Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System y+beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Transport System y+LMembrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Leucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Amino Acids, DiaminoCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.MethylglucosidesIleum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pseudomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)PhloretinSerine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).TritiumKidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.MethylglycosidesGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.MethylgalactosidesXenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10. (1/61)

The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10 has been determined. The dinucleotide signature and percent G+C of the sequence had no discontinuities, indicating that Tn10 constitutes a homogeneous unit. The new sequence contained three new open reading frames corresponding to a glutamate permease, repressors of heavy metal resistance operons, and a hypothetical protein in Bacillus subtilis. The glutamate permease was fully functional when expressed, but Tn10 did not protect Escherichia coli from the toxic effects of various metals.  (+info)

Citrin and aralar1 are Ca(2+)-stimulated aspartate/glutamate transporters in mitochondria. (2/61)

The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are localized. These results show that the aspartate/glutamate carrier is regulated by Ca(2+) through a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria, and suggest a novel mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation of the aspartate/malate shuttle.  (+info)

Acidic amino acid transport characteristics of a newly developed conditionally immortalized rat type 2 astrocyte cell line (TR-AST). (3/61)

To characterize acidic amino acid transport in type 2 astrocytes, we established conditionally immortalized rat astrocyte cell lines (TR-AST) from newly developed transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive SV40 large T-antigen gene. TR-AST exhibited positive immunostaining for anti-GFAP antibody and A2B5 antibody, characteristics associated with type 2 astrocytes, and expressed glutamine synthetase. Acidic amino acid transporters, GLT-1 and system xc-, which consists of xCT and 4F2hc, were expressed in all TR-ASTs by RT-PCR. On the other hand, GLAST expression was found in TR-AST3 and 5. The characteristics of [3H]L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) uptake by TR-AST5 include an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner, concentration-dependence, and inhibition by L-aspartic acid (L-Asp) and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp). The corresponding Michaelis-Menten constants for the Na+-dependent and Na+-independent process were 36.3 microM and 155 microM, respectively. [3H]L-Asp and [3H]D-Asp uptake by TR-AST5 had an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner. This study demonstrated that GLT-1, system xc-, and GLAST were expressed in TR-AST, which has the characteristics of type 2 astrocytes and is able to transport acidic amino acids.  (+info)

Identification of genes encoding amino acid permeases by inactivation of selected ORFs from the Synechocystis genomic sequence. (4/61)

Genes encoding elements of four amino acid permeases were identified by insertional inactivation of ORFs from the genomic sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 whose putative products are homologous to amino acid permease proteins from other bacteria. A transport system for neutral amino acids and histidine and a transport system for basic amino acids and glutamine were identified as ABC-type transporters, whereas Na(+)-dependent transport of glutamate was found to be mediated by at least two systems, the secondary permease GltS and a TRAP-type transporter. Except for GltS, substrate specificities of the identified permeases do not match those of previously characterized systems homologous to these permeases.  (+info)

A third vesicular glutamate transporter expressed by cholinergic and serotoninergic neurons. (5/61)

Two proteins previously known as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporters have been identified recently as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2). Together, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are operating at most central glutamatergic synapses. In this study, we characterized a third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3), highly homologous to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. Vesicles isolated from endocrine cells expressing recombinant VGLUT3 accumulated l-glutamate with bioenergetic and pharmacological characteristics similar, but not identical, to those displayed by the type-1 and type-2 isoforms. Interestingly, the distribution of VGLUT3 mRNA was restricted to a small number of neurons scattered in the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and raphe nuclei, in contrast to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 transcripts, which are massively expressed in cortical and deep structures of the brain, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was concentrated over synaptic vesicle clusters present in nerve endings forming asymmetrical as well as symmetrical synapses. Finally, VGLUT3-positive neurons of the striatum and raphe nuclei were shown to coexpress acetylcholine and serotonin transporters, respectively. Our study reveals a novel class of glutamatergic nerve terminals and suggests that cholinergic striatal interneurons and serotoninergic neurons from the brainstem may store and release glutamate.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human vesicular glutamate transporter 3. (6/61)

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. It is loaded into synaptic vesicles by a proton gradient-dependent uptake system and is released by exocytosis upon stimulation. Recently, two mammalian isoforms of a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have been identified, the expression of which enables quantal release of glutamate from glutamatergic neurons. Here, we report a novel isoform of a human vesicular glutamate transporter (hVGLUT3). The predicted amino acid sequence of hVGLUT3 shows 72% identity to both hVGLUT1 and hVGLUT2. hVGLUT3 functions as a vesicular glutamate transporter with similar properties to the other isoforms when it is heterologously expressed in a neuroendocrine cell line. Although mammalian VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit a complementary expression pattern covering all glutamatergic pathways in the CNS, expression of hVGLUT3 overlaps with them in some brain areas, suggesting molecular diversity that may account for physiological heterogeneity in glutamatergic synapses.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and functional identification of mouse vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and its expression in subsets of novel excitatory neurons. (7/61)

We have cloned and functionally characterized a third isoform of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3) expressed on synaptic vesicles that identifies a distinct glutamatergic system in the brain that is partly and selectively promiscuous with cholinergic and serotoninergic transmission. Transport activity was specific for glutamate, was H(+)-dependent, was stimulated by Cl(-) ion, and was inhibited by Rose Bengal and trypan blue. Northern analysis revealed higher mRNA levels in early postnatal development than in adult brain. Restricted patterns of mRNA expression were observed in presumed interneurons in cortex and hippocampus, and projection systems were observed in the lateral and ventrolateral hypothalamic nuclei, limbic system, and brainstem. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter identified VGLUT3 neurons in the striatum as cholinergic interneurons, whereas VGLUT3 mRNA and protein were absent from all other cholinergic cell groups. In the brainstem VGLUT3 mRNA was concentrated in mesopontine raphe nuclei. VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was present throughout the brain in a diffuse system of thick and thin beaded varicose fibers much less abundant than, and strictly separated from, VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 synapses. Co-existence of VGLUT3 in VMAT2-positive and tyrosine hydroxylase -negative varicosities only in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in subsets of tryptophan hydroxylase-positive cell bodies and processes in differentiating primary raphe neurons in vitro indicates selective and target-specific expression of the glutamatergic/serotoninergic synaptic phenotype.  (+info)

The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate. (8/61)

Quantal release of the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate requires a mechanism for its transport into secretory vesicles. Within the brain, the complementary expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) 1 and 2 accounts for the release of glutamate by all known excitatory neurons. We now report the identification of VGLUT3 and its expression by many cells generally considered to release a classical transmitter with properties very different from glutamate. Remarkably, subpopulations of inhibitory neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons, monoamine neurons, and glia express VGLUT3. The dendritic expression of VGLUT3 by particular neurons also indicates the potential for retrograde synaptic signaling. The distribution and subcellular location of VGLUT3 thus suggest novel modes of signaling by glutamate.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...

*KDEL (amino acid sequence)

This letter system was defined by the IUPAC and IUBMB in 1983, and is as follows: K-Lysine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L- ... The association of the protein in the cis-golgi and dissociation in the ER is mediated by pH, since a slightly acidic pH, found ... The receptor and soluble protein are transported via COP1 coated vesicles back to the ER where the contents of the vesicle are ... KDEL is a target peptide sequence in the amino acid structure of a protein which prevents the protein from being secreted from ...

*Archean

Dehydration of amino acids during atmospheric transport has been suggested as a mechanism for activation and polymerization. ... Stanley, Steven M. (1999). Earth System History. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 297-301. ISBN 0-7167-2882-6. Walker, ... Carbonate rocks are rare, indicating that the oceans were more acidic due to dissolved carbon dioxide than during the ... Miller SL (1953). "A production of amino acids under possible primitive Earth conditions". Science. 117: 528-29. doi:10.1126/ ...

*Swine brucellosis

... is able to endure the rapid acidificiation in the phagosome to pH 4.0-4.5 by expressing metabolism genes mainly for amino acid ... The acidic pH is actually essential for replication of the bacteria by inducing major virulence genes of the virB operon and ... In addition, the B. suis gene for nickel transport, nikA, is activated by metal ion deficiency and is expressed once in the ... Phagocytes are an essential component of the host's innate immune system with various antimicrobial defense mechanisms to clear ...

*Vesicular monoamine transporter

Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMD X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in ... In the 1970s, scientists such as Arvid Carlsson recognized the need to understand how transport systems and ion gradients work ... Acidic glutamate residues located upstream of the dileucine motif are known to be important for localization of VMAT2 to large ... Scientists have used these tools to analyze DNA and amino acid sequences, discovering that transporters in bacteria and humans ...

*Secretin

... also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ... They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the ... also increases water and bicarbonate secretion from duodenal Brunner's glands to buffer the incoming protons of the acidic ...

*Thiamine pyrophosphate

... complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid ... It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system ... The arrow indicates the acidic proton. Pietrzak I (1995). "[Vitamin disturbances in chronic renal insufficiency. I. Water ... the human Tpc and the Drosophila melanogaster have been identified as being responsible for the mitochondrial transport of ThPP ...

*Aciduliprofundum boonei

Therefore, some peptides and amino acids would be entering the cell to be used for energy, while others will be incorporated ... Isolated from acidic hydrothermal vent environments, A. boonei is the first cultured representative of a biogeochemically ... Based on ecological studies of deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems, it is believed that the anoxic reduced environments in which ... embedded with peptidases and an arsenal of permeases which help degrade the extracellular components and subsequently transport ...

*Endomembrane system

The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not ... The enzymes inside of lysosomes are acid hydrolases which require an acidic environment for optimal performance. Lysosomes ... These special proteins contain a specialized retention signal made up of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them ...

*Amino acid transporter

Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is responsible ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ...

*Parietal cell

As proteins unfold, the peptide bonds linking component amino acids are exposed. Gastric HCl simultaneously activates ... Histology Learning System at Boston University - Digestive System: Alimentary Canal: fundic stomach, gastric glands, lumen" ... As a result of the cellular export of hydrogen ions, the gastric lumen is maintained as a highly-acidic environment. The ... The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) is unique to the parietal cells and transports the H+ against a ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... acidic fibroblast growth factor - acrosin - actin - action potential - activation energy - active site - active transport - ... systems biology - T cell - T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence ... Nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ...

*Thermomyces lanuginosus

The lipase of T. lanuginosis has catalytic centre that contains three amino acids (serine-histidine-aspartic acid) and is ... This transport is constitutive, specific, and carrier-mediated, and its sensitivity is temperature dependent. T. lanuginosis ... As the temperature in compost systems rises, the pioneer flora disappears and thermophilic fungi become dominant. Exothermic ... lanuginosis is most active at slightly acidic conditions and a temperature of 65 °C. At 100 °C it is inactivated by self- ...

*Chloroplast

... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... Because of the H+ gradient across the thylakoid membrane, the interior of the thylakoid is acidic, with a pH around 4, while ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ...

*Proton-coupled folate transporter

PCFT is located on chromosome 17q11.2 and consists of five exons encoding a protein with 459 amino acids and a MW of ~50kDa. ... "Comparison of folic acid uptake characteristics by human placental choriocarcinoma cells at acidic and physiological pH". ... PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. The low-pH activity and the structural specificity of PCFT (high ... and the delivery of folates to the central nervous system. ... amino acid identity to the frog (XP415815) and zebrafish ( ...

*Ecosystem

Substances like sugars and amino acids decompose readily and are considered labile. Cellulose and hemicellulose, which are ... In aquatic systems, the proportion of plant biomass that gets consumed by herbivores is much higher. In trophic systems ... These are then taken up by organisms in the soil, react with mineral soil, or are transported beyond the confines of the ... Decomposition rates also tend to be slower in acidic soils. Soils which are rich in clay minerals tend to have lower ...

*Blood

Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma ... which exert their influence principally through the respiratory system and the urinary system to control the acid-base balance ... In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma. Vertebrate blood is ... Blood that has a pH below 7.35 is too acidic, whereas blood pH above 7.45 is too basic. Blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen ( ...

*Hydrolysis

... the hydrolysis can be suppressed by adding an acid such as nitric acid, making the solution more acidic. Hydrolysis may proceed ... The hydrolysis of peptides gives amino acids. Many polyamide polymers such as nylon 6,6 hydrolyse in the presence of strong ... This specificity preserves the integrity of other proteins such as hormones, and therefore the biological system continues to ... and the active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. The energy derived from the oxidation of nutrients is not ...

*Alkaliphile

... gluconic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and phosphoric acid. Together, these residues form an acidic matrix that helps ... "Studies on the Respiratory System in Alkaliphilic Bacillus; a Proposed New Respiratory System." Extremophiles 2 (1998): 83-92. ... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... In this model, H+ ions are first extruded through the electron transport chain in respiring cells and to some extent through an ...

*Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... an ionic bond is formed between a basic amino acid side-chain and the acidic phosphate group of NADP+. On the converse, in NAD- ... These shuttle systems also have the same transport function in chloroplasts. Since both the oxidized and reduced forms of ... In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In ... from an amino acid-either tryptophan (Trp) in animals and some bacteria, or aspartic acid (Asp) in some bacteria and plants. ...

*Protein phosphorylation

However, many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated in cells, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid ... The arginine phosphorylation system, which is widely distributed across Gram-positive bacteria, appears to be functionally ... It has been shown that a subset of serine phosphosites are often replaced by acidic residues such as aspartate and glutamate ... Regulatory roles of phosphorylation include: Phosphorylation of Na+/K+-ATPase during the transport of sodium (Na+) and ...

*Hemoglobin

... are folded chains of a large number of different amino acids called polypeptides. The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide ... Or, they may have a recognizable separate circulatory system but not one that deals with oxygen transport (for example, many ... more acidic). Hemoglobin can bind protons and carbon dioxide, which causes a conformational change in the protein and ... Most of the amino acids in hemoglobin form alpha helices, and these helices are connected by short non-helical segments. ...

*Potassium uptake permease

"Defining membrane spanning domains and crucial membrane-localized acidic amino acid residues for K⁺ transport of a Kup/HAK/KT- ... High affinity (20 μM) K+ uptake systems (Hak1, TC# 2.A.72.2.1) of the yeast Debaryomyces occidentalis as well as the fungus, ... The generalized transport reaction for members of the KUP family is: K+ (out) + energy → K+ (in). Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; ... The yeast high affinity (KM = 1 µM) K+ transporter Hak1 is 762 amino acyl residues long with 12 putative TMSs. Like the E. coli ...

*Urotensin-II

Unlike URP, U-II has an acidic amino acid (Glutamic or Aspartic) that precedes the core sequence. While the amino acid isn't ... Because of the involvement of the UII system in multiple biological systems such as the cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, and ... It also affects the kidneys including sodium transport, lipid and glucose metabolism, and natriuretic effects. Its has been ... In humans U-II length is 11 amino acids. The peptide sequence that is needed for biological function for both U-II and ...

*Natural product

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ... Bilateral symmetry refers to a molecule or system that contains a C2, Cs, or C2v point group identity. C2 symmetry tends to be ... Because many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments such as polar regions, hot springs, acidic springs, alkaline ... synthesized from tryptophan is a component of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ which in turn are required for electron transport in ...

*Halobacterium salinarum

Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able ... These highly acidic proteins are overwhelmingly negative in charge and are able to remain in solution even at high salt ... H. salinarum is as easy to culture as E. coli and serves as an excellent model system. Methods for gene replacement and ... causing a conformational change in the bacterioopsin protein which drives proton transport. The proton gradient which is formed ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are ...
It has been suggested that system xc− may be a promising cancer target, as it may sensitize tumors to conventional chemo/radiation-based therapies by lowering glutathione levels (25). One of the causes of postoperative radiation and chemotherapy treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme is an increase in glutathione levels that may decrease chemotherapy-associated oxidative stress and play a role in glutathione-mediated cellular detoxification pathways. In this work, we have expanded on the role system xc− plays in temozolomide resistance in human glioma and have identified a novel mechanism that may contribute to glioma progression, via metabolic alteration. Inhibitors of system xc−, such as sulfasalazine, have been put forward as possible effective therapeutic options. Sulfasalazine has been shown to deplete glutathione levels by inhibiting the uptake of cystine, which lowers levels of intracellular cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor for glutathione synthesis ...
Two vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have recently been identified, and it has been reported that they are expressed by largely nonoverlapping populations of glutamatergic neurons in the brain. We have used immunocytochemistry with antibodies against both transporters, together with markers for various populations of spinal neurons, in an attempt to identify glutamatergic interneurons in the dorsal horn of the mid-lumbar spinal cord of the rat. The great majority (94-100%) of nonprimary axonal boutons that contained somatostatin, substance P or neurotensin, as well as 85% of those that contained enkephalin, were VGLUT2-immunoreactive, which suggests that most dorsal horn neurons that synthesize these peptides are glutamatergic. In support of this, we found that most somatostatin- and enkephalin-containing boutons (including somatostatin-immunoreactive boutons that lacked calcitonin gene-related peptide and were therefore probably derived from local interneurons) formed ...
In these regions [locus 11p14.3], the expression pattern of SLC17A6 was the reverse of that shown for SLC17A7(605208), with other sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters degree of homology in granule neurons of the dentate gyrus. Conserved during vertebrate evolution present as a single copy glutamate was transported by BNPI-A7 in the absence of sodium, VGLUT vesicular glutamate transport does not recognize aspartate, BNPI distinct from the site of substrate recognition, reported for glutamate transport into native synaptic vesicles from the brain. The 2 isoforms together have a substantially lower apparent affinity for chloride in the absence or presence of sodium was blocked by glutamate and was transported by BNPI, where VGLUT does not recognize aspartate, sodium and the chloride channel optimal for aspartate transport where that is blocked by glutamate it BNPI appears to be expressed in brain regions that lack VGLUT1 that only a subset of glutamate neurons expresses and both may ...
Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) potentiate insulin secretion through cAMP signaling in pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. We recently proposed a mechanistic model of incretin-induced insulin secretion (IIIS) that requires two critical processes: 1) generation of cytosolic glutamate through the malate-aspartate (MA) shuttle in glucose metabolism and 2) glutamate transport into insulin granules by cAMP signaling to promote insulin granule exocytosis. To directly prove the model, we have established and characterized CRISPR/Cas9-engineered clonal mouse β-cell lines deficient for the genes critical in these two processes: aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AST1, gene symbol Got1), a key enzyme in the MA shuttle, which generates cytosolic glutamate, and the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and VGLUT3, gene symbol Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8, respectively), which participate in glutamate transport into secretory vesicles ...
M M Shah, M Mistry, S J Marsh, D A Brown, P Delmas. J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2002 Oct 1 , 544, 29-37. M-type K(+) currents (I(K(M))) play a key role in regulating neuronal excitability. In sympathetic neurons, M-channels are thought to be composed of a heteromeric assembly of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 K(+) channel subunits. Here, we have tried to identify the KCNQ subunits that are involved in the generation of I(K(M)) in hippocampal pyramidal neurons cultured from 5- to 7-day-old rats. RT-PCR of either CA1 or CA3 regions revealed the presence of KCNQ2, KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 subunits. Single-cell PCR of dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons gave detectable signals for only KCNQ2, KCNQ3 and KCNQ5; where tested, most also expressed mRNA for the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1. Staining for KCNQ2 and KCNQ5 protein showed punctate fluorescence on both the somata and dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Staining for KCNQ3 was diffusely distributed whereas KCNQ4 was undetectable. In perforated patch ...
Rationale: Aspects of schizophrenia, including deficits in sensorimotor gating, have been linked to glutamate dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex. System xc −, a cystine-glutamate antiporter, is a poorly understood mechanism that contributes to both cellular antioxidant capacity and glutamate homeostasis. Objectives: Our goal was to determine whether increased system xc − activity within the prefrontal cortex would normalize a rodent measure of sensorimotor gating. Methods: In situ hybridization was used to map messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of xCT, the active subunit of system xc −, in the prefrontal cortex. Prepulse inhibition was used to measure sensorimotor gating; deficits in prepulse inhibition were produced using phencyclidine (0.3-3 mg/kg, sc). N-Acetylcysteine (10-100 μM) and the system xc − inhibitor (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG, 0.5 μM) were used to increase and decrease system xc − activity, respectively. The uptake of 14C-cystine into tissue punches
The aim of this thesis is to better understand the regulation of the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) and its role in regulating neuronal survival and death. Expressed primarily on astrocytes, system xc- takes up cystine and releases glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. Cystine uptake is the rate-limiting step in glutathione synthesis, the brains main antioxidant. Glutamate released into the extrasynaptic space can regulate neuronal function; however excessive glutamate release can cause excitotoxicity. The dual actions of system xc- make it of interest in many neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress and excitotoxicity are involved. We investigated the regulation of system xc- in SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS. We observed an increase in cystine uptake and glutamate release through system xc- in spinal cord slices of SOD1-G93A transgenic mice. We did not observe a change in the function of the main glutamate clearance transporter, excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT). This
A key issue in neuroscience is to determine the connection between neuronal circuits and behaviour. In the adult brain, all neuronal circuits include a glutamatergic component. Three proteins designated Vesicular glutamate transporter 1-3 (VGLUT1-3) possess the capability of packaging glutamate into presynaptic vesicles for release of glutamate at the nerve terminal.. The present study aimed at determining the role of VGLUT2 in neuronal circuits of higher brain function, emotion, and reward-pocessing. A conditional knockout (cKO) strategy was utilised, and three different mouse lines were produced to delete VGLUT2 in specific neuronal circuits in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. First, we produced a cKO mouse in which Vglut2 was deleted in specific subpopulations of the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus from preadolescence. This resulted in blunted aspects in cognitive, emotional and social behaviour in a schizophrenia-related phenotype. Furthermore, we showed a downstream effect of ...
摘 要:阿尔兹海默病(Alzheimers disease, AD) 是一种多因素复杂性神经退行性疾病,β 淀粉样蛋白(βamyloid, Aβ) 级联假说和谷氨酸兴奋性毒性是其重要的发病机制。囊泡谷氨酸转运体(vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUTs) 可特异性地将神经元内的谷氨酸转移入突触囊泡,且一个独立功能单位的VGLUT 对于完成一个囊泡的填充是必要和充分的,没有VGLUT 的突触囊泡中就没有谷氨酸(glutamate, Glu),VGLUT 在一定程度上决定了释放进突触间隙Glu 的量,是谷氨酸能突触传递的关键因子。在AD 中Aβ增多聚集,VGLUTs 表达减低,且VGLUTs 转运Glu 和Glu 的囊泡释放与淀粉样前体蛋白(amyloid precursor protein, APP) 代谢和Aβ 的释放在突触囊泡的循环中存在行为平行性和共定位。胞外Aβ 的增加可增强囊泡的释放几率,而Glu 引起的突触活性增加亦可增加胞外Aβ 的浓度。APP/Aβ ...
INTRODUCTION With its preservation of cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuitry, the hippocampal slice preparation has been a critical tool for studying the electrophysiological effects of pharmacological and genetic manipulations. To analyze the maximum number of slices or readouts per dissection, long incubation times postslice preparation are commonly used. We were interested in how slice integrity is affected by incubation postslice preparation. METHODS Hippocampal slices were prepared by three different methods: a chopper, a vibratome, and a rotary slicer. To test slice integrity, we compared glycogen levels and immunohistochemistry of selected proteins in rat hippocampal slices immediately after dissection and following 2 and 4 hr of incubation. RESULTS We found that immunoreactivity of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) drastically decreased during this incubation period, whereas immunoreactivity of the glutamate transporter VGlut1 did not significantly change with
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, for which there is good evidence that genetic factors contribute to the aetiology. Recently reported linkage findings suggested evidence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p13 (maximum LOD score of 4.2, P=5 x 10(-6 …
Mediates the uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles at presynaptic nerve terminals of excitatory neural cells. May also mediate the transport of inorganic phosphate.
The uptake of glutamate by synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The central role of these transporters in excitatory neurotransmission underpins their importance as pharmacological targets. Although several compounds inhibit VGLUTs, highly specific inhibitors were so far unavailable, thus limiting applications to in vitro experiments. Besides their potential in pharmacology, specific inhibitors would also be beneficial for the elucidation of transport mechanisms. To overcome this shortage, we generated nanobodies (Nbs) by immunization of a llama with purified rat VGLUT1 and subsequent selection of binders from a phage display library. All identified Nbs recognize cytosolic epitopes, and two of the binders greatly reduced the rate of uptake of glutamate by reconstituted liposomes and subcellular fractions enriched with synaptic vesicles. These Nbs can be expressed as functional green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in the cytosol of HEK cells for ...
In mammals, the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 acquired a proline-rich sequence that negatively regulates the spontaneous release of glutamate by reducing the exchange of synaptic vesicles along the axon.
The primer sequences are listed in Supplemental Table 7.. Plasmid construction. The plasmid C2-EGFP-L10a was provided by Nathaniel Heintz (The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA). The GFP-L10a coding sequence was amplified by PCR using the primers L10a-R-BsiWI and MfeI-EGFP-F and subcloned into the vector pKT2/Fah-mCa//SB (15) at the EcoRI and BsiWI restriction sites. The vector utilizes the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system to enable integration of transgene sequences into the genome. The Slc7a11 cDNA was purchased (MG225346, OriGene) and amplified by PCR with the primers Slc7a11_clone_F1 and Slc7a11_psmd_bcd-R or Slc7a11-HA_bcd-R to include the HA tag. For the CRISPR/Cas9 studies, the vector pKT2/Fah-SpCas9//SB (34) was used to replace the SpCas9 with the SaCas9 sgRNA scaffold and introduce the subcloning site for further sgRNA subcloning using the oligonucleotides SaCas9Ins-F and -R and the restriction enzymes SapI and EcoRI to generate the vector pKT2/Fah-SaCas9//SB. Next, 10 ...
Protein names and data: VGLU2_HUMAN, Full=Vesicular glutamate transporter 2;Short=VGluT2, Full=Differentiation-associated BNPI;Full=Differentiation-associated Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter;Full=Solute carrier family 17 member 6; Length: 582 a.a., Mass: 64392 Da ...
Liguz-Lecznar M., Skangiel-Kramska J.,(2007) Vesicicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the developing mouse barrel cortex. Int. J. Devl. Neurosci. 25, 107-114.. Szewczyk B., Sowa M., Czupryn A., Wierońska J.M., Brański P., Sadlik K., Opoka W., Piekoszewski W., Śmiałowska M., Skangiel-Kramska J., Pilc A., Nowak G. (2006) Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats. Brain Res. 1090: 69-75. Liguz-Lecznar M., Nowicka D., Czupryn A., Skangiel-Kramska J. (2005) Dissociation of synaptic zinc level and zinc transporter 3 expression during postnatal development and after sensory deprivation in the barrel cortex of mice. Brain Res. Bull. 66: 106-113. Czupryn A., Skangiel-Kramska J. (2003) Switch time-point for rapid experience-dependent changes in zinc-containing circuits in the mouse barrel cortex. Brain Res. Bull. 61: 385-391. Nowicka D., Liguz-Lecznar M., Skangiel-Kramska J. (2003) A surface antigen delineating a subset of ...
Spinal neurons are important in several aspects motor control. For example, the neurons essential for locomotor movements reside in the ventral spinal cord. In this thesis, different motor control functions are being related to neuronal populations defined by their common expression of a gene.. First, a targeted disruption of the gene for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2/ Slc17a6) is described. The mutant animals die at birth because of their inability to breathe. The neuronal network in the brainstem, responsible for inspiration, was shown to become non-functional by the targeted deletion of Vglut2. To our surprise, it was still possible to induce rhythmic activity with normal left/right alternation in spinal cords isolated from VGLUT2-null embryos. Inconsistent reports of Vglut1 expression in the spinal cord made us re-evaluate the Vglut1 and Vglut2 expressions. While Vglut2 expression was widespread in the spinal cord, Vglut1 expression was restricted to a few cells dorsal to the ...
BACKGROUND: Cortical glutamate levels are elevated in bipolar disorder, but the interpretation of this increase is unclear because glutamate has metabolic as well as neurotransmitter roles. We investigated this by measuring vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) expression, which reflects activity at glutamate synapses. We also measured netrin-G1 and netrin-G2 messenger RNAs because these genes are involved in the formation and plasticity of glutamatergic connections. METHODS: Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we quantified transcripts for VGluT1, netrin-G1 (isoforms G1c, G1d, and G1f), and netrin-G2 in the anterior cingulate cortex from subjects with bipolar disorder (n = 34), schizophrenia (n = 35), and healthy control subjects (n = 35). RESULTS: Vesicular glutamate transporter 1, netrin-G2, and netrin-G1d and G1f were increased in bipolar disorder but not in schizophrenia. Netrin-G1c did not differ between groups. Netrin-G1c and netrin-G1f expression showed left-right asymmetries.
There is now growing evidence that astrocytes, like neurons, can release transmitters. One transmitter that in a vast number of studies has been shown to be released from astrocytes is glutamate. Although asytrocytic glutamate may be released by several mechanisms, the evidence in favor of exocytosis is most compelling. Astrocytes may respond to neuronal activity by such exocytotic release of glutamate. The astrocyte derived glutamate can in turn activate neuronal glutamate receptors, in particular N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Here we review the morphological data supporting that astrocytes possess the machinery for exocytosis of glutamate. We describe the presence of small synaptic-like microvesicles, SNARE proteins and vesicular glutamate transporters in astrocytes, as well as NMDA receptors situated in vicinity of the astrocytic vesicles.
The data reported in this manuscript are the first human data on [18F]FSPG in patients with NSCLC or breast cancer. [18F]FSPG showed a favorable biodistribution and clearance pattern allowing its use as a potential PET tracer in patients with cancer. [18F]FSPG showed a relatively high tumor detection rate and high tumor to background ratios that were comparable with that of [18F]FDG in NSCLC but not in breast cancer. Particularly, additional lesions not seen on [18F]FDG were detected by [18F]FSPG in patients with NSCLC. We found that [18F]FSPG was well tolerated, safe, and without adverse events in all 15 study patients. Correlation of [18F]FSPG uptake with the staining intensity of 2 immunohistochemical markers (xCT and CD44) suggests the potential ability of [18F]FSPG PET to assess the system xC− activity in patients with cancer.. The biodistribution data showed increasing uptake up to 60 minutes after injection in pancreas and scalp, whereas predominant renal excretion resulted in high ...
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Localization of gad1b/2- or vglut2-expressing cells and TH-ir neurons in the telencephalon of the juvenile brain. A: Lateral overview of a juvenile brain staine
Entitlement is often confused with the word affluenza, a term used to describe the spoiledness of the very rich. But entitlement occurs across all income groups. Its a state of mind, the concept that I deserve, even without putting in an effort. This attitude begins at home, but often our society helps reinforce it. Think of the so-called participant trophies given to all kids ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Melissa A Herman, Frauke Ackermann, Thorsten Trimbuch, Christian Rosenmund].
Background SLC25A12 a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that is mutated in a neurodevelopmental syndrome encodes a MS-275 mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC1). reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP)-positive fibers consistent with a previous report. Furthermore the neocortex of knockout mice contained abnormal neurofilamentous accumulations in neurons suggesting defective axonal transport and/or neurodegeneration. Slice cultures prepared from knockout mice also showed a myelination defect and reduction of Slc25a12 in rat primary oligodendrocytes led to a cellautonomous reduction in MBP expression. Myelin deficits in slice cultures from knockout mice could be reversed by administration of pyruvate indicating that reduction in AGC1 activity leads to reduced production of aspartate/(solute carrier family 25 member 12) is a gene on chromosome 2q31 that was identified as an autism susceptibility gene through both linkage and association studies (3). Recently ...
Citrin is the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate glutamate carrier. Its deficiency, also known as type II citrullinemia, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing metabolic derangements in aerobic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Urea cycle mechanisms, uridine diphosphate-galactose epimerase activity, acylcarnitine metabolism, and fatty acid synthesis and utilization are also affected mainly due to a defective aspartate export from the mitochondria to the cytosol and impairment of the malate-aspartate shuttle. Patients with this defect may harbor different mutations on gene SLC25A13 located on chromosome 7q21.3. Mutations have a carrier rate of 1:65 in Japan and China, whereas they are much less frequent in the Western world, and are responsible for 2 phenotypes of the disease. The first is a usually self-limiting neonatal (intrahepatic) cholestatic and steatotic condition (neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency [NICCD], OMIM #605814). The second is an adult-onset ...
Abstract: Inhibitory cells are essential to fine-tuning the activity of neural circuits. Different classes of interneurons target distinct subcellular compartments of the pyramidal cell. This suggests that there is a differential contribution of each subtype of interneuron in the regulation of the network. In particular, cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing interneurons differ in chemical features and their postsynaptic targets, yet the role of each of these subtypes in the regulation of neuronal network activity is poorly understood. In this study, we describe a subpopulation of CCK interneurons co-expressing the vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGlut3) that also shows tyrosine kinase ErbB4 receptor expression. These interneurons are mainly basket cells targeting both, pyramidal cells and Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus. To address the role of CCK-VGlut3 interneurons in network activity regulation, we combined mouse genetics with a set of different experimental approaches. ...
Fourteen days after the FG injections, animals were perfused and brains were harvested, postfixed in the PFA for 1 h, and stored in 15% sucrose at 4°C until completely sunk. Brainstems were sliced into 5 series of 40 μm coronal sections using a freezing microtome (Microm HM 560 M) and stored at −20°C in cryoprotectant solution (30% sucrose, 30% ethylene glycol in 0.1 m PB with 0.015 sodium azide).. One series of the sections was used to test coexpression of BK channels and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGlut1) on terminals synapsing on retrogradely labeled PnC giant neurons. Free-floating tissue sections were thoroughly washed in 0.1 m PBS between incubations, and all the incubations were performed at room temperature with gentle agitation. Sections were blocked with 1% H2O2 in 0.1 m PBS for 10 min and subsequently incubated in PBS+ (0.1% BSA, 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS) followed by overnight incubation with rabbit anti-BK (1:1000 in PBS+; Alomone Labs catalog #APC-021, RRID: ...
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Subcellular segregation of VGluT2-IR and VMAT2(Myc)-IR within the same VGluT2-TH axon from a TH::Cre rat overexpressing VMAT2(Myc) under the regulation of the T

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Acidic phospholipids are required during solubilization of amino acid transport systems of Lactococcus lactis. ... Identification of diacylglycerol pyrophosphate as a novel metabolic product of phosphatidic acid during G-protein activation in ... Monascus ruber as cell factory for lactic acid production at low pH. ... simulation and life cycle assessment of converting autoclaved municipal solid waste into butanol and ethanol as transport fuels ...
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amino acid transport systems, acidic - biosynthesis (2) 2 Filter by. Remove filter. amino acid transport systems, acidic - ... amino acid transport systems, acidic - genetics (3) 3 Filter by. Remove filter. arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus - metabolism (3 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic - genetics , Neuralgia - chemically induced , Skin - innervation , Behavior, Animal - drug ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic - metabolism , Mechanoreceptors - physiology , Neuralgia - metabolism , Ion Channels - ...
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Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic - genetics , Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage , Mice , Disease Models, Animal , ... Amino acids , Liquid chromatography , Glutamate , Monosaccharides , Glycerin , Hydrochloric acid , Purines , Metabolites , ... Amino acids , sodium pyruvate , Citric acid , Diets , Mitochondria , Lysine , citrulline , sodium glutamate ... mitochondrial membrane transport proteins (2) 2 Filter by. Remove filter. mitochondrial membrane transport proteins - genetics ...
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List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - Wikipedia

... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
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List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - Wikipedia

... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500 -- amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.200 -- amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.600 -- amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750 -- amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.543.585. ...
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Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNASAmino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism | PNAS

... rather than simply an acidic environment) opposed amino acid uptake. We have also found that amino acid substrates increase ... Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ...
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Transport domain unlocking sets the uptake rate of an aspartate transporter.  - PubMed - NCBITransport domain unlocking sets the uptake rate of an aspartate transporter. - PubMed - NCBI

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic/chemistry*. *Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic/genetics ... Cyan balls emphasize the amino acid positions at which potentially positively charged residues occur in glutamate transporter ... Transport domain unlocking sets the uptake rate of an aspartate transporter.. Akyuz N1, Georgieva ER2, Zhou Z1, Stolzenberg S1 ... intermediate states in the transport cycle exhibiting increased solvent occupancy at the interface between the transport domain ...
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Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae<...

The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
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Evidence for increased expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, by a course of antidepressant treatment. -...Evidence for increased expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, by a course of antidepressant treatment. -...

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic, Animals, Antidepressive Agents, Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation, Antidepressive ... Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1, Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2, Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins ... Agents, Tricyclic, Brain, Desipramine, Electroshock, Fluoxetine, Male, Membrane Transport Proteins, Paroxetine, RNA, Messenger ...
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Didem Demirbas Cakici, Ph.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystDidem Demirbas Cakici, Ph.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic. *Animals. *Anti-Inflammatory Agents. *Antiporters. *Arginine. *Aspartic Acid ...
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Amino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionaryAmino acid transport systems, neutral | definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary

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Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutralAmino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral

What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ...
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3] "Selective expression of a novel high-affinity transport system for acidic and neutral amino acids in the tapetum cells of ...
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Neuron-Glia Interaction in Homeostasis of the Neurotransmitters Glutamate and GABA | Springer for Research & DevelopmentNeuron-Glia Interaction in Homeostasis of the Neurotransmitters Glutamate and GABA | Springer for Research & Development

Molecular pharmacology of the Na+-dependent transport of acidic amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system. Biol. ... Roberts, P.J., 1974, Amino acid release from isolated rat dorsal root ganglia. Brain Res. 74: 327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Amino-hex-5-enoic acid, a selective catalytic inhibitor of 4-aminobutyric-acid aminotransferase in mammalian brain. Eur. J. ... Nicholls, D. and Attwell, D., 1990, The release and uptake of excitatory amino acids. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 11: 462.CrossRef ...
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Acidic amino acid uptake porter, AatJMQP (Singh and Röhm, 2008). It is the sole system that transports glutamate and glutamine ... but it can also transport aspartate and asparagine (Singh and Röhm 2008).. ...
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Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal |...

... cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. Six amino acid permeases ( ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism ... Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. Six amino acid permeases ( ...
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UFM1 founder mutation in the Roma population causes recessive variant of H-ABC.  - PubMed - NCBIUFM1 founder mutation in the Roma population causes recessive variant of H-ABC. - PubMed - NCBI

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Protocols and Video Articles Authored by N. Joan AbbottProtocols and Video Articles Authored by N. Joan Abbott

... was consistent with transport mediated by the L-system amino acid carrier with strong inhibition by large neutral amino acids ( ... basic and acidic amino acids had no significant effect. The transport of L-leucine into the RBE4 cells was saturable and ... Jun, 2002 , Pubmed ID: 12164376 The L-system amino acid transporter on the RBE4 cell line, a well established in vitro model of ... in RBE4 cells suggest that transport is mediated by a system with characteristics similar to the L1 subtype of amino acid ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/N.+Joan_Abbott

Read or download The Miracle in the Cell MembraneRead or download The Miracle in the Cell Membrane

Amino acid transport systems are far more complex, because every one of the 20 amino acids has a different molecular structure ... These can be grouped into four classes depending on their chemical properties: large neutral, small neutral, basic and acidic. ... Each category has its own transport system. As with glucose transporters, large neutral amino acid transporters lie on both ... The glucose transport system is the bodys hardest-working transport system. The cell itself uses only a very small part of ...
more infohttps://www.evolutiondeceit.com/en/books/21657/The-Miracle-in-the-Cell-Membrane/chapter/8207/Selectivity-in-Nerve-Cells

Development and Physiology of the Placenta and Membranes | GLOWMDevelopment and Physiology of the Placenta and Membranes | GLOWM

Each system preferentially transports certain neutral amino acids, but there is considerable overlap among the systems. The ... It is also likely that additional, unidentified transport pathways are present for the acidic and basic amino acids as well. ... transporting the L-amino acids more rapidly than the D-amino acids. Recent evidence also indicates that placental amino acid ... the active transport of amino acids is mediated by several pathways that are specific for several groups of amino acids. Three ...
more infohttp://www.glowm.com/section_view/heading/Development%20and%20Physiology%20of%20the%20Placenta%20and%20Membranes/item/101

Denaturation of proteins - Nutrition and MetabolismDenaturation of proteins - Nutrition and Metabolism

There are a number of different amino acid transport systems with specificity for the chemical nature of the side-chain (large ... or small neutral, acidic or basic - see Figure 4.18). Similar group-specific amino acid transporters occur in the renal tubules ... for reabsorption of amino acids filtered at the glomerulus) and for uptake of amino acids into tissues. The various amino acids ... Carboxy-terminal amino acids Amino-terminal amino acids Tripeptides Dipeptides. 4.4.3.1 Activation of zymogens of proteolytic ...
more infohttps://www.karelsavry.us/metabolism/denaturation_of_proteins.html

Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency...Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency...

... the media pH and its concentration of protein and amino acids. The order of potency of the acidic NSAID in inhibiting MeAIB ... transport system in several cell types. This study was undertaken to determine if this activity was shared by other ... Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ... Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/237/2/496

Modulation of Phagosomal pH by  Promotes Hyphal Morphogenesis and Requires Stp2p, a Regulator of Amino Acid Transport |...Modulation of Phagosomal pH by Promotes Hyphal Morphogenesis and Requires Stp2p, a Regulator of Amino Acid Transport |...

... have acidic pH. Another environment where pH is critical is the phagolysosome, where acidic pH activates lysosomal proteases ... The innate immune system represents a key barrier that fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans must overcome in order to ... This phenomenon requires amino acid catabolism and results in extrusion of as ammonia presumably derived from the amino acid. ... The presence of extracellular amino acids activates STP2 post-translationally to increase the relative levels of the amino acid ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2014-3/modulation-of-phagosomal-ph-by-promotes-hyphal-morphogenesis-and-requires-stp2p-a-regulator-of-amino-acid-transport-53760

Amino acid sequence | definition of amino acid sequence by Medical dictionaryAmino acid sequence | definition of amino acid sequence by Medical dictionary

... amino acid sequence explanation free. What is amino acid sequence? Meaning of amino acid sequence medical term. What does amino ... Looking for online definition of amino acid sequence in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic ... amino acid sequence. Also found in: Dictionary. amino acid sequence. the order in which AMINO ACIDS are placed along a protein ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/amino+acid+sequence

Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...

... indicating the utilization of the same transport systems by the two aromatic amino acids. Basic (l-arginine) and acidic (l- ... Among the amino acid transport systems, the A system is sodium-dependent and inhibited by NMAIB, the L system is sodium ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ... Su, TZ, Lunney, E, Campbell, G, et al (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system L alpha-amino acid ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2181705
  • Bixel, M.G., Hutson, S.M. and Hamprecht, B., 1997, Cellular distribution of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase isoenzymes among rat brain glial cells in culture. (springer.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11390805 Endothelial cells exposed to inductive central nervous system factors differentiate into a blood-brain barrier phenotype. (jove.com)
  • Lipids in Blood-brain Barrier Models in Vitro II: Influence of Glial Cells on Lipid Classes and Lipid Fatty Acids In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12762838 Lipids of brain tissue and brain microvascular endothelial cells contain high proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (long PUFAs). (jove.com)
  • Were there no such flawlessly operating systems among the cells, it would be impossible for any living thing to maintain vital functions. (evolutiondeceit.com)
  • It is of course impossible to maintain that unconscious masses of atoms and molecules took a decision to form cells and that such a system later spontaneously came into being among those cells. (evolutiondeceit.com)
  • Aminopeptidases, secreted by the intestinal mucosal cells, release amino acids from the amino terminal of peptides. (karelsavry.us)
  • We show here that, in contrast to wild-type cells, stp2Δ mutants occupy an acidic phagosome and are unable to initiate hyphal differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
  • While several of these inducing factors (37°C, elevated CO 2 ) act on phagocytosed cells, an acidic phagosome should inhibit germination and it has been unclear what stimulates this morphological transition. (prolekare.cz)
  • Administration of excitatory amino acids may be toxic for retinal cells and block axonal transport in retinal neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The prolonged effect of D, L-AAA on cultured retinal cells was also studied using morphological observation and immunofluorescence of glial fibrillary acidic, protein(GFAP). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Wakakura M et al: 'Direct effect of DL-2-aminoadipic acid mediated by calcium ion cultured Muller cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acids appear in chiral (mirror image) except for glycine where the R = Hydrogen Chirality of amino acids can only be seen in 3D structure The position of amino group on the left or right side of the α-carbon determines the L or D designation. (studymode.com)
  • Crystallographic studies of a glutamate transporter homologue from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, GltPh, showed that distinct transport domains translocate substrates into the cytoplasm by moving across the membrane within a central trimerization scaffold. (nih.gov)
  • Bridges, R.J., Kavanaugh, M.P. and Chamberlin, A.R., 1999, A pharmacological review of competitive inhibitors and substrates of high-affinity, sodium-dependent glutamate transport in the central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • In particular, the present invention provides for isolated nucleic acid molecules comprising nucleotide sequences encoding the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2 or 4, or the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or 3, as well as variants thereof. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Testing this possibility will require flying other spacecraft through the plumes with analytical devices able to detect molecules more closely associated with life, such as amino acids. (separationsnow.com)
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • We previously showed that C. albicans rapidly neutralizes acidic, nutrient-poor media that resembles the phagolysosome and that this is deficient in mutants impaired in amino acid import due to a mutation in STP2. (prolekare.cz)
  • When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • Process simulation and life cycle assessment of converting autoclaved municipal solid waste into butanol and ethanol as transport fuels. (nih.gov)
  • Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Chromatography is a common technique for separating chemical substances. (studymode.com)
  • pH plays a central role in the developmental switch between promastigote and amastigote stages, and amastigotes are metabolically most active when their environment is acidic, although the cytoplasm of the amastigote is regulated at near-neutral pH by an active process of proton extrusion. (gla.ac.uk)
  • 2 3 4 Solute transport through a transporter or a receptor is a mechanism of translocating hydrophilic compounds across lipid bilayers. (arvojournals.org)
  • The D-form may act selectively on retinal neurons, suggesting that it may be an agonist of an excitatory amino acid receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Present review paper aims to emphasize role of important transport systems with their recent advancements in CNS protection mainly for providing a rapid clinical aid to patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Since all AAPs are differentially expressed, different tissues may be supplied with a different spectrum of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate exchange rather than net flux. (pnas.org)
  • Instead the gut integrates its diverse actions by locally produced chemicals (hormones and paracrines) as well as by the coordinated actions of the enteric nervous system, a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system. (coursera.org)
  • Here we report direct observations of these 'elevator-like' transport domain motions in the context of reconstituted proteoliposomes and physiological ion gradients using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging. (nih.gov)
  • A molecule that displays both acidic and basic properties is called a zwitterion (Clark, 2004). (studymode.com)
  • Crystallographic and computational investigations corroborated these findings by revealing that the 'humanizing' mutations favour structurally 'unlocked' intermediate states in the transport cycle exhibiting increased solvent occupancy at the interface between the transport domain and the trimeric scaffold. (nih.gov)
  • Transport by System N also depends on Na + but shows a striking sensitivity to inhibition by low external pH. (pnas.org)
  • Choi, S. and Silverman, R.B., 2002, Inactivation and inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase by conformationally restricted vigabatrin analogues. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Transport of l -Phe across rabbit cornea was also saturable ( K m = 33 ± 8 μM and V max = 0.26 ± 0.03 nanomoles/min per square centimeter), energy independent, and subject to similar competitive inhibition. (arvojournals.org)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for testing of mechanisms of transendothelial drug permeation. (jove.com)
  • three bases provide the code for each amino acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This "processing plant" acts in a unidirectional manner from mouth to anus and requires the coordinated secretions of acid, enzymes, bases, and fluids for its normal function. (coursera.org)
  • The innate immune system represents a key barrier that fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans must overcome in order to disseminate through the host. (prolekare.cz)
  • In healthy individuals the innate immune system maintains C. albicans as a commensal and, with the exception of vaginitis, C. albicans infections are associated with defects in innate immunity. (prolekare.cz)
  • 17 18 19 20 A few reports about the presence of carrier-mediated nutrient transport systems on the cornea are available, but most of them are believed to be present on the corneal endothelium. (arvojournals.org)