Amino Acid Transport Systems
Amino Acid Transport System L
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic
Amino Acid Transport System A
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral
Biological Transport, Active
Amino Acid Transport System ASC
Membrane Transport Proteins
Fatty Acid Transport Proteins
Amino Acid Sequence
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Rats, Inbred Strains
Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1
Antigens, CD98 Light Chains
Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain
Amino Acid Substitution
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn
Amino Acids, Essential
Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1
Amino Acid Motifs
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
Organic Anion Transporters
Anion Transport Proteins
Genetic Complementation Test
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Radioisotope Dilution Technique
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Bile Acids and Salts
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent
Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor
Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Periplasmic Binding Proteins
Cell Membrane Permeability
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Gene Expression Regulation
Protein Structure, Secondary
Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (1/407)1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units). (+info)
LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (2/407)During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes. (+info)
Specific contacts between residues in the DNA-binding domain of the TyrR protein and bases in the operator of the tyrP gene of Escherichia coli. (3/407)In the presence of tyrosine, the TyrR protein of Escherichia coli represses the expression of the tyrP gene by binding to the double TyrR boxes which overlap the promoter. Previously, we have carried out methylation, uracil, and ethylation interference experiments and have identified both guanine and thymine bases and phosphates within the TyrR box sequences that are contacted by the TyrR protein (J. S. Hwang, J. Yang, and A. J. Pittard, J. Bacteriol. 179:1051-1058, 1997). In this study, we have used missing contact probing to test the involvement of all of the bases within the tyrP operator in the binding of TyrR. Our results indicate that nearly all the bases within the palindromic arms of the strong and weak boxes are important for the binding of the TyrR protein. Two alanine-substituted mutant TyrR proteins, HA494 and TA495, were purified, and their binding affinities for the tyrP operator were measured by a gel shift assay. HA494 was shown to be completely defective in binding to the tyrP operator in vitro, while, in comparison with wild-Type TyrR, TA495 had only a small reduction in DNA binding. Missing contact probing was performed by using the purified TA495 protein, and the results suggest that T495 makes specific contacts with adenine and thymine bases at the +/-5 positions in the TyrR boxes. (+info)
Large neutral amino acids block phenylalanine transport into brain tissue in patients with phenylketonuria. (4/407)Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), including phenylalanine (Phe), compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the L-type amino acid carrier. Accordingly, elevated plasma Phe impairs brain uptake of other LNAAs in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Direct effects of elevated brain Phe and depleted LNAAs are probably major causes for disturbed brain development and function in PKU. Competition for the carrier might conversely be put to use to lower Phe influx when the plasma concentrations of all other LNAAs are increased. This hypothesis was tested by measuring brain Phe in patients with PKU by quantitative 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy during an oral Phe challenge with and without additional supplementation with all other LNAAs. Baseline plasma Phe was approximately 1,000 micromol/l and brain Phe was approximately 250 micromol/l in both series. Without LNAA supplementation, brain Phe increased to approximately 400 micromol/l after the oral Phe load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis revealed acutely disturbed brain activity. With concurrent LNAA supplementation, Phe influx was completely blocked and there was no slowing of EEG activity. These results are relevant for further characterization of the LNAA carrier and of the pathophysiology underlying brain dysfunction in PKU and for treatment of patients with PKU, as brain function might be improved by continued LNAA supplementation. (+info)
Stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport activates a voltage-dependent conductance in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney. (5/407)1. The swelling induced by Na+-alanine cotransport in proximal tubule cells of the frog kidney is followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). This RVD is inhibited by gadolinium (Gd3+), an inhibitor of stretch-activated channels, but is independent of extracellular Ca2+. 2. In this study, the whole cell patch clamp technique was utilized to examine the effect of Na+-alanine cotransport on two previously identified volume- and Gd3+-sensitive conductances. One conductance is voltage dependent and anion selective (GVD) whilst the other is voltage independent and cation selective (GVI). 3. Addition of 5 mM L-alanine to the bathing solution increased the whole cell conductance and gave a positive (depolarizing) shift in the reversal potential (Vrev, equivalent to the membrane potential in current-clamped cells) consistent with activation of Na+-alanine cotransport. Vrev shifted from -36 +/- 4.9 to +12.9 +/- 4.2 mV (n = 15). 4. In the presence of alanine, the total whole cell conductance had several components including the cotransporter conductance and GVD and GVI. These conductances were separated using Gd3+, which inhibits both GVD and GVI, and the time dependency of GVD. Of these two volume-sensitive conductances, L-alanine elicited a specific increase in GVD, whereas GVI was unaffected. 5. The L-alanine-induced activation of GVD was significantly reduced when cells were incubated in a hypertonic bathing solution. 6. In summary, in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney, on stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport GVD is activated, while GVI is unaffected. Taken with other evidence, this suggests that GVD is activated by cell swelling, consequent upon alanine entry, and may play a role as an anion efflux pathway during alanine-induced volume regulation. (+info)
Identification and characterization of GABA, proline and quaternary ammonium compound transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/407)Arabidopsis thaliana grows efficiently on GABA as the sole nitrogen source, thereby providing evidence for the existence of GABA transporters in plants. Heterologous complementation of a GABA uptake-deficient yeast mutant identified two previously known plant amino acid transporters, AAP3 and ProT2, as GABA transporters with Michaelis constants of 12.9 +/- 1.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mM at pH 4, respectively. The simultaneous transport of [1-14C]GABA and [2,3-3H]proline by ProT2 as a function of pH, provided evidence that the zwitterionic state of GABA is an important parameter in substrate recognition. ProT2-mediated [1-14C]GABA transport was inhibited by proline and quaternary ammonium compounds. (+info)
Differential expressions of glycine transporter 1 and three glutamate transporter mRNA in the hippocampus of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. (7/407)The extracellular concentrations of glutamate and its co-agonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, glycine, may be under the control of amino acid transporters in the ischemic brain. However, there is little information on changes in glycine and glutamate transporters in the hippocampal CA1 field of gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. This study investigated the spatial and temporal expressions of glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1) and three glutamate transporter (excitatory amino acid carrier 1, EAAC1; glutamate/aspartate transporter, GLAST; glutamate transporter 1, GLT1) mRNA in the gerbil hippocampus after 3 minutes of ischemia. The GLYT1 mRNA was transiently upregulated by the second day after ischemia in astrocytelike cells in close vicinity to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, possibly to reduce glycine concentration in the local extracellular spaces. The EAAC1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in almost all pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells in the control gerbil hippocampus, whereas the expression level in CA1 pyramidal neurons started to decrease by the fourth day after ischemia in synchrony with degeneration of the CA1 neurons. The GLAST and GLT1 mRNA were rather intensely expressed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 field of the control hippocampus, respectively, but they were weakly expressed in the CA1 field before and after ischemia. As GLAST and GLT1 play a major role in the control of extracellular glutamate concentration, the paucity of these transporters in the CA1 field may account for the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to ischemia, provided that the functional GLAST and GLT1 proteins are also less in the CA1 field than in the CA3 field. This study suggests that the amino acid transporters play pivotal roles in the process of delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 field. (+info)
Ion transport across the normal and CF neonatal murine intestine. (8/407)Neonatal mice with cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit a very high mortality due to intestinal obstruction localized primarily to the ileum and colon. It has been hypothesized that lack of Cl(-) secretion and possibly elevated Na(+) absorption contribute to the gut problems in CF neonates. Therefore, intestines (ileum, proximal colon, and distal colon) from normal and CF day-old mouse pups were studied on ultra-small-aperture (0.0135 cm(2)) Ussing chambers. All three regions of the normal neonatal intestine responded to forskolin with an increase in short-circuit current, which was completely absent in the CF intestine. The neonatal distal colon exhibited a high rate of amiloride-sensitive electrogenic Na(+) absorption, which did not differ between the normal and CF preparations. The ileum and proximal colon of both genotypes exhibited a small but significant electrogenic Na(+) absorption. The neonatal proximal colon and ileum also exhibited electrogenic Na(+)-glucose cotransport, which was significantly greater in the normal compared with the CF ileum. In addition, all three intestinal regions exhibited electrogenic Na(+)-alanine cotransport, which was significantly reduced in two of the regions of the CF neonatal intestine. It is speculated that: 1) the reduced rate of Na(+)-nutrient cotransport in the CF intestine contributes to the lower rate of growth in CF pups, whereas 2) the elevated electrogenic Na(+) absorption in the neonatal intestine, coupled with an inability to secrete Cl(-), contributes to the intestinal obstruction in the CF pups. (+info)
Cystinuria is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cystine across the brush border membrane of renal tubular cells. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that affected individuals must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop symptoms.
There is no cure for cystinuria, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms. These may include medications to reduce the acidity of the urine and prevent infection, as well as surgical procedures to remove stones or repair damaged kidneys. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.
It's important for individuals with cystinuria to drink plenty of water and maintain good hydration to help flush out the urinary tract and prevent stone formation. They should also avoid certain foods that may increase the risk of stone formation, such as oxalate-rich foods like spinach and rhubarb.
Overall, while there is no cure for cystinuria, with proper management and care, individuals with this disorder can lead relatively normal lives and minimize the complications associated with it.
Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients. It is caused by a mutation in the HCN1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cobalamin into the cells.
Symptoms of Hartnup Disease:
The symptoms of Hartnup disease can vary in severity and may include:
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Poor appetite
Complications of Hartnup Disease:
If left untreated, Hartnup disease can lead to complications such as:
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Nerve damage
* Skin problems
* Eye problems
* Hearing loss
* Increased risk of infections
Treatment of Hartnup Disease:
The treatment of Hartnup disease typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements. Patients with the condition may need to follow a strict diet that includes foods high in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. They may also need to take supplements to ensure they are getting enough of this important nutrient. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
Prognosis of Hartnup Disease:
The prognosis for Hartnup disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. With proper management, most patients with Hartnup disease can lead active and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications that can be difficult to reverse.
Inheritance Pattern of Hartnup Disease:
Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated HCN1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a person inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the condition but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers of Hartnup disease can pass the mutated gene on to their children, who have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and developing the condition.
Prevention of Hartnup Disease:
There is no known prevention for Hartnup disease. However, if a person knows they are a carrier of the condition, they can work with their healthcare provider to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 and monitoring their diet to prevent any complications.
In conclusion, Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements, and early diagnosis and management can lead to a good prognosis. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of Hartnup disease, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Also known as: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA synthetase deficiency, and amino acid transporter defects.
The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:
* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area
CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.
Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer
Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.
There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:
1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.
The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1
Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2
Neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT
Neutral amino acid transporter B(0)
B(0,+)-type amino acid transporter 1
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT2
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2
Amino acid transporter
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1
Solute carrier family
Branched-chain amino acid
KX blood-group antigen family
Proton-coupled folate transporter
History of the Jews in Poland
Index of biochemistry articles
List of skin conditions
List of OMIM disorder codes
Discovery and development of proton pump inhibitors
ATP-binding cassette transporter
ACE2 - from the renin-angiotensin system to gut microbiota and malnutrition
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IBIE 2022 Expo
- In addition, ACE2 has functions independent of the RAS: ACE2 is the receptor for the SARS coronavirus and ACE2 is essential for expression of neutral amino acid transporters in the gut. (nih.gov)
- This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of light subunits of amino acid transporters. (nih.gov)
- Expression of system L amino acid transporters (LAT) is strongly increased in many types of tumor cells. (dadospdf.com)
- This amino acid tracer offers the opportunity to study system L amino acid transporters (LATs) of human cancer in vivo with PET. (dadospdf.com)
- Several transporters with system L characteristics have been identified at the molecular level. (dadospdf.com)
- The first cloned transporters with system L activity were LAT1 and LAT2, which are members of the solute carrier 7 family of transporters (11,12). (dadospdf.com)
- high confidence medium confidence low confidence transporter - transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging. (lbl.gov)
- Comment: ABC transporters with 5 components: E. coli livFGHMJ and related systems (but the alternate substrate-binding protein livK does not transport valine). (lbl.gov)
- Analysis of IL-7 regulated gene expression revealed that neutral and cationic amino acid transporters were specific transcriptional targets of IL-7 signalling. (ox.ac.uk)
- Manganese-induced downregulation of astroglial glutamine transporter SNAT3 involves ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system. (nih.gov)
- Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL). (bvsalud.org)
- making a protein called system B(0) neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1). (nih.gov)
- The SLC6A19 gene provides instructions for making a protein called system B(0) neutral amino acid transporter 1 (B 0 AT1). (medlineplus.gov)
- Broer S. The role of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19) in Hartnup disorder and protein nutrition. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hartnup disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19. (medlineplus.gov)
- Results from preclinical studies suggest that gabapentin is transported exclusively by the LAT1 transporter. (slideshare.net)
- high-affinity branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein LivF. (lbl.gov)
- branched chain amino acid/phenylalanine ABC transporter ATP binding subunit LivF (EC 220.127.116.11). (lbl.gov)
- High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport ATP-binding protein BraG, component of Branched chain amino acid uptake transporter. (lbl.gov)
- CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. (mdpi.com)
- Here, we review an alternative hypothesis that has recently gained experimental support, focusing on the role of amyloidogenic peptides rather than nucleic acids, in what has been by some termed "the amyloid-world" hypothesis. (catsboard.com)
- 3-O-methyl-6-18F-fluoro-L-DOPA (18F-OMFD), a phenylalanine derivative, is a suitable 18F-labeled amino acid analog for tumor imaging (6-8). (dadospdf.com)
- Chronic exposure to excess phenylalanine and aspartic acid can decrease the levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters within several regions of the brain. (wnho.net)
- This protein transports certain protein building blocks ( amino acids ), namely those with a neutral charge, into cells. (nih.gov)
- this protein complex absorbs particular protein building blocks ( amino acids ) back into the blood. (nih.gov)
- L --Methylaminoalanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid that is produced by cyanobacteria, a blue-green algae that is common to many lakes, oceans, and soils, and is found in Cycas circinalis seeds. (nih.gov)
- L --Methylaminoalanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced naturally by cyanobacteria found in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (nih.gov)
- Most of the mutations that cause Hartnup disease change single amino acids in the B 0 AT1 protein, reducing its activity. (medlineplus.gov)
- A mutation that has been identified in multiple affected families replaces the amino acid aspartic acid with the amino acid asparagine at position 173 in the protein (written as Asp173Asn or D173N). (medlineplus.gov)
- This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids, and appears to function in the reabsorption of cystine in the kidney tubule. (nih.gov)
- ET is an excellent technique for examining various biochemical processes in malignant tissues in vivo-for example, enhanced glycolysis, altered protein synthesis rates, and enhanced amino acid transport-by applying certain radiotracers (1). (dadospdf.com)
- Interference with drug action by amino acids and protein. (wnho.net)
- The antagonism of levodopa by dietary protein presumably reflects impaired transport from serum across the blood brain barrier by neutral amino acids (Pincus l986). (wnho.net)
- Commonly described as the "building blocks of protein," amino acids are vitally important to human health. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- Methods: 18F-OMFD uptake kinetics, transport inhibition, and system L messenger RNA expression were studied in vitro in human adenocarcinoma (HT-29), squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu), macrophages (THP1), and primary aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and in vivo in the corresponding mouse tumor xenograft models. (dadospdf.com)
- Microorganisms can uptake iron from the environment by secreting iron-chelating molecules called siderophores or via membrane-bound proteins that reduce Fe+3 (ferric iron) to a more soluble Fe+2 (ferrous iron) for intracellular transport. (asbmb.org)
- Furthermore, cellular amino acid uptake was implicated in the mechanism of IL-7 induced growth. (ox.ac.uk)
- Cell uptake behavior was examined using FITC-labeled stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide. (springer.com)
- Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body. (nih.gov)
- Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. (nih.gov)
- When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are the result. (nih.gov)
- Carrier proteins called ferritins (present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes) store, transport and safely release iron in areas of need, preventing excess free radicals generated by high-energy iron. (asbmb.org)
- Globulins are a diverse group of proteins that transport various substances in the blood. (cdc.gov)
- Involved in the high-affinity, sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system b(0,+)-like activity). (nih.gov)
- Mutations in this gene cause non-type I cystinuria, a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. (nih.gov)
- A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE . (lookformedical.com)
- Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. (mdpi.com)
- An ad by G. D. Searle & Company in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Dec 16, l986) implied that excess activity of these excitatory amino acids could cause nerve cell destruction resembling the changes in degenerative disorders of the nervous system. (wnho.net)
- This is true of MSG and aspartic acid (40% of the aspartame molecule). (wnho.net)
- Close to 98% of all fatty acids consumed are composed of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), which are very different from MCFA that have no negative effect on cholesterol ratios and help to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and protect against heart disease. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- In fact, some meteorites have been found to contain more than 200 amino acids, fatty acids, and the nucleobases adenine, guanine, and uracil. (nih.gov)
- Previous publications have indicated that system L is also present in microvascular endothelial cells of the human brain and plays an important role in the absorption of amino acids (9). (dadospdf.com)
- Because therapeutic drugs are transported through the bloodstream, their solubility affects their absorption and distribution directly. (springer.com)
- Improves Digestion and many of the symptoms and inflammatory conditions associated with digestive and bowel disorders, by supporting absorption of other nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and amino acids while also providing beneficial dietary fiber. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- This process is essential to life on Earth, because it's required for all forms of life for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and amino acids. (asbmb.org)
- The amino acid biosynthesis pathways in MED/Q genome are partitioned among the host and endosymbiont genomes in a manner distinct from other hemipterans. (biomedcentral.com)
- They mediate sodium-independent amino acid exchange and recognize a wide range of large neutral amino acids as substrates (13), expanding to small neutral amino acids in the case of LAT2 (14). (dadospdf.com)
- The topic of fiber-matrix-filled interendothelial cleft of the Charge effects in the solute transport through pores has been worked transcapillary exchange barrier is modelled with Exchange of Ionized on all this century. (nih.gov)
- Aromatic l- amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the way signals are passed between certain cells in the nervous system. (nih.gov)
- Carbidopa, levodopa and entacapone tablets, a combination drug consisting of levodopa (aromatic amino acid), carbidopa (aromatic amino acid decarboxylation inhibitor), and entacapone (catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor) is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (nih.gov)
- As a result, affected individuals are lacking (deficient) in certain amino acids and vitamins. (medlineplus.gov)
- Coconut also assists in relieving stress on the pancreas and enzyme systems of the body, in turn, reducing the risks associated with Diabetes. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- Fabrazyme is a hydrolytic lysosomal neutral glycosphingolipid-specific enzyme indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with confirmed Fabry disease. (nih.gov)
- The related liv system from Acidovorax, Ac3H11_1692:1695 and Ac3H11_2396, has not been shown to transport valine. (lbl.gov)
- This test is done to measure amino acid levels in the urine. (nih.gov)
- Although numerous neurotoxicity studies have been conducted with L-BMAA in mice, rats, chickens, primates, and humans in vivo and several systems in vitro , studies to evaluate other toxicological endpoints, including reproductive, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity effects are lacking. (nih.gov)
- Although numerous neurotoxicity studies have been conducted with L-BMAA in mice, rats, chickens, primates, and humans in vivo and in several systems in vitro , studies of other toxicological effects, including reproductive, developmental, and genotoxic, are lacking. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that 18F-labeled amino acids, for example, 3-O-methyl-6-18F-fluoro-L-dopa (18F-OMFD), that accumulate in tumors via LAT represent an important class of imaging agents for visualization of tumors in vivo by PET. (dadospdf.com)
- Antidepressants may have additional mechanisms of action by modulating the immune system, which is heavily involved in neuropathic pain. (slideshare.net)
- 1985. Effect of dioctyl phthalate on immune system of rat. (cdc.gov)
- Given the central roles of zinc in cellular growth and differentiation, it is no surprise that the effects of zinc deficiency are pronounced in the rapid turnover of tissues and organs, especially the immune system. (nih.gov)
- Due to its nutritional content, yeast in this form may increase a person's energy, support their immune system, and offer additional health benefits. (vitanetonline.com)
- Coconut helps to aid and support overall Immune System functions. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- They contribute to the repair and rebuilding of muscle tissue, help to enhance overall brain and nervous system function, and assist in boosting the immune system and physical energy levels. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. (mdpi.com)
- One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. (nih.gov)
- Overview of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders (Merck & Co., Inc. (nih.gov)
- Overview of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. (nih.gov)
- Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a type of amino acid metabolism disorder. (nih.gov)
- While glucose metabolism has previously been implicated in the mechanism of IL-7 induced survival and growth, the role of amino acids has not before been reported. (ox.ac.uk)
- 18F-OMFD particularly seems to be a suitable tracer for diagnostic imaging of amino acid transport in poorly differentiated squamous cell head and neck carcinoma with increased LAT1 and LAT4 expression. (dadospdf.com)
- Studies in rats showed that L-BMAA is rapidly taken up by central nervous system tissues and is eliminated at a much slower rate. (nih.gov)
- Chronic pain may be nociceptive or neuropathic (i.e., resulting from neuronal maintenance of pain either peripherally or in the central nervous system). (slideshare.net)
- Their mechanism of action includes binding to the alpha-2/delta-1 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channels in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord in which these channels are expressed. (slideshare.net)
- Measurements of creatine phosphokinase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
- STI was supported by a post-doctoral fellowship (321028) in TM's group at project inception from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research ( https://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/193.html ) and the AMIDEX excellence program of Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/en/public/excellence-initiative ). (plos.org)
- Research in the lab of TM is funded by a grant (ANR-15-CE13-0006 BACTOCOMPASS) from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) ( https://anr.fr/en/ ), as well as support from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ( http://www.cnrs.fr/ ) and Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/fr ). (plos.org)
- In this context, radiolabeled amino acids have been proved to be particularly useful for the imaging of brain tumors but also of peripheral tumors such as lymphoma, lung tumors, and breast tumors (3-5). (dadospdf.com)
- Serine and derivatives are compounds containing serine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of serine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. (ecmdb.ca)
- PMID- 669647 TI - System cuts red tape for patients from admission to discharge. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, maintenance of cell size and IL-7 induced growth were specifically dependent on amino acids. (ox.ac.uk)
- The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize emodin-loaded stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO-SA/EMO) and to evaluate its antitumor activity in vitro. (springer.com)
- In vertebrates, the Fe+2 in hemoglobin is reversibly oxidized to Fe+3, allowing the binding, storage and transport of oxygen throughout the body until it is required for energy production by metabolic oxidation of glucose. (asbmb.org)
- Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
- Unlike other fats, the unique properties of coconut also contain a large amount of lauric acid, which is the predominant fatty acid found in mother's milk. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- Exogenous amino acids are essential for interleukin-7 induced CD8 T cell growth. (ox.ac.uk)
- One of the major factors that makes this system very effective is the ability to control PaCO2 by changes in ventilation. (medscape.com)
- 1984. Agents affecting the male reproductive system: Effects of structure on activity. (cdc.gov)
- Here, we show IL-7 dependent T cell survival does not require either exogenous glucose or amino acids. (ox.ac.uk)
- Coconut fiber slows down the release of glucose, therefore requiring less insulin to utilize the glucose and transport it into the cell where it is converted into energy. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is considered a strong acid because it is present only in a completely ionized form in the body, whereas carbonic acid (H2 CO3) is a weak acid because it is ionized incompletely, and, at equilibrium, all three reactants are present in body fluids. (medscape.com)
- Accordingly, the Chemical Sciences Roundtable of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop on November 8-9, 2018, to (1) explore the chemistry of space-its novel chemicals and reaction mechanisms, (2) discuss information from remote sensing through spectroscopy, and (3) consider discoveries from spacecraft missions in the solar system and laboratory studies of extraterrestrial samples. (nih.gov)
- Coconut Secret Raw Coconut Aminos Soy-Free Seasoning Sauce has many nutritional benefits, most notably is its impressive amino acid content compared to soy-based sauces. (chemicalfreegal.com)
- Strong acids are those that are completely ionized in body fluids, and weak acids are those that are incompletely ionized in body fluids. (medscape.com)