Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)

Complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10. (1/61)

The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10 has been determined. The dinucleotide signature and percent G+C of the sequence had no discontinuities, indicating that Tn10 constitutes a homogeneous unit. The new sequence contained three new open reading frames corresponding to a glutamate permease, repressors of heavy metal resistance operons, and a hypothetical protein in Bacillus subtilis. The glutamate permease was fully functional when expressed, but Tn10 did not protect Escherichia coli from the toxic effects of various metals.  (+info)

Citrin and aralar1 are Ca(2+)-stimulated aspartate/glutamate transporters in mitochondria. (2/61)

The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are localized. These results show that the aspartate/glutamate carrier is regulated by Ca(2+) through a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria, and suggest a novel mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation of the aspartate/malate shuttle.  (+info)

Acidic amino acid transport characteristics of a newly developed conditionally immortalized rat type 2 astrocyte cell line (TR-AST). (3/61)

To characterize acidic amino acid transport in type 2 astrocytes, we established conditionally immortalized rat astrocyte cell lines (TR-AST) from newly developed transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive SV40 large T-antigen gene. TR-AST exhibited positive immunostaining for anti-GFAP antibody and A2B5 antibody, characteristics associated with type 2 astrocytes, and expressed glutamine synthetase. Acidic amino acid transporters, GLT-1 and system xc-, which consists of xCT and 4F2hc, were expressed in all TR-ASTs by RT-PCR. On the other hand, GLAST expression was found in TR-AST3 and 5. The characteristics of [3H]L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) uptake by TR-AST5 include an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner, concentration-dependence, and inhibition by L-aspartic acid (L-Asp) and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp). The corresponding Michaelis-Menten constants for the Na+-dependent and Na+-independent process were 36.3 microM and 155 microM, respectively. [3H]L-Asp and [3H]D-Asp uptake by TR-AST5 had an Na+-dependent and Na+-independent manner. This study demonstrated that GLT-1, system xc-, and GLAST were expressed in TR-AST, which has the characteristics of type 2 astrocytes and is able to transport acidic amino acids.  (+info)

Identification of genes encoding amino acid permeases by inactivation of selected ORFs from the Synechocystis genomic sequence. (4/61)

Genes encoding elements of four amino acid permeases were identified by insertional inactivation of ORFs from the genomic sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 whose putative products are homologous to amino acid permease proteins from other bacteria. A transport system for neutral amino acids and histidine and a transport system for basic amino acids and glutamine were identified as ABC-type transporters, whereas Na(+)-dependent transport of glutamate was found to be mediated by at least two systems, the secondary permease GltS and a TRAP-type transporter. Except for GltS, substrate specificities of the identified permeases do not match those of previously characterized systems homologous to these permeases.  (+info)

A third vesicular glutamate transporter expressed by cholinergic and serotoninergic neurons. (5/61)

Two proteins previously known as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporters have been identified recently as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2). Together, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are operating at most central glutamatergic synapses. In this study, we characterized a third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3), highly homologous to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. Vesicles isolated from endocrine cells expressing recombinant VGLUT3 accumulated l-glutamate with bioenergetic and pharmacological characteristics similar, but not identical, to those displayed by the type-1 and type-2 isoforms. Interestingly, the distribution of VGLUT3 mRNA was restricted to a small number of neurons scattered in the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and raphe nuclei, in contrast to VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 transcripts, which are massively expressed in cortical and deep structures of the brain, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was concentrated over synaptic vesicle clusters present in nerve endings forming asymmetrical as well as symmetrical synapses. Finally, VGLUT3-positive neurons of the striatum and raphe nuclei were shown to coexpress acetylcholine and serotonin transporters, respectively. Our study reveals a novel class of glutamatergic nerve terminals and suggests that cholinergic striatal interneurons and serotoninergic neurons from the brainstem may store and release glutamate.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human vesicular glutamate transporter 3. (6/61)

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. It is loaded into synaptic vesicles by a proton gradient-dependent uptake system and is released by exocytosis upon stimulation. Recently, two mammalian isoforms of a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have been identified, the expression of which enables quantal release of glutamate from glutamatergic neurons. Here, we report a novel isoform of a human vesicular glutamate transporter (hVGLUT3). The predicted amino acid sequence of hVGLUT3 shows 72% identity to both hVGLUT1 and hVGLUT2. hVGLUT3 functions as a vesicular glutamate transporter with similar properties to the other isoforms when it is heterologously expressed in a neuroendocrine cell line. Although mammalian VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit a complementary expression pattern covering all glutamatergic pathways in the CNS, expression of hVGLUT3 overlaps with them in some brain areas, suggesting molecular diversity that may account for physiological heterogeneity in glutamatergic synapses.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and functional identification of mouse vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and its expression in subsets of novel excitatory neurons. (7/61)

We have cloned and functionally characterized a third isoform of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3) expressed on synaptic vesicles that identifies a distinct glutamatergic system in the brain that is partly and selectively promiscuous with cholinergic and serotoninergic transmission. Transport activity was specific for glutamate, was H(+)-dependent, was stimulated by Cl(-) ion, and was inhibited by Rose Bengal and trypan blue. Northern analysis revealed higher mRNA levels in early postnatal development than in adult brain. Restricted patterns of mRNA expression were observed in presumed interneurons in cortex and hippocampus, and projection systems were observed in the lateral and ventrolateral hypothalamic nuclei, limbic system, and brainstem. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter identified VGLUT3 neurons in the striatum as cholinergic interneurons, whereas VGLUT3 mRNA and protein were absent from all other cholinergic cell groups. In the brainstem VGLUT3 mRNA was concentrated in mesopontine raphe nuclei. VGLUT3 immunoreactivity was present throughout the brain in a diffuse system of thick and thin beaded varicose fibers much less abundant than, and strictly separated from, VGLUT1 or VGLUT2 synapses. Co-existence of VGLUT3 in VMAT2-positive and tyrosine hydroxylase -negative varicosities only in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in subsets of tryptophan hydroxylase-positive cell bodies and processes in differentiating primary raphe neurons in vitro indicates selective and target-specific expression of the glutamatergic/serotoninergic synaptic phenotype.  (+info)

The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate. (8/61)

Quantal release of the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate requires a mechanism for its transport into secretory vesicles. Within the brain, the complementary expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) 1 and 2 accounts for the release of glutamate by all known excitatory neurons. We now report the identification of VGLUT3 and its expression by many cells generally considered to release a classical transmitter with properties very different from glutamate. Remarkably, subpopulations of inhibitory neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons, monoamine neurons, and glia express VGLUT3. The dendritic expression of VGLUT3 by particular neurons also indicates the potential for retrograde synaptic signaling. The distribution and subcellular location of VGLUT3 thus suggest novel modes of signaling by glutamate.  (+info)

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier catalyzes an important step in both the urea cycle and the aspartate/malate NADH shuttle. Citrin and aralar1 are homologous proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs in their N-terminal domains. Both proteins and their C-terminal domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, reconstituted into liposomes and shown to catalyze the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate and a H(+). Overexpression of the carriers in transfected human cells increased the activity of the malate/aspartate NADH shuttle. These results demonstrate that citrin and aralar1 are isoforms of the hitherto unidentified aspartate/glutamate carrier and explain why mutations in citrin cause type II citrullinemia in humans. The activity of citrin and aralar1 as aspartate/glutamate exchangers was stimulated by Ca(2+) on the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the Ca(2+)-binding domains of these proteins are ...
It has been suggested that system xc− may be a promising cancer target, as it may sensitize tumors to conventional chemo/radiation-based therapies by lowering glutathione levels (25). One of the causes of postoperative radiation and chemotherapy treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme is an increase in glutathione levels that may decrease chemotherapy-associated oxidative stress and play a role in glutathione-mediated cellular detoxification pathways. In this work, we have expanded on the role system xc− plays in temozolomide resistance in human glioma and have identified a novel mechanism that may contribute to glioma progression, via metabolic alteration. Inhibitors of system xc−, such as sulfasalazine, have been put forward as possible effective therapeutic options. Sulfasalazine has been shown to deplete glutathione levels by inhibiting the uptake of cystine, which lowers levels of intracellular cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor for glutathione synthesis ...
Two vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, have recently been identified, and it has been reported that they are expressed by largely nonoverlapping populations of glutamatergic neurons in the brain. We have used immunocytochemistry with antibodies against both transporters, together with markers for various populations of spinal neurons, in an attempt to identify glutamatergic interneurons in the dorsal horn of the mid-lumbar spinal cord of the rat. The great majority (94-100%) of nonprimary axonal boutons that contained somatostatin, substance P or neurotensin, as well as 85% of those that contained enkephalin, were VGLUT2-immunoreactive, which suggests that most dorsal horn neurons that synthesize these peptides are glutamatergic. In support of this, we found that most somatostatin- and enkephalin-containing boutons (including somatostatin-immunoreactive boutons that lacked calcitonin gene-related peptide and were therefore probably derived from local interneurons) formed ...
Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) potentiate insulin secretion through cAMP signaling in pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. We recently proposed a mechanistic model of incretin-induced insulin secretion (IIIS) that requires two critical processes: 1) generation of cytosolic glutamate through the malate-aspartate (MA) shuttle in glucose metabolism and 2) glutamate transport into insulin granules by cAMP signaling to promote insulin granule exocytosis. To directly prove the model, we have established and characterized CRISPR/Cas9-engineered clonal mouse β-cell lines deficient for the genes critical in these two processes: aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AST1, gene symbol Got1), a key enzyme in the MA shuttle, which generates cytosolic glutamate, and the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and VGLUT3, gene symbol Slc17a7, Slc17a6, and Slc17a8, respectively), which participate in glutamate transport into secretory vesicles ...
M M Shah, M Mistry, S J Marsh, D A Brown, P Delmas. J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2002 Oct 1 , 544, 29-37. M-type K(+) currents (I(K(M))) play a key role in regulating neuronal excitability. In sympathetic neurons, M-channels are thought to be composed of a heteromeric assembly of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 K(+) channel subunits. Here, we have tried to identify the KCNQ subunits that are involved in the generation of I(K(M)) in hippocampal pyramidal neurons cultured from 5- to 7-day-old rats. RT-PCR of either CA1 or CA3 regions revealed the presence of KCNQ2, KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 subunits. Single-cell PCR of dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons gave detectable signals for only KCNQ2, KCNQ3 and KCNQ5; where tested, most also expressed mRNA for the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1. Staining for KCNQ2 and KCNQ5 protein showed punctate fluorescence on both the somata and dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Staining for KCNQ3 was diffusely distributed whereas KCNQ4 was undetectable. In perforated patch ...
Rationale: Aspects of schizophrenia, including deficits in sensorimotor gating, have been linked to glutamate dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex. System xc −, a cystine-glutamate antiporter, is a poorly understood mechanism that contributes to both cellular antioxidant capacity and glutamate homeostasis. Objectives: Our goal was to determine whether increased system xc − activity within the prefrontal cortex would normalize a rodent measure of sensorimotor gating. Methods: In situ hybridization was used to map messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of xCT, the active subunit of system xc −, in the prefrontal cortex. Prepulse inhibition was used to measure sensorimotor gating; deficits in prepulse inhibition were produced using phencyclidine (0.3-3 mg/kg, sc). N-Acetylcysteine (10-100 μM) and the system xc − inhibitor (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG, 0.5 μM) were used to increase and decrease system xc − activity, respectively. The uptake of 14C-cystine into tissue punches
This 7-Tesla MRI scanner provides more than twice the magnetic field strength of a conventional.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create
The aim of this thesis is to better understand the regulation of the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) and its role in regulating neuronal survival and death. Expressed primarily on astrocytes, system xc- takes up cystine and releases glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. Cystine uptake is the rate-limiting step in glutathione synthesis, the brains main antioxidant. Glutamate released into the extrasynaptic space can regulate neuronal function; however excessive glutamate release can cause excitotoxicity. The dual actions of system xc- make it of interest in many neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress and excitotoxicity are involved. We investigated the regulation of system xc- in SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS. We observed an increase in cystine uptake and glutamate release through system xc- in spinal cord slices of SOD1-G93A transgenic mice. We did not observe a change in the function of the main glutamate clearance transporter, excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT). This
A team of Neuroscientists from NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, have made a major breakthrough in understanding how signals are processed in the human brain. The paper, published in the current issue of the scientific journal Neuron, shows that a certain type of protein - the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) plays a crucial part in the strength regulation of synaptic connections. This regulation enables synapses to vary in strength. Synapses transmit the communication between different neurons within the central nervous system and depending on their function in the brain, they operate differently. For example, the cerebral cortex bundles a vast amount of information and in order to process this, neurons need to dose or regulate the information. Neuroscientist Christian Rosenmund, who moved his lab from Baylor College of Medicine to Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin in 2009, has been focusing ...
A key issue in neuroscience is to determine the connection between neuronal circuits and behaviour. In the adult brain, all neuronal circuits include a glutamatergic component. Three proteins designated Vesicular glutamate transporter 1-3 (VGLUT1-3) possess the capability of packaging glutamate into presynaptic vesicles for release of glutamate at the nerve terminal.. The present study aimed at determining the role of VGLUT2 in neuronal circuits of higher brain function, emotion, and reward-pocessing. A conditional knockout (cKO) strategy was utilised, and three different mouse lines were produced to delete VGLUT2 in specific neuronal circuits in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. First, we produced a cKO mouse in which Vglut2 was deleted in specific subpopulations of the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus from preadolescence. This resulted in blunted aspects in cognitive, emotional and social behaviour in a schizophrenia-related phenotype. Furthermore, we showed a downstream effect of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of system Xc− in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice. AU - Dang, Duy Khanh. AU - Shin, Eun Joo. AU - Tran, Hai Quyen. AU - Kim, Dae Joong. AU - Jeong, Ji Hoon. AU - Jang, Choon Gon. AU - Nah, Seung Yeol. AU - Sato, Hideyo. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Yoneda, Yukio. AU - Kim, Hyoung Chun. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild type mice. xCT inhibitor [i.e., S-4-carboxy-phenylglycine (CPG), sulfasalazine] or an xCT knockout significantly protected against these oxidative burdens. MA-induced increases in Iba-1 expression and Iba-1-labeled microglial immunoreactivity (Iba-1-IR) were significantly ...
摘 要:阿尔兹海默病(Alzheimers disease, AD) 是一种多因素复杂性神经退行性疾病,β 淀粉样蛋白(βamyloid, Aβ) 级联假说和谷氨酸兴奋性毒性是其重要的发病机制。囊泡谷氨酸转运体(vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUTs) 可特异性地将神经元内的谷氨酸转移入突触囊泡,且一个独立功能单位的VGLUT 对于完成一个囊泡的填充是必要和充分的,没有VGLUT 的突触囊泡中就没有谷氨酸(glutamate, Glu),VGLUT 在一定程度上决定了释放进突触间隙Glu 的量,是谷氨酸能突触传递的关键因子。在AD 中Aβ增多聚集,VGLUTs 表达减低,且VGLUTs 转运Glu 和Glu 的囊泡释放与淀粉样前体蛋白(amyloid precursor protein, APP) 代谢和Aβ 的释放在突触囊泡的循环中存在行为平行性和共定位。胞外Aβ 的增加可增强囊泡的释放几率,而Glu 引起的突触活性增加亦可增加胞外Aβ 的浓度。APP/Aβ ...
INTRODUCTION With its preservation of cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuitry, the hippocampal slice preparation has been a critical tool for studying the electrophysiological effects of pharmacological and genetic manipulations. To analyze the maximum number of slices or readouts per dissection, long incubation times postslice preparation are commonly used. We were interested in how slice integrity is affected by incubation postslice preparation. METHODS Hippocampal slices were prepared by three different methods: a chopper, a vibratome, and a rotary slicer. To test slice integrity, we compared glycogen levels and immunohistochemistry of selected proteins in rat hippocampal slices immediately after dissection and following 2 and 4 hr of incubation. RESULTS We found that immunoreactivity of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) drastically decreased during this incubation period, whereas immunoreactivity of the glutamate transporter VGlut1 did not significantly change with
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, for which there is good evidence that genetic factors contribute to the aetiology. Recently reported linkage findings suggested evidence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p13 (maximum LOD score of 4.2, P=5 x 10(-6 …
Autism is a severe developmental disorder, whose pathogenetic underpinnings are still largely unknown. Temporocortical gray matter from six matched patient-control pairs was used to perform post-mortem biochemical and genetic studies of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC), which participates in the aspartate/malate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle and is physiologically activated by calcium (Ca2+). AGC transport rates were significantly higher in tissue homogenates from all six patients, including those with no history of seizures and with normal electroencephalograms prior to death. This increase was consistently blunted by the Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid; neocortical Ca2+ levels were significantly higher in all six patients; no difference in AGC transport rates was found in isolated mitochondria from patients and controls following removal of the Ca2+-containing postmitochondrial supernatant. Expression of AGC1, the predominant AGC isoform in ...
This proposal describes experiments aimed at defining the multiple roles of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) in central synapses. Classically, VGLUTs transport glutamate from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles. Deletion of these genes disrupts synaptic glutamate release and their expression suffices to determine neurons as glutamatergic. We recently discovered that VGLUTs control additional key parameters such as quantal size and vesicular release probability, suggesting that they are fundamental regulators of synaptic strength and synaptic plasticity. To study these novel functions, we will first address whether the number of VGLUTs per vesicle (VGLUT content) can affect the amount of stored glutamate and in addition, the probability of vesicle release.. We will subsequently explore the underlying mechanisms. Second, we will test the hypothesis that different VGLUT paralogs contribute to functional differences in discrete synapse populations, as implied by our preliminary data and ...
Attempts to characterize recombinant integral membrane proteins (IMPs) by mass spectrometry are frequently hindered by several factors including the detergents required for extraction and purification that interferes with analysis, poor solubility, incomplete digestion, and limited identification of …
In mammals, the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 acquired a proline-rich sequence that negatively regulates the spontaneous release of glutamate by reducing the exchange of synaptic vesicles along the axon.
The primer sequences are listed in Supplemental Table 7.. Plasmid construction. The plasmid C2-EGFP-L10a was provided by Nathaniel Heintz (The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA). The GFP-L10a coding sequence was amplified by PCR using the primers L10a-R-BsiWI and MfeI-EGFP-F and subcloned into the vector pKT2/Fah-mCa//SB (15) at the EcoRI and BsiWI restriction sites. The vector utilizes the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system to enable integration of transgene sequences into the genome. The Slc7a11 cDNA was purchased (MG225346, OriGene) and amplified by PCR with the primers Slc7a11_clone_F1 and Slc7a11_psmd_bcd-R or Slc7a11-HA_bcd-R to include the HA tag. For the CRISPR/Cas9 studies, the vector pKT2/Fah-SpCas9//SB (34) was used to replace the SpCas9 with the SaCas9 sgRNA scaffold and introduce the subcloning site for further sgRNA subcloning using the oligonucleotides SaCas9Ins-F and -R and the restriction enzymes SapI and EcoRI to generate the vector pKT2/Fah-SaCas9//SB. Next, 10 ...
Protein names and data: VGLU2_HUMAN, Full=Vesicular glutamate transporter 2;Short=VGluT2, Full=Differentiation-associated BNPI;Full=Differentiation-associated Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter;Full=Solute carrier family 17 member 6; Length: 582 a.a., Mass: 64392 Da ...
Liguz-Lecznar M., Skangiel-Kramska J.,(2007) Vesicicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the developing mouse barrel cortex. Int. J. Devl. Neurosci. 25, 107-114.. Szewczyk B., Sowa M., Czupryn A., Wierońska J.M., Brański P., Sadlik K., Opoka W., Piekoszewski W., Śmiałowska M., Skangiel-Kramska J., Pilc A., Nowak G. (2006) Increase in synaptic hippocampal zinc concentration following chronic but not acute zinc treatment in rats. Brain Res. 1090: 69-75. Liguz-Lecznar M., Nowicka D., Czupryn A., Skangiel-Kramska J. (2005) Dissociation of synaptic zinc level and zinc transporter 3 expression during postnatal development and after sensory deprivation in the barrel cortex of mice. Brain Res. Bull. 66: 106-113. Czupryn A., Skangiel-Kramska J. (2003) Switch time-point for rapid experience-dependent changes in zinc-containing circuits in the mouse barrel cortex. Brain Res. Bull. 61: 385-391. Nowicka D., Liguz-Lecznar M., Skangiel-Kramska J. (2003) A surface antigen delineating a subset of ...
Cystine/glutamate transporter, system xc-, contributes to the maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels and the redox balance in the extracellular space. The main component of the transporter, xCT, is known to be strongly induced by various stimuli like oxidative stress in mammalian cultured cells. We examined the expression of xCT mRNA in vivo in the experimental endotoxemia. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization were used to investigate the expression of xCT mRNA in the tissues of the mice exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Northern blot analysis revealed that xCT mRNA was constitutively expressed in the brain, thymus, and spleen, and that the expression of xCT mRNA was strongly up-regulated in thymus and spleen by the administration of a sublethal dose of LPS. In addition to brain, thymus, and spleen, xCT mRNA was detected also in the bronchiolar epithelium of the lung by the administration of the lethal dose of LPS. xCT is induced in some specific tissues by the
In violation of Dales principle several neuronal subtypes utilize more than one classical neurotransmitter. Molecular identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 and cholecystokinin expressing cortical interneurons (CCK+VGluT3+INTs) has prompted speculation of GABA/glutamate corelease from these cells for almost two decades despite a lack of direct evidence. We unequivocally demonstrate CCK+VGluT3+INT mediated GABA/glutamate cotransmission onto principal cells in adult mice using paired recording and optogenetic approaches. Although under normal conditions, GABAergic inhibition dominates CCK+VGluT3+INT signaling, glutamatergic signaling becomes predominant when glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) function is compromised. CCK+VGluT3+INTs exhibit surprising anatomical diversity comprising subsets of all known dendrite targeting CCK+ interneurons in addition to the expected basket cells, and their extensive circuit innervation profoundly dampens circuit excitability under normal conditions. ...
Spinal neurons are important in several aspects motor control. For example, the neurons essential for locomotor movements reside in the ventral spinal cord. In this thesis, different motor control functions are being related to neuronal populations defined by their common expression of a gene.. First, a targeted disruption of the gene for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2/ Slc17a6) is described. The mutant animals die at birth because of their inability to breathe. The neuronal network in the brainstem, responsible for inspiration, was shown to become non-functional by the targeted deletion of Vglut2. To our surprise, it was still possible to induce rhythmic activity with normal left/right alternation in spinal cords isolated from VGLUT2-null embryos. Inconsistent reports of Vglut1 expression in the spinal cord made us re-evaluate the Vglut1 and Vglut2 expressions. While Vglut2 expression was widespread in the spinal cord, Vglut1 expression was restricted to a few cells dorsal to the ...
It has been suggested that system xc− may be a promising cancer target, as it may sensitize tumors to conventional chemo/radiation-based therapies by lowering glutathione levels (25). One of the causes of postoperative radiation and chemotherapy treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme is an increase in glutathione levels that may decrease chemotherapy-associated oxidative stress and play a role in glutathione-mediated cellular detoxification pathways. In this work, we have expanded on the role system xc− plays in temozolomide resistance in human glioma and have identified a novel mechanism that may contribute to glioma progression, via metabolic alteration. Inhibitors of system xc−, such as sulfasalazine, have been put forward as possible effective therapeutic options. Sulfasalazine has been shown to deplete glutathione levels by inhibiting the uptake of cystine, which lowers levels of intracellular cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor for glutathione synthesis ...
There is now growing evidence that astrocytes, like neurons, can release transmitters. One transmitter that in a vast number of studies has been shown to be released from astrocytes is glutamate. Although asytrocytic glutamate may be released by several mechanisms, the evidence in favor of exocytosis is most compelling. Astrocytes may respond to neuronal activity by such exocytotic release of glutamate. The astrocyte derived glutamate can in turn activate neuronal glutamate receptors, in particular N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Here we review the morphological data supporting that astrocytes possess the machinery for exocytosis of glutamate. We describe the presence of small synaptic-like microvesicles, SNARE proteins and vesicular glutamate transporters in astrocytes, as well as NMDA receptors situated in vicinity of the astrocytic vesicles.
Bacterial NADPH-dependent glutamate synthase (GltS) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the reductive synthesis of two L-Glu molecules from L-Gln and 2-oxo-glutarate. GltS functional unit hosts an α-subunit (αGltS) and a β-subunit (βGltS) that assemble in different αβ oligomers in solution. Here, we present the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Azospirillum brasilense GltS in four different oligomeric states (αβ, αβ, αβ and αβ, in the 3.5- to 4.1-Å resolution range). Our study provides a comprehensive GltS model that details the inter-protomeric assemblies and allows unequivocal location of the FAD cofactor and of two electron transfer [4Fe-4S] clusters within βGltS ...
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Localization of gad1b/2- or vglut2-expressing cells and TH-ir neurons in the telencephalon of the juvenile brain. A: Lateral overview of a juvenile brain staine
Entitlement is often confused with the word affluenza, a term used to describe the spoiledness of the very rich. But entitlement occurs across all income groups. Its a state of mind, the concept that I deserve, even without putting in an effort. This attitude begins at home, but often our society helps reinforce it. Think of the so-called participant trophies given to all kids ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Melissa A Herman, Frauke Ackermann, Thorsten Trimbuch, Christian Rosenmund].
Background SLC25A12 a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that is mutated in a neurodevelopmental syndrome encodes a MS-275 mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC1). reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP)-positive fibers consistent with a previous report. Furthermore the neocortex of knockout mice contained abnormal neurofilamentous accumulations in neurons suggesting defective axonal transport and/or neurodegeneration. Slice cultures prepared from knockout mice also showed a myelination defect and reduction of Slc25a12 in rat primary oligodendrocytes led to a cellautonomous reduction in MBP expression. Myelin deficits in slice cultures from knockout mice could be reversed by administration of pyruvate indicating that reduction in AGC1 activity leads to reduced production of aspartate/(solute carrier family 25 member 12) is a gene on chromosome 2q31 that was identified as an autism susceptibility gene through both linkage and association studies (3). Recently ...
Citrin is the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate glutamate carrier. Its deficiency, also known as type II citrullinemia, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing metabolic derangements in aerobic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Urea cycle mechanisms, uridine diphosphate-galactose epimerase activity, acylcarnitine metabolism, and fatty acid synthesis and utilization are also affected mainly due to a defective aspartate export from the mitochondria to the cytosol and impairment of the malate-aspartate shuttle. Patients with this defect may harbor different mutations on gene SLC25A13 located on chromosome 7q21.3. Mutations have a carrier rate of 1:65 in Japan and China, whereas they are much less frequent in the Western world, and are responsible for 2 phenotypes of the disease. The first is a usually self-limiting neonatal (intrahepatic) cholestatic and steatotic condition (neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency [NICCD], OMIM #605814). The second is an adult-onset ...
Abstract: Inhibitory cells are essential to fine-tuning the activity of neural circuits. Different classes of interneurons target distinct subcellular compartments of the pyramidal cell. This suggests that there is a differential contribution of each subtype of interneuron in the regulation of the network. In particular, cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing interneurons differ in chemical features and their postsynaptic targets, yet the role of each of these subtypes in the regulation of neuronal network activity is poorly understood. In this study, we describe a subpopulation of CCK interneurons co-expressing the vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGlut3) that also shows tyrosine kinase ErbB4 receptor expression. These interneurons are mainly basket cells targeting both, pyramidal cells and Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus. To address the role of CCK-VGlut3 interneurons in network activity regulation, we combined mouse genetics with a set of different experimental approaches. ...
Fourteen days after the FG injections, animals were perfused and brains were harvested, postfixed in the PFA for 1 h, and stored in 15% sucrose at 4°C until completely sunk. Brainstems were sliced into 5 series of 40 μm coronal sections using a freezing microtome (Microm HM 560 M) and stored at −20°C in cryoprotectant solution (30% sucrose, 30% ethylene glycol in 0.1 m PB with 0.015 sodium azide).. One series of the sections was used to test coexpression of BK channels and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGlut1) on terminals synapsing on retrogradely labeled PnC giant neurons. Free-floating tissue sections were thoroughly washed in 0.1 m PBS between incubations, and all the incubations were performed at room temperature with gentle agitation. Sections were blocked with 1% H2O2 in 0.1 m PBS for 10 min and subsequently incubated in PBS+ (0.1% BSA, 0.1% Triton X-100 in PBS) followed by overnight incubation with rabbit anti-BK (1:1000 in PBS+; Alomone Labs catalog #APC-021, RRID: ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutamatergic afferents of the ventral tegmental area in the rat. AU - Geisler, Stefanie. AU - Derst, Christian. AU - Veh, Rüdiger W.. AU - Zahm, Daniel S.. PY - 2007/5/23. Y1 - 2007/5/23. N2 - Glutamatergic inputs to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), thought crucial to the capacity of the VTA to detect and signal stimulus salience, have been reported to arise in but a few structures. However, the afferent system of the VTA comprises very abundant neurons within a large formation extending from the prefrontal cortex to the caudal brainstem. Neurons in nearly all parts of this continuum may be glutamatergic and equivalently important to VTA function. Thus, we sought to identify the full range of glutamatergic inputs to the VTA by combining retrograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-bound gold after injections into the VTA with nonisotopic in situ hybridization of the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) 1, 2, and 3. We found glutamatergic neurons innervating the VTA in ...
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ... They determined that a substance secreted by the intestinal lining stimulates the pancreas after being transported via the ... also increases water and bicarbonate secretion from duodenal Brunner's glands to buffer the incoming protons of the acidic ...
Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMD X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in ... In the 1970s, scientists such as Arvid Carlsson recognized the need to understand how transport systems and ion gradients work ... Acidic glutamate residues located upstream of the dileucine motif are known to be important for localization of VMAT2 to large ... Scientists have used these tools to analyze DNA and amino acid sequences, discovering that transporters in bacteria and humans ...
... complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid ... It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system ... The arrow indicates the acidic proton. Pietrzak I (1995). "[Vitamin disturbances in chronic renal insufficiency. I. Water ... the human Tpc and the Drosophila melanogaster have been identified as being responsible for the mitochondrial transport of ThPP ...
... is able to endure the rapid acidificiation in the phagosome to pH 4.0-4.5 by expressing metabolism genes mainly for amino acid ... The acidic pH is actually essential for replication of the bacteria by inducing major virulence genes of the virB operon and ... In addition, the B. suis gene for nickel transport, nikA, is activated by metal ion deficiency and is expressed once in the ... Phagocytes are an essential component of the host's innate immune system with various antimicrobial defense mechanisms to clear ...
The ribosomes assemble amino acids into protein units, which are carried into the rough ER for further adjustments. These ... Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not ... The enzymes inside of lysosomes are acid hydrolases which require an acidic environment for optimal performance. Lysosomes ... These special proteins contain a specialized retention signal made up of a specific sequence of amino acids that enables them ...
... such as amino acids or amides. Nitrogen can also be transported in the phloem sap as amides, amino acids and ureides; it is ... The root system is less effective without a continuous supply of calcium to newly developing cells. Even short term disruptions ... The rates of application of borate to produce an adequate alfalfa crop range from 15 pounds per acre for a sandy-silt, acidic ... It helps in the electron transport of plant. Molybdenum is a cofactor to enzymes important in building amino acids and is ...
PCFT is located on chromosome 17q11.2 and consists of five exons encoding a protein with 459 amino acids and a MW of ~50kDa. ... "Comparison of folic acid uptake characteristics by human placental choriocarcinoma cells at acidic and physiological pH". ... PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. The low-pH activity and the structural specificity of PCFT (high ... and its delivery to the central nervous system. ... amino acid identity to the frog (XP415815) and zebrafish ( ...
Therefore, some peptides and amino acids would be entering the cell to be used for energy, while others will be incorporated ... Isolated from acidic hydrothermal vent environments, A. boonei is the first cultured representative of a biogeochemically ... Based on ecological studies of deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems, it is believed that the anoxic reduced environments in which ... embedded with peptidases and an arsenal of permeases which help degrade the extracellular components and subsequently transport ...
... s carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. In the ... Because of the H+ gradient across the thylakoid membrane, the interior of the thylakoid is acidic, with a pH around 4, while ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. One of ...
L-Carnitine is an amino acid that plays a key role in energy production, and facilitates the transport of fatty acids into the ... Animal protein has a high acidic amino acid content (glutamic and aspartic acid); therefore, its nitrogenous metabolites that ... It is integral to the health and function of the nervous system, key in hematopoiesis, as well as required to synthesize ... On the other hand, some amino acids can be lost with heat. Lysine, both a reactive and an essential amino acid, has low ...
Metabolism and amino acid transport-related genes make up the largest group of known genes. This group contains 213 known genes ... It thrives in acidic conditions at pH 5.2-7.0. NaCl concentration between 15-17% has resulted in the highest growth rates in ... the strategy for sequencing the genome was Whole Genome Sequencing by the method of a PacBio RS II system. Lastly, the genome ... which uses a membrane with extremely fine pores to collect DNA and nucleic acids. They purified the DNA using the MG Genomic ...
As proteins unfold, the peptide bonds linking component amino acids are exposed. Gastric HCl simultaneously cleaves pepsinogen ... Mechanism of Acid Secretion at vivo.colostate.edu Histology image: 11303loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - ... As a result of the cellular export of hydrogen ions, the gastric lumen is maintained as a highly acidic environment. The ... They contain an extensive secretory network of canaliculi from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach. ...
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... acidic fibroblast growth factor - acrosin - actin - action potential - activation energy - active site - active transport - ... systems biology - T cell - T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence ... Nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ...
Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) is responsible ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ... There are several families that function in amino acid transport, some of these include: TC# 2.A.3 - Amino Acid-Polyamine- ...
The lipase of T. lanuginosis has catalytic centre that contains three amino acids (serine-histidine-aspartic acid) and is ... This transport is constitutive, specific, and carrier-mediated, and its sensitivity is temperature dependent. T. lanuginosis ... As the temperature in compost systems rises, the pioneer flora disappears and thermophilic fungi become dominant. Exothermic ... lanuginosis is most active at slightly acidic conditions and a temperature of 65 °C. At 100 °C it is inactivated by self- ...
Cobalt is crucial for amino acid formation and some proteins to create myelin sheath in nerve cells. Cobalt also plays a role ... These ion channels are present in many various biological systems. They frequently play a role in regulation of cellular level ... See magnesium deficiency Cl− - inability to transport chloride ions in humans manifests itself as cystic fibrosis (CP) CO2− 3 ... In blood approximately 85% of carbon dioxide, is converted into aqueous carbonate ions (an acidic solution), allowing a greater ...
"Monovalent cation leaks in human red cells caused by single amino-acid substitutions in the transport domain of the band 3 ... Diego blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH Band+3+Protein at the US National ... even if the blood is too acidic. These mutations are disease causing as they cause mistargetting of the mutant band 3 proteins ... The kidney isoform of AE1, known as kAE1 (which is 65 amino acids shorter than erythroid AE1) is found in the basolateral ...
"Defining membrane spanning domains and crucial membrane-localized acidic amino acid residues for K⁺ transport of a Kup/HAK/KT- ... High affinity (20 μM) K+ uptake systems (Hak1, TC# 2.A.72.2.1) of the yeast Debaryomyces occidentalis as well as the fungus, ... The generalized transport reaction for members of the KUP family is: K+ (out) + energy → K+ (in). Transporter Classification ... The yeast high affinity (KM = 1 μM) K+ transporter Hak1 is 762 amino acyl residues long with 12 putative TMSs. Like the E. coli ...
... also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine.[14] The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H- ... Secretin modulates water and electrolyte transport in pancreatic duct cells,[25] liver cholangiocytes,[26] and epididymis ... American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (5 August 2015). "Secretin Injection". Current Drug Shortage Bulletin.. ... also increases water and bicarbonate secretion from duodenal Brunner's glands to buffer the incoming protons of the acidic ...
Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma ... which exert their influence principally through the respiratory system and the urinary system to control the acid-base balance ... In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma. Vertebrate blood is ... Blood that has a pH below 7.35 is too acidic, whereas blood pH above 7.45 is too basic. Blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen ( ...
... the hydrolysis can be suppressed by adding an acid such as nitric acid, making the solution more acidic. Hydrolysis may proceed ... The hydrolysis of peptides gives amino acids. Many polyamide polymers such as nylon 6,6 hydrolyze in the presence of strong ... This specificity preserves the integrity of other proteins such as hormones, and therefore the biological system continues to ... and the active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. The energy derived from the oxidation of nutrients is not ...
... gluconic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and phosphoric acid. Together, these residues form an acidic matrix that helps ... "Studies on the Respiratory System in Alkaliphilic Bacillus; a Proposed New Respiratory System." Extremophiles 2 (1998): 83-92. ... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... In this model, H+ ions are first extruded through the electron transport chain in respiring cells and to some extent through an ...
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is a constituent of coenzyme A, a basic component of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism as ... Bilateral symmetry refers to a molecule or system that contains a C2, Cs, or C2v point group identity. C2 symmetry tends to be ... Because many Archaea have adapted to life in extreme environments such as polar regions, hot springs, acidic springs, alkaline ... synthesized from tryptophan is a component of the coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ which in turn are required for electron transport in ...
... an ionic bond is formed between a basic amino acid side-chain and the acidic phosphate group of NADP+. On the converse, in NAD- ... These shuttle systems also have the same transport function in chloroplasts. Since both the oxidized and reduced forms of ... from an amino acid-either tryptophan (Trp) in animals and some bacteria, or aspartic acid (Asp) in some bacteria and plants. ... It is produced either in a de novo pathway from amino acids or in salvage pathways by recycling preformed components such as ...
Interstitial fluid consists of a water solvent containing sugars, salts, fatty acids, amino acids, coenzymes, hormones, ... The lymphatic system returns protein and excess interstitial fluid to the circulation. The ionic composition of the ... Transcellular fluid is formed from the transport activities of cells, and is the smallest component of extracellular fluid. ... acidic blood from active muscles is neutralized by the alkaline blood homeostatically produced by the kidneys). From the left ...
Candidalysin is a cytolytic 31-amino acid α-helical peptide toxin that is released by C. albicans during hyphal formation. It ... "Candida albicans possess a highly versatile and dynamic high-affinity iron transport system important for its commensal- ... Moreover, C. albicans undergo yeast-to-hyphal transition within the acidic macrophage phagosome. This initially causes ... The Zrt1 is transporting the zinc ions with high affinity and the Zrt2 is transporting the zinc ions with low affinity. The ...
To prevent premature ligand binding during its synthesis, the precursor protein of sortilin contains a 44-amino acid pro- ... "Functional role of sortilin in myogenesis and development of insulin-responsive glucose transport system in C2C12 myocytes". ... Sortilin has also been shown to undergo a conformational change and form a protein dimer in acidic conditions similar to ones ... While it is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues, sortilin is most abundant in the central nervous system. At the cellular ...
... are folded chains of a large number of different amino acids called polypeptides. The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide ... Or, they may have a recognizable separate circulatory system but not one that deals with oxygen transport (for example, many ... more acidic). Hemoglobin can bind protons and carbon dioxide, which causes a conformational change in the protein and ... Most of the amino acids in hemoglobin form alpha helices, and these helices are connected by short non-helical segments. ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... 1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.. ... Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ... of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils.[60] Many high-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1,500 m ( ...
In addition to these amino acids, some B vitamins including biotin, folic acid, nicotinamide, riboflavin, thiamine, ... acidic water-based, non-alcoholic flavoured beverages containing calcium in the range of 0.3 to 0.8 mol per mol of acid with a ... The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported ... is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. In the ... endosomal transport. • actin filament polymerization. • regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune ... and the acidic motif (A) binds Arp2/3.[8] In isolation, the VCA region is constitutively active. However, in full-length N-WASp ... acidic) domain where they interact with actin nucleating complex (ARP2/3) and they differ in their terminal domains. WASp and N ...
... amino acids and fatty acids into the bloodstream. The circular folds also slow the passage of food giving more time for ... which protects the acid-sensitive vitamin from the acidic stomach contents. Once in the more neutral duodenum, pancreatic ... Chyle is then transported through the lymphatic system to the rest of the body. ... "Digestive system" and "alimentary system" redirect here. For digestive systems of non-human animals, see Digestion. ...
Bovine rhodopsin contains 348 amino acid residues. The retinal chromophore binds at Lys296. ... Invertebrates such as insects and squid use hydroxylated forms of retinal in their visual systems, which derive from conversion ... "All-trans to 13-cis retinal isomerization in light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin at acidic pH". Journal of Photochemistry and ... the transport and storage form of vitamin A ... Retinoic acid, sometimes called vitamin A acid, is an important ...
"Interorgan amino acid transport and its regulation". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (6 Suppl 1): 2068S-72S. doi:10.1093/jn/133.6 ... "Molecular Systems Biology. 7: 549. doi:10.1038/msb.2011.82. PMC 3261713. PMID 22068332.. ... Right: Solvent-accessible surface representation colored by residue type (acidic residues red, basic residues blue, polar ... The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ...
... are folded chains of a large number of different amino acids called polypeptides. The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide ... Or, they may have a recognizable separate circulatory system but not one that deals with oxygen transport (for example, many ... Hence, blood with high carbon dioxide levels is also lower in pH (more acidic). Hemoglobin can bind protons and carbon dioxide ... Variations in hemoglobin amino acid sequences, as with other proteins, may be adaptive. For example, hemoglobin has been found ...
FA, N-(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, vitamin B9,[ ... "Folic Acid". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 1 January 2010. Archived from the original on 8 ... Hamid A, Wani NA, Kaur J (2009). "New perspectives on folate transport in relation to alcoholism-induced folate malabsorption-- ... It is heat-labile in acidic environments and may also be subject to oxidation.[74] ...
... amino acids, and soluble proteins; trace elements including zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and selenium; free fatty acids; ... The cervix or cervix uteri (Latin: neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system ... At other times in the cycle, the mucus is thick and more acidic due to the effects of progesterone.[20] This "infertile" mucus ... These changes allow it to function either as a barrier or a transport medium to spermatozoa. It contains electrolytes such as ...
... and its acid metabolites (2-methyl-4-amino-5-pyrimidine carboxylic acid, 4-methyl-thiazole-5-acetic acid, and thiamine ... while the reaction catalyzed by OGDH is a rate-limiting step in the citric acid cycle. In the nervous system, PDH is also ... Absorption and transportEdit. AbsorptionEdit. Thiamine is released by the action of phosphatase and pyrophosphatase in the ... It is stable at acidic pH, but is unstable in alkaline solutions.[10][21] Thiamine, which is a persistent carbene, is used by ...
... the hydrolysis can be suppressed by adding an acid such as nitric acid, making the solution more acidic. ... liberating one free amino acid at a time). However, proteases do not catalyse the hydrolysis of all kinds of proteins. Their ... This specificity preserves the integrity of other proteins such as hormones, and therefore the biological system continues to ... and the active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes. The energy derived from the oxidation of nutrients is not ...
As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to ... Sodium hydroxide used in this manner replaced many solvent-based systems in the early 1990s[citation needed] when ... In 1986, an aluminium road tanker in the UK was mistakenly used to transport 25% sodium hydroxide solution,[24] causing ... Reaction with acidic oxides[edit]. Sodium hydroxide also reacts with acidic oxides, such as sulfur dioxide. Such reactions are ...
... contains 154 amino acids.[19]. Myoglobin contains a porphyrin ring with an iron at its center. A proximal histidine ... but the ferrihemate portion that is dissociated from myoglobin in acidic environments (e.g., acidic urine, lysosomes). ... Drago RS (1980). "Free radical reactions of transition metal systems". Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 32 (2): 97-110. doi: ... This difference is related to its different role: whereas hemoglobin transports oxygen, myoglobin's function is to store oxygen ...
... is also a metabolic product of amino acid deamination catalyzed by enzymes such as glutamate dehydrogenase 1. Ammonia ... Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar System on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, among other places: on ... This is an efficient way to package hydrogen into a chemical that is much cheaper to store and transport than pure hydrogen be ... An ammine ligand bound to a metal ion is markedly more acidic than a free ammonia molecule, although deprotonation in aqueous ...
In geothermal heating/cooling systems, ethylene glycol is the fluid that transports heat through the use of a geothermal heat ... Treating a ketone or aldehyde with ethylene glycol in the presence of an acid catalyst (e.g., p-toluenesulfonic acid; BF3·Et2O ... The highest yields of ethylene glycol occur at acidic or neutral pH with a large excess of water. Under these conditions, ... Upon ingestion, ethylene glycol is oxidized to glycolic acid, which is, in turn, oxidized to oxalic acid, which is toxic. It ...
"1H NMR studies of deuterated ribonuclease HI selectively labeled with protonated amino acids". Journal of Biomolecular NMR. 2 ( ... Scerri, Eric (2007). The Periodic System, Its Story and Its Significance. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19- ... 4.[42] Other oxonium ions are found when water is in acidic solution with other solvents.[43] ... as hydrogen can be produced on-site and does not need to be transported.[93] ...
"Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4S Suppl): 1016S-1022S ... is transported by a high-affinity transport system.[30][31] It can also be converted into glutamine. ... In sufficiently acidic environments, the amino group gains a proton and the molecule becomes a cation with a single positive ... R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid. A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in ...
... is most available to the body when chelated to amino acids[151] and is also available for use as a common iron supplement ... These two proteins play essential roles in vertebrate metabolism, respectively oxygen transport by blood and oxygen storage in ... The standard reduction potentials in acidic aqueous solution for some common iron ions are given below:[6] ... using innovative production systems. In 1783 he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore. It was later improved by ...
N-lobe corresponds to amino acid residues 1-333 and C-lobe to 345-692, and the ends of those domains are connected by a short α ... Lactoferrin belongs to the innate immune system. Apart from its main biological function, namely binding and transport of iron ... The affinity increases in weakly acidic medium. This facilitates the transfer of iron from transferrin to lactoferrin during ... There are differences in amino acid sequences: 8 in Homo sapiens, 6 in Mus musculus, 6 in Capra hircus, 10 in Bos taurus and 20 ...
The useful materials (e.g. amino acids) from the digested particles are moved into the cytosol, and waste is removed by ... The compartment is also acidic due to proton pumps (v-ATPases) that transport H+ across the membrane, used to denature the ... Warr, GW (1997). "The adaptive immune system of fish". Developments in Biological Standardization. 90: 15-21. PMID 9270830.. ... autophagosomes can also non-selectively degrade organelles to provide the cell with amino acids and other nutrients.[26] ...
... cleavage to individual amino acids) of the modified protein by proteases then liberates T3 and T4, as well as the non-coupled ... Circulation and transport[edit]. Plasma transport[edit]. Most of the thyroid hormone circulating in the blood is bound to " ... In fact, amphibian frog Xenopus laevis serves as an ideal model system for the study of the mechanisms of apoptosis.[40][41][42 ... The iodine in o-position makes the phenolic OH-group more acidic, resulting in a negative charge at physiological pH. However, ...
Propionibacteria in adolescent and adult sebaceous glands can turn its amino acids into propionic acid. ... The superficial layers of the skin are naturally acidic (pH 4-4.5) due to lactic acid in sweat and produced by skin bacteria.[ ... Immune system[edit]. If activated, the immune system in the skin produces cell-mediated immunity against microbes such as ... However it is possible that they were moved by Demodex to areas that favour growth as Demodex has shown to transport bacteria ...
Channel transport system. In a channel transupport system, several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and ... break down food proteins into polypeptides that are then broken down by various exopeptidases and dipeptidases into amino acids ... In the mouth, pharynx and esophagus, pH is typically about 6.8, very weakly acidic. Saliva controls pH in this region of the ... Gastric acid is about 0.5% hydrochloric acid (HCl), which lowers the pH to the desired pH of 1-3. Acid release is also ...
"Human neutrophils employ the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system to oxidize alpha-amino acids to a family of ... One way of addressing the loss of oxygen uptake was by studying the effects of HOCl on succinate-dependent electron transport.[ ... Reaction with protein amino groupsEdit. Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, ... Dichlorine monoxide: the corresponding acidic oxide. *Hypofluorous acid. *Perchloric acid. ReferencesEdit. *^ Harris, Daniel C ...
Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. ... does not require oxygen or an electron transport system, and uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor (most ... Acetic acid (another conversion product) is acidic and not as volatile as ethanol; however, in the presence of limited oxygen, ... If propionic acid, butyric acid, and longer monocarboxylic acids are produced (see mixed acid fermentation), the amount of ...
... amino acids, flavonoids, steroids, and fatty acids.[50][52] Organochlorides, including dioxins, are produced in the high ... The HCl/H2O system has many hydrates HCl·nH2O for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Beyond a 1:1 mixture of HCl and H2O, the system ... and boric acid as an acidic stabilizer, was developed by Henry Drysdale Dakin (who gave full credit to Labarraque's prior work ... These compounds produced low levels of elemental chlorine and could be more efficiently transported than sodium hypochlorite, ...
1988). "Biochemical and amino acid sequence analysis of human eosinophil granule major basic protein". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (25 ... transport vesicle. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • extracellular exosome. • ficolin-1-rich granule lumen. • collagen-containing ... immune system process. • regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process. • defense response to nematode. • negative regulation of ... Barker RL, Gleich GJ, Pease LR (1988). "Acidic precursor revealed in human eosinophil granule major basic protein cDNA". J. Exp ...
Intracellular metabolism of cystine, as it happens with all amino acids, requires its transport across the cell membrane. After ... These crystals negatively affect many systems in the body, especially the kidneys and eyes. The accumulation is caused by ... The nutrient imbalances in the body lead to increased urination, thirst, dehydration, and abnormally acidic blood (acidosis). ... Cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the abnormal accumulation of the amino acid cystine. It is a genetic ...
... rather than simply an acidic environment) opposed amino acid uptake. We have also found that amino acid substrates increase ... Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ...
Acidic phospholipids are required during solubilization of amino acid transport systems of Lactococcus lactis. ... Identification of diacylglycerol pyrophosphate as a novel metabolic product of phosphatidic acid during G-protein activation in ... Monascus ruber as cell factory for lactic acid production at low pH. ... simulation and life cycle assessment of converting autoclaved municipal solid waste into butanol and ethanol as transport fuels ...
... down-regulation of the astrocyte-specific glutamate excitatory amino acid transporter 2 is hypothesized to increase ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Ceftriaxone increased system x(c)(-) and glutathione levels independently of its effect on excitatory amino acid transporters ... The antibiotic ceftriaxone was recently reported to induce excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and to prolong the survival of ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.157.530.200.249]. *Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.157.530.200.249.500] ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [D12.776.543.585.200.249]. *Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [D12.776.543.585.200.249.500] ... Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [D12.776.157.530.200.249.500.500]. *Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 [D12.776. ... Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [D12.776.543.585.200.249.500.500]. *Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 [D12.776. ...
Acidic amino acid uptake porter, AatJMQP (Singh and Röhm, 2008). It is the sole system that transports glutamate and glutamine ... but it can also transport aspartate and asparagine (Singh and Röhm 2008).. ...
Selective expression of a novel high-affinity transport system for acidic and neutral amino acids in the tapetum cells of ... Reduced amino acid content in transgenic potato tubers due to antisense inhibition of the leaf H+/amino acid symporter StAAP1. ... Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids. ... Improving Plant Nitrogen Use Efficiency through Alteration of Amino Acid Transport Processes. ...
Molecular pharmacology of the Na+-dependent transport of acidic amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system. Biol. ... Roberts, P.J., 1974, Amino acid release from isolated rat dorsal root ganglia. Brain Res. 74: 327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Amino-hex-5-enoic acid, a selective catalytic inhibitor of 4-aminobutyric-acid aminotransferase in mammalian brain. Eur. J. ... Nicholls, D. and Attwell, D., 1990, The release and uptake of excitatory amino acids. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 11: 462.CrossRef ...
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
3] "Selective expression of a novel high-affinity transport system for acidic and neutral amino acids in the tapetum cells of ...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
... cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids, The Plant Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. Six amino acid permeases ( ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism ... Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. Six amino acid permeases ( ...
Each system preferentially transports certain neutral amino acids, but there is considerable overlap among the systems. The ... It is also likely that additional, unidentified transport pathways are present for the acidic and basic amino acids as well. ... transporting the L-amino acids more rapidly than the D-amino acids. Recent evidence also indicates that placental amino acid ... the active transport of amino acids is mediated by several pathways that are specific for several groups of amino acids. Three ...
... was consistent with transport mediated by the L-system amino acid carrier with strong inhibition by large neutral amino acids ( ... basic and acidic amino acids had no significant effect. The transport of L-leucine into the RBE4 cells was saturable and ... Jun, 2002 , Pubmed ID: 12164376 The L-system amino acid transporter on the RBE4 cell line, a well established in vitro model of ... in RBE4 cells suggest that transport is mediated by a system with characteristics similar to the L1 subtype of amino acid ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic. L. H. Rodan, Qi, W., Ducker, G. S., Demirbas, D., Laine, R., Yang, E., Walker, M. A., ... Amino Acids. J. D. Rabinowitz and Kimball, E., "Acidic acetonitrile for cellular metabolome extraction from Escherichia coli." ... Amino Acids, Branched-Chain. S. Hong, Zhou, W., Fang, B., Lu, W., Loro, E., Damle, M., Ding, G., Jager, J., Zhang, S., Zhang, Y ... Amino Acids, Essential. N. N. Pavlova, Hui, S., Ghergurovich, J. M., Fan, J., Intlekofer, A. M., White, R. M., Rabinowitz, J. D ...
... the media pH and its concentration of protein and amino acids. The order of potency of the acidic NSAID in inhibiting MeAIB ... transport system in several cell types. This study was undertaken to determine if this activity was shared by other ... Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ... Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ...
amino acid transport systems, acidic - biosynthesis (2) 2 Filter by. Remove filter. amino acid transport systems, acidic - ... amino acid transport systems, acidic - genetics (3) 3 Filter by. Remove filter. arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus - metabolism (3 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic - genetics , Neuralgia - chemically induced , Skin - innervation , Behavior, Animal - drug ... Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic - metabolism , Mechanoreceptors - physiology , Neuralgia - metabolism , Ion Channels - ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic - genetics , Dietary Sucrose - administration & dosage , Mice , Disease Models, Animal , ... Amino acids , Liquid chromatography , Glutamate , Monosaccharides , Glycerin , Hydrochloric acid , Purines , Metabolites , ... Amino acids , sodium pyruvate , Citric acid , Diets , Mitochondria , Lysine , citrulline , sodium glutamate ... mitochondrial membrane transport proteins (2) 2 Filter by. Remove filter. mitochondrial membrane transport proteins - genetics ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic ...
... dinoflagellate transit peptides contain positively charged amino acids, have a depleted acidic residue content, and mostly ... and contain N-terminal basic amino acids among the most N-terminal amino acids. Like transit peptides in the alveolate ... or amino acid content. Therefore, it was concluded that plastid transport into plant and diatom plastids also depended on ... Investigation of Dinoflagellate Plastid Protein Transport using Heterologous and Homologous in vivo Systems Expressed Sequence ...
From PMID:3304825: "In a number of cell systems, D-acidic amino acids have substantial affinity for transport; D-glutamate, in ... From the lit search I did, it looks like D-glu can be transported by certain systems but that is not their primary purpose. It ... Refered to class does not exist: L-glutamate transport. is all transport L-glutamate? L-glu is the biologically relevant form. ... Make univocal with calcium ion transport via voltage-gated calcium channel Refered to class does not exist: cell fusion by ...
... have acidic pH. Another environment where pH is critical is the phagolysosome, where acidic pH activates lysosomal proteases ... The innate immune system represents a key barrier that fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans must overcome in order to ... This phenomenon requires amino acid catabolism and results in extrusion of as ammonia presumably derived from the amino acid. ... The presence of extracellular amino acids activates STP2 post-translationally to increase the relative levels of the amino acid ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic. *Animals. *Anti-Inflammatory Agents. *Antiporters. *Arginine. *Aspartic Acid ...
Basic Amino Acid Transport Systems * Amino Acids * Neutral Amino Acid Transport Systems ...
amino acid in Chinese : :氨基酸…. click for more detailed Chinese translation, definition, pronunciation and example sentences. ... "a amino acid transport system" in Chinese: 氨基酸转运系统 ... "acetonegenic amino acid" in Chinese: 生酮氨基酸. *"acidic amino acid ... What is the meaning of amino acid in Chinese and how to say amino acid in Chinese? amino acid Chinese meaning, amino acid的中文, ... How to pronounce "amino acid"Synonyms of "amino acid"Use "amino acid" in a sentence Translation. Mobile. *氨基酸
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ...
From PMID:3304825: In a number of cell systems, D-acidic amino acids have substantial affinity for transport; D-glutamate, in ... From PMID:3304825: "In a number of cell systems, D-acidic amino acids have substantial affinity for transport; D-glutamate, in ... From the lit search I did, it looks like D-glu can be transported by certain systems but that is not their primary purpose. It ... From the lit search I did, it looks like D-glu can be transported by certain systems but that is not their primary purpose. It ...
Amino acid transport systems are far more complex, because every one of the 20 amino acids has a different molecular structure ... These can be grouped into four classes depending on their chemical properties: large neutral, small neutral, basic and acidic. ... Each category has its own transport system. As with glucose transporters, large neutral amino acid transporters lie on both ... The glucose transport system is the bodys hardest-working transport system. The cell itself uses only a very small part of ...
... amino acid sequence explanation free. What is amino acid sequence? Meaning of amino acid sequence medical term. What does amino ... Looking for online definition of amino acid sequence in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic. *Amino acid transport systems, acidic ... amino acid sequence. Also found in: Dictionary. amino acid sequence. the order in which AMINO ACIDS are placed along a protein ...
... indicating the utilization of the same transport systems by the two aromatic amino acids. Basic (l-arginine) and acidic (l- ... Among the amino acid transport systems, the A system is sodium-dependent and inhibited by NMAIB, the L system is sodium ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ... Su, TZ, Lunney, E, Campbell, G, et al (1995) Transport of gabapentin, a gamma-amino acid drug, by system L alpha-amino acid ...
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG Medicine & Life Sciences * Horns Medicine & Life Sciences ... In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity progressively increased from 25 weeks of age in the ... In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity progressively increased from 25 weeks of age in the ... In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity progressively increased from 25 weeks of age in the ...
  • Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that belongs to a family of mammalian proteins originally defined by a neurotransmitter transporter. (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of the homologous intracompartmental transport of three Amphidinium carterae plastid proteins showed that differing transport routes exist for plastid proteins. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Nonidentities among amino acid sequences of glycoprotein precursors and amino acid sequences of nucleocapsid proteins of Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus strain AV B1030026, Mexico, and 8 arenaviruses from South America * % Amino acid sequence nonidentity Virus OCEV AMAV CHPV CPXV GTOV JUNV MACV SABV TCRV OCEV -- 43. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If such preservation is far more frequent than paleontologists have expected, discerning the amino acid sequences in ancient proteins "has enormous potential" for revealing evolutionary relationships among ancient creatures, he adds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 20 amino acids commonly found in animals are alanine alanine , organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. (hindawi.com)
  • Catalyzing chemical reactions in the body, providing storage and transport as well as antibodies for our immune system are just a few of the many vital roles of proteins. (studymode.com)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and there are twenty amino acids utilized by biological life (Baldwin, 2003). (studymode.com)
  • Amino acids are molecules that when combined with each other  proteins. (studymode.com)
  • L- amino acids are found in proteins D- amino acids are often found in bacterial cell walls and in some antibiotics. (studymode.com)
  • Proteins are broken down into amino acids on hydrolysis. (studymode.com)
  • AAP2 T-DNA insertion lines showed changes in source-sink translocation of amino acids and a decrease in the amount of seed total N and storage proteins, supporting AAP2 function in phloem loading and amino acid distribution to the embryo. (plantcell.org)
  • Inactivation of RFC1 impacts the expression of several ligands and interacting proteins in the cubilin-amnionless-megalin complex that are involved in the maternal-fetal transport of folate and other nutrients, lipids and morphogens such as sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoids that play critical roles in normal embryogenesis. (springer.com)
  • The three-dimensional structure of proteins is a direct consequence of the nature of the covalently-bonded sequence of amino acids, their chemical and physical properties, and the way in which the whole assembly interacts with water. (aamc.org)
  • Proteins are large molecules built from long chains of amino acids, which are organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and (in some cases) sulfur-bonded in characteristic formations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Proteins serve the functions of promoting normal growth, repairing damaged tissue, contributing to the body's immune system, and making enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Incomplete proteins, or ones lacking essential amino acids - those amino acids that are not produced by the human body - include peas, beans, lentils, nuts, and cereal grains. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In denatured proteins most of the peptide bonds are accessible to digestive enzymes, and consequently denatured (i.e. cooked) proteins are more readily hydrolysed to their constituent amino acids. (karelsavry.us)
  • Gastric acid is also important, as relatively strong acid will also disrupt hydrogen bonds and denature proteins. (karelsavry.us)
  • Endopeptidases cleave proteins by hydrolysing peptide bonds between specific amino acids throughout the molecule. (karelsavry.us)
  • Blood also transports nutrients such as electrolytes and amino acids, building-blocks of a vast array of proteins. (natural-holistic-health.com)
  • 2. Gastric acid kills microorganisms and denatures dietary proteins preparing them for hydrolysis by proteases. (gravitywaves.com)
  • Lysine/arginine/ornithine-binding proteins (LAO) (gene argT) of Escherichia coli and related bacteria are involved in the same transport system than hisJ. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both solute-binding proteins interact with a common membrane-bound receptor hisP of the binding protein dependent transport system HisQMP. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sequence relationships between integral inner membrane proteins of binding protein-dependent transport systems: evolution by recurrent gene duplications. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Detailed structural basis of the substrate transport and energy-coupling mechanisms of these proteins remain to be elucidated. (pnas.org)
  • Since L. helveticus CNRZ32 has multiple amino acid auxotrophies, its rapid growth in milk relies on a complex proteolytic enzyme system to obtain essential amino acids from caseins and other milk proteins ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • As PA has 12 replaceable reactive sites, it is able to bind di- and trivalent minerals as well as amino acids (AAs) and proteins. (ajas.info)
  • Glutamine-consuming tissues, such as the GI tract, the liver and the immune system, use glutamine for the synthesis of nucleotides, proteins and amino sugars. (earthturns.com)
  • Naturally occurring amino acids that are incorporated into proteins are, for the most part, the levorotatory ( L ) isomer. (fsu.edu)
  • Amino acids are the principal building blocks of proteins and enzymes. (fsu.edu)
  • Several of the amino acids, such as the neurotransmitter gamma -aminobutyric acid ( GABA ) that is found in the central nervous system, but not in proteins, carry out very specific roles in the body. (fsu.edu)
  • The human body is not able to produce all of the 20 amino acids that are needed to synthesize proteins. (fsu.edu)
  • The epidermal layer showed functional polarity for the uptake and excretion of nutrients, metabolites and newly synthesized proteins: glucose and amino acids were taken up exclusively from the basal medium and lactate was secreted selectively into the same medium, whereas ammonia was secreted into the apical medium. (biologists.org)
  • They are the monomeric building blocks of polypeptides and proteins which can serve multitudes of different functions in the cell, ranging from catalysis to transport (Lodish et al. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • 2004). On Earth, 20 key 'biological' amino acids (as well as a few lesser-known modified versions) are used to build the larger polypeptides and proteins (Lehninger et al. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • We have also studied meteoritic amino acids (those found on meteorites, but not in known proteins). (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • Drug elimination in living systems is a multistep process that may involve metabolism, binding to proteins in the circulatory system and binding to specific receptors and excretion processes. (schoolbag.info)
  • Membrane transport proteins recognize these drug molecules and in an energy-dependent manner transport them across the plasma membrane and away from the target, either out of the cell or into subcellular organelles. (schoolbag.info)
  • The occurrence of MDTs in evolutionary unrelated membrane transport proteins families indicates that they have originated independently several times during the course of evolution (5, 6). (schoolbag.info)
  • The l-forms are conjugated into proteins and biological systems. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • The polarity or non-polarity indicates how the amino acid will be incorporated into proteins, polar on the outside, non-polar in the interior of the protein. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Although both proteins interact with fatty acids, their relative contributions to the uptake, oxidation, and esterification of straight-chain (palmitic) and branched-chain (phytanic) fatty acids in living cells has not been resolved. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Biological systems are made up of these four major macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. (ipl.org)
  • Proteins are made up of peptide bonds holding amino acids together to perform biological functions like enzymes, antibodies, for transport and structure (Asmus, 2007). (ipl.org)
  • In this study the proteins associated in Se(IV) uptake and reduction in Pseudomonads i.e. by determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequences are further characterized. (helsinki.fi)
  • The North America amino acids , peptides, and proteins (nutraceuticals) market is estimated to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 6. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Glutamine is an amino acid that is used as a building block for the body proteins, fuel for cells that line the gut, and fuel for immune cells, as well as to maintain nitrogen balance and prevent the burning of other amino acids for energy[ 8 , 38 ]. (sati.com)
  • Proteins degrade into amino acids which are then split by enzymes. (mindmeister.com)
  • Another example of sorting motifs interacting with coat proteins is the recognition of acidic di-leucine motifs by Golgi-associated γ-ear-containing ARF-binding (GGA) proteins. (biologists.org)
  • whereas acidic di-leucine motifs are usually near the end of the cytoplasmic domain of proteins that traffic between the TGN and endosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Membrane proteins that traffic in the post-Golgi endo-membrane system often contain multiple sorting motifs that function to direct the transport of the membrane protein between the various compartments such as the TGN, endosomes and the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Like the cell membrane , membranes of some organelles contain transport proteins, or permeases , that allow chemical communication between organelles. (britannica.com)
  • Permeases in the lysosomal membrane, for example, allow amino acids generated inside the lysosome to cross into the cytoplasm , where they can be used for the synthesis of new proteins. (britannica.com)
  • For example, the internal space of lysosomes is much more acidic than that of the cytosol-pH 5 as opposed to pH 7-and is maintained by specific proton -pumping transport proteins in the lysosome membrane. (britannica.com)
  • Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na + -dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although Na + -dependent, System ASC appears to mediate amino acid exchange rather than net uptake ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A catalyzes the Na + -dependent net uptake of many neutral amino acids, in particular alanine, serine, and glutamine ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A and other more specialized transport systems may thus provide the concentrations of cytoplasmic amino acids necessary to drive the uptake of other amino acids by exchange through Systems ASC and L. System A also exhibits several unusual properties, including the recognition of N -methylated amino acids, tolerance of Li + substitution for Na + , and sensitivity to inhibition by low extracellular pH ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have recently identified another member of this family as responsible for classical amino acid transport System N. Unlike the virtually ubiquitous Systems A, ASC, and L, System N appears more tissue-specific and mediates the uptake specifically of glutamine, histidine, and asparagine ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Acidic amino acid uptake porter, AatJMQP ( Singh and Röhm, 2008 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Different and overlapping functions of Arabidopsis LHT6 and AAP1 transporters in root amino acid uptake. (nih.gov)
  • The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids. (umn.edu)
  • Thus AAP6 may serve a different role either in cooperating with the lower affinity systems to acquire amino acids in the low concentration range, as a system responsible for aspartate transport or as an uptake system from the xylem. (deepdyve.com)
  • In agreement, a yeast mutant deficient in acidic amino acid uptake at low aspartate concentrations was complemented only by AAP6. (deepdyve.com)
  • Indomethacin has been shown to inhibit selectively the rate of alpha-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid (MeAIB) uptake by the "A" transport system in several cell types. (aspetjournals.org)
  • it was found that all of the acidic NSAID tested inhibited MeAIB uptake in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values in the low to midmicromolar range. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The order of potency of the acidic NSAID in inhibiting MeAIB uptake was found to be correlated closely with their potency in the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro, the suppression of induced inflammatory reactions in rats and the maximum recommended daily doses in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Freshly excised rabbit corneas were used for transport studies and SIRC (a rabbit corneal cell line) cells for uptake studies. (arvojournals.org)
  • Transport and uptake characteristics of [ 3 H]- l -phenylalanine were determined at various concentrations and pH. (arvojournals.org)
  • Inhibition studies were conducted in the presence of other l - and d -amino acids and metabolic inhibitors, such as ouabain and sodium azide, and in the absence of sodium to delineate the mechanism of uptake and transport. (arvojournals.org)
  • Amastigote uptake systems for glucose, amino acids, nucleosides and polyamines are optimally active at acidic pH. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Promastigote uptake systems are kinetically distinct and function optimally at more neutral environmental pH, indicating that membrane transport activity is developmentally regulated. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that Neisseria meningitidis, a leading cause of septicaemia and meningitis, can avoid killing by PMNs and this is dependent on the ability of the bacterium to acquire L-glutamate through its GltT uptake system. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the changes in gill morphology induced by dietary salt feeding on several aspects of gill function in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss maintained in fresh water with specific emphasis on Cl(-) uptake (J(IN) Cl(-) ) and acid-base regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Similar group-specific amino acid transporters occur in the renal tubules (for reabsorption of amino acids filtered at the glomerulus) and for uptake of amino acids into tissues. (karelsavry.us)
  • Characterization of a Pseudomonas putida ABC transporter (AatJMQP) required for acidic amino acid uptake: biochemical properties and regulation by the Aau two-component system. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Methanolic and aqueous extracts from Valeriana adscendens (Valerianaceae), that previously demonstrated neuroleptic-like properties, were studied for their effects on GABA uptake and amino acid neurotransmitter levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A new series of arachidonic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the endocannabinoid uptake. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We examined the hypothesis that rat fatty acid translocase (rFAT) mediates the cellular uptake of T(3) and other iodothyronines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective was to determine whether net uptake of various nonesterified long chain fatty acids differs in the caprine liver. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both a protoplast amino acid uptake assay and HPLC analysis indicated that more basic (Lys, Arg) and neutral (Val, Ala) amino acids were transported and accumulated in the OE lines than in the wild type, but the opposite was observed in the RNAi lines. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Gastric acid lowers the pH in the proximal duodenum, enhancing the solubility and uptake of ferric iron (Table 1). (isee2002.org)
  • Research in the Bridges laboratory focuses on the transport systems responsible for mediating the uptake and sequestration of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. (umt.edu)
  • As few inhibitors have been identified for this uptake system, these compounds should be particularly valuable in investigating mechanisms underlying glutamate-mediated neurotransmission. (umt.edu)
  • Other responding functional groups of genes mainly belonged to nitrogen uptake and metabolism ( amtB , nrtB , nirB , nirD ), methionine metabolism ( metA , metF , metH , metK , bmt and ahcY ) as well as ion transport systems ( sitABCD , phoCD ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison with diatom and plant transit peptides, revealed that transit peptides from peridinin-containing dinoflagellate conform to general trends for transit peptides but are relatively deficient in hydroxylated amino acids, have a slight net positive charge, and contain N-terminal basic amino acids among the most N-terminal amino acids. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Like transit peptides in the alveolate Plasmodium falciparum, dinoflagellate transit peptides contain positively charged amino acids, have a depleted acidic residue content, and mostly contain one or more chaperone binding sites. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Despite its overwhelming prominence in dinoflagellate transit peptides, C-terminal negative charge clearly had no impact on the import competence of Amphidinium carterae targeting signals in heterologous in vivo systems. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Based on results from transfections of Pisum sativum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, targeting mediated by transit peptides is not merely dependent on net positive charge, N-terminal positive charge, or amino acid content. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Therefore, it was concluded that plastid transport into plant and diatom plastids also depended on sequence-specific patterns or motifs that are not present and/or not identical to those in dinoflagellate transit peptides. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Carboxypeptidases, secreted in the pancreatic juice, release amino acids from the free carboxyl terminal of peptides. (karelsavry.us)
  • Aminopeptidases, secreted by the intestinal mucosal cells, release amino acids from the amino terminal of peptides. (karelsavry.us)
  • 1. Following digestion, amino acids and small peptides are co-absorbed w/ sodium via group specific amino acid or peptide transport systems . (gravitywaves.com)
  • The result of this proteolytic activity is a mixture of amino acids and small peptides. (genome.jp)
  • Inside enterocytes peptides are hydrolyzed, and the resulting amino acids are released together with those absorbed by AA transporters into blood via multiple, basolateral, AA transporters. (genome.jp)
  • Hydrolysis-resistant peptides, however, are transported out of the cells by a basolateral peptide transporter that has not been identified molecularly. (genome.jp)
  • 2002) showed that polymerization of sodium silicate occurs upon the addition of amino acids and peptides. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • Seven of the amino acid residues in mature secretin can also be found in the vasoactive intestinal polypeptides, fourteen can be found in similar placement as those found in glucagon, and ten amino acids residues in secretin can be found in corresponding positions in the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptides. (wikibooks.org)
  • The transport of nutrients includes the transport of sugar fructose, amino acids, small peptides, vitamins and glucose. (mindmeister.com)
  • Ceftriaxone increased system x(c)(-) and glutathione levels independently of its effect on excitatory amino acid transporters by induction of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), a known inducer of system x(c)(-), and the specific x(c)(-) subunit xCT. (nih.gov)
  • Cooperative action of glutamate transporters and cystine/glutamate antiporter system Xc- protects from oxidative glutamate toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Transporters involved in source to sink partitioning of amino acids and ureides: opportunities for crop improvement. (nih.gov)
  • AAPs are distantly related to plasma membrane amino acid transport systems N and A and to vesicular transporters such as VGAT from mammals. (deepdyve.com)
  • AAP3 and AAP5 are the only transporters mediating efficient transport of the basic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Transporters involved in amino acid absorption in the human small intestine. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Expression of amino acid transporters along the mouse intestine. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • B 0 AT1, b 0,+ AT, y + LAT1, LAT2, rBAT, SIT1, and PAT1 show the typical signature for transporters primarily involved in amino acid absorption (high in the small intestine, low in colon). (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Known amino acid transporters belong to four different classes and three different structural folds. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • The APC (amino acid, polyamine, organo‐cation) family of transporters have a structure that is also closely related to LeuT, but do not translocate Na + ‐ions. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Approximately 10% of the N. winogradskyi genome codes for genes involved in transport and secretion, including the presence of transporters for various organic-nitrogen molecules. (asm.org)
  • They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sobrevia, Luis 2018-04-01 00:00:00 l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y+/CATs) and system y+L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Amino acids (AAs) are transported into the enterocyte (intestinal epithelial cell) by a variety of AA transporters that are specific for cationic (basic) AA, neutral AA, and anionic (acidic) AA. (genome.jp)
  • Here, we report the crystal structure of AdiC, the arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli O157:H7 and a member of the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily of transporters at 3.6 Å resolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • AdiC and GadC are members of the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily [transporter class (TC) no. 2.A.3] of membrane transporters, which has at least 250 members in diverse organisms ( 7 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Using conformationally constrained analogues of this acidic amino acid, Bridges and his associates probe the pharmacological specificity and the physiologically roles of these transporters in the brain and spinal cord. (umt.edu)
  • This work employs a wide range of experimental systems (e.g., subcellular preparations, primary tissue culture, cell lines expressing cloned transporters) and approaches (e.g., molecular modeling, organic synthesis, radiotracer flux, HPLC, radioligand autoradiography). (umt.edu)
  • Several SLC families also play an important role in drug transport and strategies are being developed to hijack SLC transporters to control and regulate drug transport within the body. (portlandpress.com)
  • Through the addition of amino acid and peptide moieties several novel antiviral and anticancer agents have been developed that hijack the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters, PepT1 (SCL15A1) and PepT2 (SLC15A2), for improved intestinal absorption and renal retention in the body. (portlandpress.com)
  • One successful approach has been to use amino acids as promoieties, as these confer several advantages on the parent compound, including increased water solubility and the targeting of intestinal SLC transporters for oral drug delivery [ 9 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Peptide transporters are targeted to improve drug transport into the body. (portlandpress.com)
  • Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
  • The amount of inhibition was dependent on cell density, time of incubation with drug, the media pH and its concentration of protein and amino acids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • the order in which AMINO ACIDS are placed along a protein molecule (see PRIMARY STRUCTURE ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Secondary and tertiary protein structure is highly dependent upon amino-acid sequence in the POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN , which affects the bonding together of the molecule. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By the processes of TRANSCRIPTION and TRANSLATION the DNA -base sequence is mirrored in the amino-acid sequence, there generally being COLINEARITY between DNA and protein in PROKARYOTES . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Their analysis of the protein also showed that the amino acid sequence in this region shares some important characteristics with the active agent of bee venom, which works by forming holes in membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Guided by known vertebrate steroid receptors and the new mollusk receptor, the team then deduced a probable amino acid sequence for the ancestral protein in both vertebrates and invertebrates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity progressively increased from 25 weeks of age in the ventral horn. (elsevier.com)
  • The dotA gene product is a large inner membrane protein of 1,048 amino acids with eight transmembrane domains ( 2 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The prolonged effect of D, L-AAA on cultured retinal cells was also studied using morphological observation and immunofluorescence of glial fibrillary acidic, protein(GFAP). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Amino acids are monomers of protein. (studymode.com)
  • Content in this category covers a range of protein behaviors which originate from the unique chemistry of amino acids themselves. (aamc.org)
  • Amino acid classifications and protein structural elements are covered. (aamc.org)
  • Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Protein digestion occurs by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds between amino acids. (karelsavry.us)
  • The result of the combined action of the endopeptidases is that the large protein molecules are broken down into a number of smaller polypeptides with a large number of amino and carboxy terminals for the exopeptidases to act on. (karelsavry.us)
  • Intestinal mucosal cells need glutamine as a nitrogen donor for the biosynthesis of a number of important compounds, including nucleotides needed for cell division, amino sugars for building the glycosaminoglycans of intestinal mucous, amino acids that are crucial for protein synthesis as well as for an energy source. (earthturns.com)
  • During and after the final assembly of a protein, the amino acid content dictates the spatial and biochemical properties of the protein or enzyme. (fsu.edu)
  • The amino acid backbone determines the primary sequence of a protein, but it is the nature of the side chains that determine the protein's properties. (fsu.edu)
  • On the other hand, non-polar amino acids tend to reside within the center of the protein where they can interact with similar non-polar neighbors. (fsu.edu)
  • In addition to their role in protein and enzyme synthesis, amino acids are actively involved in a broad range of functions in the body. (fsu.edu)
  • They are also, found, however in grains, legumes, and similar vegetable sources of protein, though one or more essential amino acids may be missing from such foods. (fsu.edu)
  • Nevertheless, amino acid deficiencies are extremely rare in the United States, since Americans commonly consume twice as much protein as is considered necessary each day. (fsu.edu)
  • α-synuclein is a small 140 amino acid (aa) protein that is abundantly expressed in the brain. (biolegend.com)
  • Failure to degrade α-synuclein caused by deficits in the protein clearance machinery, the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) and the autophagy pathway, also contribute to its buildup within a cell. (biolegend.com)
  • Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H + -load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MDTs are found in evolutionary unrelated membrane transport protein families, which suggests that they might have developed independently several times during the course of evolution. (schoolbag.info)
  • In the stomach, we secrete acid, and this acid then starts to act on the food materials degrading the protein materials and as it's doing so, it makes what's called an acidic chyme. (coursera.org)
  • Early phagosomes rapidly and transiently acquire markers of early endocytosis and then markers of late endocytosis, including the lysosome-associated membrane protein (Lamp-1) and the vacuolar proton ATPase (V-ATPase) responsible for acidic pH. (asm.org)
  • Improper digestion of protein creates toxins in the intestines and creates acidic. (isee2002.org)
  • In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
  • 1. The relation between energy production and the glucose-dependent transport of glycine, Canad. (springer.com)
  • Free amino acids are absorbed across the intestinal mucosa by sodium-dependent active transport, as occurs in the absorption of glucose and galactose (see Figure 4.9). (karelsavry.us)
  • This sheet on a permeable support was found to be an effective permeability barrier for glucose and amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • At each dose the same amounts of energy were delivered by glucose or amino acids. (fieldbrown.icu)
  • Humans can synthesise some non essential amino acids from glucose and ammonia, using the Krebs' cycle or from free amino acids by transamination or reductive amination. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • 2. Humans can synthesise most of the amino acids from glucose and ammonia. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Amino acids appear in chiral (mirror image) except for glycine where the R = Hydrogen Chirality of amino acids can only be seen in 3D structure The position of amino group on the left or right side of the α-carbon determines the L or D designation. (studymode.com)
  • To determine whether the naturally occurring amino acid threonine, a potential precursor for glycine biosynthesis in the spinal cord, has an effect on spasticity in multiple sclerosis, 26 ambulatory patients were entered into a randomized crossover trial. (thisisms.com)
  • 4. Some amino acids are conditionally essential, requiring preformed carbon side chains and substituted groups from other amino acids, e.g. glycine, serine and cysteine may well function as a inter-related group, with the need for adequate provision of each. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
  • The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, down-regulation of the astrocyte-specific glutamate excitatory amino acid transporter 2 is hypothesized to increase extracellular glutamate, thereby leading to excitotoxic motor neuron death. (nih.gov)
  • The antibiotic ceftriaxone was recently reported to induce excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and to prolong the survival of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that ceftriaxone-mediated neuroprotection might relate more strongly to activation of the antioxidant defense system including Nrf2 and system x(c)(-) than to excitatory amino acid transporter induction. (nih.gov)
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • The objective of this research was to investigate the presence of an Na + -independent, large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1, on rabbit corneal epithelium and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) was performed on total RNA from rabbit cornea, SIRC cells, and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 Solute transport through a transporter or a receptor is a mechanism of translocating hydrophilic compounds across lipid bilayers. (arvojournals.org)
  • The influence of environmental pH on membrane transporter function is discussed, with emphasis on the potential role of a transmembrane proton gradient in active, high affinity transport. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In the outward open conformation (PDB: 3TT1) amino acids can enter the transporter through the gap between the scaffold and the bundle from top. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Genetic defect in the neutral amino acid transporter. (gravitywaves.com)
  • Liver histidine and glutamine specific system N-like, Na + -dependent amino acid transporter, mNAT. (tcdb.org)
  • SNAT3 is a primarily a glutamine transporter required for amino acid homeostasis. (tcdb.org)
  • Hagos, Stein, Ugele, Burckhardt, and Bahn (2007)[ 2 ] have provided the general scheme of the commitment of human organic acid transporter 4 (hOAT4) in urate reabsorption in the proximal tubule. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) loads glutamate into secretory vesicles for neurotransmission and is expressed by discrete neuron populations throughout the nervous system. (jefferson.edu)
  • Another glutamate transporter, distinct from the cellular system, is present on synaptic vesicles and serves to concentrate glutamate in these vesicles prior to its release during excitatory neurotransmission. (umt.edu)
  • Bridges, R.J., Kavanaugh, M.P. and Chamberlin, A.R., 1999, A pharmacological review of competitive inhibitors and substrates of high-affinity, sodium-dependent glutamate transport in the central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • 3] "Selective expression of a novel high-affinity transport system for acidic and neutral amino acids in the tapetum cells of Arabidopsis flowers. (tcdb.org)
  • Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged. (deepdyve.com)
  • This property is due to an overall higher affinity of AAP6 for neutral and acidic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bacterial high affinity transport systems are involved in active transport of solutes across the cytoplasmic membrane. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These data suggest that L-Lys and L-Arg share transport system into ipsilateral loops but that the system has a greater affinity for L-Arg than L-Lys. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of tryptophan high affinity transport system in pinealocytes of the rat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • a low affinity transport system regulated by nitrate, nitrite or sulfate and a distinct Se(IV) regulated transport system. (helsinki.fi)
  • They are characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group (NH 2 ) attached to the same carbon at the end of the compound. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basic structure of all amino acids consists of a carboxyl group, an amino group and a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon called the alpha carbon (Baldwin, 2003). (studymode.com)
  • If a strong acid such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) is added to an amino acid solution, the HCl will donate a proton to carboxylate group to form the carboxyl acid group and therefore, make the solution acidic. (studymode.com)
  • One is Amino group(NH2) and the other is Carboxyl group(COOH). (studymode.com)
  • Acidic Amino Acid - Amino acids having 2 carboxyl groups and 1. (studymode.com)
  • Exopeptidases remove amino acids one at a time from either the amino or carboxyl end of the molecule, again by the hydrolysis of the peptide bond. (karelsavry.us)
  • The very name 'amino acid' refers to the presence of both a basic 'amino' group and an acidic 'carboxyl' group. (fossilhunters.xyz)
  • Another special property of the secretin hormone is that it has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid, valine. (wikibooks.org)
  • Taken together, the AAPs transport neutral, acidic and cationic amino acids, including the major transport forms, i.e. glutamine, asparagine and glutamate. (deepdyve.com)
  • System ASC preferentially transports alanine, serine, and cysteine but also recognizes other aliphatic amino acids ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Aromatic Amino acid Phenyl alanine, Tyrosine. (studymode.com)
  • System N1, SNAT3 [glutamine/histidine/asparagine/alanine]:[Na + + H + ] sym/antiporter (1 aa + 2 Na + cotransported against 1 H + antiported out) (probable orthologue of mNAT). (tcdb.org)
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • Also active as metabolic intermediates, amino acids are capable of transporting oxygen through the body and play a part in muscular function. (fsu.edu)
  • Amino acids regulate almost all of the metabolic processes in the human body and are essential for health. (sati.com)
  • If you've been following the Truth in Labeling Campaign, you know that Jack Samuels had a life-threatening sensitivity of processed free glutamic acid (MSG). (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Glutamic acid and aspartic acid are structural analogs, they cause the same brain damage in the same regions of the brain, and both are endocrine disruptors. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • There is something else you should know about the relationship between glutamic acid and aspartic acid. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • What researchers found to be true of glutamic acid was also true of aspartic acid. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • and since glutamic acid was easier to work with, [6] relatively little research on the toxic effects of aspartic acid per se was done. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Thus when you hear from the aspartame industry (which in my thinking includes the FDA) that there is very little research pointing to the toxic potential of aspartic acid or aspartame, you need to realize that the abundance of research that points to the toxic potential of glutamic acid also points to the toxic potential of aspartic acid and aspartame. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are two of the most important nutrients for plant growth, and in the majority of plant species, they are transported in the phloem to sink organs in the form of amino acids and sucrose, respectively. (plantcell.org)
  • To supply the body with the materials it needs for energy and the building of new tissue, nutrients have to pass through the digestive system. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Extreme acidic environments are characterized by their high metal content and lack of nutrients (oligotrophy). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acid (AA) and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-phosphorus (P) corn-soybean diets. (ajas.info)
  • As fundamental nutrients, amino acids are important for rice ( Oryza sativa ) growth and development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • When your stomach isn't producing enough acid, this impairs the absorption of nutrients as well as B6, folate, calcium, and iron,' Dr. Kellman explains. (isee2002.org)
  • Absorption - the transport or delivery of digested nutrients to body tissues. (mindmeister.com)
  • Let's first look at what enzymes are and what they do and then we'll be able to better understand how they work in our digestive system to let us to take in the vital nutrients we need to survive within the laws of nature. (arn.org)
  • Expression of xCT and activity of system xc(-) are regulated by NRF2 in human breast cancer cells in response to oxidative stress. (nih.gov)
  • Bixel, M.G., Hutson, S.M. and Hamprecht, B., 1997, Cellular distribution of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase isoenzymes among rat brain glial cells in culture. (springer.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11390805 Endothelial cells exposed to inductive central nervous system factors differentiate into a blood-brain barrier phenotype. (jove.com)
  • Lipids in Blood-brain Barrier Models in Vitro II: Influence of Glial Cells on Lipid Classes and Lipid Fatty Acids In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12762838 Lipids of brain tissue and brain microvascular endothelial cells contain high proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (long PUFAs). (jove.com)
  • We show here that, in contrast to wild-type cells, stp2Δ mutants occupy an acidic phagosome and are unable to initiate hyphal differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
  • While several of these inducing factors (37°C, elevated CO 2 ) act on phagocytosed cells, an acidic phagosome should inhibit germination and it has been unclear what stimulates this morphological transition. (prolekare.cz)
  • Were there no such flawlessly operating systems among the cells, it would be impossible for any living thing to maintain vital functions. (evolutiondeceit.com)
  • It is of course impossible to maintain that unconscious masses of atoms and molecules took a decision to form cells and that such a system later spontaneously came into being among those cells. (evolutiondeceit.com)
  • Administration of excitatory amino acids may be toxic for retinal cells and block axonal transport in retinal neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Wakakura M et al: 'Direct effect of DL-2-aminoadipic acid mediated by calcium ion cultured Muller cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Macromolecules formed from amino acids adopt well-defined, three-dimensional structures with chemical properties that are responsible for their participation in virtually every process occurring within and between cells. (aamc.org)
  • This is necessary for the blood to transport much needed oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones and blood cells to and from body cells. (natural-holistic-health.com)
  • Specific transcriptomic fingerprints can be inferred for both planktonic and sessile cells, having the former a more active TCA cycle, while the mixed acid fermentation process dominate in the latter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Succinic acid an organic acid in the krebs cycle which is in most cells in our body is a good treatment for MS, and 99% of all other diseases in world. (thisisms.com)
  • Long-term osmotic is there a generic cialis regulation of amino acid transport systems in mammalian cells. (fieldbrown.icu)
  • This defect in phagosome maturation is specific to live organisms, since heat-killed bacilli colocalized with cathepsin D. In addition, T. whipplei survived within HeLa cells by adapting to acidic pH. (asm.org)
  • The ability of T. whipplei to survive in an acidic environment and to interfere with phagosome-lysosome fusion is likely critical for its prolonged persistence in host cells during the course of Whipple's disease. (asm.org)
  • The researchers began to build artificial amino acids in the laboratory--just to see what cells would do with new construction material, and where the exploration would lead. (freethesaurus.com)
  • [2] The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a synthesis and transport organelle that branches into the cytoplasm in plant and animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [16] However, although it is clear that lipid transport is a central process in organelle biogenesis, the mechanisms by which lipids are transported through cells remain poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not mutually exclusive processes and both may occur in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional Expression of Gastric H,K-ATPase in Sf9 Cells Using the Baeulovirus Expression System. (ebooks.com)
  • Acidic and Non-Acidic Endosomes in Kidney Epithelial Cells: Their Role in Cell-Specific Membrane Recycling Processes. (ebooks.com)
  • Sulphur containing Amino Acid Cysteine, Methionine. (studymode.com)
  • Resultant calculation on the contents of amino acids in the diet which can generate an acid in the catabolic process, such as arginine, lysine, 1/2histidine, methionine and cystein, yielded 8039 mg/day in the alkali diet and 19458 mg/day in the acid diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 95% on common amino acids profile (up to 45 amino acids in a single run with Lithium systems), including Taurine, Ornithine, oxidized amino acids such as Cysteic acid and Methionine Sulfone, and hydroxylated amino acids such as Hydroxyproline and Hydroxylysine. (freethesaurus.com)
  • They are synthesized from essential amino acids and become essential only if there is a deficiency of their precursor essential amino acid. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • The structure is first created initially with a precursor which contains the a spacer, the secretin hormone itself, an N-terminal signal peptide, and a C-terminal peptide which contains 72 amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Wurtman, R.J., Effects of physiological variations in brain amino acid concentrations on the synthesis of brain monoamines. (springer.com)
  • In cases where amino acid synthesis occurs in roots, they are transported via the xylem with the transpiration stream, mainly to mature leaves. (plantcell.org)
  • Esters are of widespread use for protecting carboxylic acids in organic synthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Acidic pHi reduced NO synthesis and eNOS serine1177 phosphorylation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, system y+L activity is downregulated by an acidic pHi, a phenomenon that may result in reduced NO synthesis in HUVECs. (deepdyve.com)
  • Likewise, enzymes can also have polar amino acid substituents within the active site that provide a polar region in which to conduct biochemical synthesis. (fsu.edu)
  • Similarly, fatty acids are made in the cytosol and then either broken down in the mitochondria for the synthesis of ATP or degraded in the peroxisomes with concomitant generation of heat. (britannica.com)
  • Hans-Josef Ritzert will succeed Hanko as Evonik's director of exclusive synthesis and amino acids. (acs.org)
  • Secretin will stimulate the pancreas to release a solution containing bicarbonate ion into the small intestine where it will neutralize the acidic chyme and raise the pH from 2.5 to 9.0. (mindmeister.com)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Source and sink mechanisms of nitrogen transport and use. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for testing of mechanisms of transendothelial drug permeation. (jove.com)
  • Terrian D.M., Bischoff S.B., Schwartz M.A., Dorman R.V. (1987) Molecular Mechanisms of Acidic Amino Acid Release from Mossy Fiber Terminals of Rat Cerebellum. (springer.com)
  • Reviewed here is the current knowledge of proton transport mechanisms in mammals. (ebooks.com)
  • Further attention is given to the regulation of proton transport mechanisms and cellular mechanisms to resist damage from highly acidic environments. (ebooks.com)
  • In: Glutamine, Glutamate and GABA in The Central Nervous System. (springer.com)
  • It is the sole system that transports glutamate and glutamine, but it can also transport aspartate and asparagine ( Singh and Röhm 2008 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Thus the actual apoplasmic concentration of amino acids and the pH will determine what is transported in vivo, i.e. major amino acids such as glutamine, asparagine, and glutamate will be mobilized preferentially. (deepdyve.com)
  • The amino acid glutamine plays a key role in the metabolism, structure, and function of the entire gastro-intestinal (GI) tract, and its extensive immune system. (earthturns.com)
  • Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in blood, and is a vehicle for nitrogen transport. (earthturns.com)
  • Glutamine carries potentially toxic ammonia to the kidneys for excretion, and participates in maintaining normal acid-base balance. (earthturns.com)
  • More than 200 different amino acids exist, but L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the bloodstream and makes up 30-35 percent of the amino acid nitrogen in the blood. (sati.com)
  • In addition, glutamine makes up to 60 percent of the free amino acids in the bones, making it an important supplement for fitness enthusiasts[ 4 ]. (sati.com)
  • Glutamine is not an essential amino acid, since the body does produce it. (sati.com)
  • This makes glutamine a conditionally-essential amino acid. (sati.com)
  • Injuries, infections, cancer treatments, and surgeries tax the immune system and deplete glutamine from the body. (sati.com)
  • The model shows high reproducibility, high tightness, and is suitable for studies of transport and intracellular trafficking in drug discovery. (jove.com)
  • Leishmania amastigotes multiply in an acidic intracellular compartment, the parasitophorous vacuole. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Since the response was not completely blocked during incubation with calcium-free EGTA containing medium, intracellular calcium mobilization system appeared also to be exerted. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Intracellular acidification reduces l-arginine transport via system y+L but not via system. (deepdyve.com)
  • l-Arginine is the substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) which is activated by intracellular alkalization, but nothing is known regarding modulation of system y+/CATs and system y+L activity, and eNOS activity by the pHi in HUVECs. (deepdyve.com)
  • The results show that intracellular acidification reduced system y+L but not system y+/CATs mediated l-arginine maximal transport capacity due to reduced maximal velocity. (deepdyve.com)
  • To survive the extremely acidic environment (pH 2 to 3) of the stomach, these bacteria have acquired elaborate systems to maintain a higher intracellular pH ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In E. coli , the acid-resistance systems 2 (AR2) and 3 (AR3) expel intracellular protons through two coupled processes: intracellular decarboxylation of glutamate (Glu) and arginine (Arg) by AR2 and AR3, respectively, and the exchange of the reaction products, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and agmatine (Agm), with extracellular Glu and Arg ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Clark, A.J., Yamada, C., and Swendseid, M.E., Effect of L- leucine on amino acid levels in plasma and tissue of normal and diabetic rats. (springer.com)
  • Before pHi started to recover, l-arginine transport (0-20 or 0-1000 μmol/L, 10 s, 37 °C) in the absence or presence of 200 μmol/L N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) (system y+/CATs inhibitor) or 2 mmol/L l-leucine (systemy+L substrate) was measured. (deepdyve.com)
  • The most striking functional groups responding to the shift to acidic pH were genes of the exopolysaccharide I biosynthesis as well as flagellar and chemotaxis genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, in aap2 seeds, total carbon (C) levels were unchanged, while fatty acid levels were elevated. (plantcell.org)
  • 1983), suggesting that the Ca 2+ is required for phospholipid degradation and fatty acid accumulation. (springer.com)
  • Other examples of such amino acids include carnitine, which is concerned in fatty acid transport within a cell, as well as ornithine and citrulline, both of which are key components in the body's urea cycle. (fsu.edu)
  • Thyroid hormone transport by the rat fatty acid translocase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a result, one of the most powerful approaches for gaining insight into genome sequences is based simply on amino acid sequence comparisons between new, uncharacterized amino acid sequences predicted from genome DNA sequences, and amino acid sequences of known function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The amino acid sequence is configured in three-dimensional space so that the [gamma]-core has certain characteristics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the table in (1) indicated the amino acid sequence homologies between the novel and previous HEV isolates were similar to (some even lower than) the nucleotide sequence homologies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In particular, the present invention provides for isolated nucleic acid molecules comprising nucleotide sequences encoding the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2 or 4, or the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 or 3, as well as variants thereof. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A substitution of cytosine for guanine, also located in VD 1, resulted in Gln instead of Glu at amino acid position 117, as found in genotype B and strain 6BC (numbering according to the ompA amino acid sequence of the C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) requires an anaerobic-aerobic sequence and short chain fatty acids, namely acetate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This peptide is composed of 27 Amino Acid residues and is arranged in an linear sequence. (wikibooks.org)
  • In the second step, the sequence of the found amino acids of the peptide is determined by the program by scoring the agreement between expected and observed fragment ion signals of the permuted sequences. (freethesaurus.com)
  • It was shown that the short term response to acidic pH stress does not result in a simple induction or repression of genes, but in a sequence of responses varying in their intensity over time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The level of this amino acid in the serum and in the pineal gland of the rat undergoes a circadian rhythm, and reduced plasma tryptophan concentration decreases secretion of melatonin in humans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Modulation of phagosome biogenesis and escape into the cytosol is mediated by the Francisella pathogenicity island-encoded type VI-like secretion system. (frontiersin.org)
  • This functionality can be carried out because the secretin hormones are able to manipulate specific secretion of gastric acid and control it's pH properties by using various chemical buffers. (wikibooks.org)
  • The Type II Secretion System helps regulate the amount of hydrolytic enzymes as well as expelling toxins from the periplasm outwards of the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • The emphasis is on gastric acid secretion and the role of the H+, K+-ATPase, but molecular and cellular information on other P-, V- and F-type H+-ATPases, in bone, kidney, plants and yeast, as well as other cation ATPases, are included for important comparisons. (ebooks.com)
  • New Approaches to Inhibition of Gastric Acid Secretion: Development and Mechanism of Omeprazole. (ebooks.com)
  • [1] and he found that aspartic acid, a second neurotoxic amino acid, does exactly the same. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Over time, Jack found out more about the aspartic acid in aspartame. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • At least 8 of the important organic compounds must be consumed in the diet and two additional amino acids (histidine and arginine) are essential only to children. (fsu.edu)
  • 5 6 7 8 Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is inherently unstable in free solution. (arvojournals.org)
  • Two other amino acids, tyrosine and cysteine, are facultatively essential. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Addition of a fivefold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. (umn.edu)
  • Enzymatic acetylation and methylation, usually of lysine: this suppresses positive charges forming on the amino group. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Increasing proton concentrations strongly activate transport of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pharmacologically inactive metabolites of several NSAID had little or no effect on MeAIB transport at concentrations up to 10 times greater than active parent compounds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • They injected 10 different amino acids at set concentrations into samples of silica gel and then tried washing them out with a selection of different solvents, including aqueous solvents such as water and sodium hydroxide and the organic solvents methanol and acetonitrile. (separationsnow.com)
  • It also has been shown to be a good 'natural' antibiotic because of its relative acidic or caustic nature (high concentrations can even cause burns). (thisisms.com)
  • Vacuolar proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase and H + -ATPase acidify the vacuoles and power the vacuolar secondary active transport systems in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In other words, why does the H + -PPase exist in the vacuolar membranes of plants but not in yeast vacuoles or animal acidic compartments? (plantphysiol.org)
  • The vacuoles containing T. whipplei were acidic (pH 4.7 ± 0.3) and acquired vacuolar ATPase, responsible for the acidic pH of late phagosomes. (asm.org)
  • Consequences: not serious di- and tripeptide absorption supply minimal amounts of dietarily essential neutral amino acids. (gravitywaves.com)
  • People don't believe home it reflux remedie until severe symptoms literally hit them over raw plant foods are various problems stomach acid and iron absorption in duodenum location in body with the stomach. (isee2002.org)
  • When gastric acid production is impaired (for instance by acid pump inhibitors such as the drug, prilosec), iron absorption is reduced substantially. (isee2002.org)
  • This result, together with the presence of small organic acids like acetate and formate (1.36 mM and 0.06 mM respectively) in the acidic (pH 1.8) water stream, suggests that either L. ferrooxidans or other member of the microbial community are producing acetate in the acidophilic biofilm under microaerophilic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These organic acids exist naturally in a zwitterion state where the carboxylic acid moiety is ionized and the basic amino group is protonated. (fsu.edu)
  • Another situation where rhizobia are commonly facing a low pH environment is the rhizoplane of their leguminous host plants, where the pH is decreased by protons and organic acids excreted by the plants [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The release of neurotransmitters induced by exogenous fatty acids does not require Ca 2+ (Rhoads et al. (springer.com)
  • Testing this possibility will require flying other spacecraft through the plumes with analytical devices able to detect molecules more closely associated with life, such as amino acids. (separationsnow.com)
  • Due to the fact that both the hypersensitivity reaction and the peak of lipoproteins in circulation occur ~5 hours postprandial, we hypothesize that the alpha-gal molecules are transported via intestinal lipoproteins. (etsu.edu)
  • Our preliminary data showed that a higher concentration of alpha-gal was present in the insoluble fractions, supporting our hypothesis that alpha-gal molecules are transported by intestinal lipoproteins. (etsu.edu)
  • Due to this observation, it is thought that the alpha-gal molecules are transported by intestinal lipoproteins. (etsu.edu)
  • The shock of the collision heated it to more than 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, hot enough that all complex organic molecules like amino acids should have been destroyed, but we found them anyway," said Daniel Glavin of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Transepithelial Transport of 4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxyacetic Acid (MCPA) across Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Monolayers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intestinal lipoproteins are fat particles produced for the purpose of transporting hydrophobic materials in the intestine. (etsu.edu)
  • Treating stomach pain, intestinal problems, acid. (isee2002.org)
  • Implications of nitrogen phloem loading for carbon metabolism and transport during Arabidopsis development. (nih.gov)
  • Connecting Source with Sink: The Role of Arabidopsis AAP8 in Phloem Loading of Amino Acids. (nih.gov)
  • Six amino acid permeases (AAPs) from Arabidopsis mediating transport of a wide spectrum of amino acids were isolated. (deepdyve.com)
  • We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana AMINO ACID PERMEASE2 (AAP2) localizes to the phloem throughout the plant. (plantcell.org)
  • Since all AAPs are differentially expressed, different tissues may be supplied with a different spectrum of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • The penetration of amino acids into the brain and into other tissues is mediated by energy-requiring systems 1-3 . (springer.com)
  • A condition in which there is a shift in the acid-base balance of the body to have more acid than normal, often causing the pH of the blood and body tissues to fall below the healthy range (7.35-7.45). (isee2002.org)
  • The Ca 2+ dependent release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from cerebral synaptosomes has also been shown to require the accumulation of free arachidonic acid and this release can be mimicked with exogenous arachidonic acid, but not other free fatty acids (Asakura and Matsuda, 1984). (springer.com)
  • The Glu:GABA antiporter GadC ( 3 , 4 ) and the Arg:Agm antiporter AdiC ( 5 , 6 ) are at the center of the systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1 . As the amino acids enter the duodenum digestion is partial, they trigger the release of cholectystokinin-pancreozymin ( CCK-PZ ) and Secretin in to the bloodstream. (gravitywaves.com)
  • 3. The end products of cell surface digestion are free amino acids and di- and tripeptides . (gravitywaves.com)
  • The experimental design which for their project was to target how a nervous system responded and regulate digestion processes. (wikibooks.org)
  • l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
  • Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
  • When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
  • Transport Phenomena in the Nervous System: Physiological and Pathological Aspects. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to protect Plantago lanceolata extract from hydrolysis and to improve its antioxidant effect using self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). (mdpi.com)
  • Uncharged forms of acidic and basic amino acids are cotransported with one proton. (deepdyve.com)
  • In vivo competition shows that the capability to transport basic amino acids in planta might be overruled by excess amides and acidic amino acids in the apoplasm. (deepdyve.com)
  • neu·tral/ ( noo´tril ) neither basic nor acidic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • neither basic nor acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this course, students learn to recognize and to apply the basic concepts that govern integrated body function (as an intact organism) in the body's nine organ systems. (coursera.org)
  • These systems are not specific for each amino acid, but distinguish amino acids into three groups: neutral, acidic, and basic 4-6 . (springer.com)
  • A molecule that displays both acidic and basic properties is called a zwitterion (Clark, 2004). (studymode.com)
  • Any such extraction would thus need to be fairly basic, and so Willis and his team decided to see whether amino acids could simply be washed out of a silica aerogel using some kind of solvent. (separationsnow.com)
  • Between them, the 10 amino acids came from the five main groups - aromatic, acidic, basic, polar and nonpolar - to see whether their differing chemical properties would affect the extraction. (separationsnow.com)
  • They found that some of solvents struggled to extract the basic amino acids, which become positively charged at certain pHs and so stuck to the negatively charged aerogel. (separationsnow.com)
  • There are a number of different amino acid transport systems with specificity for the chemical nature of the side-chain (large or small neutral, acidic or basic - see Figure 4.18). (karelsavry.us)
  • Like acidic and neutral amino acids, basic amino acids apparently can be reabsorbed distal to tips of Henle's loops and recycled in the papilla. (elsevier.com)
  • Dantzler, WH & Silbernagl, S 1993, ' Basic amino acid transport in renal papilla: Microinfusion of Henle's loops and vasa recta ', American Journal of Physiology - Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology , vol. 265, no. 6 34-6, pp. (elsevier.com)
  • There are also acidic and basic side chains as well as thiol chains that can be oxidized to dithiol linkages between two similar amino acids. (fsu.edu)
  • In this review, we discuss some basic concepts regarding drug transport from bacteria to humans. (schoolbag.info)
  • The phenomenon of multidrug transport is an intriguing one because it seems to challenge the basic model of an enzyme binding specifically to a single substrate in an optimized set of interactions as a prerequisite to efficient catalysis. (schoolbag.info)
  • This separates the amino acids into four groups, polar, non-polar, acidic and basic. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Amino acids are the basic building blocks of the body. (sati.com)
  • Olney JW, Ho OL, Rhee V. Cytotoxic effects of acidic and sulphur containing amino acids on the infant mouse central nervous system. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Usually an active transport mechanism in which energy is required is referred as bioaccumulation and term biosorption is used when physical adsorption on cell membrane structures residing on the cell surfaces are employed. (helsinki.fi)
  • In eukaryotes the organelles of the endomembrane system include: the nuclear membrane , the endoplasmic reticulum , the Golgi apparatus , lysosomes , vesicles , endosomes , and plasma (cell) membrane among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] A vesicle is a relatively small, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organelles of the endomembrane system are related through direct contact or by the transfer of membrane segments as vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Communication between organelles is also achieved by the membrane budding processes of endocytosis and exocytosis, which are essentially the same as in the cell membrane ( see above Transport across the membrane ). (britannica.com)
  • Within the vacuole is the cell sap , a water solution of salts and sugars kept at high concentration by the active transport of ions through permeases in the vacuole membrane. (britannica.com)
  • as it's doing so, it makes what's called an acidic chyme. (coursera.org)
  • The reason that it has to take a slow rate is that once this acidic chyme, which is a very low pH, is entering into the duodenum, that's the first part of the small intestine. (coursera.org)
  • By having the acidic chyme being squeezed out of the stomach is very small dollops, that is in about three or four milliliters at a time, then the acid as it arrives in the duodenum can be neutralized. (coursera.org)
  • The entire class of amino acids has a common backbone consisting of an organic carboxylic acid group and an amino group attached to a saturated carbon atom. (fsu.edu)
  • Each amino acid also have a side chain denoted by R. CLASSIFICATION OF AMINO ACID 1) Based on structure ) Neutral amino Acid - These are mono amino and mono carboxylic acid . (studymode.com)
  • Conditionally essential amino acids, require preformed carbon side chains and substituted groups from other amino acids. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Function of pea amino acid permease AAP6 in nodule nitrogen metabolism and export, and plant nutrition. (nih.gov)
  • Leaf Amino Acid Supply Affects Photosynthetic and Plant Nitrogen Use Efficiency under Nitrogen Stress. (nih.gov)
  • Improving Plant Nitrogen Use Efficiency through Alteration of Amino Acid Transport Processes. (nih.gov)
  • Frommer, Wolf B. 2002-03-01 00:00:00 Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. (deepdyve.com)
  • Seed development and nitrogen (N) storage depend on delivery of amino acids to seed sinks. (plantcell.org)
  • Nitrification, the microbiological process by which ammonia is converted to nitrate, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle, plays a crucial role in transformation of fertilizer nitrogen in agricultural systems, and is a key component of nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. (asm.org)
  • A lack of a primary amino acid may limit the utilization of other amino acids leading to equal loss of carbon and nitrogen. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • could result in the deamination of essential amino acids to provide nitrogen. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Lack of conditional essential amino acids, leads to problems in the balance of nitrogen and carbon substrates and the need for specific if not essential amino acids. (nutrition-nutritionists.com)
  • Pepsin is secreted in the gastric juice as pepsinogen, which is activated by the action of gastric acid, and also by the action of already activated pepsin. (karelsavry.us)
  • 3. Gastric juices contain the acid stable proteases of the pepsin family , which produce large peptide fragments and some free amino acids. (gravitywaves.com)
  • Hyperchlorhydria is defined as presence of excessive gastric acid in the stomach. (isee2002.org)
  • The Gastric H/K ATPase ß Subunit Gene and Transcriptional Pathways in Acid-Secreting Epithelia of the Stomach and Kidney. (ebooks.com)
  • Non-gastric transport-ATPases. (ebooks.com)
  • Monascus ruber as cell factory for lactic acid production at low pH. (nih.gov)
  • Representatives of this species are obligately homofermentative, thermophilic, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are used as starter cultures in the manufacturing of a variety of fermented dairy products, such as yogurt and mozzarella and Swiss cheeses ( 14 ), and as flavor adjunct cultures in other types of cheese, such as Gouda ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • These results provide important insights into the mechanism by which these lactic acid bacteria reduce cholesterol. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)