Amino Acid Transport Systems
Amino Acid Transport System L
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic
Amino Acid Transport System A
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral
Biological Transport, Active
Amino Acid Transport System ASC
Membrane Transport Proteins
Fatty Acid Transport Proteins
Amino Acid Sequence
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic
Molecular Sequence Data
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Rats, Inbred Strains
Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1
Antigens, CD98 Light Chains
Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain
Amino Acid Substitution
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn
Amino Acids, Essential
Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1
Amino Acid Motifs
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
Organic Anion Transporters
Anion Transport Proteins
Genetic Complementation Test
Radioisotope Dilution Technique
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent
Bile Acids and Salts
Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor
Periplasmic Binding Proteins
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Cell Membrane Permeability
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Gene Expression Regulation
Cation Transport Proteins
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10. (1/61)The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10 has been determined. The dinucleotide signature and percent G+C of the sequence had no discontinuities, indicating that Tn10 constitutes a homogeneous unit. The new sequence contained three new open reading frames corresponding to a glutamate permease, repressors of heavy metal resistance operons, and a hypothetical protein in Bacillus subtilis. The glutamate permease was fully functional when expressed, but Tn10 did not protect Escherichia coli from the toxic effects of various metals. (+info)
Citrin and aralar1 are Ca(2+)-stimulated aspartate/glutamate transporters in mitochondria. (2/61)The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are localized. These results show that the aspartate/glutamate carrier is regulated by Ca(2+) through a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria, and suggest a novel mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation of the aspartate/malate shuttle. (+info)
Acidic amino acid transport characteristics of a newly developed conditionally immortalized rat type 2 astrocyte cell line (TR-AST). (3/61)To characterize acidic amino acid transport in type 2 astrocytes, we established conditionally immortalized rat astrocyte cell lines (TR-AST) from newly developed transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive SV40 large T-antigen gene. TR-AST exhibited positive immunostaining for anti-GFAP antibody and A2B5 antibody, characteristics associated with type 2 astrocytes, and expressed glutamine synthetase. Acidic amino acid transporters, GLT-1 and system xc-, which consists of xCT and 4F2hc, were expressed in all TR-ASTs by RT-PCR. On the other hand, GLAST expression was found in TR-AST3 and 5. The characteristics of [3H]L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) uptake by TR-AST5 include an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner, concentration-dependence, and inhibition by L-aspartic acid (L-Asp) and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp). The corresponding Michaelis-Menten constants for the Na+-dependent and Na+-independent process were 36.3 microM and 155 microM, respectively. [3H]L-Asp and [3H]D-Asp uptake by TR-AST5 had an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner. This study demonstrated that GLT-1, system xc-, and GLAST were expressed in TR-AST, which has the characteristics of type 2 astrocytes and is able to transport acidic amino acids. (+info)
Identification of genes encoding amino acid permeases by inactivation of selected ORFs from the Synechocystis genomic sequence. (4/61)Genes encoding elements of four amino acid permeases were identified by insertional inactivation of ORFs from the genomic sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 whose putative products are homologous to amino acid permease proteins from other bacteria. A transport system for neutral amino acids and histidine and a transport system for basic amino acids and glutamine were identified as ABC-type transporters, whereas Na(+)-dependent transport of glutamate was found to be mediated by at least two systems, the secondary permease GltS and a TRAP-type transporter. Except for GltS, substrate specificities of the identified permeases do not match those of previously characterized systems homologous to these permeases. (+info)
A third vesicular glutamate transporter expressed by cholinergic and serotoninergic neurons. (5/61)Two proteins previously known as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporters have been identified recently as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2). Together, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are operating at most central glutamatergic synapses. In this study, we characterized a third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3), highly homologous to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. Vesicles isolated from endocrine cells expressing recombinant VGLUT3 accumulated l-glutamate with bioenergetic and pharmacological characteristics similar, but not identical, to those displayed by the type-1 and type-2 isoforms. Interestingly, the distribution of VGLUT3 mRNA was restricted to a small number of neurons scattered in the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and raphe nuclei, in contrast to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 transcripts, which are massively expressed in cortical and deep structures of the brain, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was concentrated over synaptic vesicle clusters present in nerve endings forming asymmetrical as well as symmetrical synapses. Finally, VGLUT3-positive neurons of the striatum and raphe nuclei were shown to coexpress acetylcholine and serotonin transporters, respectively. Our study reveals a novel class of glutamatergic nerve terminals and suggests that cholinergic striatal interneurons and serotoninergic neurons from the brainstem may store and release glutamate. (+info)
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human vesicular glutamate transporter 3. (6/61)Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. It is loaded into synaptic vesicles by a proton gradient-dependent uptake system and is released by exocytosis upon stimulation. Recently, two mammalian isoforms of a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have been identified, the expression of which enables quantal release of glutamate from glutamatergic neurons. Here, we report a novel isoform of a human vesicular glutamate transporter (hVGLUT3). The predicted amino acid sequence of hVGLUT3 shows 72% identity to both hVGLUT1 and hVGLUT2. hVGLUT3 functions as a vesicular glutamate transporter with similar properties to the other isoforms when it is heterologously expressed in a neuroendocrine cell line. Although mammalian VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit a complementary expression pattern covering all glutamatergic pathways in the CNS, expression of hVGLUT3 overlaps with them in some brain areas, suggesting molecular diversity that may account for physiological heterogeneity in glutamatergic synapses. (+info)
Molecular cloning and functional identification of mouse vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and its expression in subsets of novel excitatory neurons. (7/61)We have cloned and functionally characterized a third isoform of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3) expressed on synaptic vesicles that identifies a distinct glutamatergic system in the brain that is partly and selectively promiscuous with cholinergic and serotoninergic transmission. Transport activity was specific for glutamate, was H(+)-dependent, was stimulated by Cl(-) ion, and was inhibited by Rose Bengal and trypan blue. Northern analysis revealed higher mRNA levels in early postnatal development than in adult brain. Restricted patterns of mRNA expression were observed in presumed interneurons in cortex and hippocampus, and projection systems were observed in the lateral and ventrolateral hypothalamic nuclei, limbic system, and brainstem. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter identified VGLUT3 neurons in the striatum as cholinergic interneurons, whereas VGLUT3 mRNA and protein were absent from all other cholinergic cell groups. In the brainstem VGLUT3 mRNA was concentrated in mesopontine raphe nuclei. VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was present throughout the brain in a diffuse system of thick and thin beaded varicose fibers much less abundant than, and strictly separated from, VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 synapses. Co-existence of VGLUT3 in VMAT2-positive and tyrosine hydroxylase -negative varicosities only in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in subsets of tryptophan hydroxylase-positive cell bodies and processes in differentiating primary raphe neurons in vitro indicates selective and target-specific expression of the glutamatergic/serotoninergic synaptic phenotype. (+info)
The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate. (8/61)Quantal release of the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate requires a mechanism for its transport into secretory vesicles. Within the brain, the complementary expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) 1 and 2 accounts for the release of glutamate by all known excitatory neurons. We now report the identification of VGLUT3 and its expression by many cells generally considered to release a classical transmitter with properties very different from glutamate. Remarkably, subpopulations of inhibitory neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons, monoamine neurons, and glia express VGLUT3. The dendritic expression of VGLUT3 by particular neurons also indicates the potential for retrograde synaptic signaling. The distribution and subcellular location of VGLUT3 thus suggest novel modes of signaling by glutamate. (+info)
Cystinuria is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cystine across the brush border membrane of renal tubular cells. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that affected individuals must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop symptoms.
There is no cure for cystinuria, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms. These may include medications to reduce the acidity of the urine and prevent infection, as well as surgical procedures to remove stones or repair damaged kidneys. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.
It's important for individuals with cystinuria to drink plenty of water and maintain good hydration to help flush out the urinary tract and prevent stone formation. They should also avoid certain foods that may increase the risk of stone formation, such as oxalate-rich foods like spinach and rhubarb.
Overall, while there is no cure for cystinuria, with proper management and care, individuals with this disorder can lead relatively normal lives and minimize the complications associated with it.
Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients. It is caused by a mutation in the HCN1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cobalamin into the cells.
Symptoms of Hartnup Disease:
The symptoms of Hartnup disease can vary in severity and may include:
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Poor appetite
Complications of Hartnup Disease:
If left untreated, Hartnup disease can lead to complications such as:
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Nerve damage
* Skin problems
* Eye problems
* Hearing loss
* Increased risk of infections
Treatment of Hartnup Disease:
The treatment of Hartnup disease typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements. Patients with the condition may need to follow a strict diet that includes foods high in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. They may also need to take supplements to ensure they are getting enough of this important nutrient. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.
Prognosis of Hartnup Disease:
The prognosis for Hartnup disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. With proper management, most patients with Hartnup disease can lead active and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications that can be difficult to reverse.
Inheritance Pattern of Hartnup Disease:
Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated HCN1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a person inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the condition but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers of Hartnup disease can pass the mutated gene on to their children, who have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and developing the condition.
Prevention of Hartnup Disease:
There is no known prevention for Hartnup disease. However, if a person knows they are a carrier of the condition, they can work with their healthcare provider to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 and monitoring their diet to prevent any complications.
In conclusion, Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements, and early diagnosis and management can lead to a good prognosis. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of Hartnup disease, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Also known as: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA synthetase deficiency, and amino acid transporter defects.
The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:
* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area
CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.
Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer
Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.
There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:
1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.
The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)
Amino acid transporter
Vesicular monoamine transporter
Vegetarian and vegan dog diet
Index of biochemistry articles
Proton-coupled folate transporter
Band 3 anion transport protein
Potassium uptake permease
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase
History of life
Period 2 element
Glossary of diabetes
Bag valve mask
Stem cell marker
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Discovery and development of proton pump inhibitors
NEW (2002) MESH HEADINGS WITH SCOPE NOTES (UNIT RECORD FORMAT; 8/27/2001
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Recent Developments in Peptide-Based Nucleic Acid Delivery
Seed characterization and early nitrogen metabolism performance of seedlings from Altiplano and coastal ecotypes of Quinoa |...
NDF-RT Code NDF-RT Name
DailyMed - XOFLUZA- baloxavir marboxil tablet, film coated
PACS1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
Alpha XTRM Reviews - What are people saying about ⚠️ Alpha XTRM
Where To Buy Alpha XTRM - Is It Worth The Money ? - PRO Reviews
Finding step livM for L-valine catabolism in Klebsiella michiganensis M5al
Report of the NIH Consensus Development Conference on Phenylketonuria (PKU): Screening & Management: Chapter I | NICHD - Eunice...
Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion | PLOS Biology
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Course Content - #91533: A Review of Infertility - NetCE
Frontiers | Role of Tau as a Microtubule-Associated Protein: Structural and Functional Aspects
Alpha-synuclein as a Biomarker for Central Nervous System Diseases - Browse Articles - Conditioning Medicine
Digestion and Absorption | Plus One | Exam Capsule Notes (Web and PDF)
Monosaccharides. Medical search
Search Results For Health And Wellness: Peiion Results found: 24
Publications | Research groups | Imperial College London
Mapping of Structure-Function Peptide Sites on the Human Alpha-fetoprotein Amino Acid Sequence
- Within the trans-Golgi network, this protein helps transport certain molecules and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- PACS1 gene mutations are thought to impair the protein's ability to aid in the transport of molecules and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- They are key structural and functional elements in axons, supporting neurite differentiation and growth, as well as transporting motor proteins along the axons, which use MTs as support tracks. (frontiersin.org)
- Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins. (lookformedical.com)
- Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes. (lookformedical.com)
- Globulins are a diverse group of proteins that transport various substances in the blood. (cdc.gov)
- Probe Set ID Ref Seq Protein ID Signal Strength Name Gene Symbol Species Function Swiss-Prot ID Amino Acid Sequence 1367452_at NP_598278 7.9 small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 precursor Sumo2 Rattus norvegicus " Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (nih.gov)
- This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. (nih.gov)
- Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. (nih.gov)
- CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. (mdpi.com)
- Here, we review an alternative hypothesis that has recently gained experimental support, focusing on the role of amyloidogenic peptides rather than nucleic acids, in what has been by some termed "the amyloid-world" hypothesis. (catsboard.com)
- The PACS1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1 (PACS1). (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common mutation, which occurs in nearly everyone with PACS1 syndrome, results in the production of a protein with the protein building block (amino acid) arginine replaced with the amino acid tryptophan at position 203 (written as Arg203Trp or R203W). (medlineplus.gov)
- It is likely that the development of other body systems are similarly affected by impaired PACS1 protein function, leading to other signs and symptoms of PACS1 syndrome, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms. (medlineplus.gov)
- 2000. Assessing the role of ortho -substitution on polychlorinated biphenyl binding to transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein. (cdc.gov)
- High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system permease protein BraE, component of Branched chain amino acid uptake transporter. (lbl.gov)
- Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a protein widely expressed in the central nervous system. (conditionmed.org)
- Bile salts & phospholipids convert lipids to water-soluble droplets (micelles) → small protein coated fat globules (chylomicrons) → transported into lacteals in the villi → lymph → blood. (bankofbiology.com)
- The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. (lookformedical.com)
- If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. (lookformedical.com)
Neutral amino acid1
- Furthermore, [203Hg]MeHg uptake at 15 s after intracarotid injections in the rat was stereospecific to the neutral amino acid carrier, as 203Hg uptake across the BBB was not inhibited by coinjections of [203Hg]MeHgCl with aspartic acid, an acidic amino acid. (nih.gov)
- Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids ( AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC ). (nih.gov)
- high confidence medium confidence low confidence transporter - transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging. (lbl.gov)
- branched chain amino acid/phenylalanine ABC transporter membrane subunit LivM (EC 18.104.22.168). (lbl.gov)
- Uptake of methylmercury in the rat brain: effects of amino acids. (nih.gov)
- This L-cysteine-enhanced 203Hg brain uptake was abolished by coinjections of [203Hg]MeHgCl with 0.1 mM L-cysteine-L-methionine, or 0.1 mM L-cysteine plus AT-125 (alpha S, 5S-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazolacetic acid), an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. (nih.gov)
- These results indicate the presence in brain capillaries of a transport system capable of selectively mediating MeHg uptake across the brain capillary endothelial cell membrane. (nih.gov)
- BraE aka Bra2E, component of General L- (and D-)amino acid uptake porter (transports acidic, basic, polar, semipolar and hydrophobic amino acids). (lbl.gov)
- Cell uptake behavior was examined using FITC-labeled stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide. (springer.com)
- The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. (mdpi.com)
- The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. (lookformedical.com)
- The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. (lookformedical.com)
- Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories. (lookformedical.com)
- Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. (mdpi.com)
- The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. (lookformedical.com)
- The p.Tyr553Cys amino acid substitution strongly slowed ClC-6 gating and increased current amplitudes, particularly at the acidic pH of late endosomes. (torvergata.it)
- Their generation strictly required ClC-6 ion transport, as shown by transport-deficient double mutants, and depended on Cl-/H+ exchange, as revealed by combination with the uncoupling p.Glu200Ala substitution. (torvergata.it)
- This is due to lactic acid build up during exercise. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
- Calcium may bind lactic acid, relaxing the muscle and releasing the cramp. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
- Sparkling water and club soda, given their alkali nature, also help to neutralize the lactic acid relieving a muscle cramp. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
- Primary metabolic acidoses that occur as a result of a marked increase in endogenous acid production (eg, lactic or keto acids) or progressive accumulation of endogenous acids when excretion is impaired by renal insufficiency are characterized by decreased plasma bicarbonate concentration and increased anion gap without hyperchloremia. (medscape.com)
- Roles of neuroactive amino acids in ammonia neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
- Throat swabs were taken within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms, placed in viral transport media (MicroTest, M4) (VTM), and delivered via commercial carrier to the clinical laboratory at the Epidemiological Surveillance Division, Brooks Air Force Base. (cdc.gov)
- Light-intensity dependent Jsc data and charge carrier lifetime analysis indicate suppressed bimolecular recombination and a longer charge carrier lifetime in the ternary system, resulting in the enhancement of OPV performance. (imperial.ac.uk)
- In this study, stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide was used as a carrier and its physicochemical properties were determined by different methods. (springer.com)
- Before these Peru isolates, no circulation of amino acid-134 deletion mutants in the Americas was documented. (cdc.gov)
- Soluble salts of weak acids (e.g., carbonates, acetates, sulfides, and cyanides) do not exist in aqueous solution or in water, since they undergo complete hydrolysis, resulting in the precipitation of aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3]. (nih.gov)
- In the pathological state α-syn changes from a soluble monomer to pathological oligomers and fibrils, which participate in the occurrence and development of various central nervous system diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Lewy body dementia, and cerebrovascular diseases. (conditionmed.org)
- Aspects of the regulation of methylmercury (MeHg) transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were investigated in the in vivo Long-Evans female rat. (nih.gov)
- This review explains the physiological functions of α-syn, the effects of different forms of pathological α-syn, summarizes the research progress relating to α-syn in different forms and sources as biomarkers for PD, and explores the potential role of α-syn in other central nervous system diseases and the possibility of α-syn as a biomarker for these diseases. (conditionmed.org)
- Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. (lookformedical.com)
- Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
- Because therapeutic drugs are transported through the bloodstream, their solubility affects their absorption and distribution directly. (springer.com)
- We also propose potential clinical applications of α-syn as helpful biomarkers or therapeutic targets in different central nervous system diseases. (conditionmed.org)
- Calcium and phosphorus are stored in bone and mobilized into the circulatory system when dietary intake of the two minerals is adequate. (missouri.edu)
- Build up our system so we are not weak. (leadingedgehealth.org)
- E.g. absorption of amino acids, monosaccharides like glucose, electrolytes like Na+ etc. (bankofbiology.com)
- Amino acids basic. (lookformedical.com)
- We will be discussing how to create a strong and healthy Immune system naturally. (leadingedgehealth.org)
- Vitamin D also has an important role in transporting calcium into bone, as does Vitamin K2 and Magnesium. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
- Central nervous system diseases are characterized by slow onset, occultation, and progressive aggravation, which makes the diagnosis of these diseases very difficult. (conditionmed.org)
- In addition, various forms of α-syn can be transmitted through different body fluids, raising the possibility that it can be used as a biomarker to help diagnose central nervous system diseases. (conditionmed.org)
- Measurements of creatine kinase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
- Due to its nutritional content, yeast in this form may increase a person's energy, support their immune system, and offer additional health benefits. (vitanetonline.com)
- Most people have a compromised immune system. (leadingedgehealth.org)
- How to support the immune system. (leadingedgehealth.org)
- What is our immune system? (leadingedgehealth.org)
- Keeping the diet clean and filtered from things that will dampen the immune system is the best 'first place' to start! (leadingedgehealth.org)
- We many health professionals estimating a second round or wave of COVID which might possibly be worse than the first wave, now is the time to build and keep your immune system strong! (leadingedgehealth.org)
- During spring 1999, Beijing/262/95-like variants, containing a characteristic deletion mutation at amino acid 134 of the HA gene, were isolated from 13 persons at a DOD-GEIS influenza surveillance site in Lima, Peru. (cdc.gov)
- Excessive mobilization of calcium from the skeletal system of the lactating cow can lead to milk fever, also known as parturient paresis or hypocalcemia. (missouri.edu)
- 36 with the thyroid hormone system: Mechanisms and possible consequences for animal and human health. (cdc.gov)
- We degraded high molecular weight chitosan (450 kDa) using chitosanase under acidic conditions to obtain low molecular weight chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO, 18 kDa). (springer.com)
-   The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers , and other chemical processes. (wikipedia.org)
- STI was supported by a post-doctoral fellowship (321028) in TM's group at project inception from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research ( https://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/193.html ) and the AMIDEX excellence program of Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/en/public/excellence-initiative ). (plos.org)
- Research in the lab of TM is funded by a grant (ANR-15-CE13-0006 BACTOCOMPASS) from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) ( https://anr.fr/en/ ), as well as support from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ( http://www.cnrs.fr/ ) and Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/fr ). (plos.org)
- Results showed CSO-SA/EMO particle size was larger and potential was smaller than that of stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide. (springer.com)
- 1987. Ammonia emissions and their role in acid deposition. (cdc.gov)
- For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. (lbl.gov)
- Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism. (nih.gov)
- A dynamic system involving calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D exists to maintain a relatively stable concentration of calcium in the blood. (missouri.edu)
- This ensures that the calcium mobilization system is functioning properly before lactation. (missouri.edu)