Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System y+beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Transport System y+LMembrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Leucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Amino Acids, DiaminoCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.MethylglucosidesIleum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Pseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.PhloretinInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.TritiumSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.MethylglycosidesRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.MethylgalactosidesRNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.

Rat liver endothelial cell glutamine transporter and glutaminase expression contrast with parenchymal cells. (1/308)

Despite the central role of the liver in glutamine homeostasis in health and disease, little is known about the mechanism by which this amino acid is transported into sinusoidal endothelial cells, the second most abundant hepatic cell type. To address this issue, the transport of L-glutamine was functionally characterized in hepatic endothelial cells isolated from male rats. On the basis of functional analyses, including kinetics, cation substitution, and amino acid inhibition, it was determined that a Na+-dependent carrier distinct from system N in parenchymal cells, with properties of system ASC or B0, mediated the majority of glutamine transport in hepatic endothelial cells. These results were supported by Northern blot analyses that showed expression of the ATB0 transporter gene in endothelial but not parenchymal cells. Concurrently, it was determined that, whereas both cell types express glutamine synthetase, hepatic endothelial cells express the kidney-type glutaminase isozyme in contrast to the liver-type isozyme in parenchymal cells. This represents the first report of ATB0 and kidney-type glutaminase isozyme expression in the liver, observations that have implications for roles of specific cell types in hepatic glutamine homeostasis in health and disease.  (+info)

Conducted signals within arteriolar networks initiated by bioactive amino acids. (2/308)

Our purpose was to determine the specificity of L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced conducted signals for intra- vs. extracellular actions of L-Arg. Diameter and red blood cell velocities were measured for arterioles [18 +/- 1.6 (SE) micrometer] in the cremaster muscle of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized (Nembutal, 70 mg/kg) hamsters (n = 53). Remote (conducted) responses were viewed approximately 1,000 micrometer upstream from the local (micropipette) application. Six amino acids were tested: L-arginine, L-cystine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-histidine, and L-aspartate (100 microM each). Only L-Arg induced a remote dilation; L-lysine and L-aspartate had no effect, and the others each induced a significant remote constriction. There is a second conducted signal initiated by L-arginine that preconditions the arteriolar network and upregulates a direct response of L-arginine to dilate the remote site. This was blocked by inhibition of L-arginine uptake at the local (preconditioning) site (100 microM L-histidine or 1 mM phenformin). Arginine-glycine-aspartate (100 microM)-induced remote dilations (+3. 2 +/- 0.3 micrometer) were not mimicked by a peptide control and were prevented by anti- integrin alphav monoclonal antibody. Remote dilations were greater in animals with a higher wall shear stress for arginine-glycine-aspartate (r2 = 0.92) but not for L-arginine (r2 = 0.12). Thus L-arginine initiates separate conducted signals related to system y+ transport, integrins, and baseline flow.  (+info)

Yeast mutants affecting possible quality control of plasma membrane proteins. (3/308)

Mutations gef1, stp22, STP26, and STP27 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as suppressors of the temperature-sensitive alpha-factor receptor (mutation ste2-3) and arginine permease (mutation can1(ts)). These suppressors inhibited the elimination of misfolded receptors (synthesized at 34 degrees C) as well as damaged surface receptors (shifted from 22 to 34 degrees C). The stp22 mutation (allelic to vps23 [M. Babst and S. Emr, personal communication] and the STP26 mutation also caused missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, and ste2-3 was suppressed by mutations vps1, vps8, vps10, and vps28 but not by mutation vps3. In the stp22 mutant, both the mutant and the wild-type receptors (tagged with green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulated within an endosome-like compartment and were excluded from the vacuole. GFP-tagged Stp22p also accumulated in this compartment. Upon reaching the vacuole, cytoplasmic domains of both mutant and wild-type receptors appeared within the vacuolar lumen. Stp22p and Gef1p are similar to tumor susceptibility protein TSG101 and voltage-gated chloride channel, respectively. These results identify potential elements of plasma membrane quality control and indicate that cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are translocated into the vacuolar lumen.  (+info)

Large neutral amino acids block phenylalanine transport into brain tissue in patients with phenylketonuria. (4/308)

Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), including phenylalanine (Phe), compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the L-type amino acid carrier. Accordingly, elevated plasma Phe impairs brain uptake of other LNAAs in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Direct effects of elevated brain Phe and depleted LNAAs are probably major causes for disturbed brain development and function in PKU. Competition for the carrier might conversely be put to use to lower Phe influx when the plasma concentrations of all other LNAAs are increased. This hypothesis was tested by measuring brain Phe in patients with PKU by quantitative 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy during an oral Phe challenge with and without additional supplementation with all other LNAAs. Baseline plasma Phe was approximately 1,000 micromol/l and brain Phe was approximately 250 micromol/l in both series. Without LNAA supplementation, brain Phe increased to approximately 400 micromol/l after the oral Phe load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis revealed acutely disturbed brain activity. With concurrent LNAA supplementation, Phe influx was completely blocked and there was no slowing of EEG activity. These results are relevant for further characterization of the LNAA carrier and of the pathophysiology underlying brain dysfunction in PKU and for treatment of patients with PKU, as brain function might be improved by continued LNAA supplementation.  (+info)

CAT2-mediated L-arginine transport and nitric oxide production in activated macrophages. (5/308)

Activated macrophages require l-arginine uptake to sustain NO synthesis. Several transport systems could mediate this l-arginine influx. Using competition analysis and gene-expression studies, amino acid transport system y+ was identified as the major carrier responsible for this activity. To identify which of the four known y+ transport-system genes is involved in macrophage-induced l-arginine uptake, we used a hybrid-depletion study in Xenopus oocytes. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 2 antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides abolished the activated-macrophage-mRNA-induced l-arginine transport. Together with expression studies documenting that CAT2 mRNA and protein levels are elevated with increased l-arginine uptake, our data demonstrate that CAT2 mediates the l-arginine transport that is required for the raised NO production in activated J774 macrophages.  (+info)

Cationic amino acid transporter gene expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and in rats. (6/308)

Immunostimulants trigger vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to express the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) and increased arginine transport activity. Although arginine transport in VSMC is considered to be mediated via the y+ system, we show here that rat VSMC in culture express the cat-1 gene transcript as well as an alternatively spliced transcript of the cat-2 gene. An RT-PCR cloning sequence strategy was used to identify a 141-base nucleotide sequence encoding the low-affinity domain of alternatively spliced CAT-2A and a 138-base nucleotide sequence encoding the high-affinity domain of CAT-2B in VSMC activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with interferon-gamma (IFN). With this sequence as a probe, Northern analyses showed that CAT-1 mRNA and CAT-2B mRNA are constitutively present in VSMC, and the expression of both mRNAs was rapidly stimulated by treatment with LPS-IFN, peaked within 4 h, and decayed to basal levels within 6 h after LPS-IFN. CAT-2A mRNA was not detectable in unstimulated or stimulated VSMC. Arginine transporter activity significantly increased 4-10 h after LPS-IFN. iNOS activity was reduced to almost zero in the absence of extracellular arginine uptake via system y+. Induction of arginine transport seems to be a prerequisite to the enhanced synthesis of NO in VSMC. Moreover, this work demonstrates tissue expression of CAT mRNAs with use of a model of LPS injection in rats. RT-PCR shows that the expression of CAT-1 and CAT-2B mRNA in the lung, heart, and kidney is increased by LPS administration to rats, whereas CAT-2A mRNA is abundantly expressed in the liver independent of LPS treatment. These findings suggest that together CAT-1 and CAT-2B play an important role in providing substrate for high-output NO synthesis in vitro as well as in vivo and implicate a coordinated regulation of intracellular iNOS enzyme activity with membrane arginine transport.  (+info)

Receptor-mediated Moloney murine leukemia virus entry can occur independently of the clathrin-coated-pit-mediated endocytic pathway. (7/308)

To investigate receptor-mediated Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) entry, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged ecotropic receptor designated murine cationic amino acid transporter (MCAT-1) (MCAT-1-GFP) was constructed and expressed in 293 cells (293/MCAT-1-GFP). 293/MCAT-1-GFP cells displayed green fluorescence primarily at the cell membrane and supported wild-type levels of MoMuLV vector binding and transduction. Using immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy, it was demonstrated that the surface envelope protein (SU) gp70 of MoMuLV virions began to appear inside cells 5 min after virus binding and was colocalized with MCAT-1-GFP. However, clathrin was not colocalized with MCAT-1-GFP, suggesting that MoMuLV entry, mediated by MCAT-1, does not involve clathrin. Double immunofluorescence labeling of SU and clathrin in 293 cells expressing untagged receptor (293/MCAT-1) gave the same results, i.e., SU and clathrin did not colocalize. In addition, we examined the transduction ability of MoMuLV vector on HeLa cells overexpressing the dominant-negative GTPase mutant of dynamin (K44A). HeLa cells overexpressing mutant dynamin have a severe block in endocytosis by the clathrin-coated-pit pathway. No significant titer difference was observed when MoMuLV vector was tranduced into HeLa cells overexpressing either wild-type or mutant dynamin, while the transduction ability of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped vector into HeLa cells overexpressing mutant dynamin was decreased significantly. Taken together, these data suggest that MoMuLV entry does not occur through the clathrin-coated-pit-mediated endocytic pathway.  (+info)

Modulation of ATPase activity by physical disengagement of the ATP-binding domains of an ABC transporter, the histidine permease. (8/308)

The membrane-bound complex of the prokaryotic histidine permease, a periplasmic protein-dependent ABC transporter, is composed of two hydrophobic subunits, HisQ and HisM, and two identical ATP-binding subunits, HisP, and is energized by ATP hydrolysis. The soluble periplasmic binding protein, HisJ, creates a signal that induces ATP hydrolysis by HisP. The crystal structure of HisP has been resolved and shown to have an "L" shape, with one of its arms (arm I) being involved in ATP binding and the other one (arm II) being proposed to interact with the hydrophobic subunits (Hung, L.-W., Wang, I. X., Nikaido, K., Liu, P.-Q., Ames, G. F.-L., and Kim, S.-H. (1998) Nature 396, 703-707). Here we study the basis for the defect of several HisP mutants that have an altered signaling pathway and hydrolyze ATP constitutively. We use biochemical approaches to show that they produce a loosely assembled membrane complex, in which the mutant HisP subunits are disengaged from HisQ and HisM, suggesting that the residues involved are important in the interaction between HisP and the hydrophobic subunits. In addition, the mutant HisPs are shown to have lower affinity for ADP and to display no cooperativity for ATP. All of the residues affected in these HisP mutants are located in arm II of the crystal structure of HisP, thus supporting the proposed function of arm II of HisP as interacting with HisQ and HisM. A revised model involving a cycle of disengagement and reengagement of HisP is proposed as a general mechanism of action for ABC transporters.  (+info)

*Expanded genetic code

... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... previously unnatural amino acid (p-aminophenylalanine) from basic carbon sources and includes this amino acid in its genetic ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...

*Phytotoxin

The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... and synthesized from acetyl-CoA or basic intermediates of glycolysis They often end in -ol (menthol) and comprise the majority ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ...

*KPNA3

Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, encodes a ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... The predicted amino acid sequence shows similarity to Xenopus importin, yeast SRP1, and human RCH1 (KPNA2), respectively. ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...

*Metabolism

The amino acids or sugars released by these extracellular enzymes are then pumped into cells by active transport proteins. ... Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, ... Thus living systems are not in equilibrium, but instead are dissipative systems that maintain their state of high complexity by ... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ...

*Glutamic acid

... is transported by a high-affinity transport system. It can also be converted into glutamine. Disodium glutamate Kainic acid ... A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α- ... one of the five basic tastes of the human sense of taste. Glutamic acid is often used as a food additive and flavor enhancer in ... R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in ...

*Willard Gibbs Award

... for demonstration of important metabolic interrelationships of amino acids, and for measurement of the amino acid requirements ... biological control systems, immunological response, processing of genetic information, ionophore transport and the reaction of ... His group developed the basic models, mechanisms, and methods for nanocrystal synthesis, processing, and characterization that ... He has made outstanding contributions in many fields, among which are the following: the synthesis of amino acids, the ...

*Antigen-antibody interaction

This region called V (variable) domain is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their binding ... The immune complex is then transported to cellular systems where it can be destroyed or deactivated. The first correct ... One basic application is determination of ABO blood group. It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with ... The variable region in turn has hyper-variable regions which are unique amino acid sequences in each antibody. Antigens are ...

*Iminoglycinuria

... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... Proline at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Botany Online: Basic metabolism - Biosynthesis ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ...

*Thiamine pyrophosphate

... complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid ... It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system ... It achieves this in four basic steps: The carbanion of the TPP ylid nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl group on the ... the human Tpc and the Drosophila melanogaster have been identified as being responsible for the mitochondrial transport of ThPP ...

*Amino acid transporter

Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is responsible ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ...

*OSIRIS-REx

Organic molecules, such as amino acids, have previously been found in meteorite and comet samples, indicating that some ... Propulsion system: Based on a hydrazine monopropellant system developed for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, carrying 1,230 kg ... Telescopic observations have revealed some basic properties of Bennu. They indicate that it is very dark and is classified as a ... The capsule will then be transported to the Johnson Space Center for processing in a dedicated research facility. The acronym ...

*Leigh disease

Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... This causes a chronic lack of energy in the cells, which leads to cell death and in turn, affects the central nervous system ... Without ATP synthase, the electron transport chain will not produce any ATP. The most common MT-ATP6 mutation found with Leigh ... The brain stem is involved in maintaining basic life functions such as breathing, swallowing, and circulation; the basal ...

*CKMT1A

... consists of 417 amino acids and weighs 47037Da. CKMT1A is rich in amino acids with hydroxyl-containing and basic side ... According to the "transport" ("shuttle") hypothesis for the CK system, after synthesis within the mitochondrial matrix, the γ- ... inhibits the processing of uMtCK to induce cell death in a cell culture model system". Bioscience Reports. 31 (5): 429-37. doi: ...

*Messenger RNA

RNA is primarily used as the code to make proteins and amino acids. Errors in protein or amino acid production can result in ... "Transport and Localization Elements in Myelin Basic Protein mRNA", The Journal of Cell Biology, 138 (5): 1077-1087, doi:10.1083 ... It is thought to be part of the innate immune system as a defense against double-stranded RNA viruses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ... This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA), that mediates ...

*Molecular diffusion

In cell biology, diffusion is a main form of transport for necessary materials such as amino acids within cells. Diffusion of ... Because chemical diffusion is a net transport process, the system in which it takes place is not an equilibrium system (i.e. it ... As with the basic equation of heat transfer, this indicates that the rate of force is directly proportional to the driving ... Diffusion is part of the transport phenomena. Of mass transport mechanisms, molecular diffusion is known as a slower one. ...

*Bioinformatics

The amino acid sequence of a protein, the so-called primary structure, can be easily determined from the sequence on the gene ... A fully developed analysis system may completely replace the observer. Although these systems are not unique to biomedical ... Basic bioinformatics services are classified by the EBI into three categories: SSS (Sequence Search Services), MSA (Multiple ... Both serve the same purpose of transporting oxygen in the organism. Though both of these proteins have completely different ...

*Broth

... because dietary collagen is broken down into amino acids, which become building blocks for body tissues, and is not transported ... "Broth Basics". Martha Stewart. 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2016-11-30. Christensen, Emma. "What's the Difference Between Stock and ... including boosting the immune system; improving joints, skin and hair due to collagen content; and promoting healthy teeth and ... In the Maldives the tuna broth known as garudiya is a basic food item, but it is not eaten as a soup in the general sense of ...

*Taste

The amino acids in proteins are used in the body to build muscles and organs, transport molecules (hemoglobin), antibodies, and ... had traditionally been considered a sixth basic taste. In 2015, researchers suggested a new basic taste of fatty acids called ... while the actual taste of fatty acids is not pleasant. Mattes described the taste as "more of a warning system" that a certain ... Savoriness The amino acid glutamic acid is responsible for savoriness, but some nucleotides (inosinic acid and guanylic acid) ...

*Plant defense against herbivory

β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid as simple amino acid is used by the sweet pea which leads also to intoxication in humans ... "Phenols". Plant Defense Systems & Medicinal Botany. Retrieved 2007-05-21. Van Soest, Peter J. (1982). Nutritional ecology of ... An important antiparasitic action is caused by the block of the transport of iodide of animal cells inhibiting sodium-iodide ... Most are multicyclic structures which differ from one another in both functional groups, and in basic carbon skeletons. ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... List of chemistry topics, Chemistry basic topics List of biology topics, Biology basic topics List of molecular biology topics ... transport protein - transport vesicle - triiodothyronine - trinucleotide repeat - Triose - tropomyosin - troponin - Tryptophan ... systems biology - T cell - T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence ...

*Apolipoprotein

Basic amino acids important for LDL receptor binding are clustered into a surface patch on one long helix. They are enzyme ... They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in ... Further, apoE is a blood plasma protein that mediates the transport and uptake of cholesterol and lipid by way of its high ... In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ...

*International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

IUPAC also has a system for giving codes to identify amino acids and nucleotide bases. IUPAC needed a coding system that ... Basic IUPAC inorganic nomenclature has two main parts: the cation and the anion. The cation is the name for the positively ... retrieved 15 April 2010 Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids review on Amazon retrieved 15 April 2010 Solution ... Amino Acid Codes Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved 15 April 2010 Amino Acid and Nucleotide Base Codes ...

*Drug metabolism

Commandeur JN, Stijntjes GJ, Vermeulen NP (June 1995). "Enzymes and transport systems involved in the formation and disposition ... or glucuronic acid. Sites on drugs where conjugation reactions occur include carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), amino (NH2), and ... During the remainder of the nineteenth century, several other basic detoxification reactions were discovered, such as ... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system Flavin-containing monooxygenase system Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase ...

*Chloroplast

... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... while the stroma is slightly basic, with a pH of around 8. The optimal stroma pH for the Calvin cycle is 8.1, with the reaction ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ...

*Reduced muscle mass, strength and performance in space

Urinary amino acid and nitrogen excretion, both indirect measures of catabolism of lean body mass, are elevated during both ... Cycle Egometer with Vibration Isolation System [CEVIS], Treadmill with Vibration Isolation System [TVIS], and iRED) capable of ... Without doubt, transport between the Earth and Mars as well as the return trip represent the greatest risks to humans ... Thus, even an approach as basic as thoughtful scheduling of daily tasks could serve to help mitigate risk. From the above ...
RECOMMENDED: If you have Windows errors then we strongly recommend that you download and run this (Windows) Repair Tool.. Jun 12, 2017. Office VBA Reference Language Reference VBA Class doesnt support Automation (Error 430). Class doesnt support Automation (Error 430).. Microsoft Access 2010 Error Numbers and Descriptions - Microsoft Access 2010 comprehensive list all Error Numbers and Descriptions. how to read/write/update/delete record in tables using vba. - Nov 06, 2008 · how to read/write/update/delete record in tables using vba. Discussion in Microsoft Access VBA Modules started by mike g, Nov 6, 2008.. Post subject: Solution to VBA error 430 Class does not support automation: I got this error when I tried to use a macro which had run great on other machines.. Nov 11, 2008. When I try to create a new object of a class module from this dll I get a Run timer error 430: Class does not support automation or does not.. Problem names and reserved words in Access. This list, from the Database ...
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Dear Experts, I would like to know which is the row number of the first blank cell in column A, could you please advise how it should be in VBA? thanks,
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Count entries in visble cells (ExcelXP) - Is there a way (pref. in EXCEL but VBA is OK too) to count entries in a range of cells where some rows, colums are hidden? I only want the totals for
Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiA6.
More than 50 distinct amino acid transporter genes have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis, indicating that transport of amino acids across membranes is a highly complex feature in plants. Based on sequence similarity, these transporters can be divided into two major superfamilies: the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid polyamine choline transporters is presented, namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and CAT8. The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is expressed in young ...
The terms left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic, unless otherwise directed, to keep to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively.[1] This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road.[2]. One hundred and sixty-three countries and territories use RHT, with the remaining seventy-six countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the worlds area and a quarter of its roads.[3] In the early 1900s some countries including Canada, Spain, and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. In 1919, 104 of the worlds territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT.[4]. Many of the countries with LHT are former ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated LHT7 primer pair, for the Arabidopsis genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Cystinuria is a health condition characterized by increased concentration of cystine and other dibasic amino acids in the urine. It most commonly occurs in young adults between the age of twenty and thirty years, although some individuals may present as children or in adolescence.
Shop Vacuolar amino acid transporter ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Vacuolar amino acid transporter Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
1HPB: The bacterial periplasmic histidine-binding protein. structure/function analysis of the ligand-binding site and comparison with related proteins.
1HPB: The bacterial periplasmic histidine-binding protein. structure/function analysis of the ligand-binding site and comparison with related proteins.
I have written a Rule Engine in MS Access (client) that uses linked tables with SQL Server Native Client to SQL Server 2008 R2. There are around 150 Binary Rules. Each Binary Rule has combinations of SQL and other logic. They are designed to return a True/False. These Binary Rules are the first tier for the Rule Engine conversion. The process is now to take the tested VBA and convert each Binary Rule to TSQL UDF. The next layer, a Status Rule - will take one parameter and then call on dozens of the Binary Rules. Depending on the status number, it will expect different Binary Rules to return some pattern of True or False. [b]The code below is the most simple rule. The purpose is to get a template for conversion from VBA to TSQL. [/b] [code=vb] Function Rule71(ID_Wells As Integer) As Boolean Rule 71 Well is a Facility - Pass in Primary Key for Well, run SQL for this ID. If record returns then True/ else False Dim rstMisc As DAO.Recordset Dim
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cystinuria: Hereditary error of metabolism characterized by the excessive excretion into the urine of four amino acids: cystine, lysine, arginine, and ornithine. The main clinical problem...
Read "SLC7A9 cDNA cloning and mutational analysis of SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 in canine cystinuria, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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I have been working as programmer and business analyst since 1998. During a large part of my career I implemented new requirements in C#/SQL Server, as well as migrating VBA code and user interfaces from Access/VBA to a Winforms application. C#, VBA, SQL, MS Access, XML ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Looking for online definition of cystinuria type I in the Medical Dictionary? cystinuria type I explanation free. What is cystinuria type I? Meaning of cystinuria type I medical term. What does cystinuria type I mean?
Infection of rodent cells by ecotropic type C retroviruses requires the expression of a cationic amino acid transporter composed of multiple membrane-spanning domains. By exchanging portions of cDNAs encoding the permissive mouse and nonpermissive human transporters and examining their abilities to specify virus infection upon expression in human 293 cells, we have identified the amino acid residues in the extracellular loop connecting the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segments of the mouse transporter that are required for both envelope gp70 binding and infection. These findings strongly suggest that the role of the mouse transporter in determining infection is to provide an envelope-binding site. This role is analogous to those of host membrane proteins composed of a single membrane-spanning domain that serve as binding proteins or receptors for other enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and murine and human coronaviruses. ...
Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. We have shown that mutations in rBAT cause type I cystinuria (Calonge, M. J., Gasparini, P., Chillarón, J., Chillón, M., Gallucci, M., Rousaud, F., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Dallapiccola, B., Di Silverio, F., Barceló, P., Estivill, X., Zorzano, A., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1994) Nat. Genet. 6, 420-425; Calonge, M. J., Volipini, V., Bisceglia, L., Rousaud, F., De Sanctis, L., Beccia, E., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Zorzano, A., Estivill, X., Gasparini, P., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 9667-9671). Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the kidney or intestine. Here, we report that a "proximal tubular-like" cell ...
MDSCs are one of the dominant immunosuppressive populations that are present in the tumor microenvironment, impairing T cell function and promoting tumor progression (30). Therefore, MDSCs present a major obstacle for the success of cancer immunotherapy. As a result, blocking MDSC function has been an attractive endeavor to complement cancer therapies. Indeed, several studies demonstrated that depletion of MDSCs or inhibiting MDSC function impaired cancer progression (31, 32). Although these studies are very promising, more specific strategies to block MDSC suppressive function are needed.. MDSCs mediate their inhibitory effects on T cells through diverse mechanisms (33). One mechanism is the metabolism of amino acids by MDSCs (34). For example, MDSCs express enzymes that metabolize l-Arg, l-tryptophan, and cysteine, leading to their consumption from the microenvironment. Depletion of these amino acids results in T cell dysfunction (35-37). In addition, MDSCs can metabolize l-Arg and ...
Mutualistic obligate endosymbioses shape the evolution of endosymbiont genomes, but their impact on host genomes remains unclear. Insects of the sub-order Sternorrhyncha (Hemiptera) depend on bacterial endosymbionts for essential amino acids present at low abundances in their phloem-based diet. This obligate dependency has been proposed to explain why multiple amino acid transporter genes are maintained in the genomes of the insect hosts. We implemented phylogenetic comparative methods to test whether amino acid transporters have proliferated in sternorrhynchan genomes at rates grater than expected by chance.. Voir en ligne : http://bit.ly/1EIMqCn ...
Cystinuria is defined as an inherited disorder characterized by increased urinary excretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids arginine, lysine and ornithine. The only clinical manifestation of cystinuria is renal cystine stone formation due to the low solubility of cystine in the urine. Cystinuria can be attributed to mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes in the majority of all cases and it has been a common expectation that molecular genetic studies of cystinuria would aid in understanding of the varying clinical outcome seen in the disease. Besides human, the disease has been most extensively studied in the domestic dog.. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular genetic basis of cystinuria in patients from Sweden and to correlate genetic findings with phenotypes produced regarding cystine and dibasic amino acid excretion. Further, attempts were made to elucidate the molecular genetics of cystinuria in the dog.. The entire coding sequences of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 ...
SLC7A6 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 6 (SLC7A6), transcript variant 1
Homo sapiens solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5 (SLC7A5), mRNA. (H00008140-R01) - Products - Abnova
Gene target information for Slc7a2 - solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:16:17572018:17576721:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035925 transcript:OTTMUST00000092151 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a4 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 4 ...
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:8:40898438:40917726:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000061152 transcript:OTTMUST00000078365 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a2 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ...
Growth in normal and tumour cells is regulated by evolutionarily conserved extracellular inputs from the endocrine insulin receptor (InR) signalling pathway and by local nutrients. Both signals modulate activity of the intracellular TOR kinase, with nutrients at least partly acting through changes in intracellular amino acid levels mediated by amino acid transporters. We show that in Drosophila, two molecules related to mammalian proton-assisted SLC36 amino acid transporters (PATs), CG3424 and CG1139, are potent mediators of growth. These transporters genetically interact with TOR and other InR signalling components, indicating that they control growth by directly or indirectly modulating the effects of TOR signalling. A mutation in the CG3424 gene, which we have named pathetic (path), reduces growth in the fly. In a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system, PATH also activates the TOR target S6 kinase in an amino acid-dependent way. However, functional analysis reveals that PATH has an extremely low capacity
eng]The aim of this work is to gain insight in the understanding of the biogenesis of membrane proteins, specially their folding, assembly and ER-exit. Our model is the human cystinuria transporter rBAT- b0,+AT. Disulfides and N-glycans are crucial for the correct folding, assembly and traffic of proteins. So we identified the disulfides and the N-glycans of the transporter and analysed their role in biogenesis of the transporter. In order to analyse the disulfide connectivity of rBAT, cysteine residues were mutated to serine, and we used mass-tagging of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups with mPEG5000-maleimide (mPEG) under denaturing conditions. A molecule of mPEG attaches to a -SH group, shifting the apparent molecular weight of the protein of interest by 5 kDa, which is easily detectable in SDS-PAGE. These experiments show that, in the presence of b0,+AT, the rBAT ectodomain is completely oxidised and contains 3 disulfide bonds. The pegylation pattern of C242S and C273A suggest that they form a ...
Video created by University of Colorado Boulder for the course Excel/VBA for Creative Problem Solving, Part 1. Week 3 teaches you all about how to reference and move information to VBA from Excel and vice versa. Youll learn about the various ...
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Amino acid permeases are integral membrane proteins involved in the transport of amino acids into the cell. A number of such proteins have been found to be evolutionary related [(PUBMED:3146645)], [(PUBMED:2687114)], [(PUBMED:8382989)]. These proteins seem to contain up to 12 transmembrane segments. The best conserved region in this family is located in the second transmembrane segment.. This domain is found in amino acid permeases, as well as in solute carrier family 12A (SLC12A) members.. ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1hsl.1. REFINED 1.89 ANGSTROMS STRUCTURE OF THE HISTIDINE-BINDING PROTEIN COMPLEXED WITH HISTIDINE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH MANY OTHER ACTIVE TRANSPORT(SLASH)CHEMOSENSORY RECEPTORS
Excel 2016 Power Programming with VBA by Michael Alexander, 9781119067726, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
This website is run by the accessibility program of the "Accessible with a Click" company and is run via a designated accessibility server. The program allows the website to follow the guidelines for internet content accessibility WCAG 2.0 to level AA. The program is subject to the conditions of use of the manufacturer. Warrantee of use applies to the website owners and/or their representative, including the content displayed in the website, as subject to the conditions of use ...
Thats a crappy UI. And thats from someone who spends a lot of time in the Visual Basic Editor.. Then its settled. Ill build my own form for changing the properties I want to change. Its what I really wanted to do anyway, so why stop lying to myself. What kind of features should I build into this UI? A big textbox is a must. Also, Id like to be able to add white space and line breaks. Oh, and if I could have SQL parsing, autoformatting, and autocomplete… So basically what I want is SQL Server Management Studio. I already have that. Its called SQL Server Management Studio. That lead me to my next bit of genius. If I want to edit the SQL, even only a little, I should do it in SSMS. I added a couple of buttons to the Ribbon.. ...
Definição das variáveis. --------------------------------------------------------------------------. Dim W As Worksheet. Dim WNew As Workbook. Dim ArqParaAbrir As Variant. Dim A As Integer. Dim NomeArquivo As String. Coleta de dados para tratamento. --------------------------------------------------------------------------. ArqParaAbrir = Application.GetOpenFilename(Aquivo do Excel (*.xlsx), *.xl*, _. Title:=Escolha o arquivo a ser importado, _. MultiSelect:=True). If Not IsArray(ArqParaAbrir) Then. If ArqParaAbrir = Or ArqParaAbrir = False Then. MsgBox Processo abortado, nenhum arquivo selecionado, vbOKOnly, Processo abortado. Exit Sub. End If. End If. ...
Dear Debra, it´s been great following your advice and solutions, and many of those have saved my skin on my personal needs, but I have a question about time as a value in a cell.. Im doing a research and my datalog sends me data every 5 minutes, on a spreadsheet. I wonder if it would be possible to use a macro to select all readings every hour and then run an average on those values, copying everything to a new tab, minding that I have the time well specified in a specific cell. Sure you dont need to do it for me but could you tell me if I am onto something possible or if I have to look in another direction? Twitter(I_will_adapt. ...
On Wed, Apr 30, 2003 at 12:16:14AM -0700, Chris Waters wrote: , On Wed, Apr 30, 2003 at 04:48:29PM +1000, Anthony Towns wrote: , , Isnt this whole thread about our users demanding it? , If thats your interpretation of the thread (and its not mine), then , hadnt you better get cracking at implementing whatever the missing , pieces might be? Actions speak louder than words, yknow! :p ;) http://people.debian.org/~ajt/lsb/patches/ deb http://people.debian.org/~ajt/lsb woody lsb/main These were enough to get woody to support LSB 1.2 late last year; unfortunately weve left it so late that its not possible to get certified for that, and LSB 1.3 has some additional requirements that I expect we dont meet. AFAIK, we still have bugs like #142072 blocking unstable from complying with LSB 1.2 too. , Personally, I dont think that one person asking a question qualifies , as our users are demanding it. Id rather not set the bar any higher than that, personally. What are the alternatives? Having ...
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The mechanism of unidirectional transport of ornithine (i.e. in the absence of a counter-metabolite) has been investigated in proteoliposomes reconstituted with the ornithine carrier purified from rat liver mitochondria. The efflux of [3H]ornithine from proteoliposomes was stimulated by the addition of H+ (but not of other cations) to the incubation medium . On keeping the pH in the compartment containing ornithine constant at 8.0, the flux of ornithine into or out of the proteoliposomes increased on decreasing the pH in the opposite compartment from 8.0 to 6.0. Ornithine influx was also stimulated when a higher H+ concentration was generated inside the vesicles relative to the outside by the K+/H+ exchanger nigericin in the presence of an outwardly directed K+ gradient. A valinomycin-induced electrogenic flux of K+ did not affect ornithine transport in the absence of a counter-metabolite. Furthermore, changes in fluorescence of the pH indicator pyranine, included inside the proteoliposomes, ...
The first cystine stone was identified in 1810 by Wollaston, who called it cystic oxide.65 Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by renal and intestinal dibasic amino acid transport defects affecting cystine, ornithine, arginine, and lysine, of which cystine is the least soluble and therefore the most likely to precipitate as a stone.66 Cystinuria type I has now been shown to be caused by a mutation in the gene SLC3AI, which encodes the rBAT protein.67 The M467T mutation appears to be particularly important, but there are several other minor variants that may also be relevant.68 Regardless of cause, the primary goal of medical management is to prevent the formation of new stones by reducing the cystine concentration to below its upper limit of solubility. The precise solubility limits are unclear, with a variety of possibilities cited: urine solubility of 250 mg/litre (200 μmol/litre) at pH 5.0, rising to 500 mg/litre (410 μmol/litre) at pH 7.5, and 1000 mg/litre (820 ...
xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
Amino Acid Transport Systems/chemistry/*metabolism, Amino Acid Transport Systems; Neutral/chemistry/metabolism, Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism, Membrane Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Mutation, Protein Folding, Protein Structure; Quaternary, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ...
Slc7a1 - Slc7a1 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter y+ system) member 1 (Slc7a1), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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The present invention provides a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell. The reagent of the present invention is, for example, a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell, which comprises a composition comprising a cationic amino acid type lipid represented by the following formula (I)-1: (wherein in formula (I)-1: L is a single bond, -CONH-, or -S-S-; M1 is -(CH2)k- or -(CH2CH2O)k- (wherein k is an integer between 0 and 14); and m1 and m2 are each independently an integer between 11 and 21 (in this regard, when providing a reagent for introducing a gene into a cell, the case where both m1 and m2 are 15 is excluded)).
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminescationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; HMM-score: 69.1) ...
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First, lets make sure that we use the correct terminology. 1 - A macro and a VB Script are not the same thing. A macro is written in VBA (Visual Basic For Applications) and a VB Script is written in Visual Basic. Ill leave it up to you to resea...
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P.E.T. is a macro-enhanced Excel workbook which allows you to import your pets from Petsear.chs Excel output and then do different kind of things with them™. Ok, that probably didnt you tell you much but Im getting to it! :) Anyhow, the workbook is powered by macros and it has a good 1,7k lines of VBA code in it - needless to say, creating it wasnt a quick task. Workbook is protected and tested rather well from user misuses and shouldnt break down unless the user delibrately start looking for holes. Ive done the workbook with Excel 2010 but it does work with Excel 2007 too. OpenOffice however isnt unfortunately supported and I have no intentions of making an OO version ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heme oxygenase 1, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and nuclear factor κb are involved in hemin inhibition of type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and L-arginine transport in stimulated macrophages. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Chen, Chien Chuan. AU - Tsai, Pei-Shan. AU - Yang, Lin Cheng. AU - Huang, Wan Yu. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - BACKGROUND: l-Arginine transport mediated by type 2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide production mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction has been reported to significantly attenuate inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production. The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. The effects of HO-1 induction on nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were also investigated. METHODS: Murine macrophages ...
Cystinuria is a disease of disrupted amino acid transport in the collecting ducts of the kidney failing to reclaim certain amino acids (cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, lysine and arginine referred to as COLA). The increased urinary COLA concentrations reach saturation levels for cystine, which precipitates to form crystals and stones resulting in renal to urethral obstructions. Mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes give rise to cystinuria in the vast majority of cystinuric humans, where the disease shows autosomal recessive or dominant inheritance (reviewed in Palacin et al. 2001; Chillaron et al. 2010).. Cystine calculi have been reported from at least 70 dog breeds, with increased incidence in several breeds (Ling et al. 1998; Osborne et al. 1999); in contrast, cystinuria is rarely seen in cats. We previously demonstrated autosomal recessively inherited cystinuria in Newfoundland dogs (with less frequent urolithiasis in females due to anatomical urological differences) caused ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
Cystinuria is a condition characterized by the buildup of the amino acid cystine, a building block of most proteins, in the kidneys and bladder. As the kidneys filter blood to create urine, cystine is normally absorbed back into the bloodstream. People with cystinuria cannot properly reabsorb cystine into their bloodstream, so the amino acid accumulates in their urine.. As urine becomes more concentrated in the kidneys, the excess cystine forms crystals. Larger crystals become stones that may lodge in the kidneys or in the bladder. Sometimes cystine crystals combine with calcium molecules in the kidneys to form large stones. These crystals and stones can create blockages in the urinary tract and reduce the ability of the kidneys to eliminate waste through urine. The stones also provide sites where bacteria may cause infections.. Cystinuria affects approximately 1 in 10,000 people.. ...
7. Juvenile hormone connects larval nutrition with target of rapamycin signaling in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Shiao S.H., Hansen I.A., Zhu J., Sieglaff D.H., Raikhel A.S. 2007 - J. Insect Physiol. Epub ahead of print pubmed. 6. Forkhead transcription factors regulate mosquito reproduction. Hansen I.A., Sieglaff D.H., Munro J.B., Shiao S.H., Cruz J., Lee I.W., Heraty J.M., Raikhel A.S. 2007 - Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37(9):985-97 pubmed. 5. Fz2 and cdc42 mediate melanization and actin polymerization but are dispensable for Plasmodium killing in the mosquito midgut. Shiao S.H., Whitten M.M., Zachary D., Hoffmann J.A., Levashina E.A. 2006 - PLoS Pathog. 2(12):e133 pubmed. 4. Identification of two cationic amino acid transporters required for nutritional signaling during mosquito reproduction. Attardo G.M., Hansen I.A., Shiao S.H., Raikhel A.S. 2006 - J. Exp. Biol. 209(16):3071-8 pubmed. 3. Cell biology, compartmentalization and immunology of mosquito midgut - malaria parasite interactions. ...
Find SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research area related information and SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
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It is critical to prevent stone formation in people with cystinuria as these stones can get very big very quickly. Not only do people with cystine stones undergo a high number of procedures and surgeries, but also compared to the more common stone types, their kidney function is more often impaired.. The biggest key to preventing cystine stones (as most others) is to maintain a very high fluid intake. In the case of cystine stones, we can estimate exactly how much a person needs to drink by their total daily cystine excretion, which can be obtained from a 24-hr urine collection - or better yet several. Once we know how much cystine, on average, a person makes, we can determine how much fluid intake is necessary.Typically, at least 3-4 liters of urine are required daily, and often much more than that. Variety helps to maintain such high intakes.. We also know that making the urine more alkaline (less acidic) is a cornerstone of therapy in patients with cystinuria. Some patients with cystine ...
The origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K.. 2016-01-01. We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5-651.1 ppb in 6 M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of ...
Cystinuria definition, an inherited metabolic disorder that results in the excessive excretion of certain amino acids, especially cystine, in the urine. See more.
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The cystinuria page provides a brief description of the genetics and clinical features of this disorder that results from defects in the subunits of the cystine transporter encoded by the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes.
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Microsofts Component Object Model (COM) is the mechanism that allows AutoCAD to communicate with other applications using ActiveX Automation interfaces. Learn how to design macros that operate entirely within AutoCAD or share information and processes with other programs as either client or server applications.
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Expression of SLC3A1 (ATR1, CSNU1, D2H, NBAT, RBAT) in cervix, uterine tissue. Antibody staining with HPA038360 in immunohistochemistry.
HISP-P 494 Individual Readings in Luso-Brazilian Literature (1-3 credits) Prerequisite: Consent of the department. May be repeated for a maximum of up to 6 credit hours as long as each registration covers a different topic. HISP-P 494 #10719 PERMISSION Arranged Professor Darlene Sadlier ...
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0028] Based on the results, it can reasonably be projected that soluble N.sup.α-long chain alkanoyl dibasic amino acid alkyl ester salts will provide synergistic anti-microbial activity when combined with a glycerol mono-fatty acid ester. It would seem that in order to obtain the practical benefits of the synergism between an N.sup.α-long chain alkanoyl dibasic amino acid alkyl ester salt and a glycerol mono-fatty acid ester, the solubility of the N.sup.α-long chain alkanoyl dibasic amino acid alkyl ester salt would need to be sufficient to release a concentration of N.sup.α-long chain alkanoyl dibasic amino acid alkyl ester cation which is greater than microbial inhibitory concentration of that ion in water at RT. Based on the data, it would seem that the absolute minimum solubility required would be approximately 5 ppm in water at RT. Desirably, however, the solubility of the N.sup.α-long chain alkanoyl dibasic amino acid alkyl ester salt should be such that the amount of cation released ...
Amino acids represent a strong signal that positively regulates mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007). It was recently shown that leucine, an essential amino acid required for mTORC1 activation, is transported into cells in a glutamine-dependent fashion (Nicklin et al., 2009). Glutamine, which is imported into cells through SLC1A5 [solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter) member 5], is exchanged to import leucine via a heterodimeric system composed of SLC7A5 [antiport solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system, member 5] and SLC3A2 [solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2]. The mechanism by which intracellular amino acids then signal to mTORC1 remained obscure for many years. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is known to be independent of TSC1/2, because the mTORC1 pathway remains sensitive to amino acid deprivation in cells that lack TSC1 or TSC2 (Nobukuni et al., 2005). Some studies have ...
Shop Histidine transport ATP-binding protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Histidine transport ATP-binding protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Looking for basic amino acid as? Find out information about basic amino acid as. any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building... Explanation of basic amino acid as
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Thiola is used to prevent kidney stones, which may develop due to too much cystine in the urine (cystinuria). This medicine works by removing the extra cystine from the body....
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), also called hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2,cationic aminoaciduria or familial protein intolerance, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting amino acid transport. About 140 patients have been reported, almost half of them of Finnish origin. Individuals from Japan, Italy, Morocco and North Africa have also been reported. Infants with LPI are usually symptom-free when breastfed because of the low protein concentration in human milk, but develop vomiting and diarrhea after weaning. The patients show failure to thrive, poor appetite, growth retardation, enlarged liver and spleen, prominent osteoporosis and osteopenia, delayed bone age and spontaneous protein aversion. Forced feeding of protein may lead to convulsions and coma. Mental development is normal if prolonged episode of hyperammonemia can be avoided. Some patients develop severe pulmonary and renal complications. High levels of plasma glutamine and glycine are observed. It has been ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor and is a component of the heterodimeric amino acid taste receptor T1R1+3. The T1R1+3 receptor responds to L-amino acids but not to D-enantiomers or other compounds. Most amino acids that are perceived as sweet activate T1R1+3, and this activation is strictly dependent on an intact T1R1+3 heterodimer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010 ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 lysinuric protein intolerance is a metabolic disorder caused by the bodys inability to digest and use the amino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine. because the body cannot effectively break down these amino acids, which are found in many protein-rich foods, individuals experience nausea and vomiting after ingesting protein. other features associated with protein intolerance may also occur, including short stature, muscle weakness, impaired immune function, and osteoporosis. a lung disorder called pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may develop in some individuals, as can end-stage renal disease, coma and intellectual disability. symptoms usually develop after infants are weaned and begin to eat solid foods. lysinuric protein intolerance is caused by mutations in the slc7a7 gene. it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. last updated: 11/15/2010 ...
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...

Lysinuric Protein Intolerance disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsLysinuric Protein Intolerance disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

basic amino acid transmembrane transport. GO:1990822 9.5. SLC3A1 SLC7A2 SLC7A7 7. amino acid transmembrane transport. GO: ... Affiliated tissues include kidney, lung and skin, and related phenotype is immune system. Disease Ontology : 12 An amino acid ... L-amino acid transport. GO:0015807 9.56. SLC7A5 SLC7A6 SLC7A7 SLC7A8 4. L-alpha-amino acid transmembrane transport. GO:1902475 ... urinary excretion of cationic amino acids (lysine, arginine, ornithine) decreased blood levels of cationic amino acids ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/lysinuric_protein_intolerance?search=glaucoma

Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: clinical, biochemical and...Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: clinical, biochemical and...

Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics*, metabolism, physiopathology*. Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / genetics* ... 0/Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic; 0/Genetic Markers; 0/SLC25A15 protein, human; 1190-49-4/homocitrulline; 372-75-8/ ... In comparison to their sister, their homocitrulline and orotic acid were only mildly elevated even before treatment. The three ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria-syndrome-with/17825324.html

Molecular organization of drosophila neuroendocrine cells by dimmed<...Molecular organization of drosophila neuroendocrine cells by dimmed<...

... it encodes a putative cationic amino acid transporter, closely related to the Slimfast arginine transporter. Finally, we ... Background: In Drosophila, the basic-helix-loop-helix protein DIMM coordinates the molecular and cellular properties of all ... it encodes a putative cationic amino acid transporter, closely related to the Slimfast arginine transporter. Finally, we ... it encodes a putative cationic amino acid transporter, closely related to the Slimfast arginine transporter. Finally, we ...
more infohttps://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/molecular-organization-of-drosophila-neuroendocrine-cells-by-dimm

Hypomorphic Variants of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 3 in Males With Autism Spectrum Disorders - PubMedHypomorphic Variants of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 3 in Males With Autism Spectrum Disorders - PubMed

... mediate the entry of L-type cationic amino acids (arginine, ornithine and lysine) into the cells including neurons. CAT-3, ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) mediate the entry of L-type cationic amino acids (arginine, ornithine and lysine) into ... Regulation of cationic amino acid transport: the story of the CAT-1 transporter. Hatzoglou M, Fernandez J, Yaman I, Closs E. ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=116210

DI-fusion Transition of yeast Can1 transporter to the inward-facing...DI-fusion Transition of yeast Can1 transporter to the inward-facing...

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic -- genetics -- metabolism. Arrestin -- genetics -- metabolism. Binding Sites. ... Function and Regulation of Acid Resistance Antiporters par Krammer, Eva-Maria , Prévost, Martine Publication 2019-01-01 ... Unveiling the mechanism of arginine transport through AdiC with molecular dynamics simulations: The guiding role of aromatic ...
more infohttps://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/260650/Details

Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNASAmino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNAS

Permanent address: Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, N-0317, Oslo, Norway. ... Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/97/14/7715

Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...

The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
more infohttps://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/possible-site-specific-reagent-for-the-general-amino-acid-transpo

Homology-integrated CRISPR-Cas (HI-CRISPR) system for one-step multigene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  - PubMed -...Homology-integrated CRISPR-Cas (HI-CRISPR) system for one-step multigene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - PubMed -...

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic/genetics. *Base Sequence. *Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*. *Clustered Regularly ... Homology-integrated CRISPR-Cas (HI-CRISPR) system for one-step multigene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Bao Z1, Xiao ... One-step multiple gene disruption in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly useful tool for both basic and ... system to generate multiple gene disruptions simultaneously in S. cerevisiae. A 100 bp dsDNA mutagenizing homologous ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207793?dopt=Abstract

Coinduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arginine recycling enzymes in aorta of diabetic rats.  - PubMed - NCBICoinduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arginine recycling enzymes in aorta of diabetic rats. - PubMed - NCBI

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic. *Animals. *Aorta/enzymology*. *Arginine/metabolism*. *Argininosuccinate Lyase/genetics ... Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-1 mRNA remained little changed, and CAT-2 mRNA was not detected. The plasma nitrogen ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11384198?dopt=Abstract

Sequence requirements of the ATP-binding site within the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of mouse P-glycoprotein:...Sequence requirements of the ATP-binding site within the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of mouse P-glycoprotein:...

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters, Adenosine Triphosphate, Amino Acid Sequence, Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic, Animals, ... Bacterial Proteins, Binding Sites, Chalcone, Flavonoids, Kinetics, Membrane Transport Proteins, Mice, Models, Chemical, ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/237365

Experts and Doctors on membrane transport proteins in New Delhi, NCT, IndiaExperts and Doctors on membrane transport proteins in New Delhi, NCT, India

Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on membrane transport proteins in New Delhi, NCT, India ... basic amino acid transport systems*fungal drug resistance*thymol*membrane transport modulators*interspersed repetitive ... All the characteristic features of L-arginine transport displayed by the reconstituted system were similar to those observed in ... Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:10832-50 pubmed publisher *. Mukherjee P, Prasad R. Purified arginine permease of Candida albicans ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/locale/india/nct/experts-and-doctors-on-membrane-transport-proteins-in-new-delhi--nct--india-90638.html

NAVER Academic | ArgR-dependent Repression of Arginine and Histidine Transport Genes in Escherichia coli K-12NAVER Academic | ArgR-dependent Repression of Arginine and Histidine Transport Genes in Escherichia coli K-12

In Escherichia coli L-arginine is taken up by three periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems that are encoded by ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, genetics, Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic, metabolism, Arginine, Base Sequence, Escherichia ... Basic amino acid transport in Escherichia coli . J. Biol. Chem.. Vol. 246. 36533662 (1971) Rosen B.P. ... Mutant of Escherichia coli defective in transport of basic amino acids . J. Bacteriol.. Vol. 116. 619626 (1973) Celis T.F. et ...
more infohttp://academic.naver.com/article.naver?doc_id=146506156

An Introduction to the Blood-Brain Barrier | SpringerLinkAn Introduction to the Blood-Brain Barrier | SpringerLink

An up-to-date basic introduction to the blood-brain barrier which starts with a clear description of the key historical ... basic transport kinetics and carrier-meditated processes. Subsequent chapters deal with transport of glucose and amino-acids, ... Transport of Glucose and Amino Acids in the Central Nervous System Hugh Davson, Berislav Zloković, Ljubisa Rakić, Malcolm B. ... An up-to-date basic introduction to the blood-brain barrier which starts with a clear description of the key historical ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-349-11882-3

Possible Role of Insulin in the Transport of Tyrosine and Tryptophan from Blood to Brain | SpringerLinkPossible Role of Insulin in the Transport of Tyrosine and Tryptophan from Blood to Brain | SpringerLink

These systems are not specific for each amino acid, but distinguish amino acids into... ... The penetration of amino acids into the brain and into other tissues is mediated by energy-requiring systems1-3. ... These systems are not specific for each amino acid, but distinguish amino acids into three groups: neutral, acidic, and basic4- ... Richter, J.J., and Wainer, A., Evidence for separate systems for the transport of neutral and basic amino acids across the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-3264-0_7

DWAIN Chambers cycle posted!!!Original letter from Victor conte | MuscleTalk.co.ukDWAIN Chambers cycle posted!!!Original letter from Victor conte | MuscleTalk.co.uk

Insulin acts as a "shuttle system" in the transport of glucose and branch chain amino acids. There is no test available for ... Liothryonine was used help accelerate the basic metabolic rate before competitions. The purpose was to reduce sluggishness and ... For example, oral testosterone will clear the system in less than a week and testosterone creams and gels will clear even ...
more infohttps://www.muscletalk.co.uk/DWAIN-Chambers-cycle-postedOriginal-letter-from-Victor-conte-m2717942.aspx

Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...

... cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism ... shows that the capability to transport basic amino acids in planta might be overruled by excess amides and acidic amino acids ... Six amino acid permeases (AAPs) from Arabidopsis mediating transport of a wide spectrum of amino acids were isolated. AAPs are ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/low-and-high-affinity-amino-acid-h-cotransporters-for-cellular-import-TUIiOJTXJp

Cellular Localization of Glutamate and Glutamine Metabolism and Transport Pathways in the Rat Ciliary Epithelium | IOVS | ARVO...Cellular Localization of Glutamate and Glutamine Metabolism and Transport Pathways in the Rat Ciliary Epithelium | IOVS | ARVO...

18 Three transport systems were thought to be involved, one each for basic, acid, and neutral amino acid. 17,19 However, the ... In contrast to ion and water transport, far less is known about the transport of nutrients such as amino acids by the ciliary ... This technique has the advantage of quantifying amino acid levels in the two cell layers, allowing amino acid distributions to ... Kinsey VE Reddy DV . Transport of amino acids into the posterior chamber of the rabbit eye. Invest Ophthalmol. 1962;1:355-362. ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2165765

Elective Course Descriptions - Curriculum & Student Handbook - About the Program - Biophysics, Structural & Computational...Elective Course Descriptions - Curriculum & Student Handbook - About the Program - Biophysics, Structural & Computational...

... neurotransmitter synthesis and transport; excitatory and inhibitory amino acids; development of the nervous system and genesis ... Basic quantum chemistry, Schroedinger equation, basic postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, perturbation theory, ... Other topics include metal ion toxicity, metal-based drugs, and interaction of metals with nucleic acids. Problem sets and ... Students will learn the basic principles of X-ray diffraction, symmetry, and space groups. Students will also experience the ...
more infohttps://www.urmc.rochester.edu/education/graduate/phd/biophysics/curriculum/elective-course-descriptions.aspx

Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti...Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti...

Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti ... Amino Acid Sequence * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic * Arginine * Bacterial Proteins * Base Sequence ... Neoplastic crown gall tumors incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens release novel amino acid or sugar derivatives known as opines ... Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti ...
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub646148

Identification of novel SLC3A1 gene mutations in Spanish cystinuria families and association with clinical phenotypes.  -...Identification of novel SLC3A1 gene mutations in Spanish cystinuria families and association with clinical phenotypes. -...

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic/genetics*. *Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/genetics* ... Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by an abnormal urinary excretion of cystine and dibasic amino acids ... C genetic variants were statistically related with urinary amino acid excretion in cystinuria patients. Although some molecular ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic. *Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral. *SLC3A1 protein, human ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=14698

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by N. Joan AbbottProtocols and Video Articles Authored by N. Joan Abbott

... was consistent with transport mediated by the L-system amino acid carrier with strong inhibition by large neutral amino acids ( ... basic and acidic amino acids had no significant effect. The transport of L-leucine into the RBE4 cells was saturable and ... Jun, 2002 , Pubmed ID: 12164376 The L-system amino acid transporter on the RBE4 cell line, a well established in vitro model of ... in RBE4 cells suggest that transport is mediated by a system with characteristics similar to the L1 subtype of amino acid ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/N.+Joan_Abbott

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic - metabolism , Arabidopsis thaliana , Salicylic acid , Plant immunology , Physiological ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic - genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species - metabolism , Salicylic Acid - metabolism , Plant ... 2. Full Text Amino Acid Homeostasis Modulates Salicylic Acid-Associated Redox Status and Defense Responses in Arabidopsis ... Pathogens , Leaves , Disease resistance , Plant diseases , Chloroplasts , Homeostasis , Amino acids , Infections , Plants , ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:MUTATION%20STATUS

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic - metabolism , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors - enzymology , S-Adenosylmethionine - ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic - genetics , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins - deficiency , Movement Disorders - diagnosis ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic - deficiency , Movement Disorders - metabolism , Animals , Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn - ... Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors - enzymology , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors - drug therapy , Neurosciences , ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Language%20Development%20Disorders%20-%20enzymology

Highly differential expression of SN1, a bidirectional glutamine transporter, in astroglia and endothelium in the developing...Highly differential expression of SN1, a bidirectional glutamine transporter, in astroglia and endothelium in the developing...

0/Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral; 0/Membrane Transport Proteins; 0/system N protein 1 ... Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.. ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral*. Animals. Antibody Specificity. Astrocytes / metabolism*, ultrastructure. Blood-Brain ... Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis*, immunology, metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Pregnancy. Rats. Rats, Wistar. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Highly-differential-expression-SN1-bidirectional/12528181.html
  • In the ribosome, the information in mRNA is translated into a specific amino acid when the mRNA codon matches with the complementary anticodon of a tRNA, and the attached amino acid is added onto a growing polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
  • The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • An up-to-date basic introduction to the blood-brain barrier which starts with a clear description of the key historical experiments which have led to the concept of this multi-faceted barrier mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for testing of mechanisms of transendothelial drug permeation. (jove.com)
  • When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
  • The sodium-dependent transport is facilitated by energy derived from Na+/K+-exchanging ATPase at the basolateral membrane. (barnardhealth.us)
  • The model shows high reproducibility, high tightness, and is suitable for studies of transport and intracellular trafficking in drug discovery. (jove.com)
  • Apart from being able to manipulate DNA using restriction enzymes and ligase, we need some mechanism of transporting the DNA from one cell to another or to somewhere for further treatment. (woolwise.com)
  • System A has also provided a paradigm for short- and long-term regulation by physiological stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, amino acid transport System A has provided a paradigm for the short- and long-term regulation of transport activity ( 1 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expanding the genetic code is an area of research of synthetic biology, an applied biological discipline whose goal is to engineer living systems for useful purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A basic understanding of the principles of molecular biology is necessary to fully appreciate the mechanisms of follicle function. (woolwise.com)
  • To understand many aspects of wool biology and how wool biology may impact on wool production, a basic understanding of molecular biology is required. (woolwise.com)
  • Most often, a library of mutant synthetases is screened for one which charges the tRNA with the desired amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering the clinical relevance of C. albicans and role of MFS members in antifungal resistance and nutrient transport, this analysis would pave way for identifying their physiological relevance. (labome.org)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several variations on this basic structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids, and hydrophilic groups such as phosphate as in phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)