It is a condition characterized by excess of glycine in the urine. In some cases it is associated with renal colic and renal oxalate stones; Defects in SLC36A2 are a cause of iminoglycinuria (IG) [MIM:242600]. It is a disorder of renal tubular reabsorption of glycine and imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline), marked by excessive levels of all three substances in the urine. Note=Mutations in SLC36A2 that retain residual transport activity result in the IG phenotype only when combined with haploinsufficiency of the imino acid transporter SLC6A20 or deficiency of the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19. Additional polymorphisms and mutations in SLC6A18 can contribute to iminoglycinuria in some families ...
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Glutamine is taken up into the rat hepatoma cell line H4-IIE-C3 by a Na+-dependent transport system which is specific for glutamine, alanine, serine, cysteine and asparagine and does not tolerate substitution of Na+ by Li+. Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N-methyl aminoisobutyrate. These general properties are characteristic of the recently identified ASCT/B0 family of transporters. Using a reverse transcriptase PCR-based homology cloning approach, we have characterized a cDNA for a novel member of this transporter family (H4-ASCT2) from H4-IIE-C3 cells. The cDNA encodes a 551-amino acid protein which exhibits similarities of between 75 and 85% with ASCT/B0 transporters previously cloned from other sources. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, this transporter catalyses Na+-dependent glutamine uptake with characteristics very similar to those of glutamine uptake into the H4-IIE-C3 cells. This newly ...
Infobox_gene}} Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT is a [[protein]] that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A1 [[gene]].,ref name="pmid8486766">{{cite journal , vauthors = Lee WS, Wells RG, Sabbag RV, Mohandas TK, Hediger MA , title = Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport , journal = J Clin Invest , volume = 91 , issue = 5 , pages = 1959-1963 , date = Jun 1993 , pmid = 8486766 , pmc = 288191 , doi = 10.1172/JCI116415 }},/ref>,ref name="pmid9186880">{{cite journal , vauthors = Endsley JK, Phillips JA, Hruska KA, Denneberg T, Carlson J, George AL , title = Genomic organization of a human cystine transporter gene (SLC3A1) and identification of novel mutations causing cystinuria , journal = Kidney Int , volume = 51 , issue = 6 , pages = 1893-1899 , date = Aug 1997 , pmid = 9186880 , pmc = , doi = 10.1038/ki.1997.258 }},/ref>,ref name="entrez">{{cite web , title = Entrez Gene: SLC3A1 solute ...
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Rai, K. M. Lokanatha and Umesha, K. B. and Yathirajan, H. S. (1999) Determination of molecular weight of neutral amino acids with chloramine-T. JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 76 (3). pp. 170-171. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
The NMDA receptor co-agonist D-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 and ASCT2 which may regulate its extracellular levels in the CNS. We tested inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2 for their effects in rodent models of schizophrenia and visual dysfunction which had previously been shown to be responsive to D-serine. L-4-fluorophenylglycine (L-4FPG), L-4-hydroxyPG (L-4OHPG) and L-4-chloroPG (L-4ClPG) all showed high plasma bioavailability when administered systemically to rats and mice. L-4FPG showed good brain penetration with brain:plasma ratios of 0.7-1.4, however values for L-4OHPG and L-4ClPG were lower. Systemically administered L-4FPG potently reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice, whereas L-4OHPG was 100-fold less effective and L-4ClPG inactive at the doses tested. L-4FPG and L-4OHPG did not impair visual acuity in naive rats, and acute systemic administration of L-4FPG significantly improved the deficit in contrast sensitivity in blue-light treated ...
Lysosomal storage diseases are caused by mutated genes that express defective lysosomal proteins, such as essential enzymes. For example, cystinosis is a metabolic disease caused by a defective gene that encodes cystinosin, an exporter protein (Figure 1). Avrobio develops gene therapies to treat lysosomal storage diseases. On 8 October 2019, the company announced that its first patient had been dosed in the AVR-RD-04 investigational gene therapy program, which involves genetic modification of the patients own hematopoietic stem cells to treat cystinosis.…. ...
Model TIGR03731 represents the family of all lantibiotics related to gallidermin, including epidermin, mutatin, and nisin. This protein family describes the ATP-binding subunit of a gallidermin/epidermin class lantibiotic protection transporter. It is largely restricted to gallidermin-family lantibiotic biosynthesis and export cassettes, but also occurs in orphan transporter cassettes in species that lack candidate lantibiotic precursor and synthetase genes ...
Protéin mah pilihan dina nangtukeun ayana di mana téh, ukur bisa kapanggih dina kaayaan aktif atawa bentuk asal dina rentang pH nu heureut sarta dina kaayaan leyuran nu kadar éléktrolitna saeutik, ogé moal kapanggih dina cai sulingan. Protéin nu leungiteun bentuk asalna disebut denatured. Protéin kitu umumna teu mibanda struktur sekundér iwal koil acak. Protéin na bentuk asalna mindeng ogé disebut minangka nilep, folded. salah sahiji papanggihan abad ka-20 nu luar biasa nyaéta yén bentuk asal jeung denatured protéin bisa dibulak-balikkeun ku cara ngatur kalawan ati-ati kaayaan leyuran (misal ku dialisis bahan kimiawi nu ngakibatkeun denaturasi), protéin nu denatured bisa balik deui jadi bentuk asalna. Bahasan ngeunaan kumaha protéin bisa aya dina bentuk asalna mangrupa salah sahiji lapang penting dina ulikan biokimia, disebutna ulikan tilepan protéin. Ngaliwatan rékayasa genetik, para panalungtik bisa ngarobah urutan (ku kituna strukturna ogé), "targeting", karentanan kana ...
Protéin mah pilihan dina nangtukeun ayana di mana téh, ukur bisa kapanggih dina kaayaan aktif atawa bentuk asal dina rentang pH nu heureut sarta dina kaayaan leyuran nu kadar éléktrolitna saeutik, ogé moal kapanggih dina cai sulingan. Protéin nu leungiteun bentuk asalna disebut denatured. Protéin kitu umumna teu mibanda struktur sekundér iwal koil acak. Protéin na bentuk asalna mindeng ogé disebut minangka nilep, folded. salah sahiji papanggihan abad ka-20 nu luar biasa nyaéta yén bentuk asal jeung denatured protéin bisa dibulak-balikkeun ku cara ngatur kalawan ati-ati kaayaan leyuran (misal ku dialisis bahan kimiawi nu ngakibatkeun denaturasi), protéin nu denatured bisa balik deui jadi bentuk asalna. Bahasan ngeunaan kumaha protéin bisa aya dina bentuk asalna mangrupa salah sahiji lapang penting dina ulikan biokimia, disebutna ulikan tilepan protéin. Ngaliwatan rékayasa genetik, para panalungtik bisa ngarobah urutan (ku kituna strukturna ogé), "targeting", karentanan kana ...
J:167825 Braun D, Kinne A, Brauer AU, Sapin R, Klein MO, Kohrle J, Wirth EK, Schweizer U, Developmental and cell type-specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the mouse brain and in primary brain cells. Glia. 2011 Mar;59(3):463-71 ...
Future, Chemistry, Glycine, Glycine Transporter, Inhibition, Medicinal Chemistry, Schizophrenia, Certification, Procedures, Surgery, B Cells, Cell, Cells, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Crohns Disease, Cytokines, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, Disease, Helper Cells, Il-12
All large neutral amino acids, including tryp, showed significant postprandial increases. The ratio of total tryp to the sum of these neutral amino acids did not change in response to eating. ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...
... it was discovered that pregabalin is actively transported across the blood-brain barrier by the system L neutral amino acid ... which usually functions to transport certain amino acids, including leucine, valine and isoleucine, into the brain. This ... were found to also dramatically reduce binding to the system L transporter, and with no assisted transport into the brain, ... and also retained similar affinity for the system L transporter. This was tested in animals and as hoped, was found to have ...
High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... because the transport system which brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier is also selective for the other amino acids ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ... aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (DDC) and the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate. The TPH-mediated reaction is the rate-limiting ...
High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... because the transport system which brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier is also selective for the other amino acids ... the indoleamine molecule derives from the amino acid tryptophan.[10] Serotonin is primarily found in the enteric nervous system ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ...
Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... "Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N". EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ...
Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ... CD98 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2". Kucharzik T, ... Amino Acid Transport System L at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... amino acid transport systems, neutral MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.100 -- amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500 -- amino acid transport system l MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
This is because the transport system that brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier also transports other amino acids ... The resulting increased tryptophan ratio reduces competition at the large neutral amino acid transporter (which transports both ... It contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic acid group, and a side chain indole, making it a non-polar aromatic amino acid. ... making it an essential amino acid. Tryptophan is among the less common amino acids found in proteins, but it plays important ...
"Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells" (Free full ... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
"Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... Solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 9 also known as SLC7A9 is a protein which in ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family "SLC7A9". Feliubadaló L, Font M, Purroy J, Rousaud F, Estivill X, ...
A high-protein diet can overcome the deficient transport of neutral amino acids in most patients. Poor nutrition leads to more ... Neurologic and psychiatric treatment is needed in patients with severe central nervous system involvement. Citrullinemia ... The defective gene controls the absorption of certain amino acids from the intestine and the reabsorption of those amino acids ... The failure of amino-acid transport was reported in 1960 from the increased presence of indoles (bacterial metabolites of ...
Amino acids are imported into the LCV through various amino acid transporters such as the SLC1A5 (neutral amino acid ... the high demand of amino acids is not covered by the transport of free amino acids found in the host cytoplasm. To improve the ... The bacteria use a type IVB secretion system known as Dot/Icm to inject effector proteins into the host. These effectors are ... amino-acid permeases, and many proteases, to exploit it. The imported amino acids are used by L. pneumophila to generate energy ...
... complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid ... It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system ... reducing it from a positive to neutral form. In what is essentially the reverse of step two, the electrons push back in the ... the human Tpc and the Drosophila melanogaster have been identified as being responsible for the mitochondrial transport of ThPP ...
System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is responsible ... Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ...
The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not ... If a lysosome were to rupture, the enzymes released would not be very active because of the cytosol's neutral pH. However, if ... These special proteins contain a specialized retention signal made up of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them ...
Mackenzie B, Erickson JD (2004). "Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family". ... fatty acid transport proteins(SLC27A1, SLC27A2, SLC27A3, SLC27A4, SLC27A5, SLC27A6) (28) Na+-coupled nucleoside transport( ... System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter(SLC38A1, SLC38A2, SLC38A3, SLC38A4, SLC38A5, SLC38A6, SLC38A7, ... cationic amino acid transporter/glycoprotein-associatedcationic amino acid transporters (SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A3, SLC7A4) ...
APOE transports lipoproteins, fat-soluble vitamins, and cholesterol into the lymph system and then into the blood. It is ... APOE is 299 amino acids long and contains multiple amphipathic α-helices. According to crystallography studies, a hinge region ... It is considered the "neutral" Apo E genotype. ε4 (rs7412-C, rs429358-C) has an allele frequency of approximately 14 percent. ... After the primate-human split there were four amino acid changes in the human lineage, three of those changes had no effect ( ...
Zaia KA, Reimer RJ (Mar 2009). "Synaptic Vesicle Protein NTT4/XT1 (SLC6A17) Catalyzes Na+-coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... Masson J, Sagné C, Hamon M, El Mestikawy S (Sep 1999). "Neurotransmitter transporters in the central nervous system". ... Solute carrier family 6 member 15 (SLC6A15) also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT2 (B0AT2)' ... Bröer S (Jan 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiological Reviews. 88 (1): 249- ...
The Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Family (TC# 2.A.3) of transport proteins includes members that function as solute: ... the methylmercury-L-cysteine complex is a substrate for human L-type large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 and LAT2". ... Gasol, E; Jiménez-Vidal, M; Chillarón, J; Zorzano, A; Palacín, M (July 23, 2014). "Membrane topology of system xc- light ... The Amino Acid Transporter (AAT) Family 2.A.3.2: The Basic Amino Acid/Polyamine Antiporter (APA) Family 2.A.3.3: The Cationic ...
The generalized reactions proposed to be catalyzed by KXA family members are: 1) Amino acid or peptide (out) → Amino acid or ... dependent neutral amine and/or oligopeptide transporter. It is predicted to be 444 amino acyl residues in length and exhibits ... The KX Blood-group Antigen (KXA) Family (TC# 2.A.112) consists of transport proteins that are part of the TOG superfamily. The ... Two covalently linked proteins, Kell and XK, constitute the Kell blood group system. Kell, a 93-Kd type II glycoprotein, is ...
PCFT is located on chromosome 17q11.2 and consists of five exons encoding a protein with 459 amino acids and a MW of ~50kDa. ... PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. The low-pH activity and the structural specificity of PCFT (high ... Pemetrexed, an antifolate inhibitor primarily of thymidylate synthase, is a good substrate for PCFT even at neutral pH as ... and the delivery of folates to the central nervous system. ... amino acid identity to the frog (XP415815) and zebrafish ( ...
... is a dodecadepsipeptide, that is, it is made of twelve alternating amino acids and esters to form a macrocyclic ... It is a member of the group of natural neutral ionophores because it does not have a residual charge. It consists of ... This difference is important for maintaining the selectivity of valinomycin for the transport of potassium ions (and not sodium ... ions) in biological systems. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section ...
Circulatory system. Octopuses have a closed circulatory system, where the blood remains inside blood vessels. Octopuses have ... Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... They have neutral buoyancy and drift through the water with the fins extended. They can also contract their arms and ... Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ...
... treatment of Congenital Renal Transport Abnormalities from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... Renal amino acid resorption is also defective, causing a generalized aminoaciduria involving all neutral amino acids except ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Dec. 3-7 * Bariatric Surgery Alters Liver Fatty Acid Metabolism ... and other monoaminomonocarboxylic amino acids occurs. Accumulation of unabsorbed amino acids in the GI tract increases their ...
... neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral ... neutral in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Amino acid transport systems ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... neutral. (redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
1990) The identification of neutral amino acid transport systems. Exp Physiol 75(1):3-26. ... The 2-amino-4-methyl-3-cyanato-5-thiophenecarboxylate ethyl ester was obtained from Life Chemicals. Cyanoacetic acid was ... The genetic evidence pointing to the importance of the amino acid serine in tumorigenesis is striking. The gene encoding the ... At the cellular level, serine can be imported from the extracellular space via amino acid transporters (6, 7). Alternatively, ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral / biosynthesis* * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral / genetics ... In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamine transport by SN1 and SAT2 sustain the generation of neurotransmitter glutamate. ... Complementary expression of SN1 and SAT2 in the islets of Langerhans suggests concerted action of glutamine transport in the ... We hypothesized that the same transporters are essential for glutamine transport into the islet cells and for subsequent ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral * CTNS protein, human * ERS1 protein, S cerevisiae ... This genetic system has also led us to identify Gtr1 as an Meh1 interacting protein. Like Meh1 and Ers1, Gtr1 associates with ... These results demonstrate the utility of yeast as a model system for the study of CTNS and vacuolar function. ...
0/Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral; 0/Membrane Transport Proteins; 0/system N protein 1 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral*. Animals. Antibody Specificity. Astrocytes / metabolism*, ultrastructure. Blood-Brain ... Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis*, immunology, metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Pregnancy. Rats. Rats, Wistar. ...
Amino Acid Sequence. Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral*. Animals. Brain / cytology, metabolism, physiology*. Carrier ... 0/Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral; 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0/Glycine Plasma ... Membrane Transport Proteins*. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Organic Anion Transporters*. Rats. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. ... Next Document: Special transport and neurological significance of two amino acids in a configuration conventionally.... ...
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... c) Neutral amino acids (10 mM) inhibit the uptake of [14C]MeAIB by cells expressing SA1. Charged amino acids and the System L ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ...
To investigate this, time-resolved in vivo data on Phe and competing large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentrations in neurons ... To investigate this, time-resolved in vivo data on Phe and competing large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentrations in neurons ... is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high concentrations of the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine ( ... is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high concentrations of the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine ( ...
The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and ... The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and ... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ...
... isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. Transports most neutral short chain amino acids electrogenically. Present ... 1] "Structure and function of ATA3, a new subtype of amino acid transport system A, primarily expressed in the liver and ... GO:0006865 P:amino acid transport GO:0006814 P:sodium ion transport ...
Placental amino acid uptake. III. Transport systems for neutral amino acids. Am J Physiol. 1976;230:706-710.PubMedGoogle ... Transport of amino acids in the placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985;822:169-201.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... and amino acids; protein synthesis; amino acid interconversion; glycero-lipid synthesis; and chain lengthening or shortening of ... Umbilical uptake of amino acids in the unstressed fetal lamb. J Clin Invest. 1976;58:1428-1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The neutral amino acid transport system of larval midgut has been studied most extensively. Apart from its cation selectivity, ... Mammalian transporters investigated include the dibasic and neutral amino acid transport protein D2/NBAT (system b0+) and the ... Both systems have a broad substrate range which excludes 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, an amino acid analog accepted by the ... Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. ...
... of amino acids across the human placenta was studied in the dual perfusion apparatus using a non-metabolizable α-amino ... The relative contribution of the diffusive transport to the net placental uptake of AIB from both the maternal and fetal ... were compared with a dual-active transport model. The diffusion coefficients of AIB were found to be (3.7 × 10−9 cm2/s) in the ... which may indicate that active transport in the human placenta is inhibited by the presence of ethanol. The placental uptake ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism; Choroid/metabolism/pathology; Ciliary Body/metabolism/ ...
L-type amino acid transport system is an ubiquitous Na+-independent transport system for large, neutral amino acids across ... and system b0,+ is one of the Na+-independent amino acid transport systems in intestine (Costa et al., 2000). System b0,+ is ... Shotwell MA, Jayme DW, Kilberg MS, and Oxender DL (1981) Neutral amino acid transport systems in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J ... Oxender DL and Christensen HN (1963) Distinct mediating systems for the transport of neutral amino acids by the Ehrlich cells. ...
Molecular Cloning Of Mouse Amino Acid Transport System B0, A Neutral Amino Acid Transporter Related To Hartnup Disorder. ... Molecular Cloning Of Mouse Amino Acid Transport System B0, A Neutral Amino Acid Transporter Related To Hartnup Disorder. ... The role of neutral amino acid transport in normal physiology; Rasko J, Bröer S, Halliday G, Pollard J, Broeer S; Australian ... Bröer, S., Cavanaugh, J., Rasko, J. (2005). Neutral amino acid transport in epithelial cells and its malfunction in Hartnup ...
... system B(0,+)-like activity). Thought to be responsible for the high-affinity reabsorption of cystine in the kidney proximal ... sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ( ... Involved in the high-affinity, sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system B(0,+)-like ... Amino-acid transport, Transport. Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes ...
Nitric oxide synthesis requires activity of the cationic and neutral amino acid transport system y+L in human umbilical vein ... whereas system y+L transports and mediates the exchange of both cationic and neutral amino acids.26,28 Endothelium-dependent ... of l-arginine transport.26,31,32 System y+ selectively mediates the cellular transport and exchange of cationic amino acids, ... system y+, a sodium-independent system, accounts for ≈60% of l-arginine transport, and system y+L, a sodium-dependent system, ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...
Serine is a small, neutral amino acid and, as such, can be transported by one of three systems. Two of the systems are sodium ... The third is a family of neutral amino acid antiporters, the alanine/serine/cysteine transporter (ASC) system (El-Hattab, 2016 ... suggesting that active serine synthesis might be required to facilitate amino acid transport, nucleotide synthesis, folate ... In Amino Acid Metabolism. W.D. McElroy, and B. Glass, editors. Johns Hopkins, Baltimore. 782-796. ...
Na+-dependent system A-like transporter, System A2 or ATA2 (transports neutral amino acids with decreasing affinity in the ... 6] "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability ... 23] "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid ... 11] "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic initiation ...
System L is a major transport system for cellular uptake of neutral amino acids. Among system L transporters, L-type amino acid ... Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) : insights into the mechanisms of ... Expression of a system 1 neutral amino acid transporter at the blood-brain barrier MATSUO H ... System L amino acid transporter inhibitor enhances anti-tumor activity of cisplatin in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma ...
  • To circumvent these limitations, we have incorporated published in vivo data of rat brain into a robust computational model of NVU-LNAA homeostasis, allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier (BBB). (frontiersin.org)
  • "ATA2 is predominantly expressed as system A at the blood-brain barrier and acts as brain-to-blood efflux transport for L-proline. (tcdb.org)
  • This explained the previous failures, as most alterations to the pregabalin molecule which increase affinity for the α2δ channels and therefore increase apparent potency in the test tube, were found to also dramatically reduce binding to the system L transporter, and with no assisted transport into the brain, blood-brain barrier penetration was minimal and the drugs were inactive in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for testing of mechanisms of transendothelial drug permeation. (jove.com)
  • This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Dr. Audus' research interests have included the development and application of cell culture models to study drug distribution across the blood-brain barrier for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, and human trophoblast culture systems for studying how drug distribution across the placenta might be controlled and provide for safer drugs for mother and the fetus during pregnancy. (ku.edu)
  • Modern neuroscientists have come to realize that glutamate (glutamic acid) and aspartate (aspartic acid) play a global role as excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain. (ceri.com)
  • Sloan JL, Mager S. Cloning and functional expression of a human Na(+) and Cl(-)-dependent neutraland cationic amino acid transporter B(0+).J Biol Chem. (tcdb.org)