Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)

Complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10. (1/61)

The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10 has been determined. The dinucleotide signature and percent G+C of the sequence had no discontinuities, indicating that Tn10 constitutes a homogeneous unit. The new sequence contained three new open reading frames corresponding to a glutamate permease, repressors of heavy metal resistance operons, and a hypothetical protein in Bacillus subtilis. The glutamate permease was fully functional when expressed, but Tn10 did not protect Escherichia coli from the toxic effects of various metals.  (+info)

Citrin and aralar1 are Ca(2+)-stimulated aspartate/glutamate transporters in mitochondria. (2/61)

The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are localized. These results show that the aspartate/glutamate carrier is regulated by Ca(2+) through a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria, and suggest a novel mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation of the aspartate/malate shuttle.  (+info)

Acidic amino acid transport characteristics of a newly developed conditionally immortalized rat type 2 astrocyte cell line (TR-AST). (3/61)

To characterize acidic amino acid transport in type 2 astrocytes, we established conditionally immortalized rat astrocyte cell lines (TR-AST) from newly developed transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive SV40 large T-antigen gene. TR-AST exhibited positive immunostaining for anti-GFAP antibody and A2B5 antibody, characteristics associated with type 2 astrocytes, and expressed glutamine synthetase. Acidic amino acid transporters, GLT-1 and system xc-, which consists of xCT and 4F2hc, were expressed in all TR-ASTs by RT-PCR. On the other hand, GLAST expression was found in TR-AST3 and 5. The characteristics of [3H]L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) uptake by TR-AST5 include an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner, concentration-dependence, and inhibition by L-aspartic acid (L-Asp) and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp). The corresponding Michaelis-Menten constants for the Na+-dependent and Na+-independent process were 36.3 microM and 155 microM, respectively. [3H]L-Asp and [3H]D-Asp uptake by TR-AST5 had an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner. This study demonstrated that GLT-1, system xc-, and GLAST were expressed in TR-AST, which has the characteristics of type 2 astrocytes and is able to transport acidic amino acids.  (+info)

Identification of genes encoding amino acid permeases by inactivation of selected ORFs from the Synechocystis genomic sequence. (4/61)

Genes encoding elements of four amino acid permeases were identified by insertional inactivation of ORFs from the genomic sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 whose putative products are homologous to amino acid permease proteins from other bacteria. A transport system for neutral amino acids and histidine and a transport system for basic amino acids and glutamine were identified as ABC-type transporters, whereas Na(+)-dependent transport of glutamate was found to be mediated by at least two systems, the secondary permease GltS and a TRAP-type transporter. Except for GltS, substrate specificities of the identified permeases do not match those of previously characterized systems homologous to these permeases.  (+info)

A third vesicular glutamate transporter expressed by cholinergic and serotoninergic neurons. (5/61)

Two proteins previously known as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporters have been identified recently as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2). Together, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are operating at most central glutamatergic synapses. In this study, we characterized a third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3), highly homologous to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. Vesicles isolated from endocrine cells expressing recombinant VGLUT3 accumulated l-glutamate with bioenergetic and pharmacological characteristics similar, but not identical, to those displayed by the type-1 and type-2 isoforms. Interestingly, the distribution of VGLUT3 mRNA was restricted to a small number of neurons scattered in the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and raphe nuclei, in contrast to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 transcripts, which are massively expressed in cortical and deep structures of the brain, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was concentrated over synaptic vesicle clusters present in nerve endings forming asymmetrical as well as symmetrical synapses. Finally, VGLUT3-positive neurons of the striatum and raphe nuclei were shown to coexpress acetylcholine and serotonin transporters, respectively. Our study reveals a novel class of glutamatergic nerve terminals and suggests that cholinergic striatal interneurons and serotoninergic neurons from the brainstem may store and release glutamate.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human vesicular glutamate transporter 3. (6/61)

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. It is loaded into synaptic vesicles by a proton gradient-dependent uptake system and is released by exocytosis upon stimulation. Recently, two mammalian isoforms of a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have been identified, the expression of which enables quantal release of glutamate from glutamatergic neurons. Here, we report a novel isoform of a human vesicular glutamate transporter (hVGLUT3). The predicted amino acid sequence of hVGLUT3 shows 72% identity to both hVGLUT1 and hVGLUT2. hVGLUT3 functions as a vesicular glutamate transporter with similar properties to the other isoforms when it is heterologously expressed in a neuroendocrine cell line. Although mammalian VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit a complementary expression pattern covering all glutamatergic pathways in the CNS, expression of hVGLUT3 overlaps with them in some brain areas, suggesting molecular diversity that may account for physiological heterogeneity in glutamatergic synapses.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and functional identification of mouse vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and its expression in subsets of novel excitatory neurons. (7/61)

We have cloned and functionally characterized a third isoform of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3) expressed on synaptic vesicles that identifies a distinct glutamatergic system in the brain that is partly and selectively promiscuous with cholinergic and serotoninergic transmission. Transport activity was specific for glutamate, was H(+)-dependent, was stimulated by Cl(-) ion, and was inhibited by Rose Bengal and trypan blue. Northern analysis revealed higher mRNA levels in early postnatal development than in adult brain. Restricted patterns of mRNA expression were observed in presumed interneurons in cortex and hippocampus, and projection systems were observed in the lateral and ventrolateral hypothalamic nuclei, limbic system, and brainstem. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter identified VGLUT3 neurons in the striatum as cholinergic interneurons, whereas VGLUT3 mRNA and protein were absent from all other cholinergic cell groups. In the brainstem VGLUT3 mRNA was concentrated in mesopontine raphe nuclei. VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was present throughout the brain in a diffuse system of thick and thin beaded varicose fibers much less abundant than, and strictly separated from, VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 synapses. Co-existence of VGLUT3 in VMAT2-positive and tyrosine hydroxylase -negative varicosities only in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in subsets of tryptophan hydroxylase-positive cell bodies and processes in differentiating primary raphe neurons in vitro indicates selective and target-specific expression of the glutamatergic/serotoninergic synaptic phenotype.  (+info)

The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate. (8/61)

Quantal release of the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate requires a mechanism for its transport into secretory vesicles. Within the brain, the complementary expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) 1 and 2 accounts for the release of glutamate by all known excitatory neurons. We now report the identification of VGLUT3 and its expression by many cells generally considered to release a classical transmitter with properties very different from glutamate. Remarkably, subpopulations of inhibitory neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons, monoamine neurons, and glia express VGLUT3. The dendritic expression of VGLUT3 by particular neurons also indicates the potential for retrograde synaptic signaling. The distribution and subcellular location of VGLUT3 thus suggest novel modes of signaling by glutamate.  (+info)

Cystinuria is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cystine across the brush border membrane of renal tubular cells. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that affected individuals must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop symptoms.

There is no cure for cystinuria, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms. These may include medications to reduce the acidity of the urine and prevent infection, as well as surgical procedures to remove stones or repair damaged kidneys. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.

It's important for individuals with cystinuria to drink plenty of water and maintain good hydration to help flush out the urinary tract and prevent stone formation. They should also avoid certain foods that may increase the risk of stone formation, such as oxalate-rich foods like spinach and rhubarb.

Overall, while there is no cure for cystinuria, with proper management and care, individuals with this disorder can lead relatively normal lives and minimize the complications associated with it.

Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients. It is caused by a mutation in the HCN1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cobalamin into the cells.

Symptoms of Hartnup Disease:

The symptoms of Hartnup disease can vary in severity and may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness
* Headaches
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Seizures
* Poor appetite
* Diarrhea

Complications of Hartnup Disease:

If left untreated, Hartnup disease can lead to complications such as:

* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Nerve damage
* Skin problems
* Eye problems
* Hearing loss
* Increased risk of infections

Treatment of Hartnup Disease:

The treatment of Hartnup disease typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements. Patients with the condition may need to follow a strict diet that includes foods high in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. They may also need to take supplements to ensure they are getting enough of this important nutrient. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

Prognosis of Hartnup Disease:

The prognosis for Hartnup disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. With proper management, most patients with Hartnup disease can lead active and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications that can be difficult to reverse.

Inheritance Pattern of Hartnup Disease:

Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated HCN1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a person inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the condition but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers of Hartnup disease can pass the mutated gene on to their children, who have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and developing the condition.

Prevention of Hartnup Disease:

There is no known prevention for Hartnup disease. However, if a person knows they are a carrier of the condition, they can work with their healthcare provider to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 and monitoring their diet to prevent any complications.

In conclusion, Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements, and early diagnosis and management can lead to a good prognosis. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of Hartnup disease, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Also known as: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA synthetase deficiency, and amino acid transporter defects.

The signs and symptoms of CE can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Lumps or swelling in the neck, underarm, or groin area
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain in the affected area

CE is caused by a genetic mutation that leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The exact cause of the mutation is not fully understood, but it is believed to be linked to exposure to certain viruses or chemicals.

Diagnosis of CE typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans, and biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for CE depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include:

* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Radiation therapy to shrink the tumor
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Immunotherapy to boost the immune system's ability to fight the cancer

Overall, CE is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to improve outcomes.

There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.

It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.543.585. ...
The two organ systems that help regulate the body's acid-base balance are the kidneys and lungs. Acid-base homeostasis is the ... and amino acids. Examples of substances secreted are hydrogen, ammonium, potassium and uric acid. The nephron is the structural ... The intercalated A cells are stimulated when the body is experiencing acidic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the high ... which is part of the collecting duct system, and then to the ureters where it is renamed urine. In addition to transporting the ...
... is able to endure the rapid acidificiation in the phagosome to pH 4.0-4.5 by expressing metabolism genes mainly for amino acid ... The acidic pH is actually essential for replication of the bacteria by inducing major virulence genes of the virB operon and ... In addition, the B. suis gene for nickel transport, nikA, is activated by metal ion deficiency and is expressed once in the ... Phagocytes are an essential component of the host's innate immune system with various antimicrobial defense mechanisms to clear ...
... also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ... They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the ... also increases water and bicarbonate secretion from duodenal Brunner's glands to buffer the incoming protons of the acidic ...
Therefore, some peptides and amino acids would be entering the cell to be used for energy, while others will be incorporated ... Based on ecological studies of deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems, it is believed that the anoxic reduced environments in which ... Isolated from acidic hydrothermal vent environments, "Ca. A. boonei" is the first cultured representative of a biogeochemically ... embedded with peptidases and an arsenal of permeases which help degrade the extracellular components and subsequently transport ...
... complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid ... It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system ... The arrow indicates the acidic proton. TPP riboswitch Pietrzak I (1995). "[Vitamin disturbances in chronic renal insufficiency ... the human Tpc and the Drosophila melanogaster have been identified as being responsible for the mitochondrial transport of ThPP ...
The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not ... The enzymes inside of lysosomes are acid hydrolases which require an acidic environment for optimal performance. Lysosomes ... These special proteins contain a specialized retention signal made up of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them ...
Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is responsible ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ...
... such as amino acids or amides. Nitrogen can also be transported in the phloem sap as amides, amino acids and ureides; it is ... The root system is less effective without a continuous supply of calcium to newly developing cells. Even short term disruptions ... The rates of application of borate to produce an adequate alfalfa crop range from 15 pounds per acre for a sandy-silt, acidic ... membrane trafficking and phloem transport. Sulfur is a structural component of some amino acids (including cystein and ...
Cobalt is crucial for amino acid formation and some proteins to create myelin sheath in nerve cells. Cobalt also plays a role ... These ion channels are present in many various biological systems. They frequently play a role in regulation of cellular level ... In blood approximately 85% of carbon dioxide, is converted into aqueous carbonate ions (an acidic solution), allowing a greater ... Chloride ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow the passive transport of chloride ions across biological ...
Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMDs X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in ... In the 1970s, scientists like Arvid Carlsson recognized the need to understand how transport systems and ion gradients work in ... Acidic glutamate residues located upstream of the dileucine motif are known to be important for localization of VMAT2 to large ... and epinephrine-into transport vesicles. VMATs use the same transport mechanism for all types of monoamines, and transport them ...
L-Carnitine is an amino acid that plays a key role in energy production, and facilitates the transport of fatty acids into the ... Animal protein has a high acidic amino acid content (glutamic and aspartic acid); therefore, its nitrogenous metabolites that ... It is integral to the health and function of the nervous system, key in hematopoiesis, as well as required to synthesize ... On the other hand, some amino acids can be lost with heat. Lysine, both a reactive and an essential amino acid, has low ...
Metabolism and amino acid transport-related genes make up the largest group of known genes. This group contains 213 known genes ... It thrives in acidic conditions at pH 5.2-7.0. NaCl concentration between 15-17% has resulted in the highest growth rates in ... the strategy for sequencing the genome was Whole Genome Sequencing by the method of a PacBio RS II system. Lastly, the genome ... which uses a membrane with extremely fine pores to collect DNA and nucleic acids. They purified the DNA using the MG Genomic ...
As proteins unfold, the peptide bonds linking component amino acids are exposed. Gastric HCl simultaneously cleaves pepsinogen ... Mechanism of Acid Secretion at vivo.colostate.edu Histology image: 11303loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - ... As a result of the cellular export of hydrogen ions, the gastric lumen is maintained as a highly acidic environment. The ... They contain an extensive secretory network of canaliculi from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach. ...
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... acidic fibroblast growth factor - acrosin - actin - action potential - activation energy - active site - active transport - ... systems biology T cell - T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence ... nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ...
The lipase of T. lanuginosis has catalytic centre that contains three amino acids (serine-histidine-aspartic acid) and is ... This transport is constitutive, specific, and carrier-mediated, and its sensitivity is temperature dependent. Thermomyces ... As the temperature in compost systems rises, the pioneer flora disappears and thermophilic fungi become dominant. Exothermic ... lanuginosis is most active at slightly acidic conditions and a temperature of 65 °C. At 100 °C it is inactivated by self- ...
PCFT is located on chromosome 17q11.2 and consists of five exons encoding a protein with 459 amino acids and a MW of ~50kDa. ... "Comparison of folic acid uptake characteristics by human placental choriocarcinoma cells at acidic and physiological pH". ... PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. The low-pH activity and the structural specificity of PCFT (high ... and its delivery to the central nervous system. ... amino acid identity to the frog (XP415815) and zebrafish ( ...
... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... Because of the H+ gradient across the thylakoid membrane, the interior of the thylakoid is acidic, with a pH around 4, while ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ...
"Monovalent cation leaks in human red cells caused by single amino-acid substitutions in the transport domain of the band 3 ... Diego blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH Band+3+Protein at the US National ... even if the blood is too acidic. These mutations are disease causing as they cause mistargetting of the mutant band 3 proteins ... The erythrocyte isoform of AE1, known as eAE1, is composed of 911 amino acids. eAE1 is an important structural component of the ...
"Defining membrane spanning domains and crucial membrane-localized acidic amino acid residues for K⁺ transport of a Kup/HAK/KT- ... High affinity (20 μM) K+ uptake systems (Hak1, TC# 2.A.72.2.1) of the yeast Debaryomyces occidentalis as well as the fungus, ... The generalized transport reaction for members of the KUP family is: K+ (out) + energy → K+ (in). Transporter Classification ... The yeast high affinity (KM = 1 μM) K+ transporter Hak1 is 762 amino acyl residues long with 12 putative TMSs. Like the E. coli ...
Candidalysin is a cytolytic 31-amino acid α-helical peptide toxin that is released by C. albicans during hyphal formation. It ... "Candida albicans possess a highly versatile and dynamic high-affinity iron transport system important for its commensal- ... Moreover, C. albicans undergo yeast-to-hyphal transition within the acidic macrophage phagosome. This initially causes ... The Zrt1 is transporting the zinc ions with high affinity and the Zrt2 is transporting the zinc ions with low affinity. The ...
... an ionic bond is formed between a basic amino acid side-chain and the acidic phosphate group of NADP+. On the converse, in NAD- ... These shuttle systems also have the same transport function in chloroplasts. Since both the oxidized and reduced forms of ... from an amino acid - either tryptophan (Trp) in animals and some bacteria, or aspartic acid (Asp) in some bacteria and plants. ... An example of a NAD-binding bacterial enzyme involved in amino acid metabolism that does not have the Rossmann fold is found in ...
... gluconic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and phosphoric acid. Together, these residues form an acidic matrix that helps ... "Studies on the Respiratory System in Alkaliphilic Bacillus; a Proposed New Respiratory System." Extremophiles 2 (1998): 83-92. ... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... In this model, H+ ions are first extruded through the electron transport chain in respiring cells and to some extent through an ...
... of 969-975 bp encoding a 323-325 amino acid protein. In the rat, the ORF is 981 bp in length and encodes for a 327-amino acid ... The clinical phenotype involves the bone, the central nervous system, and the immune system. The pathogenesis probably includes ... It has a molecular weight of approximately 35kDa, a basic isoelectric point (7.6-9.5), and optimal activity in acidic ... Roberts RM, Raub TJ, Bazer FW (September 1986). "Role of uteroferrin in transplacental iron transport in the pig". Federation ...
It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as "molecular building blocks Archived 2020-01-22 at the ... It directs the transport through the ER and the Golgi apparatus. Centrosomes are composed of two centrioles which lie ... Peroxisomes have enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides, Lysosomes are optimally active at acidic pH. The cell could not ... In general, cells of all organisms contain enzyme systems that scan their DNA for DNA damage and carry out repair processes ...
Magnesium citrate has been reported as more bioavailable than oxide or amino-acid chelate forms. Intravenous magnesium sulfate ... Due to magnesium's mobile nature, the plant will first break down chlorophyll in older leaves and transport the Mg to younger ... Hermans C, Vuylsteke F, Coppens F. "Systems Analysis of the responses to long-term magnesium deficiency and restoration in ... Magnesium deficiency is a detrimental plant disorder that occurs most often in strongly acidic, light, sandy soils, where ...
Fatty acids in acidic or slightly alkaline geothermal springs assemble into vesicles after wet-dry cycles as there is a lower ... A similar hypothesis presents self-replicating iron-rich clays as the progenitors of nucleotides, lipids and amino acids. Wet- ... In small rock pore systems, membranous structures between alkaline seawater and the acidic ocean would be conducive to proton ... For organic compounds to be present at geothermal springs, they would have likely been transported by carbonaceous meteors. The ...
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ... Bilateral symmetry refers to a molecule or system that contains a C2, Cs, or C2v point group identity. C2 symmetry tends to be ... Because many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments such as polar regions, hot springs, acidic springs, alkaline ... synthesized from tryptophan is a component of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ which in turn are required for electron transport in ...
... are folded chains of a large number of different amino acids called polypeptides. The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide ... Or, they may have a recognizable separate circulatory system but not one that deals with oxygen transport (for example, many ... more acidic). Hemoglobin can bind protons and carbon dioxide, which causes a conformational change in the protein and ... Most of the amino acids in hemoglobin form alpha helices, and these helices are connected by short non-helical segments. ...
Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able ... These highly acidic proteins are overwhelmingly negative in charge and are able to remain in solution even at high salt ... H. salinarum is as easy to culture as E. coli and serves as an excellent model system. Methods for gene replacement and ... which drives proton transport. The proton gradient formed thereby can then be used to generate chemical energy via ATP synthase ...
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal ... Exon 1 contains a signal sequence that localises the receptor to the endoplasmic reticulum for transport to the cell surface. ... Additionally, each repeat has highly conserved acidic residues which it uses to coordinate a single calcium ion in an ... "BioGPS - your Gene Portal System". biogps.org. Retrieved 2016-10-10. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985" (Press ...
In 2021, food management system expert Sylvain Charlebois remarked on the industry's use of palm oil, given as palmitic acid ... stomach acid. This is because feeding grain to cattle makes their normally pH-neutral digestive tract abnormally acidic; over ... it was remarked that the amino acids differ. Some studies report an increased presence in humans of rBGH and its IGF-1 product ... often affecting stressed cattle during transport and processing. BRD can lead to lung tissue damage and impair the performance ...
... from the amino acid glycine and succinyl-CoA from the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). The rate-limiting enzyme responsible for ... The following carbon numbering system of porphyrins is an older numbering used by biochemists and not the 1-24 numbering system ... Some urobilinogen is absorbed by intestinal cells and transported into the kidneys and excreted with urine (urobilin, which is ... becomes positively charged under acidic conditions (which are caused by dissolved CO2 in working muscles, etc.), releasing ...
Enteroviruses are stable under acidic conditions, thus they are able to survive exposure to gastric acid. In contrast, ... to 25-amino acid-long viral protein linked to the VPg to initiate polymerase activity, where the primer is covalently bound to ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses, as they contain a single-stranded ...
"Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of ... Dichlorine monoxide: the corresponding acidic oxide Hypofluorous acid Perchloric acid Harris, Daniel C. (2009). Exploring ... One way of addressing the loss of oxygen uptake was by studying the effects of HClO on succinate-dependent electron transport. ... Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a ...
... with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, and lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals ... but by contrasting the monocultural system associated with HYVs with the polycultural system associated with traditional ones. ... Brazil's vast inland cerrado region was regarded as unfit for farming before the 1960s because the soil was too acidic and poor ... Most high intensity agricultural production is highly reliant on agricultural machinery and transport, as well as the ...
"Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation". Amino Acids. 6 (3): ... and thus inhibits their destruction by the immune system. The HIV virus evades the immune system in part by grafting these ... Exocytosis, fertilization of an egg by sperm activation, and transport of waste products to the lysozome are a few of the many ... "Binding of peptides with basic residues to membranes containing acidic phospholipids". Biophys. J. 60 (1): 135-48. Bibcode: ...
Abbas, S.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2008). "Amino acid synthesis in Europa's subsurface environment". International Journal of ... In 1998 he joined the University of Texas at El Paso as assistant professor, investigating microbe and chemical transport in ... António, M.R.S.; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "The immune system as key to cancer treatment: triggering its activity with ... 2009). "Evidence for Amazonian acidic liquid water on Mars: a reinterpretation of MER mission results". Planetary and Space ...
... and also key pollutants in causing the eutrophication of water systems. Nitrogen is a constituent element of amino acids and ... Oxygen is named for its formation of acids, especially with non-metals. Some oxides of some non-metals are extremely acidic, ... Fluorine even attacks silica, one of the favored materials for transporting strong acids, and burns asbestos. It attacks common ... With nitrogen it forms alkaloids, and with the addition of sulfur also it forms antibiotics, amino acids, and rubber products. ...
Through hydrolysis the complex organic molecules are broken down into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids. Acetate and ... Low solids (wet) digesters can transport material through the system using standard pumps that require significantly lower ... High TAN concentrations cause the reaction to turn acidic and lead to a domino effect of inhibition. Total ammonia nitrogen is ... Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. In ...
"Prebiotic amino acids bind to and stabilize prebiotic fatty acid membranes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ... cells have membrane transport-systems that achieve the import of nutritive molecules as well as the export of waste. It is very ... of protocells was possibly maintained by the acidic ocean and alkaline hydrothermal seawater at white smokers at porous systems ... Research has shown that vesicles are binded and stabilized by prebiotic amino acids while in the presence of salt ions and ...
Its amino acid code (DNA triplet --> amino acid incorporation) is identical across all Terrestrial life except for a very few ... It is also involved in the transport of fat (i.e., lipids) in the blood. The transport mechanism (Low Density Cholesterol or ... Point system A way to plan meals that uses points to rate food. The foods are placed in four classes: calories, carbohydrates, ... Acidosis An acidic condition in body fluids, chiefly blood. If prolonged, or severe, it can cause coma and death regardless of ...
... gastric acid] aspiration, and, possibly, death." When stomach inflation leads to vomiting of highly acidic stomach acids, ... "Current and future combat airway options available to the Advanced Medical Assistant (AMA)". jmvh.org. Retrieved 2018-12-16. ... Comparison of the Mapleson C system and adult and paediatric self-inflating bags for delivering guideline-consistent ... the mechanical ventilator needs to be examined for possible malfunction or when ventilator-dependent patients are transported ...
In one example, a reduction in cross contaminant signal during the characterization of an amino acid required 4-5 wash steps ... Introductory systems of high-field NMR and 2D NMR in conjunction with microfluidics have also been developed. These systems use ... One issue raised with MALDI-MS coupling to DMF is that the matrix necessary for MALDI-MS can be highly acidic, which may ... Discrete droplets can be transported in a highly controlled way using an array of electrodes. In the same way droplets move ...
Under most circumstances, only PrP molecules with an identical amino acid sequence to the infectious PrPSc are incorporated ... Until 2015 all known mammalian prion diseases were considered to be caused by the prion protein, PrP; in 2015 multiple system ... Examples include sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide, and strongly acidic detergents such as LpH. The World Health ... and transport infectious prions". Cell Reports. 11 (8): 1168-75. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.036. PMC 4449294. PMID 25981035. ...
... is most available to the body when chelated to amino acids and is also available for use as a common iron supplement. ... Iron Transport from the Continents to the Open Ocean: The Aging-Rejuvenation Cycle. Elements, 7(2), 101-106. doi:10.2113/ ... Iron plays an essential role in marine systems and can act as a limiting nutrient for planktonic activity. Because of this, too ... Powdered iron in an acidic solvent was used in the Bechamp reduction the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. Iron based ...
... in which two PNA molecules are held together by a flexible linker such as 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (O). The bis-PNA ... Formation of H-DNA is stabilized under acidic conditions and in the presence of divalent cations such as Mg2+. In this ... This results in the degeneration of the nervous system and spinal cord, impairing the movement of the limbs. To combat this ... cells and in vivo in a CF mouse model which resulted in the appearance of CFTR-dependent chloride transport. Triple-stranded ...
October 2005). "Retinoic acid represses a cassette of candidate pluripotency chromosome 12p genes during induced loss of human ... Perron M, Boy S, Amato MA, et al. (April 2003). "A novel function for Hedgehog signalling in retinal pigment epithelium ... May 2005). "ABCB5-mediated doxorubicin transport and chemoresistance in human malignant melanoma". Cancer Research. 65 (10): ... mice Gli2 Gli3 glial fibrillary acidic protein glycoprotein IB GSTA1 HAS2 gene expression Her5 hMYADM HSA hsp25 Id2 IL-3Ralpha ...
J chain is a small (~137 amino acids), acidic protein. As shown, J chain joins two µ chains via disulfide bonds involving ... Subsequent studies using recombinant DNA expression systems indicated that the hexamer is a major form of mouse IgM when the ... possible explanation for IgM-mediated enhancement is that B lymphocytes capture IgM-antigen-complement complexes and transport ... also approximately 110 amino acids long). The µ heavy chain of IgM is a protein of ~576 amino acids, and includes a variable ...
S. pombe can degrade L-malic acid, one of the dominant organic acids in wine, which makes them diverse among other ... pombe a great system to use to study human genes and disease pathways, especially cell cycle and DNA checkpoint systems. ... Klar, Amar J.S. (2007-12-01). "Lessons Learned from Studies of Fission Yeast Mating-Type Switching and Silencing". Annual ... Links between doxorubicin adverse side-effects and chromosome metabolism and membrane transport were seen. Metabolic models for ...
These salts are formed in the hepatocytes from bile acids combined with an amino acid. Other compounds such as the waste ... The GI tract accomplishes this ion pumping using a system of proteins that are capable of active transport, facilitated ... H+ and Cl− are secreted by the parietal cells into the lumen of the stomach creating acidic conditions with a low pH of 1. H+ ... The digestive system has a complex system of motility and secretion regulation which is vital for proper function. This task is ...
Artificial perspiration is also available for in-vitro testing, and contains 19 amino acids and the most abundant minerals and ... and their fluidic transport to the skin surface. Dissolved in the water are trace amounts of minerals, lactic acid, and urea. ... Sympathetic nervous system stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines have also been associated with diaphoresis. Diaphoresis ... In humans, sweat is hypoosmotic relative to plasma (i.e. less concentrated). Sweat is found at moderately acidic to neutral pH ...
... which has deprotonated/unionized amino acid residues (regarding nitrogen/amines) due to the less-acidic arterial pH environment ... The precise mechanisms by which the effects of carbon monoxide are induced upon bodily systems are complex and not yet fully ... It may also enhance oxygen transport to the tissues by plasma, partially bypassing the normal transfer through hemoglobin. ... acidic' protons/hydrogen ions) caused by an increase in the biotransformation of carbon dioxide waste into carbonic acid via ...
In acidic solution, the sulfenic acid is isolated before reaction with one or more cysteines accessible from the luminar ... Then the second proton is added with acid transport by the H+/K+ ATPase, and the compound is activated. Recent data suggest the ... The catalytic α subunit has ten transmembrane segments with a cluster of intramembranal carboxylic amino acids located in the ... This is achieved by formulating capsules using the multiple-unit pellet system. Although the (S)-(−)-isomer is more potent in ...
Acidic Amino Acid Transport Proteins Acidic Amino Acid Transport Systems Acidic Amino Acid Transporters Amino Acid Transport ... Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).. Terms. Amino Acid Transport ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.157.530.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.157.530.200.249] * Amino ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.543.585.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.543.585.200.249] * Amino ...
Acidic Amino Acid Transport Proteins Acidic Amino Acid Transport Systems Acidic Amino Acid Transporters Amino Acid Transport ... Acidic Amino Acid Transport Proteins. Acidic Amino Acid Transport Systems. Acidic Amino Acid Transporters. Amino Acid Transport ... Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC). ... Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).. ...
Acidic Amino Acid Transport Proteins Acidic Amino Acid Transport Systems Acidic Amino Acid Transporters Amino Acid Transport ... Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).. Terms. Amino Acid Transport ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.157.530.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.157.530.200.249] * Amino ... Amino Acid Transport Systems [D12.776.543.585.200] * Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.543.585.200.249] * Amino ...
... acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC). HN - 2002 BX - Acidic Amino Acid Transport Systems BX - Amino Acid Transport Systems, Anionic BX ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Cationic BX - Basic Amino Acid Transport Systems BX - Cationic Amino Acid Transport Systems MH - ... for AMINO ACID PERMEASE use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (NM) 1981-2001; for AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT ... HN - 2002; for AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER A use AMINO ACID TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (NM) 2000-2001 MH - Amino Acid Transport System ASC UI ...
... acidic amino acid transporter in the same cells. Low-affinity uptake is Na+ dependent with a Hill coefficient (n) of 1.4. ... L-aspartate transport system. L-Glutamate and D-aspartate, but not D-glutamate, were found to inhibit L-aspartate influx, ... MeSH Terms: Animals; Aspartic Acid/metabolism*; Aspartic Acid/pharmacology; Biological Transport/drug effects; Carrier Proteins ... A model for intestinal Na+-dependent L-Asp transport is suggested in which each transport cycle involves inward transfer of ...
... latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids ... sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a ... In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will ... CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, ...
... belonging to the High Affinity nitrate Transport System (HATS) compared to Faro. These responses as a whole could be linked to ... belonging to the Low Affinity Transport System (LATS), and an upregulation of a nitrate transporter (a NRT2.1-like homologue) ... Early seed germination and a functional root system development during establishment are crucial attributes contributing to ... this amino acid is a retarder of germination in wheat [26].. Other important amino acids that were enhanced in Socaire compared ...
L N0000169799 Amino Acid Transport Systems N0000169809 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic N0000169804 Amino Acid Transport ... N0000169802 Amino Acid Transport System L N0000169810 Amino Acid Transport System X-AG N0000169806 Amino Acid Transport System ... Systems, Basic N0000169800 Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral N0000006806 Amino Acids N0000011372 Amino Acids, Acidic ... Amino Acid Isomerases N0000167825 Amino Acid Oxidoreductases N0000169801 Amino Acid Transport System A N0000169803 Amino Acid ...
Table 6 Treatment-Emergent Amino Acid Substitutions in PA Associated with Reduced Susceptibility to Baloxavir Influenza Type/ ... Transporter Systems: Both baloxavir marboxil and baloxavir are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Baloxavir does not inhibit ... XOFLUZA is an influenza virus polymerase acidic (PA) endonuclease inhibitor indicated for: *Treatment of acute uncomplicated ... organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2, organic anion ...
The PACS1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1 (PACS1). Learn ... amino acid) arginine replaced with the amino acid tryptophan at position 203 (written as Arg203Trp or R203W). ... PACS1 gene mutations are thought to impair the proteins ability to aid in the transport of molecules and proteins. Such an ... It is likely that the development of other body systems are similarly affected by impaired PACS1 protein function, leading to ...
Amino acids: To make bigger and stabilize blood pH level, giving cells their structure. It transport and shop vitamins in the ... The amino acid aid in proteins production in the human body, optimize glycogen synthesis, "food" for the immune system, among ... It additionally reduces the acidic compounds that hinder and slow down recovery; ... Folic acid: Aid in transporting fatty acids to the mitochondria that are used as energy; ...
Amino acids: To increase and stabilize blood pH level, giving cells their structure. It transport and store nutrients in the ... It also reduces the acidic compounds that hinder and slow down recovery; ... for the immune system, amongst different functions;. It additionally will become the fuel nitric oxide in the physique which is ... Folic acid: Aid in transporting fatty acids to the mitochondria that are used as energy; ...
... amino acid uptake porter (transports acidic, basic, polar, semipolar and hydrophobic amino acids). The amino and carboxyl ... branched-chain amino acid ABC transporter permease. High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system permease protein ... High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system permease protein BraE, component of Branched chain amino acid uptake ... Curated sequence P22729: High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system permease protein LivM; LIV-I protein M. LivM ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport into the brain. Phenylalanine is transported into the brain across the blood-brain barrier ... by a transporter system that is specific for large neutral amino acids, including tyrosine, tryptophan, methionine, histidine ... showed an increased amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein and had an aberrant cytosolic localization of myelin/ ... by phenylalanine of amino acid transport within the brain may result in a relative deficiency of certain critical amino acids ...
Mutating R388 to an acidic amino acid small (Ala) or large non-polar (Phe) amino-acid reduces both the uptake activity and the ... transport aspartate. These results inculcate the 3-4 loop as an important player in the transport process, a finding not ... Departments of Neurobiology1 and Computational & Systems Biology2, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA ... with voltage-clamp fluorimetry to investigate the contribution of these acidic amino acids to voltage-sensor function and ...
Kakinuma A, Hori M, Isono M, Tamura G, Arima K. Determination of amino acid sequence in surfactin, a crystalline peptidelipid ... 4 spin systems were observed, each a pyranose sugar with an acetylated amino (NHAc) group at carbon 2, identified by 13C signal ... B) 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectrum of acidic PS isolated from ΔwzaX ΩpilA supernatant. Analysis was performed at 25 ºC, 500 MHz. ... motility on hard surfaces mediated by directed transport and substratum coupling of the Agl-Glt trans-envelope complex [11,12 ...
Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system ... acidic pH and the presence of biomolecules play an essential role on NP aggregation. Finally, quantitative PCR of selected ... Background Reabsorption of amino acids (AAs) across the renal proximal tubule is crucial for intracellular and whole organism ... Mutations in L-type amino acid transporter-2 support SLC7A8 as a novel gene involved in age-related hearing loss. ...
Iodine from foods is combined with the amino acid tyrosine and converted by the thyroid to the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) ... and to learn how to utilize the system to positively affect fertility status. More information on the endocannabinoid system ... The second type of cells, peg cells, produces fluid that aids the transport of sperm toward the oocyte at the fimbriated end ... which aid survival in the acidic vaginal environment) and then with prostatic fluid (to aid sperm propulsion) to finally become ...
They are key structural and functional elements in axons, supporting neurite differentiation and growth, as well as transport ... as well as transporting motor proteins along the axons, which use MTs as support tracks. Tau is a stabilizing MT associated ... There are six isoforms of Tau protein present in the central nervous system (ranging from 352 to 441 amino acid residues), ... K274 of R2 interacts with an acidic patch formed by D427 and S423; K281 of R2 is in contact with the acidic C-terminal tail of ...
Central nervous system diseases are characterized by slow onset, occultation, a... ... α-Syn is a soluble cytoplasmic small protein composed of 140 amino acids, which is encoded by the SNCA gene. Its major protein ... potentially mediating the transport of synaptic vesicles to, and docking with, the presynaptic membrane, and participating in ... domains include an amphiphilic region, a non-amyloid-β component (NAC) domain, and an acidic tail (Maries et al., 2003; Venda ...
b) Active absorption (Active transport): Absorption against concentration gradient. E.g. absorption of amino acids, ... Chyme: Acidic pasty food formed in stomach.. Digestion in Small intestine:. Role of Bile juice: ... DISORDERS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM *Jaundice: Skin and eye turns yellow due to the deposition of bile pigments. It indicates liver ... Simple diffusion: E.g. glucose, amino acids, Cl-. *Facilitated diffusion: Diffusion with the help of carrier proteins. E.g. ...
Apart from the membrane transport of glucose, insulin also regulates the transport of some amino acids, some fatty acids, ... A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic ... Biological Transport. The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the ... Amino Acid Sequence. The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary ...
There are three types of amino acids: acidic, basic and neutral; each of these classes has a different transport mediator. ... While both forms are found in biological systems, only the l form is present in proteins. Amino acids are linked together like ... Subject: AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN Amino Acids. AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEIN Next to water, protein is the most abundant substance in ... These amino acids are just as vital to human metabolism as the "essential" amino acids; so vital that the body can synthesize ...
Herewe investigate the use of amino acids with varying carbon chain lengths as zwitterionic additives that enhancePSC device ... Impact of RbF and NaF Postdeposition Treatments on Charge Carrier Transport and Recombination in Ga-Graded Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Solar ... The average power conversion efficiency - of OPVs based on the ternary system is improved from 14.9% to 15.6% by C60 -SAM ... jats:p,Hydrous iridium oxides (IrOx) are the best oxygen evolution electrocatalysts available for operation in acidic ...
... the acidic AAs, such as glutamic and aspartic acids (GASR sites), are seen at AA #96-107 (domain I); AA #149-156 (domain I); AA ... HAFP is known to bind and transport a multitude of ligands, including bilirubin, fatty acids, retinoids, steroids, heavy metals ... The immune system is able to distinguish non-self pathogens from self-proteins/tissues and this discrimination is mediated by ... Amino acid sequences. List of Abbreviations:. AA, amino acid; AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; APC, antigen presenting cells; AR, ...
  • Within the trans-Golgi network, this protein helps transport certain molecules and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PACS1 gene mutations are thought to impair the protein's ability to aid in the transport of molecules and proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are key structural and functional elements in axons, supporting neurite differentiation and growth, as well as transporting motor proteins along the axons, which use MTs as support tracks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins. (lookformedical.com)
  • Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Globulins are a diverse group of proteins that transport various substances in the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Probe Set ID Ref Seq Protein ID Signal Strength Name Gene Symbol Species Function Swiss-Prot ID Amino Acid Sequence 1367452_at NP_598278 7.9 small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 precursor Sumo2 Rattus norvegicus " Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (nih.gov)
  • This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. (nih.gov)
  • CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we review an alternative hypothesis that has recently gained experimental support, focusing on the role of amyloidogenic peptides rather than nucleic acids, in what has been by some termed "the amyloid-world" hypothesis. (catsboard.com)
  • The PACS1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1 (PACS1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common mutation, which occurs in nearly everyone with PACS1 syndrome, results in the production of a protein with the protein building block (amino acid) arginine replaced with the amino acid tryptophan at position 203 (written as Arg203Trp or R203W). (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is likely that the development of other body systems are similarly affected by impaired PACS1 protein function, leading to other signs and symptoms of PACS1 syndrome, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2000. Assessing the role of ortho -substitution on polychlorinated biphenyl binding to transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein. (cdc.gov)
  • High-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system permease protein BraE, component of Branched chain amino acid uptake transporter. (lbl.gov)
  • Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a protein widely expressed in the central nervous system. (conditionmed.org)
  • Bile salts & phospholipids convert lipids to water-soluble droplets (micelles) → small protein coated fat globules (chylomicrons) → transported into lacteals in the villi → lymph → blood. (bankofbiology.com)
  • The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. (lookformedical.com)
  • If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. (lookformedical.com)
  • Furthermore, [203Hg]MeHg uptake at 15 s after intracarotid injections in the rat was stereospecific to the neutral amino acid carrier, as 203Hg uptake across the BBB was not inhibited by coinjections of [203Hg]MeHgCl with aspartic acid, an acidic amino acid. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids ( AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC ). (nih.gov)
  • high confidence medium confidence low confidence transporter - transporters and PTS systems are shaded because predicting their specificity is particularly challenging. (lbl.gov)
  • branched chain amino acid/phenylalanine ABC transporter membrane subunit LivM (EC (lbl.gov)
  • Uptake of methylmercury in the rat brain: effects of amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • This L-cysteine-enhanced 203Hg brain uptake was abolished by coinjections of [203Hg]MeHgCl with 0.1 mM L-cysteine-L-methionine, or 0.1 mM L-cysteine plus AT-125 (alpha S, 5S-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazolacetic acid), an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate the presence in brain capillaries of a transport system capable of selectively mediating MeHg uptake across the brain capillary endothelial cell membrane. (nih.gov)
  • BraE aka Bra2E, component of General L- (and D-)amino acid uptake porter (transports acidic, basic, polar, semipolar and hydrophobic amino acids). (lbl.gov)
  • Cell uptake behavior was examined using FITC-labeled stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide. (springer.com)
  • The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. (mdpi.com)
  • The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. (lookformedical.com)
  • The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. (lookformedical.com)
  • Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories. (lookformedical.com)
  • The amino and carboxyl groups do not need to be α since γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a substrate. (lbl.gov)
  • Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. (lookformedical.com)
  • Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. (mdpi.com)
  • The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. (lookformedical.com)
  • The p.Tyr553Cys amino acid substitution strongly slowed ClC-6 gating and increased current amplitudes, particularly at the acidic pH of late endosomes. (torvergata.it)
  • Their generation strictly required ClC-6 ion transport, as shown by transport-deficient double mutants, and depended on Cl-/H+ exchange, as revealed by combination with the uncoupling p.Glu200Ala substitution. (torvergata.it)
  • This is due to lactic acid build up during exercise. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
  • Calcium may bind lactic acid, relaxing the muscle and releasing the cramp. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
  • Sparkling water and club soda, given their alkali nature, also help to neutralize the lactic acid relieving a muscle cramp. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
  • Primary metabolic acidoses that occur as a result of a marked increase in endogenous acid production (eg, lactic or keto acids) or progressive accumulation of endogenous acids when excretion is impaired by renal insufficiency are characterized by decreased plasma bicarbonate concentration and increased anion gap without hyperchloremia. (medscape.com)
  • Roles of neuroactive amino acids in ammonia neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. (nih.gov)
  • 1984. The reversal potential of excitatory amino acid action on granule cells of the rat dentate gyrus. (cdc.gov)
  • Throat swabs were taken within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms, placed in viral transport media (MicroTest, M4) (VTM), and delivered via commercial carrier to the clinical laboratory at the Epidemiological Surveillance Division, Brooks Air Force Base. (cdc.gov)
  • Light-intensity dependent Jsc data and charge carrier lifetime analysis indicate suppressed bimolecular recombination and a longer charge carrier lifetime in the ternary system, resulting in the enhancement of OPV performance. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • In this study, stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide was used as a carrier and its physicochemical properties were determined by different methods. (springer.com)
  • Before these Peru isolates, no circulation of amino acid-134 deletion mutants in the Americas was documented. (cdc.gov)
  • Soluble salts of weak acids (e.g., carbonates, acetates, sulfides, and cyanides) do not exist in aqueous solution or in water, since they undergo complete hydrolysis, resulting in the precipitation of aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3]. (nih.gov)
  • In the pathological state α-syn changes from a soluble monomer to pathological oligomers and fibrils, which participate in the occurrence and development of various central nervous system diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Lewy body dementia, and cerebrovascular diseases. (conditionmed.org)
  • Aspects of the regulation of methylmercury (MeHg) transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were investigated in the in vivo Long-Evans female rat. (nih.gov)
  • This review explains the physiological functions of α-syn, the effects of different forms of pathological α-syn, summarizes the research progress relating to α-syn in different forms and sources as biomarkers for PD, and explores the potential role of α-syn in other central nervous system diseases and the possibility of α-syn as a biomarker for these diseases. (conditionmed.org)
  • Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. (lookformedical.com)
  • Together with pH determination, bicarbonate measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with acid-base imbalance in the respiratory and metabolic systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Because therapeutic drugs are transported through the bloodstream, their solubility affects their absorption and distribution directly. (springer.com)
  • We also propose potential clinical applications of α-syn as helpful biomarkers or therapeutic targets in different central nervous system diseases. (conditionmed.org)
  • In addition, phosphorus is a component of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the molecules that make up chromosomes and control genetic inheritance. (missouri.edu)
  • These pathologically modified Tau molecules perturb MT function and axonal transport, contributing to neurodegeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Calcium and phosphorus are stored in bone and mobilized into the circulatory system when dietary intake of the two minerals is adequate. (missouri.edu)
  • E.g. absorption of amino acids, monosaccharides like glucose, electrolytes like Na+ etc. (bankofbiology.com)
  • We will be discussing how to create a strong and healthy Immune system naturally. (leadingedgehealth.org)
  • Vitamin D also has an important role in transporting calcium into bone, as does Vitamin K2 and Magnesium. (brainfoodbrainfood.com)
  • Central nervous system diseases are characterized by slow onset, occultation, and progressive aggravation, which makes the diagnosis of these diseases very difficult. (conditionmed.org)
  • In addition, various forms of α-syn can be transmitted through different body fluids, raising the possibility that it can be used as a biomarker to help diagnose central nervous system diseases. (conditionmed.org)
  • Measurements of creatine kinase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • Due to its nutritional content, yeast in this form may increase a person's energy, support their immune system, and offer additional health benefits. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Most people have a compromised immune system. (leadingedgehealth.org)
  • How to support the immune system. (leadingedgehealth.org)
  • What is our immune system? (leadingedgehealth.org)
  • Keeping the diet clean and filtered from things that will dampen the immune system is the best 'first place' to start! (leadingedgehealth.org)
  • We many health professionals estimating a second round or wave of COVID which might possibly be worse than the first wave, now is the time to build and keep your immune system strong! (leadingedgehealth.org)
  • During spring 1999, Beijing/262/95-like variants, containing a characteristic deletion mutation at amino acid 134 of the HA gene, were isolated from 13 persons at a DOD-GEIS influenza surveillance site in Lima, Peru. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the exact mechanism of assembly and stabilization of MTs by Tau remains challenging to characterize due to the inherent dynamics of the system and the disordered nature of Tau. (frontiersin.org)
  • The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems. (lookformedical.com)
  • Excessive mobilization of calcium from the skeletal system of the lactating cow can lead to milk fever, also known as parturient paresis or hypocalcemia. (missouri.edu)
  • 36 with the thyroid hormone system: Mechanisms and possible consequences for animal and human health. (cdc.gov)
  • We degraded high molecular weight chitosan (450 kDa) using chitosanase under acidic conditions to obtain low molecular weight chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO, 18 kDa). (springer.com)
  • [7] [8] The greatest commercial use of the element is the production of sulfuric acid for sulfate and phosphate fertilizers , and other chemical processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • STI was supported by a post-doctoral fellowship (321028) in TM's group at project inception from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research ( https://cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/193.html ) and the AMIDEX excellence program of Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/en/public/excellence-initiative ). (plos.org)
  • Research in the lab of TM is funded by a grant (ANR-15-CE13-0006 BACTOCOMPASS) from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) ( https://anr.fr/en/ ), as well as support from the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ( http://www.cnrs.fr/ ) and Aix-Marseille University ( https://www.univ-amu.fr/fr ). (plos.org)
  • Results showed CSO-SA/EMO particle size was larger and potential was smaller than that of stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide. (springer.com)
  • 1987. Ammonia emissions and their role in acid deposition. (cdc.gov)
  • For the typical bacterium that can make all 20 amino acids, there are 1-2 gaps in amino acid biosynthesis pathways. (lbl.gov)
  • Studies on the physiological effects of sulfamic acid and ammonium sulfamate. (cdc.gov)
  • The delivery of emodine using a micelle system improved its antitumor effects effectively. (springer.com)
  • Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • A dynamic system involving calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D exists to maintain a relatively stable concentration of calcium in the blood. (missouri.edu)
  • This ensures that the calcium mobilization system is functioning properly before lactation. (missouri.edu)