Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System y+beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acid Transport System y+LMembrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Leucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 184.108.40.206.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Amino Acids, DiaminoCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.MethylglucosidesIleum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Pseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.PhloretinInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.TritiumSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.MethylglycosidesRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.MethylgalactosidesRNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Rat liver endothelial cell glutamine transporter and glutaminase expression contrast with parenchymal cells. (1/308)Despite the central role of the liver in glutamine homeostasis in health and disease, little is known about the mechanism by which this amino acid is transported into sinusoidal endothelial cells, the second most abundant hepatic cell type. To address this issue, the transport of L-glutamine was functionally characterized in hepatic endothelial cells isolated from male rats. On the basis of functional analyses, including kinetics, cation substitution, and amino acid inhibition, it was determined that a Na+-dependent carrier distinct from system N in parenchymal cells, with properties of system ASC or B0, mediated the majority of glutamine transport in hepatic endothelial cells. These results were supported by Northern blot analyses that showed expression of the ATB0 transporter gene in endothelial but not parenchymal cells. Concurrently, it was determined that, whereas both cell types express glutamine synthetase, hepatic endothelial cells express the kidney-type glutaminase isozyme in contrast to the liver-type isozyme in parenchymal cells. This represents the first report of ATB0 and kidney-type glutaminase isozyme expression in the liver, observations that have implications for roles of specific cell types in hepatic glutamine homeostasis in health and disease. (+info)
Conducted signals within arteriolar networks initiated by bioactive amino acids. (2/308)Our purpose was to determine the specificity of L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced conducted signals for intra- vs. extracellular actions of L-Arg. Diameter and red blood cell velocities were measured for arterioles [18 +/- 1.6 (SE) micrometer] in the cremaster muscle of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized (Nembutal, 70 mg/kg) hamsters (n = 53). Remote (conducted) responses were viewed approximately 1,000 micrometer upstream from the local (micropipette) application. Six amino acids were tested: L-arginine, L-cystine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-histidine, and L-aspartate (100 microM each). Only L-Arg induced a remote dilation; L-lysine and L-aspartate had no effect, and the others each induced a significant remote constriction. There is a second conducted signal initiated by L-arginine that preconditions the arteriolar network and upregulates a direct response of L-arginine to dilate the remote site. This was blocked by inhibition of L-arginine uptake at the local (preconditioning) site (100 microM L-histidine or 1 mM phenformin). Arginine-glycine-aspartate (100 microM)-induced remote dilations (+3. 2 +/- 0.3 micrometer) were not mimicked by a peptide control and were prevented by anti- integrin alphav monoclonal antibody. Remote dilations were greater in animals with a higher wall shear stress for arginine-glycine-aspartate (r2 = 0.92) but not for L-arginine (r2 = 0.12). Thus L-arginine initiates separate conducted signals related to system y+ transport, integrins, and baseline flow. (+info)
Yeast mutants affecting possible quality control of plasma membrane proteins. (3/308)Mutations gef1, stp22, STP26, and STP27 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as suppressors of the temperature-sensitive alpha-factor receptor (mutation ste2-3) and arginine permease (mutation can1(ts)). These suppressors inhibited the elimination of misfolded receptors (synthesized at 34 degrees C) as well as damaged surface receptors (shifted from 22 to 34 degrees C). The stp22 mutation (allelic to vps23 [M. Babst and S. Emr, personal communication] and the STP26 mutation also caused missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, and ste2-3 was suppressed by mutations vps1, vps8, vps10, and vps28 but not by mutation vps3. In the stp22 mutant, both the mutant and the wild-type receptors (tagged with green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulated within an endosome-like compartment and were excluded from the vacuole. GFP-tagged Stp22p also accumulated in this compartment. Upon reaching the vacuole, cytoplasmic domains of both mutant and wild-type receptors appeared within the vacuolar lumen. Stp22p and Gef1p are similar to tumor susceptibility protein TSG101 and voltage-gated chloride channel, respectively. These results identify potential elements of plasma membrane quality control and indicate that cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are translocated into the vacuolar lumen. (+info)
Large neutral amino acids block phenylalanine transport into brain tissue in patients with phenylketonuria. (4/308)Large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), including phenylalanine (Phe), compete for transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via the L-type amino acid carrier. Accordingly, elevated plasma Phe impairs brain uptake of other LNAAs in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Direct effects of elevated brain Phe and depleted LNAAs are probably major causes for disturbed brain development and function in PKU. Competition for the carrier might conversely be put to use to lower Phe influx when the plasma concentrations of all other LNAAs are increased. This hypothesis was tested by measuring brain Phe in patients with PKU by quantitative 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy during an oral Phe challenge with and without additional supplementation with all other LNAAs. Baseline plasma Phe was approximately 1,000 micromol/l and brain Phe was approximately 250 micromol/l in both series. Without LNAA supplementation, brain Phe increased to approximately 400 micromol/l after the oral Phe load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis revealed acutely disturbed brain activity. With concurrent LNAA supplementation, Phe influx was completely blocked and there was no slowing of EEG activity. These results are relevant for further characterization of the LNAA carrier and of the pathophysiology underlying brain dysfunction in PKU and for treatment of patients with PKU, as brain function might be improved by continued LNAA supplementation. (+info)
CAT2-mediated L-arginine transport and nitric oxide production in activated macrophages. (5/308)Activated macrophages require l-arginine uptake to sustain NO synthesis. Several transport systems could mediate this l-arginine influx. Using competition analysis and gene-expression studies, amino acid transport system y+ was identified as the major carrier responsible for this activity. To identify which of the four known y+ transport-system genes is involved in macrophage-induced l-arginine uptake, we used a hybrid-depletion study in Xenopus oocytes. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) 2 antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides abolished the activated-macrophage-mRNA-induced l-arginine transport. Together with expression studies documenting that CAT2 mRNA and protein levels are elevated with increased l-arginine uptake, our data demonstrate that CAT2 mediates the l-arginine transport that is required for the raised NO production in activated J774 macrophages. (+info)
Cationic amino acid transporter gene expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and in rats. (6/308)Immunostimulants trigger vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to express the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) and increased arginine transport activity. Although arginine transport in VSMC is considered to be mediated via the y+ system, we show here that rat VSMC in culture express the cat-1 gene transcript as well as an alternatively spliced transcript of the cat-2 gene. An RT-PCR cloning sequence strategy was used to identify a 141-base nucleotide sequence encoding the low-affinity domain of alternatively spliced CAT-2A and a 138-base nucleotide sequence encoding the high-affinity domain of CAT-2B in VSMC activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with interferon-gamma (IFN). With this sequence as a probe, Northern analyses showed that CAT-1 mRNA and CAT-2B mRNA are constitutively present in VSMC, and the expression of both mRNAs was rapidly stimulated by treatment with LPS-IFN, peaked within 4 h, and decayed to basal levels within 6 h after LPS-IFN. CAT-2A mRNA was not detectable in unstimulated or stimulated VSMC. Arginine transporter activity significantly increased 4-10 h after LPS-IFN. iNOS activity was reduced to almost zero in the absence of extracellular arginine uptake via system y+. Induction of arginine transport seems to be a prerequisite to the enhanced synthesis of NO in VSMC. Moreover, this work demonstrates tissue expression of CAT mRNAs with use of a model of LPS injection in rats. RT-PCR shows that the expression of CAT-1 and CAT-2B mRNA in the lung, heart, and kidney is increased by LPS administration to rats, whereas CAT-2A mRNA is abundantly expressed in the liver independent of LPS treatment. These findings suggest that together CAT-1 and CAT-2B play an important role in providing substrate for high-output NO synthesis in vitro as well as in vivo and implicate a coordinated regulation of intracellular iNOS enzyme activity with membrane arginine transport. (+info)
Receptor-mediated Moloney murine leukemia virus entry can occur independently of the clathrin-coated-pit-mediated endocytic pathway. (7/308)To investigate receptor-mediated Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) entry, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged ecotropic receptor designated murine cationic amino acid transporter (MCAT-1) (MCAT-1-GFP) was constructed and expressed in 293 cells (293/MCAT-1-GFP). 293/MCAT-1-GFP cells displayed green fluorescence primarily at the cell membrane and supported wild-type levels of MoMuLV vector binding and transduction. Using immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy, it was demonstrated that the surface envelope protein (SU) gp70 of MoMuLV virions began to appear inside cells 5 min after virus binding and was colocalized with MCAT-1-GFP. However, clathrin was not colocalized with MCAT-1-GFP, suggesting that MoMuLV entry, mediated by MCAT-1, does not involve clathrin. Double immunofluorescence labeling of SU and clathrin in 293 cells expressing untagged receptor (293/MCAT-1) gave the same results, i.e., SU and clathrin did not colocalize. In addition, we examined the transduction ability of MoMuLV vector on HeLa cells overexpressing the dominant-negative GTPase mutant of dynamin (K44A). HeLa cells overexpressing mutant dynamin have a severe block in endocytosis by the clathrin-coated-pit pathway. No significant titer difference was observed when MoMuLV vector was tranduced into HeLa cells overexpressing either wild-type or mutant dynamin, while the transduction ability of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped vector into HeLa cells overexpressing mutant dynamin was decreased significantly. Taken together, these data suggest that MoMuLV entry does not occur through the clathrin-coated-pit-mediated endocytic pathway. (+info)
Modulation of ATPase activity by physical disengagement of the ATP-binding domains of an ABC transporter, the histidine permease. (8/308)The membrane-bound complex of the prokaryotic histidine permease, a periplasmic protein-dependent ABC transporter, is composed of two hydrophobic subunits, HisQ and HisM, and two identical ATP-binding subunits, HisP, and is energized by ATP hydrolysis. The soluble periplasmic binding protein, HisJ, creates a signal that induces ATP hydrolysis by HisP. The crystal structure of HisP has been resolved and shown to have an "L" shape, with one of its arms (arm I) being involved in ATP binding and the other one (arm II) being proposed to interact with the hydrophobic subunits (Hung, L.-W., Wang, I. X., Nikaido, K., Liu, P.-Q., Ames, G. F.-L., and Kim, S.-H. (1998) Nature 396, 703-707). Here we study the basis for the defect of several HisP mutants that have an altered signaling pathway and hydrolyze ATP constitutively. We use biochemical approaches to show that they produce a loosely assembled membrane complex, in which the mutant HisP subunits are disengaged from HisQ and HisM, suggesting that the residues involved are important in the interaction between HisP and the hydrophobic subunits. In addition, the mutant HisPs are shown to have lower affinity for ADP and to display no cooperativity for ATP. All of the residues affected in these HisP mutants are located in arm II of the crystal structure of HisP, thus supporting the proposed function of arm II of HisP as interacting with HisQ and HisM. A revised model involving a cycle of disengagement and reengagement of HisP is proposed as a general mechanism of action for ABC transporters. (+info)
Error 430 Vba - wisecleanerdownload.com
RECOMMENDED: If you have Windows errors then we strongly recommend that you download and run this (Windows) Repair Tool.. Jun 12, 2017. Office VBA Reference Language Reference VBA Class doesnt support Automation (Error 430). Class doesnt support Automation (Error 430).. Microsoft Access 2010 Error Numbers and Descriptions - Microsoft Access 2010 comprehensive list all Error Numbers and Descriptions. how to read/write/update/delete record in tables using vba. - Nov 06, 2008 · how to read/write/update/delete record in tables using vba. Discussion in Microsoft Access VBA Modules started by mike g, Nov 6, 2008.. Post subject: Solution to VBA error 430 Class does not support automation: I got this error when I tried to use a macro which had run great on other machines.. Nov 11, 2008. When I try to create a new object of a class module from this dll I get a Run timer error 430: Class does not support automation or does not.. Problem names and reserved words in Access. This list, from the Database ...
Traffic ATPases: a superfamily of transport proteins operating from Escherichia coli to humans. - PubMed - NCBI
VBA checking for value (shell-ID) from Sheet1 and Sheet2. - Excel VBA / Macros - OzGrid Free Excel/VBA Help Forum
Help with Ranking and Rearranging Columns - Excel VBA / Macros - OzGrid Free Excel/VBA Help Forum
Excel VBA Models - Home
Download VBA Programming Language Documentation from Official Microsoft Download Center
VBA Excel 2010 - First blank cell in a column
Successful 2VBA2C! (Long) - VBAC Mamas | Forums | What to Expect
PPT - Project VBA: How and Why it can Make You a Project Guru! PowerPoint Presentation - ID:92670
VBA - turn off Autofilter
Excel 97 VBA: array(arghh list)
VBA format a range of cells
Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti...
Su YH et al. (2004), Molecular and functional characterization of a ... - Xenbase Paper
More than 50 distinct amino acid transporter genes have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis, indicating that transport of amino acids across membranes is a highly complex feature in plants. Based on sequence similarity, these transporters can be divided into two major superfamilies: the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid polyamine choline transporters is presented, namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and CAT8. The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is expressed in young ...
Cystinuria | Bulls of Crown
DNA Test for Cystinuria in Bulldogs. The DNA test for cystinuria can be done at any age. But it is best to have the test done as early as possible so diet and neutering plans can be set early before the body starts forming crystals. The earliest time to have the DNA done is a few days after a puppy stops from suckling for his mothers milk.. All that you need are blood samples are. Do not forget to ask specifically for the Type III test. Although dogs with cystinuria have a very high chance of forming stones, not all of them do.. Preventing Cystinuria in Bulldogs. Because it is a genetic disease, there is no concrete way to prevent cystinuria in Bulldogs. But it is recommended not to breed Bulldogs tested positive for the disease.. Cystinuria in Bulldogs is also driven by hormones, particularly the testosterone. For this reason, neutering a male cystinuria-positive Bulldog will prevent his body from forming stones or developing symptoms. Giving your Bulldog a low-protein diet until he is ready ...
Left- and right-hand traffic - Wikipedia
The terms left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic, unless otherwise directed, to keep to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road.. One hundred and sixty-three countries and territories use RHT, with the remaining seventy-six countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the worlds area and a quarter of its roads. In the early 1900s some countries including Canada, Spain, and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. In 1919, 104 of the worlds territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT.. Many of the countries with LHT are former ...
LHT7 - PCR Primer Pair - SYBR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad
Cystinuria Symptoms and Diagnosis
Sequence Similarity - 1HPB: THE BACTERIAL PERIPLASMIC HISTIDINE-BINDING PROTEIN: STRUCTURE(SLASH)FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF...
Structure Cluster - 1HPB: THE BACTERIAL PERIPLASMIC HISTIDINE-BINDING PROTEIN: STRUCTURE(SLASH)FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF...
Create UDF (Function) with one parameter - returns True/False from VBA code
I have written a Rule Engine in MS Access (client) that uses linked tables with SQL Server Native Client to SQL Server 2008 R2. There are around 150 Binary Rules. Each Binary Rule has combinations of SQL and other logic. They are designed to return a True/False. These Binary Rules are the first tier for the Rule Engine conversion. The process is now to take the tested VBA and convert each Binary Rule to TSQL UDF. The next layer, a Status Rule - will take one parameter and then call on dozens of the Binary Rules. Depending on the status number, it will expect different Binary Rules to return some pattern of True or False. [b]The code below is the most simple rule. The purpose is to get a template for conversion from VBA to TSQL. [/b] [code=vb] Function Rule71(ID_Wells As Integer) As Boolean Rule 71 Well is a Facility - Pass in Primary Key for Well, run SQL for this ID. If record returns then True/ else False Dim rstMisc As DAO.Recordset Dim
Vba function pass reference
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SLC7A9 cDNA cloning and mutational analysis of SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 in canine cystinuria, Mammalian Genome | 10.1007/s00335-005...
Excel Count Cells By Color - Using VBA ColorIndex - CountByColor
How to shrink text to fit a cell in Excel?
If you are used to using VBA, you can do as follow:. 1. Select a cell of the column you want to select and press Alt + F11 to open the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window.. 2. In the pop-up window, click Insert , Module, then paste the following VBA code into the module.. VBA: Shrink text to fit cell ...
Juergen Krauss's profile page - DoFactory
Slc1a2 - Amino acid transporter - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Slc1a2 gene & protein
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Range Dimensioning, Range and Value Referencing and Referring to Arrays [SOLVED]
Range Dimensioning, Range and Value Referencing and Referring to Arrays Hi, . I have been learning VBA for about 6months now but still get a bit bogged down on getting to grips with understanding some basic Range assigning and Definition. I need help from someone that understands the core as it were,. of how the computer or VBA actually works.. . This post and the specific questions here follows on from a question that came up coincidentally yesterday here Post #10 - # 14
How do I... Export e-mail messages to Access using VBA? - TechRepublic
How to Set Variable Offset command in VBA????
Cystinuria type I | definition of cystinuria type I by Medical dictionary
NF-κB inhibitors stabilize the mRNA of high-affinity type-2 cationic amino acid transporter in LPS-stimulated rat liver<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-κB inhibitors stabilize the mRNA of high-affinity type-2 cationic amino acid transporter in LPS-stimulated rat liver. AU - Yang, C. H.. AU - Tsai, P. S.. AU - Lee, J. J.. AU - Huang, C. H.. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Background: Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) results in nitric oxide (NO) overproduction during endotoxemia. Cellular uptake of L-arginine, modulated by the isozymes of type-2 cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), including CAT-2, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, has been reported to be a crucial factor in the regulation of iNOS activity. We sought to elucidate the expression of CAT-2 isozymes and the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in this expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat liver. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly given intravenous (i.v.) injections of normal saline (N/S), LPS, LPS preceded by an NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC, dexamethasone or salicylate) or an NF-κB inhibitor alone. After ...
Envelope-binding domain in the cationic amino acid transporter determines the host range of ecotropic murine retroviruses. |...
Infection of rodent cells by ecotropic type C retroviruses requires the expression of a cationic amino acid transporter composed of multiple membrane-spanning domains. By exchanging portions of cDNAs encoding the permissive mouse and nonpermissive human transporters and examining their abilities to specify virus infection upon expression in human 293 cells, we have identified the amino acid residues in the extracellular loop connecting the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segments of the mouse transporter that are required for both envelope gp70 binding and infection. These findings strongly suggest that the role of the mouse transporter in determining infection is to provide an envelope-binding site. This role is analogous to those of host membrane proteins composed of a single membrane-spanning domain that serve as binding proteins or receptors for other enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and murine and human coronaviruses. ...
Slc7a3 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 (Slc7a3), (10ug) -...
Cationic amino acid transporter 2 - Wikipedia
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular"...
Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. We have shown that mutations in rBAT cause type I cystinuria (Calonge, M. J., Gasparini, P., Chillarón, J., Chillón, M., Gallucci, M., Rousaud, F., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Dallapiccola, B., Di Silverio, F., Barceló, P., Estivill, X., Zorzano, A., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1994) Nat. Genet. 6, 420-425; Calonge, M. J., Volipini, V., Bisceglia, L., Rousaud, F., De Sanctis, L., Beccia, E., Zelante, L., Testar, X., Zorzano, A., Estivill, X., Gasparini, P., Nunes, V., and Palacín, M. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 9667-9671). Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the kidney or intestine. Here, we report that a "proximal tubular-like" cell ...
Expression of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 Is Required for Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell-Mediated Control of T Cell...
MDSCs are one of the dominant immunosuppressive populations that are present in the tumor microenvironment, impairing T cell function and promoting tumor progression (30). Therefore, MDSCs present a major obstacle for the success of cancer immunotherapy. As a result, blocking MDSC function has been an attractive endeavor to complement cancer therapies. Indeed, several studies demonstrated that depletion of MDSCs or inhibiting MDSC function impaired cancer progression (31, 32). Although these studies are very promising, more specific strategies to block MDSC suppressive function are needed.. MDSCs mediate their inhibitory effects on T cells through diverse mechanisms (33). One mechanism is the metabolism of amino acids by MDSCs (34). For example, MDSCs express enzymes that metabolize l-Arg, l-tryptophan, and cysteine, leading to their consumption from the microenvironment. Depletion of these amino acids results in T cell dysfunction (35-37). In addition, MDSCs can metabolize l-Arg and ...
UMR5174 - Laboratoire Évolution et Diversité Biologique - Amino acid transporter expansions associated with the evolution of...
Mutualistic obligate endosymbioses shape the evolution of endosymbiont genomes, but their impact on host genomes remains unclear. Insects of the sub-order Sternorrhyncha (Hemiptera) depend on bacterial endosymbionts for essential amino acids present at low abundances in their phloem-based diet. This obligate dependency has been proposed to explain why multiple amino acid transporter genes are maintained in the genomes of the insect hosts. We implemented phylogenetic comparative methods to test whether amino acid transporters have proliferated in sternorrhynchan genomes at rates grater than expected by chance.. Voir en ligne : http://bit.ly/1EIMqCn ...
Frontiers | Diversity of Phenotype and Genetic Etiology of 23 Cystinuria Saudi Patients: A Retrospective Study | Pediatrics
Background: Cystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism that manifests with renal stones due to defective renal epithelial cell transport of cystine which resulted from pathogenic variants in the SLC3A1 and/or SLC7A9 genes. Among nephrolithiasis diseases, cystinuria is potentially treatable, and further stone formation may be preventable. We report 23 patients who were identified biochemically and genetically to have cystinuria showing the diversity of the phenotype of cystinuria and expanding the genotype by identifying a broad spectrum of mutations.Patients and Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective chart review, where clinical and biochemical data, genetic analysis and the progress of the disease were documented over five years at two centers from 2014 to 2019.Results: Of 23 patients who were identified biochemically and/or genetically to have cystinuria, 14 (62%) were male. Thirteen patients were homozygous, and two were heterozygous for the SLC3A1 gene. Seven were homozygous and one was
Cystinuria is defined as an inherited disorder characterized by increased urinary excretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids arginine, lysine and ornithine. The only clinical manifestation of cystinuria is renal cystine stone formation due to the low solubility of cystine in the urine. Cystinuria can be attributed to mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes in the majority of all cases and it has been a common expectation that molecular genetic studies of cystinuria would aid in understanding of the varying clinical outcome seen in the disease. Besides human, the disease has been most extensively studied in the domestic dog.. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular genetic basis of cystinuria in patients from Sweden and to correlate genetic findings with phenotypes produced regarding cystine and dibasic amino acid excretion. Further, attempts were made to elucidate the molecular genetics of cystinuria in the dog.. The entire coding sequences of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 ...
SLC7A5 Pre-design Chimera RNAi - (H00008140-R01) - Products - Abnova
Week 3 preview - Exchanging Information Between Excel and VBA | Coursera
Binomial option pricing excel vba
SMART: Pfam domain AA permease
Amino acid permeases are integral membrane proteins involved in the transport of amino acids into the cell. A number of such proteins have been found to be evolutionary related [(PUBMED:3146645)], [(PUBMED:2687114)], [(PUBMED:8382989)]. These proteins seem to contain up to 12 transmembrane segments. The best conserved region in this family is located in the second transmembrane segment.. This domain is found in amino acid permeases, as well as in solute carrier family 12A (SLC12A) members.. ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 1hsl.1
Excel VBA Tips: Running macros using hyperlinks - SUBMEG
Excel VBA Tips: Running macros using hyperlinks At work today I had to create a workbook that provided links between different sheets within a workbook and turned on a filter. However, I didnt want to use buttons, as it would be become extremely cluttered. I discovered that you can run macros using hyperlinks, so commandbuttons…
Excel 2016 Power Programming with VBA : Michael Alexander : 9781119067726
SAUSA300 RS00985 - AureoWiki
Amino Acid Transporters | Alomone Labs
This website is run by the accessibility program of the "Accessible with a Click" company and is run via a designated accessibility server. The program allows the website to follow the guidelines for internet content accessibility WCAG 2.0 to level AA. The program is subject to the conditions of use of the manufacturer. Warrantee of use applies to the website owners and/or their representative, including the content displayed in the website, as subject to the conditions of use ...
VBA - Page 2 - Daily Dose of Excel
Thats a crappy UI. And thats from someone who spends a lot of time in the Visual Basic Editor.. Then its settled. Ill build my own form for changing the properties I want to change. Its what I really wanted to do anyway, so why stop lying to myself. What kind of features should I build into this UI? A big textbox is a must. Also, Id like to be able to add white space and line breaks. Oh, and if I could have SQL parsing, autoformatting, and autocomplete… So basically what I want is SQL Server Management Studio. I already have that. Its called SQL Server Management Studio. That lead me to my next bit of genius. If I want to edit the SQL, even only a little, I should do it in SSMS. I added a couple of buttons to the Ribbon.. ...
ScaleMode Property [Access 2003 VBA Language Reference] | Microsoft Docs
You can use the ScaleMode property in Visual Basic to specify the unit of measurement for coordinates on a page when the Circle , Line , Pset , or Print method is used while a report is previewed or printed, or its output is saved to a file. Read/write Integer.. expression.ScaleMode. expression Required. An expression that returns one of the objects in the Applies To list.. ...
Definição das variáveis. --------------------------------------------------------------------------. Dim W As Worksheet. Dim WNew As Workbook. Dim ArqParaAbrir As Variant. Dim A As Integer. Dim NomeArquivo As String. Coleta de dados para tratamento. --------------------------------------------------------------------------. ArqParaAbrir = Application.GetOpenFilename(Aquivo do Excel (*.xlsx), *.xl*, _. Title:=Escolha o arquivo a ser importado, _. MultiSelect:=True). If Not IsArray(ArqParaAbrir) Then. If ArqParaAbrir = Or ArqParaAbrir = False Then. MsgBox Processo abortado, nenhum arquivo selecionado, vbOKOnly, Processo abortado. Exit Sub. End If. End If. ...
Solved] Help with VBA/macro to move rows to various other sheets aut
Shop - VBA Telemetry
Track Time in Excel with VBA - Contextures Blog
Dear Debra, it´s been great following your advice and solutions, and many of those have saved my skin on my personal needs, but I have a question about time as a value in a cell.. Im doing a research and my datalog sends me data every 5 minutes, on a spreadsheet. I wonder if it would be possible to use a macro to select all readings every hour and then run an average on those values, copying everything to a new tab, minding that I have the time well specified in a specific cell. Sure you dont need to do it for me but could you tell me if I am onto something possible or if I have to look in another direction? Twitter(I_will_adapt. ...
Re: LSB Compliance
On Wed, Apr 30, 2003 at 12:16:14AM -0700, Chris Waters wrote: , On Wed, Apr 30, 2003 at 04:48:29PM +1000, Anthony Towns wrote: , , Isnt this whole thread about our users demanding it? , If thats your interpretation of the thread (and its not mine), then , hadnt you better get cracking at implementing whatever the missing , pieces might be? Actions speak louder than words, yknow! :p ;) http://people.debian.org/~ajt/lsb/patches/ deb http://people.debian.org/~ajt/lsb woody lsb/main These were enough to get woody to support LSB 1.2 late last year; unfortunately weve left it so late that its not possible to get certified for that, and LSB 1.3 has some additional requirements that I expect we dont meet. AFAIK, we still have bugs like #142072 blocking unstable from complying with LSB 1.2 too. , Personally, I dont think that one person asking a question qualifies , as our users are demanding it. Id rather not set the bar any higher than that, personally. What are the alternatives? Having ...
Updox Introduces Resources to Help Hospitals Choose the Right HISP for Direct Messaging
Expanded genetic code
... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... previously unnatural amino acid (p-aminophenylalanine) from basic carbon sources and includes this amino acid in its genetic ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.5220.127.116.110 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... and synthesized from acetyl-CoA or basic intermediates of glycolysis They often end in -ol (menthol) and comprise the majority ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ...
Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, encodes a ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... The predicted amino acid sequence shows similarity to Xenopus importin, yeast SRP1, and human RCH1 (KPNA2), respectively. ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
The amino acids or sugars released by these extracellular enzymes are then pumped into cells by active transport proteins. ... Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, ... Thus living systems are not in equilibrium, but instead are dissipative systems that maintain their state of high complexity by ... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ...
... is transported by a high-affinity transport system. It can also be converted into glutamine. Disodium glutamate Kainic acid ... A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α- ... one of the five basic tastes of the human sense of taste. Glutamic acid is often used as a food additive and flavor enhancer in ... R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in ...
Willard Gibbs Award
... for demonstration of important metabolic interrelationships of amino acids, and for measurement of the amino acid requirements ... biological control systems, immunological response, processing of genetic information, ionophore transport and the reaction of ... His group developed the basic models, mechanisms, and methods for nanocrystal synthesis, processing, and characterization that ... He has made outstanding contributions in many fields, among which are the following: the synthesis of amino acids, the ...
... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... Proline at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Botany Online: Basic metabolism - Biosynthesis ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ...
... complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid ... It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system ... It achieves this in four basic steps: The carbanion of the TPP ylid nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl group on the ... the human Tpc and the Drosophila melanogaster have been identified as being responsible for the mitochondrial transport of ThPP ...
This region called V (variable) domain is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their binding ... The immune complex is then transported to cellular systems where it can be destroyed or deactivated. The first correct ... One basic application is determination of ABO blood group. It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with ... The variable region in turn has hyper-variable regions which are unique amino acid sequences in each antibody. Antigens are ...
Amino acid transporter
Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is responsible ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ...
Organic molecules, such as amino acids, have previously been found in meteorite and comet samples, indicating that some ... Propulsion system: Based on a hydrazine monopropellant system developed for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, carrying 1,230 kg ... Telescopic observations have revealed some basic properties of Bennu. They indicate that it is very dark and is classified as a ... The capsule will then be transported to the Johnson Space Center for processing in a dedicated research facility. The acronym ...
Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... This causes a chronic lack of energy in the cells, which leads to cell death and in turn, affects the central nervous system ... Without ATP synthase, the electron transport chain will not produce any ATP. The most common MT-ATP6 mutation found with Leigh ... The brain stem is involved in maintaining basic life functions such as breathing, swallowing, and circulation; the basal ...
In cell biology, diffusion is a main form of transport for necessary materials such as amino acids within cells. Diffusion of ... Because chemical diffusion is a net transport process, the system in which it takes place is not an equilibrium system (i.e. it ... As with the basic equation of heat transfer, this indicates that the rate of force is directly proportional to the driving ... Diffusion is part of the transport phenomena. Of mass transport mechanisms, molecular diffusion is known as a slower one. ...
... consists of 417 amino acids and weighs 47037Da. CKMT1A is rich in amino acids with hydroxyl-containing and basic side ... According to the "transport" ("shuttle") hypothesis for the CK system, after synthesis within the mitochondrial matrix, the γ- ... inhibits the processing of uMtCK to induce cell death in a cell culture model system". Bioscience Reports. 31 (5): 429-37. doi: ...
RNA is primarily used as the code to make proteins and amino acids. Errors in protein or amino acid production can result in ... "Transport and Localization Elements in Myelin Basic Protein mRNA", The Journal of Cell Biology, 138 (5): 1077-1087, doi:10.1083 ... It is thought to be part of the innate immune system as a defense against double-stranded RNA viruses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ... This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA), that mediates ...
The amino acid sequence of a protein, the so-called primary structure, can be easily determined from the sequence on the gene ... A fully developed analysis system may completely replace the observer. Although these systems are not unique to biomedical ... Basic bioinformatics services are classified by the EBI into three categories: SSS (Sequence Search Services), MSA (Multiple ... Both serve the same purpose of transporting oxygen in the organism. Though both of these proteins have completely different ...
... because dietary collagen is broken down into amino acids, which become building blocks for body tissues, and is not transported ... "Broth Basics". Martha Stewart. 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2016-11-30.. *^ Christensen, Emma. "What's the Difference Between Stock ... including boosting the immune system; improving joints, skin and hair due to collagen content; and promoting healthy teeth and ... In the Maldives the tuna broth known as garudiya is a basic food item, but it is not eaten as a soup in the general sense of ...
Plant defense against herbivory
β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid as simple amino acid is used by the sweet pea which leads also to intoxication in humans ... "Phenols". Plant Defense Systems & Medicinal Botany. Retrieved 2007-05-21. Van Soest, Peter J. (1982). Nutritional ecology of ... An important antiparasitic action is caused by the block of the transport of iodide of animal cells inhibiting sodium-iodide ... Most are multicyclic structures which differ from one another in both functional groups, and in basic carbon skeletons. ...
Index of biochemistry articles
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... List of chemistry topics, Chemistry basic topics List of biology topics, Biology basic topics List of molecular biology topics ... transport protein - transport vesicle - triiodothyronine - trinucleotide repeat - Triose - tropomyosin - troponin - Tryptophan ... systems biology - T cell - T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence ...
Basic amino acids important for LDL receptor binding are clustered into a surface patch on one long helix. They are enzyme ... They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in ... Further, apoE is a blood plasma protein that mediates the transport and uptake of cholesterol and lipid by way of its high ... In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ...
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
IUPAC also has a system for giving codes to identify amino acids and nucleotide bases. IUPAC needed a coding system that ... Basic IUPAC inorganic nomenclature has two main parts: the cation and the anion. The cation is the name for the positively ... retrieved 15 April 2010 Measurement of the Transport Properties of Fluids review on Amazon retrieved 15 April 2010 Solution ... Amino Acid Codes Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved 15 April 2010 Amino Acid and Nucleotide Base Codes ...
The amino acids in proteins are used in the body to build muscles and organs, transport molecules (hemoglobin), antibodies, and ... had traditionally been considered a sixth basic taste. In 2015, researchers suggested a new basic taste of fatty acids called ... while the actual taste of fatty acids is not pleasant. Mattes described the taste as "more of a warning system" that a certain ... Savoriness The amino acid glutamic acid is responsible for savoriness, but some nucleotides (inosinic acid and guanylic acid) ...
Commandeur JN, Stijntjes GJ, Vermeulen NP (June 1995). "Enzymes and transport systems involved in the formation and disposition ... or glucuronic acid. Sites on drugs where conjugation reactions occur include carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), amino (NH2), and ... During the remainder of the nineteenth century, several other basic detoxification reactions were discovered, such as ... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system Flavin-containing monooxygenase system Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not ... Biomembranes: Structural Organization and Basic Functions". Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman and Company. Retrieved 2008- ... These special proteins contain a specialized retention signal made up of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them ...
... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... while the stroma is slightly basic, with a pH of around 8. The optimal stroma pH for the Calvin cycle is 8.1, with the reaction ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ...
Gloria M. Coruzzi
... identified key genes controlling the assimilation of inorganic nitrogen into key amino acids used for nitrogen transport in ... 2008). Systems approach identifies an organic nitrogen-responsive gene network that is regulated by the master clock control ... Stokes, D. E. Pasteur's Quadrant - Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Brookings Institution Press, 1997. Katari, M. S ... As Carroll & Milton Petrie Professor of Biology at New York University's Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Coruzzi ...
Green nonsulfur bacteria used various amino and other organic acids as an electron donor. Purple nonsulfur bacteria used a ... The antenna system is at the core of the chlorophyll molecule of the photosystem II reaction center. That freed electron is ... Thus, the basic reaction by which photosynthesis is used to produce food (such as glucose) was outlined. Cornelis Van Niel made ... As the electrons are shuttled through an electron transport chain (the so-called Z-scheme shown in the diagram), it initially ...
Tachykinin receptor 1
... an amino-terminus and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminus. The loops have functional sites, including two cysteines amino acids for ... is a G protein coupled receptor found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. The endogenous ligand for ... International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Receptors, Neurokinin-1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... SP is synthesized by neurons and transported to synaptic vesicles; the release of SP is accomplished through the depolarizing ...
Vesicular stomatitis virus
The protein is rich in basic amino acids and contains a highly basic amino terminal domain. The main sign in animals is oral ... VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is ... VSVG is also a common coat protein for lentiviral vector expression systems used to introduce genetic material into in vitro ... The VSIV M protein is encoded by an mRNA that is 831 nucleotides long and translates to a 229 amino acid-protein. The predicted ...
This is a polypeptide of 121 amino acids which requires processing by the removal of 47 residues to form a T-pilus subunit. The ... An ATPase for the active transport of the subunits would also be required. The T-DNA must be cut out of the circular plasmid. A ... VirD2 contains a motif that leads to the nucleoprotein complex being targeted to the type IV secretion system (T4SS). In the ... Basic Life Sci. 9: 159-79. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0880-5_12. PMID 336023. Zambryski, P.; et al. (1983). "Ti plasmid vector for ...
... because the transport system which brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier is also selective for the other amino acids ... and then adding NaOH to make the pH very basic at 13 for 1 hour. This phase uses the Psilocybe coprophila as the catalyst for ... High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ...
... they function on both sides of the membrane to transport molecules across it. Nutrients, such as sugars or amino acids, must ... The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement ... The ER, which is part of the endomembrane system, which makes up a very large portion of the cell's total membrane content. The ... amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and ions) from diffusing across the membrane, but generally allows for the ...
Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and ... However, there is a possibility that two human-specific "fixed" amino acid substitutions, D71G in GRIN3A and R727H in GRIN3B, ... Weaver CD, Gundersen V, Verdoorn TA (January 1998). "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets ... International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ... Meldrum B (1993). "Amino acids as dietary excitotoxins: a ...
... which is a neurotransmitter but also an amino acid. Therefore, the GAT1 gene is the first gene discovered for an amino acid ... V-ATPase is a complex situated mainly in the membrane of the vacuolar system of cells that uses ATP as an energy source to ... In 1985, Nelson was offered a position by Professor Ron Kaback at the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, a basic science ... Neurotransmitter transporters are proteins in the neuronal cell membranes that enable the transport of a specific ...
Glossary of engineering
Acid - Acid-base reaction - Acid strength - Acoustics - Activated sludge - Activated sludge model - Active transport - Actuator ... Amino acid - Amorphous solid - Ampere - amp, a unit that describes the rate of flow of electricity (current). Amphoterism - ... Conjugate acid - Conjugate base - Continuum mechanics - Control systems engineering - Convex lens - Corrosion - Cosmic rays - ... A number of basic laws describing the behavior of electric current and potential. Mean - Measures of central tendency - ...
Human iron metabolism
In contrast, ferroportin is post-translationally repressed by hepcidin, a 25-amino acid peptide hormone. The body regulates ... Oxygen is transported from the lungs to the rest of the body bound to the heme group of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. In muscles ... Most of the iron in the body is hoarded and recycled by the reticuloendothelial system, which breaks down aged red blood cells ... 2010). Iron Deficiency and Overload From Basic Biology to Clinical Medicine. New York, NY: Humana Press. p. 230. Finney LA, ...
... the basic structure of a cell membrane. Living organisms synthesize proteins, which are polymers of amino acids using ... In systems of scientific classification, Biota is the superdomain that classifies all life. Cells are the basic unit of ... In eukaryotic cells, these proteins may then be transported and processed through the Golgi apparatus in preparation for ... A sequence of amino acids is assembled and joined together based upon gene expression of the cell's nucleic acid. ...
The amino acids encoded by these cDNAs agreed with the amino acid sequence of the hormone isolated from the porcine parotid ... Basic Science Teacher Award 1980: Sigma Xi Research Merit Award 1988: Walter E. Macpherson Society Basic Science Teacher Award ... Dentinal fluid transport. One day he received a telephone call from Dr. Ralph R. Steinman, a dental colleague, who had been ... This confirmed that the site of action was within the central nervous system-namely the hypothalamus. Effect of carbamyl ...
A target peptide is a short (3-70 amino acids long) peptide chain that directs the transport of a protein to a specific region ... is a target peptide that directs proteins to the nucleus and is often a unit consisting of five basic, positively charged amino ... A homologous system exists in eukaryotes, where the signal peptide directs the newly synthesized protein to the Sec61 channel, ... It often consists of several hydrophobic amino acids (often leucine) interspaced by 2-3 other amino acids. Many proteins are ...
Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma ... which exert their influence principally through the respiratory system and the urinary system to control the acid-base balance ... In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma. Vertebrate blood is ... Blood pH is regulated to stay within the narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45, making it slightly basic. Blood that has a pH below 7.35 ...
The ar/R filter is made of two amino acid groups from helices B (HB) and E (HE) and two groups from loop E (LE1, LE2), from the ... These are also essential for the water transport system in plants and tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Aquaporin ... Small basic Intrinsic Protein (SIP) X Intrinsic Protein (XIP) These five subfamilies have later been divided into smaller ... The aromatic/arginine or "ar/R" selectivity filter is a cluster of amino acids that help bind to water molecules and exclude ...
It is a heterodimer protein composed of two polypeptide chains differing in composition of their amino acid residues. The ... International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. calcitonin receptor-like receptor at the US National Library of ... 1998). "RAMPs regulate the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor". Nature. 393 (6683): 333- ... suggesting that the protein may modulate a variety of physiological functions in all major systems (e.g., respiratory, ...
Glossary of biology
... amino acid A class of organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group. amniote Organisms that produce ... They are transported by the blood plasma and the lymphatic system. efferent Conducted or conducting outwards or away from ... There are three basic types of macronutrients: fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. macrophage A kind of swallowing cell, which ... nucleic acid . nucleic acid sequence . nucleobase . nucleoid . nucleolus . nucleotide . Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M ...
... they function on both sides of the membrane to transport molecules across it. Nutrients, such as sugars or amino acids, ... "Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (6th ed.).. *^ Fitzpatrick, M O (1998). "The role of the axolemma ... The ER, which is part of the endomembrane system, which makes up a very large portion of the cell's total membrane content. The ... amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and ions) from diffusing across the membrane, but generally allows for the ...
... which results from pathology in the transport of dibasic amino acids. Sodium nitroprusside is also able to detect amines. This ... Sodium nitroprusside was found to give a reaction with acetone or creatine under basic conditions in 1882. Rothera refined this ... "Sodium Nitroprusside". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. ... The test will turn a red/purple colour if the test is positive, indicating significant amounts of amino acids were in the urine ...
The targeting peptides of these proteins have a high content of basic and hydrophobic amino acids, a low content of negatively ... some are translated in the cytosol and later transported to the ER/plasma membrane by a post-translational system. In ... where X can be any amino acid). There are also proteins that possess neither of these signals. Their transport may be based on ... where X can be any amino acid), then transfers the protein onto the cell wall. Several analogous systems are found that ...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
For instance, in the active site of NADP-dependent enzymes, an ionic bond is formed between a basic amino acid side-chain and ... These shuttle systems also have the same transport function in chloroplasts. Since both the oxidized and reduced forms of ... In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In ... from an amino acid-either tryptophan (Trp) in animals and some bacteria, or aspartic acid (Asp) in some bacteria and plants. ...
It is known that the mercuric ion inhibits amino acid (AA) and glutamate (Glu) transport, potentially leading to excitotoxic ... in vitro systems have increased in use as they provide significant improvements over the more common in vivo systems of the ... From this basic understanding, the use of common compounds such as tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, and bungarotoxins have led ... Caramboxin is a new nonpeptide amino acid toxin that stimulate the glutamate receptors in neurons. Caramboxin is an agonist of ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Cieśla J, Frączyk T, Rode W (2011). "Phosphorylation of basic amino acid ... The arginine phosphorylation system, which is widely distributed across Gram-positive bacteria, appears to be functionally ... Regulatory roles of phosphorylation include: Phosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase during the transport of sodium (Na+) and ... However, many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated in cells, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid ...
Hoehenwarter W.; Klose J.; Jungblut P. R. (2006). "Eye lens proteomics". Amino Acids. 30 (4): 369-389. doi:10.1007/s00726-005- ... John Forrester, Andrew Dick, Paul McMenamin, William Lee (1996). The Eye: Basic Sciences in Practice. London: W. B. Saunders ... O. Candia (2004). Electrolyte and fluid transport across corneal, conjunctival and lens epithelia. Experimental Eye Research 78 ... Histology image: 08001loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University. ...
Nitrogen nutrition in the arbuscular mycorrhizal system
Nitrogen is obtained by plants through roots from inorganic or organic sources, such as amino acids. In agricultural settings, ... The precise mechanism(s) by which nitrogen is taken up from the soil by the ERM, transported to the IRM, and then turned over ... necessary for the biosynthesis of many basic cellular components, such as DNA, RNA and proteins. ... Working with an in vitro system, studies have shown that as much as 29% to 50% of the root nitrogen was taken up via the fungus ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... Sindrup SH, Otto M, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS (2005). "Antidepressants in the treatment of neuropathic pain". Basic Clin Pharmacol ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... 150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (>300 mg/day), it also affects ...
This process involves the formation of new protein molecules from amino acid building blocks based on information encoded in ... It directs the transport through the ER and the Golgi apparatus. Centrosomes are composed of two centrioles, which separate ... The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living ... The cell could not house these destructive enzymes if they were not contained in a membrane-bound system. Centrosome: the ...
... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... "Studies on the Respiratory System in Alkaliphilic Bacillus; a Proposed New Respiratory System." Extremophiles 2 (1998): 83-92. ... In this model, H+ ions are first extruded through the electron transport chain in respiring cells and to some extent through an ... was one of the primary steps in elucidating how alkaliphiles survive intensely basic environments. Since the cytosolic pH must ...
... moderates the assimilation of ammonium and the transport of amino acids from fungus to plant. Nitrogen is a crucial component ... Antioxidant detoxification systems may also be in place, reducing the production of free radicals and protecting the fungal ... High soil concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium affect basic metabolic ... enzymes and amino acids. However, in a vast majority of terrestrial ecosystems it is a limiting nutrient, and readily available ...
N-lobe corresponds to amino acid residues 1-333 and C-lobe to 345-692, and the ends of those domains are connected by a short α ... Lactoferrin belongs to the innate immune system. Apart from its main biological function, namely binding and transport of iron ... Lactoferrin belongs to the basic proteins, its isoelectric point is 8.7. It exists in two forms: iron-rich hololactoferrin and ... There are differences in amino acid sequences: 8 in Homo sapiens, 6 in Mus musculus, 6 in Capra hircus, 10 in Bos taurus and 20 ...
Roger D. Kornberg
mRNA is transported out of the nucleus to ribosomes. The ribosomes read the mRNA and translate the code into the right amino ... which are sequences of amino acids. DNA resides in the nucleus. When a cell expresses a gene, it copies (transcribes) that ... Using this system, Kornberg made the major discovery that transmission of gene regulatory signals to the RNA polymerase ... Kornberg discovered the nucleosome as the basic protein complex packaging chromosomal DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells ( ...
Aquarium fish feed
Amino acids are the basic components of proteins. Protein requirements vary according to species. Carnivorous fish need a ... Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble or can only be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats. ... Brine shrimp is a source of protein, carotene (a color enhancer) and acts as a natural laxative in fish digestive systems. ... essential fatty acids and eight amino acids required for complete nutrition. Whole wheat (carbohydrates) is not the best source ...
... a rare limiting amino acid in GSH synthesis. This is difficult since cysteine is toxic, it is not transported efficiently into ... It is conceivable that the priority of the immune system for the survival of the host has drawn to this vital area the ever- ... Additional basic research is warranted to examine the exact mechanisms by which milk whey protein protects the heart. ... The free plasma amino acid profile essentially conformed to the amino acid composition of the ingested protein, suggesting that ...
... which is synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or the non-essential amino acid tyrosine. These ... The sympathetic nervous system is the primary path of interaction between the immune system and the brain, and several ... International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Retrieved 2 January 2016. "Norepinephrine". PubChem. Retrieved 6 ... After synthesis, norepinephrine is transported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter ( ...
One of the best examples was a system of using solvent free epoxies for priming ships during construction, this used a system ... Common classes of hardeners for epoxy resins include amines, acids, acid anhydrides, phenols, alcohols and thiols. Relative ... Epoxy (/ə-POCK-see/) is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial ... Curing with phenolics to make drum linings, curing esters with amine resins and pre-curing epoxies with amino resins to make ...
Roger M. Spanswick
His demonstration (in 1972) that the most important transport system in the plasmalemma of Characean cells is a proton-pumping ... amino acids and other ions. Thus his original idea led to a very large volume of experimental work, in which he also had a ... but it is important to recognize the lasting legacy of his work in the field of basic ion transport. Spanswick also pioneered ... Roger made major contributions to our understanding of basic ion transport processes in plants, and was a true pioneer. He was ...
In return, S. muelleri uses the basic materials to synthesize complex amino acids like homoserine or L-threonine. Baumannia ... Other proteins that Sulcia muelleri makes include a couple of transport proteins; the microbe creates organic cation transport ... cicadellinicola is reported to provide most of the cofactors and vitamins for the system. One unanswered question about this ... Some strains of Sulcia muelleri are incapable of making the amino acid, tryptophan. It receives its other two amino acids - ...
6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzed reaction during glycolysis and in the metabolism of amino acids. Schiff bases are common ... M.L. Petrus; T. Bein; T.J. Dingemans; P. Docampo (2015). "A Low Cost Azomethine-Based Hole Transporting Material for Perovskite ... The imine nitrogen is basic and exhibits pi-acceptor properties. The ligands are typically derived from alkyl diamines and ... A number of special naming systems exist for these compounds. For instance a Schiff base derived from an aniline, where R3 is a ...
Unlike URP, U-II has an acidic amino acid (Glutamic or Aspartic) that precedes the core sequence. While the amino acid isn't ... Because of the involvement of the UII system in multiple biological systems such as the cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, and ... It also affects the kidneys including sodium transport, lipid and glucose metabolism, and natriuretic effects. Its has been ... "International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCII. Urotensin II, urotensin II-related peptide, and their receptor: ...
... as cells rapidly reduce dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbate. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in ... These reactions add hydroxyl groups to the amino acids proline or lysine in the collagen molecule via prolyl hydroxylase and ... The world price of vitamin C rose sharply in 2008 partly as a result of rises in basic food prices but also in anticipation of ... Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ...
As the introns were not placed randomly; they fell in the center of the region of amino acid sequence homology in strikingly ... and related defense pathways-basic science, clinical perspectives, and drug development". Frontiers in Physiology. 5: 415. doi: ... "Importance of ligand-induced conformational changes in hemopexin for receptor-mediated heme transport". The Journal of ... "Immunohistochemical localization of intracellular plasma proteins in the human central nervous system". Acta Neuropathologica. ...
Transfer RNAs with the same anticodon sequence always carry an identical type of amino acid. Amino acids are then chained ... All transport in and out of the nucleus is via the nuclear pore and transport is controlled by a wide range of importin and ... An expression system is a system specifically designed for the production of a gene product of choice. This is normally a ... A housekeeping gene is a gene that is required to maintain basic cellular function and so is typically expressed in all cell ...
Amino acid synthesis. Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur- ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. ... while the stroma is slightly basic, with a pH of around 8. The optimal stroma pH for the Calvin cycle is 8.1, with the ... Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ...
Index of biology articles
... circulatory system - cis face - cisterna - citric acid cycle - cladistics - classical genetics - clearance (medicine) - cloning ... amino acid - adenosine monophosphate (AMP) - anabolism - anaerobic respiration - anaphase - anatomy - Andrew Huxley - animalia ... These basic processes include the harnessing of energy, the synthesis and duplication of the materials that make up the body, ... transport vesicle - transposon - Traube cell - trophic level - tropism - tubulin - tumor - turgor - Turner syndrome - twin urea ...
This process involves the formation of new protein molecules from amino acid building blocks based on information encoded in ... Diagram of the endomembrane system. *Endoplasmic reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a transport network for molecules ... The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known ... It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as "molecular building blocks". ...
The classic Miller-Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the basic chemical constituents of ... Such systems have been demonstrated both in biological macromolecules and in small organic molecules. Systems that do not ... as well as by exposure to UV light during transport from vents to adjacent pools. Their hypothesized pre-biotic environments ... Furthermore the polymerization of the amino acid thioesters into polypeptides preceded the directed polymerization of amino ...
... is a zinc-containing dimeric enzyme with the MW: 86,000 Da, each subunit containing 429 amino acids with ... known as the Pst system, which transports phosphate across the cytoplasmic membrane. While the outer membrane of E. coli ... Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 18.104.22.168) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 ... "Mutant Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase enzymes - having amino acid changes to increase specific activity while retaining ...
Major neurotransmitters: Amino acids: glutamate, aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine Gasotransmitters: ... 474 for noradrenaline system, page 476 for dopamine system, page 480 for serotonin system and page 483 for cholinergic system. ... A neuron transports its information by way of a nerve impulse called an action potential. When an action potential arrives at ... "NIMH Brain Basics". U.S. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 29 October 2014. Netter, P. (1991) Biochemical variables in ...
In proteins, zinc ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and ... The basic unit of Volta's pile was a simplified galvanic cell, made of plates of copper and zinc separated by an electrolyte ... Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, Freissmuth M, Gether U, Sitte HH (June 2002). "The role of zinc ions in reverse transport ... Shulzhenko, A. A.; Ignatyeva, I. Yu.; Osipov, A. S.; Smirnova, T. I. (2000). "Peculiarities of interaction in the Zn-C system ...
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ... Bilateral symmetry refers to a molecule or system that contains a C2, Cs, or C2v point group identity. C2 symmetry tends to be ... synthesized from tryptophan is a component of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ which in turn are required for electron transport in ... Primary metabolites include carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids which are the basic building blocks of life. ...
Structure and genome of HIV
Tat is expressed as 72-amino acid one-exon Tat as well as the 86-101 amino-acid two-exon Tat, and plays an important role early ... The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which ... HIV employs a sophisticated system of differential RNA splicing to obtain nine different gene products from a less than 10kb ... required for the transport of Rev to the nucleus from cytosol during viral replication. Rev recognizes a complex stem-loop ...
The opines are amino acid derivatives used by the bacterium as a source of carbon and energy. This natural process of ... Transfer DNA binary system Barker, R. F.; Idler, K. B.; Thompson, D. V.; Kemp, J. D. (1983-11-01). "Nucleotide sequence of the ... VirD2 is the protein that caps the 5′ end of the transferred T-strand by covalent attachment and is transported to the host ... For more than two decades, Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been exploited for introducing genes into plants for basic research as ...
In addition, there is a periodic distribution of acidic and basic amino acids that seems to play an important role in ... With the blocking of transport of LDL-derived cholesterol inside the cell, cells were found to store a much lower percentage of ... once again implying a relationship between the two systems. On the other hand, wounded mice that lack the vimentin gene heal ... which is the basic subunit of vimentin assembly. The α-helical sequences contain a pattern of hydrophobic amino acids that ...
... which are lined with positively charged amino acid residues, allowing for binding interactions with siderophores. The lipocalin ... Stintzi A, Barnes C, Xu J, Raymond KN (Sep 2000). "Microbial iron transport via a siderophore shuttle: a membrane ion transport ... Yehuda S, Mostofsky DI (2010). Iron Deficiency and Overload: From Basic Biology to Clinical Medicine. New York, N.Y.: Humana ... The lipocalin family of binding proteins are produced by the immune system and sequester ferric siderophore complexes from the ...
CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids ... Opalinska, Joanna B.; Gewirtz, Alan M. (2002). "Nucleic-acid therapeutics: Basic principles and recent applications". Nature ... To overcome these problems, several different delivery systems have been developed, including CPP-nucleic acid conjugate, which ... Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) are able to transport different types of cargo molecules across plasma membrane; thus, they act ...
The following are the amino acid sequences of salmon and human calcitonin: salmon: Cys-Ser-Asn-Leu-Ser-Thr-Cys ... Goodman HM (2009). Basic Medical Endocrinology (Fourth ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-373975-9. "Continuous PTH and PTHrP ... ISBN 978-0-7817-6852-8. Carney SL (1997). "Calcitonin and human renal calcium and electrolyte transport". Mineral and ... Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (2004). "Endocrine system chapter". Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/ ...
The Amino Acid Transporter (AAT) Family 2.A.3.2: The Basic Amino Acid/Polyamine Antiporter (APA) Family 2.A.3.3: The Cationic ... The Amino Acid-Polyamine-Organocation (APC) Family (TC# 2.A.3) of transport proteins includes members that function as solute: ... Gasol, E; Jiménez-Vidal, M; Chillarón, J; Zorzano, A; Palacín, M (July 23, 2014). "Membrane topology of system xc- light ... "The amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily of transporters specific for amino acids, polyamines and organocations ...
Period (periodic table)
It is found in two amino acids: cysteine and methionine. Chlorine (Cl) is a halogen. It is used as a disinfectant, especially ... All but the noble gas argon are essential to basic geology and biology. Sodium (Na) is an alkali metal. It is present in ... Between 1% and 15% of people are sensitive to beryllium and may develop an inflammatory reaction in their respiratory system ... sugar transport and hormone development, though high levels are toxic. Carbon (C) is the fourth most abundant element in the ...
A sequence of codons results in a corresponding sequence of amino acids that form a protein molecule; a type of codon called a ... and in a sense all languages and writing systems are codes for human thought. International Air Transport Association airport ... Other examples of encoding include: Encoding (in cognition) - a basic perceptual process of interpreting incoming stimuli; ... of four possible nucleotides can be translated into one of twenty possible amino acids. ...
... are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ... Wiemuth D, Sahin H, Falkenburger BH, Lefevre CM, Wasmuth HE, Grunder S (2012). "BASIC--a bile acid-sensitive ion channel highly ... Cholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid ...
Also, GAPs may have particular amino acid domains that recognize only a particular G protein. Binding to other G proteins may ... Hydrolysis of GTP by Ran is thought to provide the energy needed to transport nuclear proteins into the cell. Ran is turned on ... This may ensure that the whole system does not shut down from a single off signal. GAP activity is highly dynamic, interacting ... At the most basic level, GAP-to-G protein specificity may come simply from the timing and location of protein expression. RGS9- ...
... (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36-43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main ... of Aβ in the central nervous system may take place in the neuronal axonal membranes after APP-mediated axonal transport of β- ... Bogoyevitch MA, Boehm I, Oakley A, Ketterman AJ, Barr RK (Mar 2004). "Targeting the JNK MAPK cascade for inhibition: basic ... cleaves within the transmembrane region of APP and can generate a number of isoforms of 30-51 amino acid residues in length. ...
Theoretical production ecology
The conversion of carbohydrates into amino acids and nucleic acids requires nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Chlorophyll ... The usual system of describing plant production divides the plant production process into at least five separate processes, ... extensions to this basic model can include insect and pest damage, intercropping, climatical changes, etc. Important parameters ... Water supply is essential for transport, hence limits this too. The production centers, i.e. the leaves, are sources, the ...
... and nucleic acids) which must be broken down by catabolic reactions into smaller molecules (i.e. amino acids, simple sugars, ... The insect's digestive system is a closed system, with one long enclosed coiled tube called the alimentary canal which runs ... These tubules continually produce the insect's uric acid, which is transported to the hindgut, where important salts and water ... As in the case of vertebrates, the basic component is the neuron or nerve cell. This is made up of a dendrite with two ...
"Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of ... "Chapter 9 Acid Basics". The cartoon guide to chemistry (1st ed.). HarperResource. p. 189. ISBN 9780060936778. . Similarly, we ... One way of addressing the loss of oxygen uptake was by studying the effects of HOCl on succinate-dependent electron transport.[ ... Reaction with protein amino groupsEdit. Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, ...
... sequences of a few tens of amino acids) that act in the human brain and nervous system. By simulating the so-called energy ... Criticalidad: electron transport in disordered systems with fractal properties: the Criticalidad project helps Mexican ... Sanidad: improved diagnostics: ionizing radiation is used in health applications ranging from basic diagnostic tests in a ... key steps can be made in reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of proteins from the amino acid sequence, advancing the ...
... and its homologues have ligand pocket vectors that utilize a sets of 35 amino acids known to be involved directly in ... it also affects immune system and neuroimmune system function through different mechanisms. TAAR1 is a high-affinity receptor ... International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Retrieved 22 September 2016. Tissue Distribution CNS (region specific ... indicating that trace amine induced LLA does not act on receptors found on the plasma membrane but requires their transport to ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... Sindrup SH, Otto M, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS (June 2005). "Antidepressants in the treatment of neuropathic pain". Basic & ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... Inhibiting the reuptake transport protein results in increased concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine in the synaptic ...
... each a chain of many amino acids. Transmitters typically bind at the junction between two of these proteins, on the parts that ... The transport of synaptic vesicles and subsequent release into the synapse, Receptor activation and cascade function, Transport ... It is likely the effect of partial agonistic action on the serotonin system. The 5HT2A receptor and possibly the 5HT1C are ... and might be said to represent a landmark in the century-long goal to establish the basic neuro-biological principles which ...
It contains 374 amino acid residues. Its N-terminus is highly acidic and starts with an acetyled aspartate in its amino group. ... Actin-myosin systems act as molecular motors that permit the transport of vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. It ... Two basic forms are present in bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, some species of Rickettsia, Shigella flexneri and other ... an analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal tryptic peptide". Journal of Molecular Biology. 126 (4): 783 ...
Dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (proton glutamate symporter). *Monovalent cation/proton antiporter (Sodium/proton ... FadL outer membrane protein transport family, including Fatty acid transporter FadL (n=14,S=14) ... There are two basic types of transmembrane proteins: alpha-helical and beta-barrels. Alpha-helical proteins are present in ... cellular systems. ... consist mostly of hydrophobic amino acids. Membrane proteins ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... Special Issue: Biotechnology Annual Review 2010RNA Basics and Biotechnology Applications. 27 (3): 256-66. doi:10.1016/j.nbt. ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems. ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral. ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... After basic processing, teas may be altered through additional processing steps before being sold, and is often consumed ... 1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.. ... Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems, such as boilers. ... Biomass and the Environment - Basics *^ a b "Biofuels Make a Comeback Despite Tough Economy". Worldwatch Institute. 2011-08-31 ... EU to phase out palm oil from transport fuel by 2030 *^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[38 ... BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support survival of ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... because normally CREB interaction with CRE and the subsequent translation of the BDNF transcript is blocked by of the basic ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... IFT Basic Symposium Series, Marcel Dekker, Inc.:New York, 793 pages *^ Physical Chemistry of Food Processes, Advanced ... Water in food systems. Main article: Water. A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 50% in ... Food chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, ...
Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Transport. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body, the notable exception ... Mineral Nutrients and Amino Acids May or Must be Added. Voluntary and mandatory fortification was described for various ... The world price of vitamin C rose sharply in 2008 partly as a result of rises in basic food prices but also in anticipation of ...
... amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens ... Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ... each able to bind a different antigen while sharing the same basic structure. In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react ...
Human digestive system
... amino acids and fatty acids into the bloodstream. The circular folds also slow the passage of food giving more time for ... Chyle is then transported through the lymphatic system to the rest of the body. ... The five basic tastes are referred to as those of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, sweetness, and umami. The detection of ... "Digestive system" and "alimentary system" redirect here. For digestive systems of non-human animals, see Digestion. ...
Other formulas, based on free amino acids, are the least antigenic and provide complete nutritional support in severe forms of ... The person should then be transported to the emergency room, where additional treatment can be given. Other treatments include ... Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an ... "Food Allergies: The Basics". Gastroenterology. 148 (6): 1120-1131.e4. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2015.02.006. ISSN 1528-0012. PMC ...
... a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system. It is biosynthesized from the amino acid L-phenylalanine by ... TAAR1 activity appears to depress monoamine transport and limit dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal firing rates via ... Phenethylamine is strongly basic, pKb = 4.17 (or pKa = 9.83), as measured using the HCl salt and forms a stable crystalline ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Metabolism. Primarily: MAO-B. Other enzymes: MAO-A, SSAOs ( ...
"Interorgan amino acid transport and its regulation". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (6 Suppl 1): 2068S-72S. doi:10.1093/jn/133.6 ... α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a variable side chain are bonded. Only proline differs from this basic ... "Molecular Systems Biology. 7: 549. doi:10.1038/msb.2011.82. PMC 3261713. PMID 22068332.. ... The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ...
This mature mRNA is then translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein, as summarized in the central dogma of molecular ... "Transport and Localization Elements in Myelin Basic Protein mRNA", The Journal of Cell Biology, 138 (5): 1077-87, doi:10.1083/ ... It is thought to be part of the innate immune system as a defense against double-stranded RNA viruses. ... Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons, which terminate protein synthesis. This process of ...
Hornykiewicz O (2002). "L-DOPA: from a biologically inactive amino acid to a successful therapeutic agent". Amino Acids. 23 (1- ... is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms ... The Hoehn and Yahr scale defines five basic stages of progression. Motor symptoms, if not treated, advance aggressively in the ... Hirsch EC (December 2009). "Iron transport in Parkinson's disease". Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 15 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): ...
... and some amino acids. Hypoxia can result from a failure at any stage in the delivery of oxygen to cells. This can include ... United States: US Naval Sea Systems Command. Retrieved 15 June 2008.. *^ Milroy, Christopher (Autumn 2018). "Deaths from ... A smaller amount of oxygen is transported in solution in the blood. ... Basic Cave Diving: A Blueprint for Survival. Standards and. Codes of Practice. *Code of Practice for Scientific Diving (UNESCO) ...
US patent 20060029957, ZS Genetics, "Systems and methods of analyzing nucleic acid polymers and related components", issued ... Crick began to develop a theory which argued that the arrangement of nucleotides in DNA determined the sequence of amino acids ... Basic methods. Maxam-Gilbert sequencing. Main article: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing ... Precise control over the DNA transport through the pore is crucial for success. Various enzymes such as exonucleases and ...
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System. 2008 Mar;13(1):27-46. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8027.2008.00156.x. PMID 18346229. ... 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, oxaliplatin. FOLFOX. There are a number of strategies in the administration of chemotherapeutic ... Dimerization in the series of 5,8-quinazolinediones: Synthesis and anti tumor effects of bis(4-amino-5,8-quinazolinediones)". ... which had been transported there by the Allied forces to prepare for possible retaliation in the event of German use of ...
Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as ... Enzyme systems. O. 2. Oxygen. ⟶. ⋅. O. 2. −. Superoxide. →. Superoxide. dismutase. H. 2. O. 2. Hydrogen. peroxide. →. ... the superoxide anion is produced as a by-product of several steps in the electron transport chain. Particularly important ... These enzymes share the same basic catalytic mechanism, in which a redox-active cysteine (the peroxidatic cysteine) in the ...
May 2010). "Use of sustainable chemistry to produce an acyl amino acid surfactant". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 86 (5): 1387- ... Transport properties Irisations Maths Applications Fun Surfactants. Micelles, HLB. Surface rheology, adsorption. Langmuir ... Surfactants are routinely deposited in numerous ways on land and into water systems, whether as part of an intended process or ... Basic Cave Diving: A Blueprint for Survival. Standards and. Codes of Practice. *Code of Practice for Scientific Diving (UNESCO) ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... Pappano Achilles J, "Chapter 7. Cholinoceptor-Activating & Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Drugs" (Chapter). Katzung BG: Basic & ... increased gastric acid secretion, diarrhea and polyuria. If muscarine reaches the brain it can cause tremor, convulsions and ... parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound activation of the peripheral parasympathetic nervous system that ...
... fats and nucleic acids. These macromolecules must be broken down by catabolic reactions into smaller molecules like amino acids ... Because genetic systems are well conserved among eukaryotes, understanding basic cellular processes like DNA replication or ... Aphids are known to be transported long distances by low-level jet streams. As such, fine line patterns associated with ... Reproductive systemEdit. Main article: Insect reproductive system. The reproductive system of female insects consist of a pair ...
... the 50 amino acids near the C-terminus, being deleted. This results in a truncated lamin A precursor (a.k.a. progerin or ... Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease whose symptoms span across multiple systems and can vary ... Stefanini, M; Botta, E; Lanzafame, M; Orioli, D (2010). "Trichothiodystrophy: From basic mechanisms to clinical implications". ... which would normally transport it to the nucleus where it can interact with the DNA. This leads to a reduction in DNA repair.[ ...
... amino acids, and soluble proteins; trace elements including zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and selenium; free fatty acids; ... The cervix or cervix uteri (Latin: neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system ... These changes allow it to function either as a barrier or a transport medium to spermatozoa. It contains electrolytes such as ... Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson (2007). Robbins basic pathology ( ...
"Effect of a single amino acid change in MHC class I molecules on the rate of progression to AIDS". The New England Journal of ... MHC class I proteins display these peptides to the immune system. If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such ... Genes in this complex are separated into three basic groups: class I, class II, and class III. In humans, the HLA-B gene and ... ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane. • integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. • extracellular ...
... have lower relative rates of sugar to amino acid transport than either herbivores or omnivores, presumably because they acquire ... "New England Complex Systems Institute. Retrieved 7 September 2018.. *^ a b c d e "Predator & Prey: Adaptations" (PDF). Royal ... Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465052998. .. *^ Stow, Adam; Nyqvist, Marina J.; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J. ... Cressman, Ross; Garay, József (2009). "A predator-prey refuge system: Evolutionary stability in ecological systems". ...
Basic transport phenomena in biomedical engineering, de Ronald L. Fournier. *Neuroscience: exploring the brain, de Mark F. Bear ... a b Manual for pharmacy technicians, By Linda Fred, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, pagina 246 ... Combinația dintre amar și sărat de către suplimentarea prin ingestie a lichidelor cu conținut ridicat de potasiu reprezintă o ... Potasiul se dizolvă în acid sulfuric diluat, formând soluții ce conțin ionul K+, împreună cu hidrogenul gazos. ...
Root phloem-specific expression of the plasma membrane amino acid proton co-transporter AAP3
Amino acids can be taken up from the soil directly or synthesized from inorganic nitrogen, and then circulated in the plant via ... AtAAP3, a member of the Amino Acid Permease (AAP) family, is mainly expressed in root tissu … ... Amino acids are regarded as the nitrogen currency of plants. ... Amino Acid Sequence * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / ... Amino acids are regarded as the nitrogen currency of plants. Amino acids can be taken up from the soil directly or ...
Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNAS
Permanent address: Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, N-0317, Oslo, Norway. ... Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ...
In Hepatocytes the Regulation of NOS-2 Activity at Physiological L-arginine Levels Suggests a Close Link to the Urea Cycle
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / metabolism * Animals * Arginase / antagonists & inhibitors * Arginase / metabolism* ... When we competed for L-arginine influx via the cationic amino acid transporters by addition of L-lysine, we find a 60-70% ... their impact on hepatic NOS-2-derived NO synthesis as well as the influence of L-arginine influx via cationic amino acid ...
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: clinical, biochemical and...
Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics*, metabolism, physiopathology*. Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / genetics* ... 0/Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic; 0/Genetic Markers; 0/SLC25A15 protein, human; 1190-49-4/homocitrulline; 372-75-8/ ... In comparison to their sister, their homocitrulline and orotic acid were only mildly elevated even before treatment. The three ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
0 (Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic); 0 (CAN1 protein, S cerevisiae); 0 (LYP1 protein, S cerevisiae); 0 (Saccharomyces ... have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at ... The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear ... Amino cidos/metabolismo. N cleo Celular/metabolismo. Dedos de Zinco. [Mh] Termos MeSH secund rio:. Sequ ncia de Amino cidos. ...
An Introduction to the Blood-Brain Barrier | SpringerLink
An up-to-date basic introduction to the blood-brain barrier which starts with a clear description of the key historical ... basic transport kinetics and carrier-meditated processes. Subsequent chapters deal with transport of glucose and amino-acids, ... Transport of Glucose and Amino Acids in the Central Nervous System Hugh Davson, Berislav Zloković, Ljubisa Rakić, Malcolm B. ... An up-to-date basic introduction to the blood-brain barrier which starts with a clear description of the key historical ...
Possible Role of Insulin in the Transport of Tyrosine and Tryptophan from Blood to Brain | SpringerLink
These systems are not specific for each amino acid, but distinguish amino acids into... ... The penetration of amino acids into the brain and into other tissues is mediated by energy-requiring systems1-3. ... These systems are not specific for each amino acid, but distinguish amino acids into three groups: neutral, acidic, and basic4- ... Richter, J.J., and Wainer, A., Evidence for separate systems for the transport of neutral and basic amino acids across the ...
DWAIN Chambers cycle posted!!!Original letter from Victor conte | MuscleTalk.co.uk
Insulin acts as a "shuttle system" in the transport of glucose and branch chain amino acids. There is no test available for ... Liothryonine was used help accelerate the basic metabolic rate before competitions. The purpose was to reduce sluggishness and ... For example, oral testosterone will clear the system in less than a week and testosterone creams and gels will clear even ...
Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...
... cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism ... shows that the capability to transport basic amino acids in planta might be overruled by excess amides and acidic amino acids ... Six amino acid permeases (AAPs) from Arabidopsis mediating transport of a wide spectrum of amino acids were isolated. AAPs are ...
Cellular Localization of Glutamate and Glutamine Metabolism and Transport Pathways in the Rat Ciliary Epithelium | IOVS | ARVO...
18 Three transport systems were thought to be involved, one each for basic, acid, and neutral amino acid. 17,19 However, the ... In contrast to ion and water transport, far less is known about the transport of nutrients such as amino acids by the ciliary ... This technique has the advantage of quantifying amino acid levels in the two cell layers, allowing amino acid distributions to ... Kinsey VE Reddy DV . Transport of amino acids into the posterior chamber of the rabbit eye. Invest Ophthalmol. 1962;1:355-362. ...
Elective Course Descriptions - Curriculum & Student Handbook - About the Program - Biophysics, Structural & Computational...
... neurotransmitter synthesis and transport; excitatory and inhibitory amino acids; development of the nervous system and genesis ... Basic quantum chemistry, Schroedinger equation, basic postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, perturbation theory, ... Other topics include metal ion toxicity, metal-based drugs, and interaction of metals with nucleic acids. Problem sets and ... Students will learn the basic principles of X-ray diffraction, symmetry, and space groups. Students will also experience the ...
Molecular organization of drosophila neuroendocrine cells by dimmed<...
... it encodes a putative cationic amino acid transporter, closely related to the Slimfast arginine transporter. Finally, we ... Background: In Drosophila, the basic-helix-loop-helix protein DIMM coordinates the molecular and cellular properties of all ... it encodes a putative cationic amino acid transporter, closely related to the Slimfast arginine transporter. Finally, we ... it encodes a putative cationic amino acid transporter, closely related to the Slimfast arginine transporter. Finally, we ...
Genetic variation in SLC7A2 interacts with calcium and magnesium intakes in modulating the risk of colorectal polyps - PubMed
... which mediates the transport of arginine, lysine and ornithine. l-Arginine is necessary for cancer development and progression ... gene encodes a protein called cationic amino acid transporter 2, ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic Actions. * Search in PubMed ... gene encodes a protein called cationic amino acid transporter 2, which mediates the transport of arginine, lysine and ornithine ... Furthermore, previous studies found that both calcium and magnesium inhibit the transport of arginine. Thus, calcium, magnesium ...
Expanded genetic code - Wikipedia
... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... previously unnatural amino acid (p-aminophenylalanine) from basic carbon sources and includes this amino acid in its genetic ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ...
Highly differential expression of SN1, a bidirectional glutamine transporter, in astroglia and endothelium in the developing...
0/Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral; 0/Membrane Transport Proteins; 0/system N protein 1 ... Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.. ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral*. Animals. Antibody Specificity. Astrocytes / metabolism*, ultrastructure. Blood-Brain ... Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis*, immunology, metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Pregnancy. Rats. Rats, Wistar. ...
Frontiers | Diversity of Phenotype and Genetic Etiology of 23 Cystinuria Saudi Patients: A Retrospective Study | Pediatrics
Cystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism that manifests with renal stones due to defective renal epithelial cell transport ... Cystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism that manifests with renal stones due to defective renal epithelial cell transport ... of cystine and dibasic amino acids which resulted from pathogenic variants in the SLC3A1 and/or SLC7A9 genes. Among ... which transports neutral and basic amino acids in the renal tubule and intestinal tract. The high affinity and sodium- ...
Development and Physiology of the Placenta and Membranes | GLOWM
Each system preferentially transports certain neutral amino acids, but there is considerable overlap among the systems. The ... It is also likely that additional, unidentified transport pathways are present for the acidic and basic amino acids as well. ... transporting the L-amino acids more rapidly than the D-amino acids. Recent evidence also indicates that placental amino acid ... the active transport of amino acids is mediated by several pathways that are specific for several groups of amino acids. Three ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - Wikipedia
... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.522.214.171.1240 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
TCDB » SEARCH
System Y+ high affinity basic amino acid transporter (CAT1) (ecotropic retrovival leukemia virus receptor (ERR)) (transports ... transports neutral amino acids (i.e., Leu) in symport with Na+, Li+ or H+ in 1:1 stoichiometry; transports basic amino acids (i ... Y+L amino acid transporter 2 (Cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) (Solute carrier family 7 member 6) (y(+)L-type amino ... General amino acid permease (all L-amino acids and some D-amino acids as well as β-alanine, polyamines and GABA). Systematic ...
Hypomorphic variants of cationic amino acid transporter 3 in males with autism spectrum disorders - PubMed
... mediate the entry of L-type cationic amino acids (arginine, ornithine and lysine) into the cells including neurons. CAT-3, ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) mediate the entry of L-type cationic amino acids (arginine, ornithine and lysine) into ... Regulation of cationic amino acid transport: the story of the CAT-1 transporter. Hatzoglou M, Fernandez J, Yaman I, Closs E. ...
Homology-integrated CRISPR-Cas (HI-CRISPR) system for one-step multigene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - PubMed -...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic/genetics. *Base Sequence. *Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*. *Clustered Regularly ... Homology-integrated CRISPR-Cas (HI-CRISPR) system for one-step multigene disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. Bao Z1, Xiao ... One-step multiple gene disruption in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly useful tool for both basic and ... system to generate multiple gene disruptions simultaneously in S. cerevisiae. A 100 bp dsDNA mutagenizing homologous ...
School of Sport and Service Management - Fingerprint - The University of Brighton
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DI-fusion Transition of yeast Can1 transporter to the inward-facing...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic -- genetics -- metabolism. Arrestin -- genetics -- metabolism. Binding Sites. ... Function and Regulation of Acid Resistance Antiporters par Krammer, Eva-Maria , Prévost, Martine Publication 2019-01-01 ... Unveiling the mechanism of arginine transport through AdiC with molecular dynamics simulations: The guiding role of aromatic ...
Cationic amino acid transport in the renal medulla and blood pressure regulation<...
These results suggest that uptake of L-arginine by cationic amino acid transport systems in the renal medulla plays an ... These results suggest that uptake of L-arginine by cationic amino acid transport systems in the renal medulla plays an ... These results suggest that uptake of L-arginine by cationic amino acid transport systems in the renal medulla plays an ... These results suggest that uptake of L-arginine by cationic amino acid transport systems in the renal medulla plays an ...
DeCS Ingl s+escopo
D12.776.157.530.200.374 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic .. D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 Amino Acid Transport System y+L .. ... D12.776.543.585.200.374 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic .. D12.776.543.585.200.374.750 Amino Acid Transport System y+L .. ... D12.776.157.530.200.500 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral .. D12.776.157.530.200.500.500 Amino Acid Transport System L .. ... D12.776.543.585.200.500 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral .. D12.776.543.585.200.500.500 Amino Acid Transport System L .. ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... neither basic nor acid.. neutral endopeptidase. synthesized by tracheobronchial epithelium, this is an important enzymatic ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by N. Joan Abbott
... was consistent with transport mediated by the L-system amino acid carrier with strong inhibition by large neutral amino acids ( ... basic and acidic amino acids had no significant effect. The transport of L-leucine into the RBE4 cells was saturable and ... Jun, 2002 , Pubmed ID: 12164376 The L-system amino acid transporter on the RBE4 cell line, a well established in vitro model of ... in RBE4 cells suggest that transport is mediated by a system with characteristics similar to the L1 subtype of amino acid ...
UptakeTransporterPeptidesProteinArginineLysineGlucosePhenylalanineEssential aminoHistidineAromatic aminoMoleculesNutrientsGlycineMetabolismSynthesisLeucineEnzymesTyrosineFree amino acidsSpecificityPermeaseGlutamineProteinogenic amino acidsLactic AcidGlycerolMethionineOrnithineHormonesNeutral and basic amino acidsCellsBody'sTryptophanSubstrateTissuesCysteineCellularConcentrationsDigestionHydrolysisDifferent aminoSpecific aminoSerineLipidsCompoundsAcidic and basicGlutamateInsulinCarboxylicYeastSubstancesBiochemistryMusclesAbsorptionOligopeptidesAspartateEscherichiaMolecularProlineRegulationIntracellularNovel amino acid
- AtAAP3, a member of the Amino Acid Permease (AAP) family, is mainly expressed in root tissue, suggesting a potential role in the uptake and distribution of amino acids. (nih.gov)
- Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na + -dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
- Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Although Na + -dependent, System ASC appears to mediate amino acid exchange rather than net uptake ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
- System A catalyzes the Na + -dependent net uptake of many neutral amino acids, in particular alanine, serine, and glutamine ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- System A and other more specialized transport systems may thus provide the concentrations of cytoplasmic amino acids necessary to drive the uptake of other amino acids by exchange through Systems ASC and L. System A also exhibits several unusual properties, including the recognition of N -methylated amino acids, tolerance of Li + substitution for Na + , and sensitivity to inhibition by low extracellular pH ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- We have recently identified another member of this family as responsible for classical amino acid transport System N. Unlike the virtually ubiquitous Systems A, ASC, and L, System N appears more tissue-specific and mediates the uptake specifically of glutamine, histidine, and asparagine ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
- The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids. (umn.edu)
- Thus AAP6 may serve a different role either in cooperating with the lower affinity systems to acquire amino acids in the low concentration range, as a system responsible for aspartate transport or as an uptake system from the xylem. (deepdyve.com)
- In agreement, a yeast mutant deficient in acidic amino acid uptake at low aspartate concentrations was complemented only by AAP6. (deepdyve.com)
- This amino acid distribution plus an observed strong labeling of EAAT3 in the interface between the PE and the NPE cell layers indicate that EAAT3 mediates the uptake of glutamate from the blood. (arvojournals.org)
- Previous studies have indicated that NO synthesis in isolated inner medullary collecting duct cells is reduced by cationic amino acids that compete with L-arginine for cellular uptake. (elsevier.com)
- These results suggest that uptake of L-arginine by cationic amino acid transport systems in the renal medulla plays an important role in the regulation of medullary NO and MAP in rats. (elsevier.com)
- l -3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l -DOPA) uptake in renal epithelial cells is promoted through the type 2 L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2), and this might rate-limit the synthesis of renal dopamine. (ahajournals.org)
- 4,15,16 Recently, l -DOPA uptake in renal epithelial cells was found to be promoted through the Na + -independent and pH-sensitive type 2 L-type amino acid transporter (LAT2), 17 the activity of which might rate-limit the synthesis of renal dopamine. (ahajournals.org)
- There are at least five different sodium-dependent transport systems for amino acid uptake. (barnardhealth.us)
- Freshly excised rabbit corneas were used for transport studies and SIRC (a rabbit corneal cell line) cells for uptake studies. (arvojournals.org)
- Transport and uptake characteristics of [ 3 H]- l -phenylalanine were determined at various concentrations and pH. (arvojournals.org)
- Inhibition studies were conducted in the presence of other l - and d -amino acids and metabolic inhibitors, such as ouabain and sodium azide, and in the absence of sodium to delineate the mechanism of uptake and transport. (arvojournals.org)
- strain 6803 was demonstrated by following the initial rates of uptake with 14C-labeled amino acids, measuring the intracellular pools of amino acids, and isolating mutants resistant to toxic amino acids. (core.ac.uk)
- Both a protoplast amino acid uptake assay and HPLC analysis indicated that more basic (Lys, Arg) and neutral (Val, Ala) amino acids were transported and accumulated in the OE lines than in the wild type, but the opposite was observed in the RNAi lines. (plantphysiol.org)
- Similar group-specific amino acid transporters occur in the renal tubules (for reabsorption of amino acids filtered at the glomerulus) and for uptake of amino acids into tissues. (karelsavry.us)
- These profiles likely impact the ability to transport and uptake nutrients, as well as the ability to fight microbial infections in the piglet gut ecosystem. (frontiersin.org)
- The intracellular localization suggests trafficking or cycling of the transporter, similar to many metabolite transporters in yeast or mammals, for example, yeast amino acid permease GAP1. (nih.gov)
- We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
- The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
- Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
- The third key DIMM target, CAT-4 (CG13248), has not previously been associated with peptide neurosecretion - it encodes a putative cationic amino acid transporter, closely related to the Slimfast arginine transporter. (illinois.edu)
- Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic disorder affecting the dibasic amino acid transporter in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidneys ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The high affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids is the role of the protein [b(0,+)-type amino acid transporter that is encoded by SLC7A9 ( Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-1 mRNA remained little changed, and CAT-2 mRNA was not detected. (nih.gov)
- Groshong created a mutant version of B. burgdorferi that effectively blocks the spirochete's normal methods of consuming peptides by targeting the lynchpin of the transporter, the part of the system that provides energy for peptide transport. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- In contrast to LAT3 15no expression was observed in human or mouse liver Fig. Related Content Load related web system l transporter pregabalina information. (antibioticshelp.life)
- The mRNA of LAT3 was highly expressed in pancreas and liver Methyltyrosine, a LAT1-specific inhibitor 27is a system l transporter pregabalina inhibitor of LAT4 Fig. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. (antibioticshelp.life)
- Following abrupt or system l transporter pregabalina discontinuation of pregabalin, some people reported symptoms suggestive of physical dependence. (antibioticshelp.life)
- What system l transporter pregabalina opinion picture Feldenkrais Method. (antibioticshelp.life)
- Like gabapentin, pregabalin is a substrate for system L amino acid transporter, which is. (antibioticshelp.life)
- Patterson was initially live system l transporter pregabalina provoked barrage swallow distinction baby beginning provoked assault. (antibioticshelp.life)
- In the outward open conformation (PDB: 3TT1) amino acids can enter the transporter through the gap between the scaffold and the bundle from top. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
- The objective of this research was to investigate the presence of an Na + -independent, large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1, on rabbit corneal epithelium and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
- Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) was performed on total RNA from rabbit cornea, SIRC cells, and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
- 2 3 4 Solute transport through a transporter or a receptor is a mechanism of translocating hydrophilic compounds across lipid bilayers. (arvojournals.org)
- The BBB choline transporter transports choline, and perhaps other quaternary ammonium molecules. (shroomery.org)
- Tumor-associated myeloid cells also expressed high levels of cationic amino acid transporter 2B, which allowed them to rapidly incorporate l -Arginine ( l -Arg) and deplete extracellular l -Arg in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
- The results show that a unique subpopulation of mature tumor-associated myeloid cells but not tumor cells or immature myeloid cells express arginase I and cationic amino acid transporter 2B. (aacrjournals.org)
- We demonstrate that a mutation in the high affinity phosphate transporter pstSCAB-phoU , believed to mimic low phosphate conditions, causes upregulation of secondary metabolism and QS in Serratia 39006, via the PhoBR two-component system. (biomedcentral.com)
- Genetic defect in the neutral amino acid transporter. (gravitywaves.com)
- Remainder transported out via ferroportin 1 (basolateral transporter) in the presence of hephaestin. (acemprimary.com)
- Hydrolysis-resistant peptides, however, are transported out of the cells by a basolateral peptide transporter that has not been identified molecularly. (genome.jp)
- Subsequent chapters deal with transport of glucose and amino-acids, peptides and nucleotides. (springer.com)
- Background: In Drosophila, the basic-helix-loop-helix protein DIMM coordinates the molecular and cellular properties of all major neuroendocrine cells, irrespective of the secretory peptides they produce. (illinois.edu)
- Comparison with diatom and plant transit peptides, revealed that transit peptides from peridinin-containing dinoflagellate conform to general trends for transit peptides but are relatively deficient in hydroxylated amino acids, have a slight net positive charge, and contain N-terminal basic amino acids among the most N-terminal amino acids. (uni-marburg.de)
- Like transit peptides in the alveolate Plasmodium falciparum, dinoflagellate transit peptides contain positively charged amino acids, have a depleted acidic residue content, and mostly contain one or more chaperone binding sites. (uni-marburg.de)
- Despite its overwhelming prominence in dinoflagellate transit peptides, C-terminal negative charge clearly had no impact on the import competence of Amphidinium carterae targeting signals in heterologous in vivo systems. (uni-marburg.de)
- Based on results from transfections of Pisum sativum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, targeting mediated by transit peptides is not merely dependent on net positive charge, N-terminal positive charge, or amino acid content. (uni-marburg.de)
- Therefore, it was concluded that plastid transport into plant and diatom plastids also depended on sequence-specific patterns or motifs that are not present and/or not identical to those in dinoflagellate transit peptides. (uni-marburg.de)
- As is evident from the analysis of a lysEG deletion mutant, the physiological role of the lysEG system is to prevent bacteriostasis due to elevated L-lysine or L-arginine concentrations that arise during growth in the presence of peptides or in mutants possessing a deregulated biosynthesis pathway. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- While previous genetic analyses have suggested that the Bb's genome encodes a cellular transport system capable of importing nutrients from the host in the form of peptides, the importance of the system for viability and pathogenesis had never been established. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- To better understand the importance of peptides, a source of amino acids, Groshong and the UConn Health team adopted a novel approach. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Interestingly, this is the only pathogen demonstrated to require peptides for basic viability, making this a unique find in the world of pathogenic bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Second, (a selection of) these peptides are internalized via an oligopeptide transport system (Opp). (asm.org)
- In the third and last step, multiple peptidases hydrolyze the oligopeptides into smaller peptides and, ultimately, into amino acids that are then available for de novo protein synthesis and other metabolic activities ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- 1. Following digestion, amino acids and small peptides are co-absorbed w/ sodium via group specific amino acid or peptide transport systems . (gravitywaves.com)
- Carboxypeptidases, secreted in the pancreatic juice, release amino acids from the free carboxyl terminal of peptides. (karelsavry.us)
- Aminopeptidases, secreted by the intestinal mucosal cells, release amino acids from the amino terminal of peptides. (karelsavry.us)
- The result of this proteolytic activity is a mixture of amino acids and small peptides. (genome.jp)
- Inside enterocytes peptides are hydrolyzed, and the resulting amino acids are released together with those absorbed by AA transporters into blood via multiple, basolateral, AA transporters. (genome.jp)
- Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
- Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. (bireme.br)
- The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. (bireme.br)
- Biochemical studies give evidence that protein calorie malnutrition impairs the energy metabolism in the cells by interfering with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and enzymes involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. (scirp.org)
- tRNA molecules are misaminoacylated with non-radioactive markers which may be non-native amino acids, amino acid analogs or derivatives, or substances recognized by the protein synthesizing machinery. (google.ca)
- Markers may comprise cleavable moieties, detectable labels, reporter properties wherein markers incorporated into protein can be distinguished from unincorporated markers, or coupling agents which facilitate the detection and isolation of nascent protein from other components of the translation system. (google.ca)
- RT-qPCR analysis and the in vitro overexpression experiments indicated that USA300HOU_RS00550 (an Na/Pi cotransporter family protein) and USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus . (biomedcentral.com)
- Old school nutrition 'experts' have also proposed that a very low carbohydrate diet sets the stage for a significant loss of muscle mass, as the body recruits amino acids from muscle protein to maintain blood sugar (glucose) via gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose within the body from precursors other than carbohydrates). (mindandmuscle.net)
- Also, if the muscle is more than sufficiently supplied with other substrates for burning (such as fatty acids and ketone bodies, in this case), then the burning of muscle protein-derived amino acids is suppressed. (mindandmuscle.net)
- In Escherichia coli L-arginine is taken up by three periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems that are encoded by two genetic loci: the artPIQM-artJ and argT-hisJQMP gene clusters. (naver.com)
- MDTs are found in evolutionary unrelated membrane transport protein families, which suggests that they might have developed independently several times during the course of evolution. (schoolbag.info)
- Amino acids are monomers of protein. (studymode.com)
- We get some of the amino acids from what protein we eat, and others are made by the body from combinations of compounds. (mycrossfitbody.com)
- Different amino acid supplement benefits alter the body's output and muscle performance because each protein has different physical and chemical properties. (mycrossfitbody.com)
- Resistance based and high-intensity training workouts increase the bodies signaling systems for muscle protein synthesis - building healthy muscle tissue. (mycrossfitbody.com)
- Lactococcus lactis , for instance, depends on the milk protein casein as the major source of nitrogen, since it is auxotrophic for several amino acids. (asm.org)
- Pregnant women (22-36y) consumed a diet containing a random lysine intake (range = 6 - 86 mg/kg/d) in a crystalline amino acid mixture based on egg protein profile. (ubc.ca)
- We expect these results will have significant implications for setting recommendations globally where plant based diets are the primary source of protein and amino acids. (ubc.ca)
- Content in this category covers a range of protein behaviors which originate from the unique chemistry of amino acids themselves. (aamc.org)
- Amino acid classifications and protein structural elements are covered. (aamc.org)
- Protein digestion occurs by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds between amino acids. (karelsavry.us)
- The result of the combined action of the endopeptidases is that the large protein molecules are broken down into a number of smaller polypeptides with a large number of amino and carboxy terminals for the exopeptidases to act on. (karelsavry.us)
- During and after the final assembly of a protein, the amino acid content dictates the spatial and biochemical properties of the protein or enzyme. (fsu.edu)
- The amino acid backbone determines the primary sequence of a protein, but it is the nature of the side chains that determine the protein's properties. (fsu.edu)
- On the other hand, non-polar amino acids tend to reside within the center of the protein where they can interact with similar non-polar neighbors. (fsu.edu)
- In addition to their role in protein and enzyme synthesis, amino acids are actively involved in a broad range of functions in the body. (fsu.edu)
- They are also, found, however in grains, legumes, and similar vegetable sources of protein, though one or more essential amino acids may be missing from such foods. (fsu.edu)
- Nevertheless, amino acid deficiencies are extremely rare in the United States, since Americans commonly consume twice as much protein as is considered necessary each day. (fsu.edu)
- Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 16. (whsmith.co.uk)
- The protein Tango1 allows transport vesicles to grow much larger to accommodate bulky cargo. (evolutionnews.org)
- Tango1 is a large protein machine, comprised of 1907 amino acids ( Cell Press ). (evolutionnews.org)
- However, in hepatocytes, arginases are constitutively expressed and thus, their impact on hepatic NOS-2-derived NO synthesis as well as the influence of L-arginine influx via cationic amino acid transporters during inflammatory reactions are still under debate. (nih.gov)
- When we competed for L-arginine influx via the cationic amino acid transporters by addition of L-lysine, we find a 60-70% inhibition of arginase activity without significant loss of NOS-2 activity. (nih.gov)
- It is characterized by inadequate reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids in the kidney that results in excessive urine excretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine due to defective transepithelial transport of these amino acids in the proximal tubule and the small intestine. (frontiersin.org)
- Mukherjee P, Prasad R. Purified arginine permease of Candida albicans is functionally active in a reconstituted system. (labome.org)
- All the characteristic features of L-arginine transport displayed by the reconstituted system were similar to those observed in intact cells. (labome.org)
- The Can1 mutants are defective in the active transport of three basic amino acids (arginine, histidine, and lysine) and in one of two transport systems operating on glutamine. (core.ac.uk)
- CMT systems for hexoses, monocarboxylic acids such as lactic acid, neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, basic amino acids such as arginine, quaternary ammonium molecules such as choline, purine nucleosides such as adenosine, and purine bases such as adenine, are shown in Figure 5, which represents the luminal membrane of the brain capillary endothelium. (shroomery.org)
- The resulting structure showed that a hydrogen bonded system could be formed involving Arginine-210, Histidine-245 and the Aspartate-61 residues. (edu.au)
- At least 8 of the important organic compounds must be consumed in the diet and two additional amino acids (histidine and arginine) are essential only to children. (fsu.edu)
- 1. The relation between energy production and the glucose-dependent transport of glycine, Canad. (springer.com)
- Insulin acts as a "shuttle system" in the transport of glucose and branch chain amino acids. (muscletalk.co.uk)
- In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
- It is true that animals share a metabolic deficiency, which gives rise to the almost total inability to convert fatty acids to glucose. (mindandmuscle.net)
- Serine - storage source of glucose for the liver and muscles, antibody production enhances the immune system, synthesizes fatty acid covering around nerve fibers (insulator). (bookderives.com)
- Free amino acids are absorbed across the intestinal mucosa by sodium-dependent active transport, as occurs in the absorption of glucose and galactose (see Figure 4.9). (karelsavry.us)
- Glucose is the form of sugar in the blood that is the primary source of fuel used by the nervous system. (dietriot.com)
- Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to technical details (easier chemical synthesis of NSAAs, less crosstalk and easier evolution of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthase), the NSAAs are generally larger than standard amino acids and most often have a phenylalanine core but with a large variety of different substitutents. (wikipedia.org)
- Transports phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan ( Honoré and Cole 1990 ). (tcdb.org)
- The 8 essential amino acids are regarded as particularly important. (best-body-nutrition.com)
- Of the twenty amino acids that have been identified, nine are considered essential amino acids that are not manufactured by the body, these must come from dietary intake. (bookderives.com)
- The body can manufacture the non-essential amino acids from the by-products of carbohydrate metabolism. (bookderives.com)
- In other animals, essential amino acids differ somewhat. (fsu.edu)
- Essential amino acids are generally contained in the greatest quantities in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and other animal products. (fsu.edu)
- For this reason, vegetarians are generally urged to carefully consume a wide range of foods in order that they regularly obtain the complete array of essential amino acids, since different plants lack different types of the important compounds. (fsu.edu)
- Nine essential amino acids act as the precursors to neurotransmitters in the brain and enzymes that help with bodily functions like digestion. (aminoacidinformation.com)
- How Many Essential Amino Acids Are There? (aminoacidinformation.com)
- Several essential amino acids are available in supplement mixes as BCAAs, or branch chain amino acids. (aminoacidinformation.com)
- However, how many amino acids from one of the above groups are actually conditional or " semi-essential " amino acids? (aminoacidinformation.com)
- System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- One class of mutants (Pfa1) corresponds to a regulatory defect in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids, but two other classes (Can1 and Aza1) are defective in amino acid transport. (core.ac.uk)
- In Aromatic Amino Acids in the Brain . (springer.com)
- tRNA molecules are misaminoacylated with non-radioactive markers which may be non-native amino acids, amino acid analogs. (google.ca)
- It is of course impossible to maintain that unconscious masses of atoms and molecules took a decision to form cells and that such a system later spontaneously came into being among those cells. (evolutiondeceit.com)
- Testing this possibility will require flying other spacecraft through the plumes with analytical devices able to detect molecules more closely associated with life, such as amino acids. (separationsnow.com)
- In a nutshell, digestion involves breaking down large food molecules into water-soluble molecules that can be passed into the blood and transported to the body's organs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- larger molecules are transported by an active process. (acris-antibodies.com)
- What is the nature of the amino acid side chains essential for the transport of water soluble molecules across cell membranes and their spatial relationships? (edu.au)
- Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)
- Exporting bulky molecules poses challenges for cells, since the membrane vesicles that transport normal-sized molecules may not be sufficiently large. (evolutionnews.org)
- This proprietary, water based transport system is able to penetrate the skin and deliver amino acids, humectants, nutrients and moisture deep into the skin. (glamour4u.com)
- The primary role of the placenta is to transport nutrients to the fetus and to remove toxic wastes from the fetus. (scirp.org)
- flows freely throughout their bodies, lubricating tissues and transporting nutrients and wastes. (todayifoundout.com)
- The cardiovascular system also transports nutrients such as electrolytes, amino acids, enzymes, hormones which are integral to cellular respiration, metabolism and immunity. (openaccessbooks.com)
- Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
- As fundamental nutrients, amino acids are important for rice ( Oryza sativa ) growth and development. (plantphysiol.org)
- Plus they transport oxygen and nutrients in the body. (aminoacidinformation.com)
- Postembedding immunohistochemistry and silver intensification were used to quantify the relative distributions of glutamate, glutamine, and related amino acids (aspartate, alanine, GABA, and glycine) in the pigmented (PE) and nonpigmented (NPE) epithelial cells of the ciliary body. (arvojournals.org)
- Transports L-alanine (K m = 20 μM), D-alanine (K m = 38 μM), L-serine, D-serine (K m = 356 μM) and glycine ( Noens and Lolkema 2015 ). (tcdb.org)
- The encoding gene is adjacent to a paralogue ( serP2 ) with broad specificity for D- and L-small semipolar amino acids and glycine (see TC# 2.A.3.1.20). (tcdb.org)
- In this work, we fix nitrogen from N 2 and carbon from CO 2 and CH 4 to obtain both glycine and alanine ( D / L racemic mixture), the two simplest amino acids. (rsc.org)
- Amino acids appear in chiral (mirror image) except for glycine where the R = Hydrogen Chirality of amino acids can only be seen in 3D structure The position of amino group on the left or right side of the α-carbon determines the L or D designation. (studymode.com)
- Cystinuria is an inborn error of metabolism that manifests with renal stones due to defective renal epithelial cell transport of cystine which resulted from pathogenic variants in the SLC3A1 and/or SLC7A9 genes. (frontiersin.org)
- Because of this, chemicals such as ethanol may affect fetal nutrition by having an effect primarily on the placental metabolism and secondarily on the placental transport processes . (scirp.org)
- This allows the minerals to be carried through cell membranes to participate in chemical reactions that are part of the body's basic metabolism. (mywowbb.com)
- promotes proper digestive system function and metabolism. (bookderives.com)
- The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways and components between even vastly different species. (wikipedia.org)
- Carbohydrate Metabolism I: Glycolysis and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 13. (whsmith.co.uk)
- Endocrine Metabolism V: Reproductive System 33. (whsmith.co.uk)
- Wurtman, R.J., Effects of physiological variations in brain amino acid concentrations on the synthesis of brain monoamines. (springer.com)
- The synthesis of amino acids by direct fixation of nitrogen and carbon from gas mixtures opens new avenues regarding the nitrogen fixation for industrial purposes and the recycling of carbon dioxide. (rsc.org)
- Likewise, enzymes can also have polar amino acid substituents within the active site that provide a polar region in which to conduct biochemical synthesis. (fsu.edu)
- Neoplastic crown gall tumors incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens release novel amino acid or sugar derivatives known as opines, whose synthesis is directed by genes transferred to plant cells. (duke.edu)
- Apart from being able to manipulate DNA using restriction enzymes and ligase, we need some mechanism of transporting the DNA from one cell to another or to somewhere for further treatment. (woolwise.com)
- Chemical digestion - food is broken down by acids and enzymes into its basic units. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- They are also needed for the hormones, enzymes, and blood transporting systems. (dietriot.com)
- The advantage of BCAA over other amino acids is that these are free amino acids and, thus, are available to the body much faster. (best-body-nutrition.com)
- 3. Gastric juices contain the acid stable proteases of the pepsin family , which produce large peptide fragments and some free amino acids. (gravitywaves.com)
- 3. The end products of cell surface digestion are free amino acids and di- and tripeptides . (gravitywaves.com)
- A detailed comparison of the properties by electrophysiology after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes shows that, although capable of recognizing and transporting a wide spectrum of amino acids, individual AAPs differ with respect to specificity. (deepdyve.com)
- Thus, genetic evidence suggests that strain 6803 has only a small number of amino acid transport systems with fairly broad specificity and that, with the exception of glutamine, each amino acid is accumulated by only one major transport system. (core.ac.uk)
- There are a number of different amino acid transport systems with specificity for the chemical nature of the side-chain (large or small neutral, acidic or basic - see Figure 4.18). (karelsavry.us)
- Taken together, the AAPs transport neutral, acidic and cationic amino acids, including the major transport forms, i.e. glutamine, asparagine and glutamate. (deepdyve.com)
- Thus the actual apoplasmic concentration of amino acids and the pH will determine what is transported in vivo, i.e. major amino acids such as glutamine, asparagine, and glutamate will be mobilized preferentially. (deepdyve.com)
- This differential distribution of amino acids was abolished by a single injection of MSO that caused a decrease in glutamine and an increase in glutamate levels in NPE compared with PE cells. (arvojournals.org)
- This suggests that in contrast to fluid transport, which uses both the PE and the NPE cell layers, the transepithelial transport of glutamine occurs primarily in the NPE cell layer. (arvojournals.org)
- The non-essential amino acid, which occurs most frequently in the body, is glutamine. (best-body-nutrition.com)
- Glutamine can be quickly transformed to other amino acids. (best-body-nutrition.com)
- An expanded genetic code is an artificially modified genetic code in which one or more specific codons have been re-allocated to encode an amino acid that is not among the 20 common naturally-encoded proteinogenic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
- term not used in papers dealing with natural non-proteinogenic amino acids, such as phosphoserine), or non-canonical amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
- however, just how many amino acids exist actually are counted as being over 200 in numbers, but the 22 proteinogenic amino acids are the ones that are commonly known. (aminoacidinformation.com)
- IMPORTANCE Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very important for the production of safe and healthy human and animal fermented foods and feed and, increasingly more, in the functional food industry. (asm.org)
- Members of the diverse group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been associated with food fermentations since ancient times. (asm.org)
- The amino acid analogue N-5-chloroacetyl-L-ornithine (NCAO) has been tested as a potential site specific reagent for this system. (umn.edu)
- Other examples of such amino acids include carnitine, which is concerned in fatty acid transport within a cell, as well as ornithine and citrulline, both of which are key components in the body's urea cycle. (fsu.edu)
- Multiple hormones increase System A function acutely through changes in the driving force for transport as well as through longer-term changes in gene expression. (pnas.org)
- Rather, they are controlled in response to hormones, ionic compounds, reactions from neighboring cells and the autonomic nervous system. (wpiinc.com)
- There are hormones that are made up of amino acids, antibodies too, so they affect the immune system. (aminoacidinformation.com)
- The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete chemical "instant messengers" called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant cells within specific organs. (studymode.com)
- Most cells have a different synthetase for each amino acid (20 or more synthetases). (wikipedia.org)
- Pubmed ID: 11390805 Endothelial cells exposed to inductive central nervous system factors differentiate into a blood-brain barrier phenotype. (jove.com)
- Lipids in Blood-brain Barrier Models in Vitro II: Influence of Glial Cells on Lipid Classes and Lipid Fatty Acids In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. (jove.com)
- Pubmed ID: 12762838 Lipids of brain tissue and brain microvascular endothelial cells contain high proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (long PUFAs). (jove.com)
- 14 The proximal tubules, but not distal segments of the nephron, are endowed with high aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, and epithelial cells of proximal tubules have been demonstrated to synthesize dopamine from circulating or filtered l -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l -DOPA). (ahajournals.org)
- 4. The method of claim 3 wherein the cellular translation system is selected from the group consisting of tissue culture cells, isolated primary cells, isolated immortalized cells, isolated human cells and combinations thereof. (google.ca)
- This is particularly useful for the cells of the immune system. (best-body-nutrition.com)
- Were there no such flawlessly operating systems among the cells, it would be impossible for any living thing to maintain vital functions. (evolutiondeceit.com)
- Groshong plans to build on this research through a project that will explore possible ways to target this system for the development of therapeutics and to evaluate if a limited peptide environment, such as the mammal, promotes the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Pregabalin (PGB) is a novel drug under development for the GBP enters cells predominantly by the l -amino acid transport system (Su et al. (antibioticshelp.life)
- Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
- These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
- In vertebrates, a functional but anatomically closed connection exists between the extracellular spaces (between the cells) and the blood vascular system in the form of lymph channels. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Macromolecules formed from amino acids adopt well-defined, three-dimensional structures with chemical properties that are responsible for their participation in virtually every process occurring within and between cells. (aamc.org)
- Agrobacterium cells can transport and catabolize these compounds as sources of carbon and nitrogen. (duke.edu)
- In this life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, ketones are produced rapidly, which overwhelm the body's acid-base buffering system. (mindandmuscle.net)
- CrossFit training demands are so intense, sustained and so high that your body's requirements for amino acids are extreme. (mycrossfitbody.com)
- These amino acids are essential for health, and regulate the body's metabolic processes. (aminoacidinformation.com)
- It has now become possible for the first time to look into the body's absolutely fundamental 'engine compartment', and observe the ion pumps that activate cell transport and signal systems. (evolutionnews.org)
- l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
- Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
- When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
- L-serine is the highest affinity substrate (K m = 18 μM), but SerP1 also transports L-threonine and L-cysteine (K m values = 20 - 40 μM). (tcdb.org)
- Hence, the primary source for a substrate for gluconeogenesis is amino acids. (mindandmuscle.net)
- The phenomenon of multidrug transport is an intriguing one because it seems to challenge the basic model of an enzyme binding specifically to a single substrate in an optimized set of interactions as a prerequisite to efficient catalysis. (schoolbag.info)
- The penetration of amino acids into the brain and into other tissues is mediated by energy-requiring systems 1-3 . (springer.com)
- Since all AAPs are differentially expressed, different tissues may be supplied with a different spectrum of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
- The cardiovascular (or circulatory) system supplies oxygen from inspired air, via the lungs to the tissues around the body. (openaccessbooks.com)
- Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged. (deepdyve.com)
- Course content will particularly focus on basic cellular physiology, including excitable cell physiology, and will emphasize intercellular interactions and responses to their tissue and organ environment. (rochester.edu)
- These basic building blocks are essential for normal cellular function. (glamour4u.com)
- 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the translation system comprises a cellular or cell-free translation system. (google.ca)
- In order to derive better insight into the biological mechanisms related to the differentially expressed genes, the lists of significant genes were subjected to pathway analysis and target prioritization indicating various processes such as calcium ion homeostasis, positive regulation of apoptotic process and cellular response to retinoic acid. (omicsonline.org)
- In Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae, the cellular response to P i availability is mediated via the PhoBR two-component system. (biomedcentral.com)
- Increasing proton concentrations strongly activate transport of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
- Experimental determinations of AIB transport at AIB concentrations of 5 - 100 mg/l, measured radioactively using (1 −14 C-) AIB, were compared with a dual-active transport model. (scirp.org)
- The ratio of the fetal to maternal perfusate concentrations in the absence of ethanol (1.44) was statistically significant (P = 0.016) from the ratio in the presence of ethanol (1.20), which may indicate that active transport in the human placenta is inhibited by the presence of ethanol. (scirp.org)
- They injected 10 different amino acids at set concentrations into samples of silica gel and then tried washing them out with a selection of different solvents, including aqueous solvents such as water and sodium hydroxide and the organic solvents methanol and acetonitrile. (separationsnow.com)
- Aside from the solid and hollow organs, the nervous and circulatory systems are also important in digestion, as are the bacteria that live in the gut. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 1 . As the amino acids enter the duodenum digestion is partial, they trigger the release of cholectystokinin-pancreozymin ( CCK-PZ ) and Secretin in to the bloodstream. (gravitywaves.com)
- In the ribosome, the information in mRNA is translated into a specific amino acid when the mRNA codon matches with the complementary anticodon of a tRNA, and the attached amino acid is added onto a growing polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
- The olnine of two forex clickbank 75 commissions zippers to interlock depends on the specific amino acids that lie between the leucines. (retzepti.ru)
- Catabolism of amino acids and related compounds. (naver.com)
- Amino acids are group of organic compounds which contain two functional groups. (studymode.com)
- Human symptoms of an amino acid can be similarly serious, although the precise effects are dependent upon which of the compounds the body is lacking. (fsu.edu)
- These systems are not specific for each amino acid, but distinguish amino acids into three groups: neutral, acidic, and basic 4-6 . (springer.com)
- Uncharged forms of acidic and basic amino acids are cotransported with one proton. (deepdyve.com)
- A molecule that displays both acidic and basic properties is called a zwitterion (Clark, 2004). (studymode.com)
- There are also acidic and basic side chains as well as thiol chains that can be oxidized to dithiol linkages between two similar amino acids. (fsu.edu)
- inhibited by d -Leu, d -Phe, and an L-system-specific inhibitor 2-aminobicyclo [2,2,heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), but not inhibited by l -Ala and charged amino acids. (arvojournals.org)
- Each amino acid also have a side chain denoted by R. CLASSIFICATION OF AMINO ACID 1) Based on structure ) Neutral amino Acid - These are mono amino and mono carboxylic acid . (studymode.com)
- These organic acids exist naturally in a zwitterion state where the carboxylic acid moiety is ionized and the basic amino group is protonated. (fsu.edu)
- The entire class of amino acids has a common backbone consisting of an organic carboxylic acid group and an amino group attached to a saturated carbon atom. (fsu.edu)
- For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
- Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Chromatography is a common technique for separating chemical substances. (studymode.com)
- Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. (hindawi.com)
- The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
- List some ways in which substances are transported across cell membranes. (acemprimary.com)
- Larimore, FS & Roon, RJ 1978, ' Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ', Biochemistry , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 431-436. (umn.edu)
- The following chapter reports on trans fatty acids (TFA) and human health, detailing the biochemistry of trans fats as well as recommended daily intake. (openaccessbooks.com)
- ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY "It is a true 'methods' series, including almost every detail from basic theory to sources of equipment and reagents, with timely documentation provided on each page. (booktopia.com.au)
- Users will find basic and fundamental concepts that will aid students and professionals in biochemistry, medicine, and other healthcare disciplines. (whsmith.co.uk)
- During training your body usually releases larger quantities of amino acids from the muscles and uses these for the energy generation. (best-body-nutrition.com)
- If all necessary amino acids are absorbed in sufficient quantity, your body must fall back on the store of your muscles less. (best-body-nutrition.com)
- Peristalsis is the slow contraction of smooth muscles around the pipes of the digestive system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Skeletal and heart muscles are composed of basic contractile units called sarcomeres. (wpiinc.com)
- 5. The method of claim 3 wherein the cell-free translation system is selected from the group consisting of Escherichia coli lysates, wheat germ extracts, insect cell lysates, rabbit reticulocyte lysates, rabbit oocyte lysates, dog pancreatic lysates, human cell lysates, mixtures of purified or semi-purified translation factors and combinations thereof. (google.ca)
- Regulation of aromatic amino acid transport systems in Escherichia coli Waaluty. (retzepti.ru)
- Emphasis will be given to mammalian systems and molecular mechanisms of human diseases. (rochester.edu)
- A basic understanding of the principles of molecular biology is necessary to fully appreciate the mechanisms of follicle function. (woolwise.com)
- To understand many aspects of wool biology and how wool biology may impact on wool production, a basic understanding of molecular biology is required. (woolwise.com)
- Amino acids are very small biomolecules with an average molecular weight of about 135 Daltons (or atomic mass units, abbreviated AMU ). (fsu.edu)
- Pivotal clinical case studies aid in understanding basic science in the context of diagnosis and treatment of human diseases, and the text illuminates key topics in molecular immunology and hemostasis. (whsmith.co.uk)
- System A has also provided a paradigm for short- and long-term regulation by physiological stimuli. (pnas.org)
- In addition, amino acid transport System A has provided a paradigm for the short- and long-term regulation of transport activity ( 1 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
- System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
- In this section, the control of the cardiovascular system is discussed in particular the heaemodynamic mechanisms controlling blood volume, flow and the regulation of systolic blood pressure. (openaccessbooks.com)
- In this study we investigate the role of the PhoBR two-component system, and P i availability, on the regulation of antibiotic production in the Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia sp. (biomedcentral.com)
- In order to incorporate a novel amino acid into the genetic code several changes are required. (wikipedia.org)
- First, for successful translation of a novel amino acid, the codon to which the novel amino acid is assigned cannot already code for one of the 20 natural amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
- The active site of the synthetase is modified to accept only the novel amino acid. (wikipedia.org)