Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.4.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)

Presence of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic terminal boutons. (1/736)

The characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-47 gene recently allowed the identification of a mammalian (gamma)-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter, presumed to be located in the synaptic vesicle membrane. In situ hybridization data in rat brain suggested that it might also take up glycine and thus represent a general Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter (VIAAT). In the present study, we have investigated the localization of VIAAT in neurons by using a polyclonal antibody raised against the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of the protein. Light microscopy and immunocytochemistry in primary cultures or tissue sections of the rat spinal cord revealed that VIAAT was localized in a subset (63-65%) of synaptophysin-immunoreactive terminal boutons; among the VIAAT-positive terminals around motoneuronal somata, 32.9% of them were also immunoreactive for GAD65, a marker of GABAergic presynaptic endings. Labelling was also found apposed to clusters positive for the glycine receptor or for its associated protein gephyrin. At the ultrastructural level, VIAAT immunoreactivity was restricted to presynaptic boutons exhibiting classical inhibitory features and, within the boutons, concentrated over synaptic vesicle clusters. Pre-embedding detection of VIAAT followed by post-embedding detection of GABA or glycine on serial sections of the spinal cord or cerebellar cortex indicated that VIAAT was present in glycine-, GABA- or GABA- and glycine-containing boutons. Taken together, these data further support the view of a common vesicular transporter for these two inhibitory transmitters, which would be responsible for their costorage in the same synaptic vesicle and subsequent corelease at mixed GABA-and-glycine synapses.  (+info)

Cutting edge: primary structure of the light chain of fusion regulatory protein-1/CD98/4F2 predicts a protein with multiple transmembrane domains that is almost identical to the amino acid transporter E16. (2/736)

The CD98 light chain (CD98LC) was copurified from HeLa S3 cells by an affinity chromatography using a mAb specific for the fusion regulatory protein-1 (FRP-1) which is identical to the CD98 heavy chain. On the basis of the N-terminal sequence (63 amino acids) of purified CD98LC polypeptide, we have cloned a PCR fragment (155 bp) from a HeLa S3 cDNA library and finally obtained a full cDNA clone encoding the CD98LC. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using the cDNA assigned the CD98LC gene to the long arm of human chromosome 16 (16q24). The predicted amino acid sequence suggested that CD98LC is a protein with multiple transmembrane domains and is almost identical to the amino acid transporter E16. Resting monocytes and lymphocytes expressed CD98LC as analyzed by a newly isolated anti-CD98LC mAb, which showed cross-reactivity with insect Sf9 cells as well as with various mammalian cell lines.  (+info)

NH4+-induced down-regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gap1p permease involves its ubiquitination with lysine-63-linked chains. (3/736)

Addition of ammonium ions to yeast cells growing on proline as the sole nitrogen source induces internalization of the general amino acid permease Gap1p and its subsequent degradation in the vacuole. An essential step in this down-regulation is Gap1p ubiquitination through a process requiring the Npi1p/Rsp5p ubiquitin ligase. We show in this report that NPI2, a second gene required for NH4+-induced down-regulation of Gap1p, codes for the ubiquitin hydrolase Doa4p/Ubp4p/Ssv7p and that NH4+-induced Gap1p ubiquitination is strongly reduced in npi2 cells. The npi2 mutation results in substitution of an aromatic amino acid located in a 33-residue sequence shared by some ubiquitin hydrolases of the Ubp family. In this mutant, as in doa4(delta) cells, the amount of free monomeric ubiquitin is at least four times lower than in wild-type cells. Both ubiquitination and down-regulation of the permease can be restored in npi2 cells by over-expression of ubiquitin. In proline-grown wild-type and npi2/doa4 cells overproducing ubiquitin, Gap1p appears to be mono-ubiquitinated at two lysine acceptor sites. Addition of NH4+ triggers rapid poly-ubiquitination of Gap1p, the poly-ubiquitin chains being specifically formed by linkage through the lysine 63 residue of ubiquitin. Gap1p is thus ubiquitinated differently from the proteins targeted by ubiquitination for proteolysis by the proteasome, but in the same manner as the uracil permease, also subject to ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis. When poly-ubiquitination through Lys63 is blocked, the Gap1p permease still undergoes NH4+-induced down-regulation, but to a lesser extent.  (+info)

The ArgR regulatory protein, a helper to the anaerobic regulator ANR during transcriptional activation of the arcD promoter in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (4/736)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, when deprived of oxygen, generates ATP from arginine catabolism by enzymes of the arginine deiminase pathway, encoded by the arcDABC operon. Under conditions of low oxygen tension, the transcriptional activator ANR binds to a site centered 41.5 bp upstream of the arcD transcriptional start. ANR-mediated anaerobic induction was enhanced two- to threefold by extracellular arginine. This arginine effect depended, in trans, on the transcriptional regulator ArgR and, in cis, on an ArgR binding site centered at -73.5 bp in the arcD promoter. Binding of purified ArgR protein to this site was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting. This ArgR recognition site contained a sequence, 5'-TGACGC-3', which deviated in only 1 base from the common sequence motif 5'-TGTCGC-3' found in other ArgR binding sites of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, an alignment of all known ArgR binding sites confirmed that they consist of two directly repeated half-sites. In the absence of ANR, arginine did not induce the arc operon, suggesting that ArgR alone does not activate the arcD promoter. According to a model proposed, ArgR makes physical contact with ANR and thereby facilitates initiation of arc transcription.  (+info)

Yeast mutants affecting possible quality control of plasma membrane proteins. (5/736)

Mutations gef1, stp22, STP26, and STP27 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as suppressors of the temperature-sensitive alpha-factor receptor (mutation ste2-3) and arginine permease (mutation can1(ts)). These suppressors inhibited the elimination of misfolded receptors (synthesized at 34 degrees C) as well as damaged surface receptors (shifted from 22 to 34 degrees C). The stp22 mutation (allelic to vps23 [M. Babst and S. Emr, personal communication] and the STP26 mutation also caused missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, and ste2-3 was suppressed by mutations vps1, vps8, vps10, and vps28 but not by mutation vps3. In the stp22 mutant, both the mutant and the wild-type receptors (tagged with green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulated within an endosome-like compartment and were excluded from the vacuole. GFP-tagged Stp22p also accumulated in this compartment. Upon reaching the vacuole, cytoplasmic domains of both mutant and wild-type receptors appeared within the vacuolar lumen. Stp22p and Gef1p are similar to tumor susceptibility protein TSG101 and voltage-gated chloride channel, respectively. These results identify potential elements of plasma membrane quality control and indicate that cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are translocated into the vacuolar lumen.  (+info)

Stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport activates a voltage-dependent conductance in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney. (6/736)

1. The swelling induced by Na+-alanine cotransport in proximal tubule cells of the frog kidney is followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). This RVD is inhibited by gadolinium (Gd3+), an inhibitor of stretch-activated channels, but is independent of extracellular Ca2+. 2. In this study, the whole cell patch clamp technique was utilized to examine the effect of Na+-alanine cotransport on two previously identified volume- and Gd3+-sensitive conductances. One conductance is voltage dependent and anion selective (GVD) whilst the other is voltage independent and cation selective (GVI). 3. Addition of 5 mM L-alanine to the bathing solution increased the whole cell conductance and gave a positive (depolarizing) shift in the reversal potential (Vrev, equivalent to the membrane potential in current-clamped cells) consistent with activation of Na+-alanine cotransport. Vrev shifted from -36 +/- 4.9 to +12.9 +/- 4.2 mV (n = 15). 4. In the presence of alanine, the total whole cell conductance had several components including the cotransporter conductance and GVD and GVI. These conductances were separated using Gd3+, which inhibits both GVD and GVI, and the time dependency of GVD. Of these two volume-sensitive conductances, L-alanine elicited a specific increase in GVD, whereas GVI was unaffected. 5. The L-alanine-induced activation of GVD was significantly reduced when cells were incubated in a hypertonic bathing solution. 6. In summary, in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney, on stimulation of Na+-alanine cotransport GVD is activated, while GVI is unaffected. Taken with other evidence, this suggests that GVD is activated by cell swelling, consequent upon alanine entry, and may play a role as an anion efflux pathway during alanine-induced volume regulation.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of GABA, proline and quaternary ammonium compound transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana. (7/736)

Arabidopsis thaliana grows efficiently on GABA as the sole nitrogen source, thereby providing evidence for the existence of GABA transporters in plants. Heterologous complementation of a GABA uptake-deficient yeast mutant identified two previously known plant amino acid transporters, AAP3 and ProT2, as GABA transporters with Michaelis constants of 12.9 +/- 1.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mM at pH 4, respectively. The simultaneous transport of [1-14C]GABA and [2,3-3H]proline by ProT2 as a function of pH, provided evidence that the zwitterionic state of GABA is an important parameter in substrate recognition. ProT2-mediated [1-14C]GABA transport was inhibited by proline and quaternary ammonium compounds.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of cadD, a new cadmium resistance gene of Staphylococcus aureus. (8/736)

A cadmium resistance gene, designated cadD, has been identified in and cloned from the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pRW001. The gene is part of a two-component operon which contains the resistance gene cadD and an inactive regulatory gene, cadX*. A high degree of sequence similarity was observed between cadD and the cadB-like gene from S. lugdunensis, but no significant similarity was found with either cadA or cadB from the S. aureus plasmids pI258 and pII147. The positive regulatory gene cadX* is identical to cadX from pLUG10 over a stretch of 78 codons beginning at the N terminus, but it is truncated at this point and inactive. Sequence analysis showed that the cadmium resistance operon resides on a 3,972-bp element that is flanked by direct repeats of IS257. The expression of cadD in S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis resulted in low-level resistance to cadmium; in contrast, cadA and cadB from S. aureus induced higher level resistance. However, when the truncated version of cadX contained in pRW001 is complemented in trans with cadX from plasmid pLUG10, resistance increased approximately 10-fold suggesting that the cadmium resistance operons from pRW001 and pLUG10 are evolutionarily related. Moreover, the truncated version of cadX contained in pRW001 is nonfunctional and may have been generated by deletion during recombination to acquire the cadmium resistance element.  (+info)

The heterodimeric amino acid transporter family is a subfamily of SLC7 solute transporter family which includes 14-transmembrane cationic amino acid transporters and 12-transmembrane heterodimeric amino acid transporters. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are linked via a disulfide bond to single membrane spanning glycoproteins such as 4F2hc (4F2 heavy chain) and rBAT |TEX|$(related\;to\;b^0,\;^+-amino\;acid\;transporter)$|/TEX|. Six members are associated with 4F2hc and one is linked to rBAT. Two additional members were identified as ones associated with unknown heavy chains. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family exhibit diverse substrate selectivity and are expressed in variety of tissues. They play variety of physiological roles including epithelial transport of amino acids as well as the roles to provide cells in general with amino acids for cellular nutrition. The dysfunction or hyperfunction of the members of the heterodimeric amino acid
Find SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research area related information and SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
More than 50 distinct amino acid transporter genes have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis, indicating that transport of amino acids across membranes is a highly complex feature in plants. Based on sequence similarity, these transporters can be divided into two major superfamilies: the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid polyamine choline transporters is presented, namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and CAT8. The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is expressed in young ...
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This is the first study to assess the transport of neutral amino acids in both polarized plasma membranes of the placental transporting epithelium isolated from pregnancies complicated by GDM or type 1 diabetes with and without accelerated fetal growth as well as from pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth despite apparently normal glucose metabolism. The transport of amino acids across MVMs is a secondary active process and represents the rate-limiting step in transplacental transfer of amino acids (36). System A is a Na+-dependent transporter mediating the uptake of neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and glutamine. In the current article, we demonstrate that amino acid transport mediated by system A is markedly increased in the syncytiotrophoblast MVM in association with diabetes during pregnancy. We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM into the syncytiotrophoblast cytoplasm, which may increase the delivery of amino acids to ...
xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
SLC1A1, also known as excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A1 gene. Excitatory amino-acid transporter 3 is a member of the high-affinity glutamate transporters which plays an essential role in transporting glutamate across plasma membranes in neurons. In the brain, excitatory amino acid transporters are crucial in terminating the postsynaptic action of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and in maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as glutamate-aspartate transport defect. EAAT3 is also the major route of neuronal cysteine uptake. Cysteine is a component of the major antioxidant glutathione, and mice lacking EAAT3 exhibit reduced levels of glutathione in neurons, increased oxidative stress, and age-dependent loss of neurons, especially neurons of the substantia nigra. SLC1A1 has been ...
Addition of ammonium ions to yeast cells growing on proline as the sole nitrogen source induces internalization of the general amino acid permease Gap1p and its subsequent degradation in the vacuole. An essential step in this down-regulation is Gap1p ubiquitination through a process requiring the Npi1p/Rsp5p ubiquitin ligase. We show in this report that NPI2, a second gene required for NH4+-induced down-regulation of Gap1p, codes for the ubiquitin hydrolase Doa4p/Ubp4p/Ssv7p and that NH4+-induced Gap1p ubiquitination is strongly reduced in npi2 cells. The npi2 mutation results in substitution of an aromatic amino acid located in a 33-residue sequence shared by some ubiquitin hydrolases of the Ubp family. In this mutant, as in doa4(delta) cells, the amount of free monomeric ubiquitin is at least four times lower than in wild-type cells. Both ubiquitination and down-regulation of the permease can be restored in npi2 cells by over-expression of ubiquitin. In proline-grown wild-type and npi2/doa4 ...
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the relevance of the general amino acid permease gene (GAP1) of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nitrogen metabolism and fermentation performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We constructed a gap1 mutant i
Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. PMID: 9878049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of ...
Transcription factor; activated by proteolytic processing in response to signals from the SPS sensor system for external amino acids; activates transcription of amino acid permease genes; STP2 has a paralog, STP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication ...
Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are two of the most important nutrients for plant growth, and in the majority of plant species, they are transported in the phloem to sink organs in the form of amino acids and sucrose, respectively. Extensive studies have been performed on long-distance transport of sucrose. Sucrose transporters (SUC/SUT) were localized to the phloem of a number of plant species, and mutant analyses and antisense approaches demonstrated that the sucrose transporters play key roles in phloem loading of carbohydrates (for review, see Sauer, 2007; Tegeder et al., 2011). By contrast, molecular mechanisms for amino acid phloem loading remain unclear, although members of the ATF amino acid transporter family were suggested to be involved in this process (Lalonde et al., 2004; Tegeder and Rentsch, 2010).. Synthesis of amino acids mainly takes place in mature roots and source leaves, which export the N to supply sinks like flowers and seeds (Lam et al., 1996). Transport of amino acids to ...
Amino Acid Transport Systems/chemistry/*metabolism, Amino Acid Transport Systems; Neutral/chemistry/metabolism, Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism, Membrane Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Mutation, Protein Folding, Protein Structure; Quaternary, Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Mutualistic obligate endosymbioses shape the evolution of endosymbiont genomes, but their impact on host genomes remains unclear. Insects of the sub-order Sternorrhyncha (Hemiptera) depend on bacterial endosymbionts for essential amino acids present at low abundances in their phloem-based diet. This obligate dependency has been proposed to explain why multiple amino acid transporter genes are maintained in the genomes of the insect hosts. We implemented phylogenetic comparative methods to test whether amino acid transporters have proliferated in sternorrhynchan genomes at rates grater than expected by chance.. Voir en ligne : http://bit.ly/1EIMqCn ...
Journal of Amino Acids is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of amino acids.
The H+-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 acts as a high-capacity, absorptive route for small neutral amino acids, such as GABA, and many orally active analogs across the brush-border membrane of the small intestine (Thwaites et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2003; Anderson et al., 2004; Abbot et al., 2006; Metzner et al., 2006; Thwaites and Anderson, 2007a; Larsen et al., 2009). PAT1 can also be considered a novel intestinal transporter of the heme precursor ALA, which is used extensively in photodynamic therapy. PAT1 has a relatively low affinity for ALA (Km 10.4 mM) (Fig. 1A) compared with GABA (Km 1.1 mM), but the affinity is within the range of that for other naturally occurring PAT1 substrates such as glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, and taurine (Km ∼2-10 mM) (Thwaites et al., 1995; Boll et al., 2002; Metzner et al., 2006; Anderson et al., 2009).. During photodynamic therapy, ALA is typically given orally in the range of 10 to 60 mg/kg b.wt., in small amounts of fluid, either as a bolus or in ...
Amino acid permeases are integral membrane proteins involved in the transport of amino acids into the cell. A number of such proteins have been found to be evolutionary related [(PUBMED:3146645)], [(PUBMED:2687114)], [(PUBMED:8382989)]. These proteins seem to contain up to 12 transmembrane segments. The best conserved region in this family is located in the second transmembrane segment.. This domain is found in amino acid permeases, as well as in solute carrier family 12A (SLC12A) members.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperosmotic stress up-regulates amino acid transport in vascular endothelial cells. AU - Kempson, Stephen A.. AU - Hoshaw, Martha J.. AU - Hinesley, Rose S.. AU - Mcateer, James A.. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - Cultured vascular endothelial cells take up L-proline by sodium- dependent transport. Cells incubated in medium made hyperosmotic by addition of sucrose showed a dose-dependent increase in Na+/proline cotransport. Studies with α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid revealed that the up-regulation was specific for amino acid transport system A. Up-regulation was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating roles for gene transcription and protein synthesis. Upregulation was maximum after five to six hours of hyperosmotic treatment, but returned to control levels when osmotic stress was maintained for 24 hours. The decline at 24 hours was accompanied by a significant increase in Na+/γ-aminobutyric acid cotransport. The activity of this system, which also ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We report here on the primary structure and functional characteristics of the protein responsible for the system A amino acid transport activity that is known to be expressed in most human tissues. This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from the human hepatoma ce …
Plants have evolved a sophisticated mechanism to sense the extracellular sulfur (S) status so that sulfate transport and S assimilation/metabolism can be coordinated. Genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies in Arabidopsis over the past 10 years have started to shed some light on the regulatory mechanism of the S response. Key advances in transcriptional regulation (SLIM1, MYB, and miR395), involvement of hormones (auxin, cytokinin, and abscisic acid) and identification of putative sensors (OASTL and SULTR1;2) are highlighted here. Although our current view of S nutrient sensing and signaling remains fragmented, it is anticipated that through further studies a sensing and signaling network will be revealed in the near future.
Plasma membrane System A-like neutral amino acid transporter, SA1, SAT2 or SNAT2 (transports small, neutral aliphatic amino acids including α-(methylamino)isobutyrate, mAIB with Na+ (1:1 stoichiometry; Km = 200-500 μM)). Asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the transporter (Zhang and Grewer, 2007). The C-terminal domain regulates transport activity through a voltage-dependent process (Zhang et al., 2011). An 11 TMS topology has been experimentally demonstrated (Ge et al. 2018 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesbranched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein (TIGR00796; HMM-score: 412.2) ...
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MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminescationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; HMM-score: 69.1) ...
Abbreviations: ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; AdiC, arginine/agmatine antiporter; AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier; AMPK, AMP-dependent kinase; Apc, amino acid, polyamine and organocation; ASC, preference for alanine, serine and cysteine; ASCT, neutral amino acid transporter; ASS, argininosuccinate synthetase; B0AT, broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter; CTNL2, type 2 citrullinaemia; EA, episodic ataxia 1; EAAT, excitatory amino acid transporter; EEG, electroencephalogram; 4F2hc4F2, cell-surface-antigen heavy chain; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; GC1, mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1; HAT, heteromeric amino acid transporter; HHH, hyperammonaemia-hyperornithinaemia-homocitrullinuria; IL1, intracellular loop 1; LeuT, leucine transporter; LeuTAa, LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus; LPI, lysinuric protein intolerance; MCT, monocarboxylate transporter; MeAIB, N-methylaminoisobutyric acid; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NICCD, neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency; OCD, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reactive oxygen species modulate Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 expression in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. AU - Dikalova, Anna E.. AU - Aschner, Judy L.. AU - Zhang, Yongmei. AU - Kaplowitz, Mark R.. AU - Fike, Candice D.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Grant RO1-HL-097566 (to C. Fike). Publisher Copyright: © 2019 the American Physiological Society.. PY - 2019/4. Y1 - 2019/4. N2 - We have previously shown that Na+-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) from newborn piglets. Specifically, the ability to increase NO production in response to the L-arginine-NO precursor L-citrulline is dependent on SNAT1 expression. Elucidating factors that regulate SNAT1 expression in PAECs could provide new insights and therapeutic targets relevant to NO production. Our major goals were to determine if ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
The mechanism of the observed decrease in the plasma concentration of several amino acids in the presence of high levels of Leu has remained unexplained. In the present study a decrease in the plasma concentration of Ile, Val, Phe, Tyr, Met, Ala, Pro and Gly was observed after the intraperitoneal injection of Leu to weanling rats. Decreases in net intracellular concentrations in muscle accompanied the decrease in plasma of all of these amino acids except Pro and Gly. An increase in the distribution ratio muscle/plasma was observed exclusively for Gly after administration of Leu or of a non-insulinogenic transport system L analogue. Diazoxide suppressed the Leu-induced decreases in plasma and muscle intracellular concentrations of Ile and Val as well as of Pro in plasma. An increase in the distribution ratio liver/plasma was observed for Pro and Gly in the absence but not in the presence of diazoxide. All the above changes were statistically significant. Hence insulin probably mediates Leu ...
Amino acids represent a strong signal that positively regulates mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007). It was recently shown that leucine, an essential amino acid required for mTORC1 activation, is transported into cells in a glutamine-dependent fashion (Nicklin et al., 2009). Glutamine, which is imported into cells through SLC1A5 [solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter) member 5], is exchanged to import leucine via a heterodimeric system composed of SLC7A5 [antiport solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system, member 5] and SLC3A2 [solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2]. The mechanism by which intracellular amino acids then signal to mTORC1 remained obscure for many years. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is known to be independent of TSC1/2, because the mTORC1 pathway remains sensitive to amino acid deprivation in cells that lack TSC1 or TSC2 (Nobukuni et al., 2005). Some studies have ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor and is a component of the heterodimeric amino acid taste receptor T1R1+3. The T1R1+3 receptor responds to L-amino acids but not to D-enantiomers or other compounds. Most amino acids that are perceived as sweet activate T1R1+3, and this activation is strictly dependent on an intact T1R1+3 heterodimer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010 ...
M. J. Rennie, S. E. O. Khogali, S. Y. Low, H. E. McDowell, H. S. Hundal, A. Ahmed, P. M. Taylor; Amino acid transport in heart and skeletal muscle and the functional consequences. Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1996; 24 (3): 869-874. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0240869. Download citation file:. ...
Intracellular amino acids in skeletal muscle show a specific concentration pattern on the third post-operative day. The temporal development of these changes has not been clarified. Here the amino acid concentrations in skeletal muscle were studied during the first post-operative day in fourteen pat …
Free Online Library: Computer charts path of diffusing molecules. (changes in sequence alter entrance rate) by Science News; Science and technology, general Amino acid sequence Research Amino acid sequencing Molecular dynamics Protein engineering
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Prilog proučavanju tipologije franjevačkih crkava u Istri i na otocima kvarnerskog zaljeva. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Recombinant Solute Carrier Family 6 (Neutral Amino Acid Transporter), Member 19 (SLC6A19) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1320502 bestellen.
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
Abstract: The L-type neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1/SLC7A5) is one of 7 light chains that can form a heteromeric amino acid transporter (HAT) with the type II single pass glycoprotein CD98hc (SLC3A2). LAT1-CD98hc transports essential amino acids and some of their catabolites, such as tryptophan, methionine and kynurenine, across the plasma membranes of normal and cancer cells. It is also a drug transporter, carrying drugs such as gabapentin and L-DOPA across the blood brain barrier. The atypical heterodimeric nature of LAT1-CD98hc and its role in disease and drug delivery, motivate the structural characterisation of the HAT. Sequence analysis revealed two putative cholesterol binding motifs conserved between dDAT and LAT1 as well as 32 putative CRAC/CARC motifs. The crystal structures of various bacterial homologues of LAT1 were used for structure prediction, in order to visualise these putative cholesterol binding motifs and assess their plausibility. Here is presented the first binding ...
Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
RESULTS: In a genomic survey where we manually annotated and analyzing sequences from more than 300 SLC1 genes (from more than 40 vertebrate species), we found evidence for an interesting evolutionary history of this gene family. While human and mouse genomes contain 7 SLC1 genes, in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes up to 9 and in actinopterygii up to 13 SLC1 genes are present. While some of the additional slc1 genes in ray-finned fishes originated from R3, the increased number of SLC1 genes in prototheria, sauropsida, and amphibia genomes originates from specific genes retained in these lineages.Phylogenetic comparison and microsynteny analyses of the SLC1 genes indicate, that theria genomes evidently lost several SLC1 genes still present in the other lineage. The genes lost in theria group into two new subfamilies of the slc1 gene family which we named slc1a8/eaat6 and slc1a9/eaat7 ...
Glutamine starvation up-regulates the expression of amino acid transporters. (A) RNA from cells treated with DMEM was extracted for transcriptome analysis at the indicated times. (B) CFP-LC3 NRK cells were treated with DMEM in the absence or presence of glutamine or serum. Proteins from cell lysates were analyzed by Western blotting for SLC7A5 and β-actin. The values indicate the SLC7A5/actin ratio as the ratio of that in -S/Gln 0-h cells. (C) RNA from CFP-LC3 NRK cells treated with DMEM in the absence or presence of glutamine or serum was extracted and analyzed for endogenous Slc7a5 mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. (D) CFP-LC3 cells were treated with DMEM for the indicated times, and plasma membrane protein was extracted and analyzed by Western blotting for SLC7A5 and Na,K-ATPase. (E) CFP-LC3 NRK cells were pretreated with DMEM for 4 h, and glutamine or serum was added to the cells. Proteins from cell lysates were analyzed by Western blotting for SLC7A5 and β-actin. The values indicate ...
Inborn Amino Acid Transport Disorders: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
250 µCi quantities of L-[2,3-3H]-Proline are available for your research. Application of [3H]Proline can be found in: IMD (Intermedin, 1-53) inhibiting rat cardiac fibroblast activation induced by angiotensin II in cardiovascular research, integrative cartilage repair (adhesive strength correlated with collagen deposition) in orthopaedic research, interaction between isolated human myocardial mast cells and cultured fibroblasts in surgical research, amino acid derivatives as substrates or non-transported inhibitors of the amino acid transporter PAT2, etc. ...
Amino acid replacement matrices are an essential basis of protein phylogenetics. They are used to compute substitution probabilities along phylogeny branches and thus the likelihood of the data. They are also essential in protein alignment. A number of replacement matrices and methods to estimate these matrices from protein alignments have been proposed since the seminal work of Dayhoff et al. (1972). An important advance was achieved by Whelan and Goldman (2001) and their WAG matrix, thanks to an efficient maximum likelihood estimation approach that accounts for the phylogenies of sequences within each training alignment. We further refine this method by incorporating the variability of evolutionary rates across sites in the matrix estimation and using a much larger and diverse database than BRKALN, which was used to estimate WAG. To estimate our new matrix (called LG after the authors), we use an adaptation of the XRATE software and 3,912 alignments from Pfam, comprising approximately 50,000 sequences
Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a on Insulin Stimulated Amino Acid Transport in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Intercellular communication is pivotal in optimising and synchronising cellular responses to keep internal homeostasis and to respond adequately to external stimuli. In the central nervous system (CNS), glutamatergic and GABAergic signals are postulated to be dependent on the glutamate/GABA-glutamine (GGG) cycle for vesicular loading of neurotransmitters, for inactivating the signal and for the replenishment of the neurotransmitters. Islets of Langerhans release the hormones insulin and glucagon, but share similarities with CNS cells in for example transcriptional control of development and differentiation, and chromatin methylation. Interestingly, proteins involved in the CNS in secretion of the neurotransmitters and emitting their responses as well as the regulation of these processes, are also found in islet cells. Moreover, high levels of glutamate, GABA and glutamine and their respective vesicular and plasma membrane transporters have been shown in the islet cells and there is emerging support for
This gene encodes a type 1 transmembrane protein that is important for trafficking amino acid transporters to the apical brush border of proximal tubules. The encoded protein binds to amino acid transporters and regulates their expression on the plasma membrane. It also plays a role in controlling insulin exocytosis by regulating formation of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor) complex in pancreatic beta cells. The extracellular domain of the encoded protein may be cleaved and shed from the plasma membrane specifically in pancreatic beta cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013 ...
Human CDK7 (NM_001799, 1 a.a. - 346a.a.) and CCNH (NM_001239, 1 a.a. - 323 a.a.) and MNAT1 (NM_002431, 1 a.a. - 309 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-His tag expressed in Sf9 cells. (P4662) - Products - Abnova
PhD thesis defense at P-O Bäckströms sal (Aulan), SLU building 8th May, 13.00Title: New insights into plant amino acid transport and its contribution to ni...
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Orlowski, M.; Meister, A. (1970-11-01). "The Gamma-Glutamyl Cycle: A Possible Transport System for Amino Acids". Proceedings of ... It has a relatively unusual γ-bond between the constituent amino acids, L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine and is a key ... Control experiments with combinations of the constituent amino acids that make up GGC, including L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine ... GGC is synthesized from L-glutamic acid and L-cysteine in the cytoplasm of virtually all cells in an adenosine triphosphate ( ...
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N." EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
... because the transport system which brings tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier is also selective for the other amino acids ... the indoleamine molecule derives from the amino acid tryptophan.[10] Serotonin is primarily found in the enteric nervous system ... High plasma levels of other large neutral amino acids compete for transport and prevent the elevated plasma tryptophan from ... In animals including humans, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ... TCAs do not block dopamine transport directly but might facilitate dopaminergic effects indirectly by inhibiting dopamine ...
BCAAs share the same transport protein into the brain with aromatic amino acids (Trp, Tyr, and Phe). Once in the brain BCAAs ... Physiologically, BCAAs take on roles in the immune system and in brain function. BCAAs are broken down effectively by ... A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having an aliphatic side-chain with a branch (a central carbon atom bound ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Branched-chain amino acids.. *Branched-chain+amino+acids at the US National Library of ...
... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ... GcvB RNA also is involved in regulating a variety of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis such as ilvC, gdhA, thrL and ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ... "The gcvB gene encodes a small untranslated RNA involved in expression of the dipeptide and oligopeptide transport systems in ...
... amino acid transport systems, acidic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.249.500 - amino acid transport system x-ag MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... amino acid transport system a MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.200 - amino acid transport system asc MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... amino acid transport systems, basic MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600 - amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.157.530. ...
... encodes a small non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of a number of amino acid transport systems as well as amino acid ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... Inhibiting the reuptake transport protein results in increased concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine in the synaptic ... At moderate doses (,150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (,300 mg/day), it ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Histology image: 11706loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal - jejunum, ... This typically occurs through active transport.. *Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase ...
... various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a biosynthetic pathway ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
Acid-Transporter+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Amino+Acid+Transport+System+L at the ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... "Entrez Gene: SLC3A2 solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 2". Kucharzik T, ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ...
Acid-Transporter+1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Amino+Acid+Transport+System+L at the ... Verrey F, Closs EI, Wagner CA, Palacin M, Endou H, Kanai Y (2004). "CATs and HATs: the SLC7 family of amino acid transporters ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Boado RJ, Li JY, Nagaya M, Zhang C, Pardridge WM (1999). "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at ...
Amino acid synthesis. Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma[158] except the sulfur- ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system.[156] ... Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell[145][147]-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. ...
... heptane transport by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine. An initial step in identifying the L-system amino acid transporter". The Journal ... and research indicates that it may have potential in identifying the L-leucine-favoring system transporter in human T- ...
... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Vekony N, Wolf S, Boissel JP, Gnauert K, Closs EI (Oct 2001). "Human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-3 is preferentially ...
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. If the ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
Intracellular metabolism of cystine, as it happens with all amino acids, requires its transport across the cell membrane. After ... These crystals negatively affect many systems in the body, especially the kidneys and eyes. The accumulation is caused by ... Cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the abnormal accumulation of the amino acid cystine. It is a genetic ... Cystinosis is a rare genetic disorder that causes an accumulation of the amino acid cystine within cells, forming crystals that ...
Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed by active transport and glucose and amino acid co-transport Fructose is absorbed by facilitated ... are an important part of the digestive tract's local immune system. They are part of the lymphatic system, and provide a site ... splits one amino acid at a time. Aminopeptidase and dipeptidase free the end amino acid products. Lipids (fats) are degraded ... The epithelial cells of the villi transport nutrients from the lumen of the intestine into these capillaries (amino acids and ...
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
... a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. ... This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids ... b(0,+)-type amino acid transporter 1, also known as b(0,+)AT1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC7A9 gene. This ... Heterodimeric amino acid transporter Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000021488 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
... part of the system of Na-K-Cl cotransporters) couple with the amino or imino acids on the molecular level and transport them ... instead of the amino group found in amino acids. Proline is considered and usually referred to as an amino acid, but unlike ... The neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19 (affecting glycine, proline, and other neutral amino acids like cysteine and ... "Neutral amino acid transport mediated by ortholog of imino acid transporter SIT1/SLC6A20 in opossum kidney cells". American ...
AT heterodimer is the main apical reabsorption system for cystine in the kidney". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 283 (3): F540- ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (19): 14331- ... dibasic and neutral amino acid transporters, activator of cystine, dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 1". Pras E ... of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid transport ...
... across the BBB using endogenous transport systems including carrier-mediated transporters such as glucose and amino acid ... The earliest amyloid imaging probes included 2-(1-{6-[(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile ([ ... is a novel radiopharmaceutical used in PET imaging to determine the activity of the acetylcholinergic neurotransmitter system ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ... Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A19 gene. ...
ion transport. • ATP metabolic process. • cellular amino acid metabolic process. • personal grooming. • L-cystine transport. • ... Model systems[edit]. Human models for cystinosin are typically derived from cystinotic renal tubular cell lines.[23][24] ... and is a member of the lysosomal cystine transporter family of transport proteins.[10] It comprises 367 amino acid residues, ... spanning a range of 128 amino acid residues.[11] The receptor also has two sorting motifs; a GYDQL motif in the C-terminus ...
... is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, ... The most primitive, diploblastic animal phyla lack circulatory systems. An additional transport system, the lymphatic system, ... Also, the digestive system works with the circulatory system to provide the nutrients the system needs to keep the heart ... The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ...
Circulatory system. Octopuses have a closed circulatory system, where the blood remains inside blood vessels. Octopuses have ... Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ...
I used be a researcher use the fruit fly as a model system to study mechanisms of intracellular transport (I then moved onto ... Truth be told, it's the size (in amino acids) of a protein I once studied. Yes, a bit geeky. ... other systems to study problems in cell biology, but now work in a hospital). I am a guy. And the 649 is a number to ...
"Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1-4496-6139-7. .. ... Megafauna play a significant role in the lateral transport of mineral nutrients in an ecosystem, tending to translocate them ... Amato, Katherine R.; Meyer, Andreas L. S.; Wich, Serge; Sussman, Robert W.; Pan, Ruliang; Kone, Inza; Li, Baoguo (January 18, ... which possess calcium carbonate shells or exoskeletons experience physiological pressure as the carbonate reacts with acid. For ...
Baulieu EE (1997). "Neurosteroids: of the nervous system, by the nervous system, for the nervous system". Recent Progress in ... Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol). *Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... pyrimidinone and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole derivatives". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 23 (3): 480-7. doi:10.1016/j.bmc. ...
Coordinate system * sw:Coordinate system. COPD * sw:COPD. Copper * sw:Copper. Cotton * sw:Cotton. Cricket * sw:Cricket. ... Acid * sw:Asidi. Adam Smith * sw:Adam Smith. Addiction * sw:Uraibu. Adolf Hitler * sw:Adolf Hitler. Afghanistan * sw: ... Transport * sw:Usafiri. Treaty of Versailles * sw:Mkataba wa Versailles. Tree * sw:Mti. Trigonometry * sw:Trigonometry. ... Kama viungo vya Kiswahili bado ni vyekundu, ni alama ya kwamba ama jina halikusahihishwa bado, au hakuna makala bado. Mpangilio ...
Inclusion of the amino acid L-tryptophan, a precursor of 5HT, in the feed of rainbow trout made the trout less aggressive and ... CRH is transported to the anterior pituitary through the portal blood vessel system of the hypophyseal stalk and vasopressin is ... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... Immune system[edit]. There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and immune system. A number of ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral.[36] ...
... primer-dependent RNA synthesis utilizes a small 22-25 amino acid long viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) to initiate ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... 1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.. ... Compressed tea (such as Pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It can usually be stored longer ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The resulting densified fuel is easier to transport and feed into thermal generation systems, such as boilers. ... EU to phase out palm oil from transport fuel by 2030 *^ a b The Royal Society (January 2008). Sustainable biofuels: prospects ... "Technology Roadmap, Biofuels for Transport" (PDF). 2011.. *^ Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno; Martin, Michael ( ...
P450-containing systems. *Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex ... HADHB encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ...
... is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... particularly the muscles and nervous system. In most cases, the signs and symptoms of this disorder appear during childhood or ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۲۹] ... "for their discoveries concerning نیتریک اکسید as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[۷۵] ...
This drug article relating to the genito-urinary system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... 2-[(1R)-3-(Di(propan-2-yl)amino)-1-phenylpropyl]-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl] 2-methylpropanoate ... Urea analogues: Acetohydroxamic acid. *Salicylhydroxamic acid. *Other: Collagen. *Dimethyl sulfoxide. *Magnesium hydroxide ...
The microbes are also responsible for metabolising the carbohydrates and amino acids present in the tea leaves.[15][16][17] ... Spent tea: Whole leaves and leaf bud systems should be easily seen and picked out of the wet spent tea, with a limited amount ... tuocha cakes may have had holes punched through the center so they could be tied together on a rope for easy transport. ... Wet pile fermented pu'er has higher levels of caffeine and much higher levels of gallic acid compared with traditionally aged ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support survival of ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
Goodman AB (July 2005). "Microarray results suggest altered transport and lowered synthesis of retinoic acid in schizophrenia ... 6-(N-ethyl-N-(5-isobutoxy-4-isopropyl-2-(E)-styrylphenyl)amino)nicotinic acid ... Reproductive system and breast disorders *Sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido ... Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid and sold under the brand name Accutane among others, is a medication primarily ...
... as all ingested SOD is broken down into amino acids before being absorbed. However, ingestion of SOD bound to wheat proteins ... In biological systems, this means that its main reactions are with itself (dismutation) or with another biological radical such ... when it absorbs an excited electron released from compounds of the electron transport chain. Superoxide is known to denature ... and their active sites contain the same type and arrangement of amino acid side-chains. They are usually dimers, but ...
... and encodes a 666 amino acid protein that is expressed in the liver. It has been suggested that PCSK9 causes FH mainly by ... Class II: LDLR is not properly transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus for expression on the cell ... This process results in the removal of LDL from the circulatory system. Synthesis of cholesterol by the liver is suppressed in ... and the protein gene product contains 839 amino acids in mature form. A single abnormal copy (heterozygote) of FH causes ...
... uptake transporters for amino acids, bile acids, carboxylic acids, etc. Research Applications[edit]. When looking at Caco-2 ... Following stints at SmithKline Beecham and Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Hidalgo went on to co-found a company, Absorption Systems, in ... Artursson P (1990). "Epithelial transport of drug in cell culture. I: A model for studying the passive diffusion of drugs over ... 2005). "Construction of a functional transporter analysis system using MDR1 knockdown Caco-2 cells". Pharm Res. 22 (8): 1287-93 ...
In addition to these amino acids, some B vitamins including biotin, folic acid, nicotinamide, riboflavin, thiamine, ... The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported ... is the listed common name in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System, the Entomological Society of America Common Names of ... Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated ...
Cosmic rays are a form of high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System[1] and even from distant galaxies. ... 2011). Australian Transport Safety Bureau. *^ https://cars.usnews.com/cars-trucks/daily-news/100317-cosmic-rays-may-be-causing- ... In 2008, data corruption in a flight control system caused an Airbus A330 airliner to twice plunge hundreds of feet, resulting ... Primary cosmic rays primarily originate from outside the Solar System and sometimes even the Milky Way. When they interact with ...
In ALS, there are decreased levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), which is the main transporter that removes ... Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ... Three genes implicated in ALS that are important for maintaining the cytoskeleton[35] and for axonal transport[10] include ... "G93A" means that the 93rd amino acid residue in the SOD1 protein has been changed from glycine to alanine. ...
Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ... Water in food systems[edit]. Main article: Water. A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 50% in ... Food chemistry concepts are often drawn from rheology, theories of transport phenomena, physical and chemical thermodynamics, ... fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, ...
Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Transport[edit]. SVCTs appear to be the predominant system for vitamin C transport in the body,[102] the notable exception ... Mineral Nutrients and Amino Acids May or Must be Added.[87] Voluntary and mandatory fortification was described for various ... Ascorbic acid is absorbed in the body by both active transport and simple diffusion. Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium- ...
... amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens ... Each antibody is specifically produced by the immune system to match an antigen after cells in the immune system come into ... These algorithms consider factors such as the likelihood of proteasomal processing, transport into the endoplasmic reticulum, ... Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ...
TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers.[24][25] From ... The theory of an anti-tumoral response of the immune system in vivo was recognized by the physician William B. Coley. In 1968, ... positive regulation of protein transport. • negative regulation of glucose import. • receptor biosynthetic process. • ... cellular response to amino acid stimulus. • negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand. ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. In the ... endosomal transport. • actin filament polymerization. • regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune ...
... by means of hydrodynamic pressure and by also supplying proline which is a critical amino acid for lung development. Alveoli ... Therefore, the means by which the fetus produces urine and transports it to the bladder for excretion into the amniotic sac has ... After the creation of the nomenclature system for this sequence, BRA was recognized as possibly being an extreme variation of ... However, this classification system has not caught on in the clinical and research fields. ...
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
"Amino Acid Transport System L" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Amino Acid Transport System L" was ... A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the ... "Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Amino Acid Transport System L" by people in Profiles. ...
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. neutral. ...
This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from the human hepatoma ce … ... We report here on the primary structure and functional characteristics of the protein responsible for the system A amino acid ... transport activity that is known to be expressed in most human tissues. ... a subtype of amino acid transport system A Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jul 31;1467(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/s0005-2736(00)00252-2. ...
... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ... Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, ...
Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... tr,A0R7E1,A0R7E1_MYCS2 Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein OS=Mycolicibacterium smegmatis (strain ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... Branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein. MYCSE. 259. Branched-chain amino acid transporter ATP-binding ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
... ... chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport ... Although this model has been extensively studied in procaryotic systems, it has not been well characterized in eucaryotic ... systems. Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
MMP1224 MMP1224 ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI). Methanococcus ... ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems periplasmic component-related (NCBI) Methanococcus maripaludis strain ... ET) COG834 , ABC-type amino acid transport/signal transduction systems, periplasmic component/domain ...
Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of biochemistry. 1991 Jul;110(1):9-11. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. In: Journal of biochemistry. 1991 ; Vol. 110, No. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki Fukui, Hiroyuki ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. / Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, ...
... tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Amino Acid ... Seymour, RL, Ganapathy, V, Mellor, AL & Munn, DH 2006, A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in ... A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2006 Dec; ... A high-affinity, tryptophan-selective amino acid transport system in human macrophages. / Seymour, Robert L.; Ganapathy, ...
... and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture … ... All known amino-acid permeases (AAPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a single family of homologous proteins. Genes of 15 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems * Amino Acids / metabolism* * Amino Acids / pharmacokinetics * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics ... Radiolabelled amino-acid uptake measurements showed that Agp1p is a general permease for most uncharged amino acids (Ala, Gly, ...
AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS : THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ...
Double mutants deficient in transport of both these amino acids still possess the general amino acid transport system, a third ... system which was described previously. Evidence for additional amino acid transport systems in Chlorella is discussed. ... Six amino acids are transported at high rates across the plasmalemma of Chlorella vulgaris only after the induction of two ... List of Publication » Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence ...
Jones, C. R., Srinivas, S. R., Devoe, L. D., Ganapathy, V., & Prasad, P. D. (2002). Inhibition of system A amino acid transport ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. American journal of obstetrics ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. / Jones, Chandra R.; Srinivas, ... Jones, CR, Srinivas, SR, Devoe, LD, Ganapathy, V & Prasad, PD 2002, Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ...
A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content ... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L Chloé C Feral 1 , Floriane S Tissot 1 , Lionel Tosello 1 , Nicolas ... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L Chloé C Feral et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017 May. . ... Fluorine-18 labeled amino acids for tumor PET/CT imaging. Qi Y, Liu X, Li J, Yao H, Yuan S. Qi Y, et al. Oncotarget. 2017 Aug 4 ...
1990) The identification of neutral amino acid transport systems. Exp Physiol 75(1):3-26. ... The 2-amino-4-methyl-3-cyanato-5-thiophenecarboxylate ethyl ester was obtained from Life Chemicals. Cyanoacetic acid was ... The genetic evidence pointing to the importance of the amino acid serine in tumorigenesis is striking. The gene encoding the ... At the cellular level, serine can be imported from the extracellular space via amino acid transporters (6, 7). Alternatively, ...
Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, ... Amino acid transport system. Localization in proximal converted tubule. S3. S1, S2 ... Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport. J ... Amino acid metabolism in cystinuria. Q J Med New Series. 1974. 214:507-12. ...
Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta. Biochemical Journal. 2001 Jun 15;356( ... Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta. / Ritchie, James W. A. ; Taylor, ... Ritchie, JWA & Taylor, PM 2001, Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta, ... Ritchie, J. W. A., & Taylor, P. M. (2001). Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in ...
series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...
... the role of the neutral amino acid transport system. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ... The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid ...
... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L Chloé Féral 1 Floriane Tissot Lionel Tosello Nicolas Fakhry 2 Frédéric ... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Springer ...
Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. ... Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. Together they form a unique ...
... a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus. Genetic ... Furthermore, two efflux pump family proteins encoded by USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II ... encodes a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein), USA300HOU_RS03535 and USA300HOU_Tet(K), each into ... and branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein, Na/Pi cotransporter family protein in Staphylococcus aureus ...
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
  • The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
  • We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that belongs to a family of mammalian proteins originally defined by a neurotransmitter transporter. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. (harvard.edu)
  • One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain. (harvard.edu)
  • This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. (nih.gov)
  • When expressed in mammalian cells, hATA2 mediates Na+-dependent transport of alpha-(methylamino)isobutyric acid, a specific model substrate for system A. The transporter is specific for neutral amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. (novusbio.com)
  • Both wtPKBalpha and mPKBalpha expression led to a significant increase in the basal uptake of glucose and methyl-aminoisobutyric acid (a substrate for the system A amino acid transporter), at least to a level seen in control cells treated with insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Competition studies showed that the high-affinity system did not correspond to any known transporter activity and displayed a marked selectivity for tryptophan over other amino acids and tryptophan analogs. (elsevier.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of ethanol on system A amino acid transporter in BeWo cells. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined the role of the System L transporter in placental uptake of these substances, using the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo as a model experimental system. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The 4F2hc-LAT1 transporter might therefore serve a vital role in supplying the developing fetus and the placenta with both thyroid hormones and indispensable amino acids from the maternal circulation. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Inhibition of L-type amino acid transporter modulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory factors in KB oral cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicate a parsimonious regulatory mechanism by which Gap1p senses its transport substrates to set an appropriate level of transporter activity at the cell surface. (biomedsearch.com)
  • L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. (abcam.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of an amino acid transporter with functional characteristics and tissue expression pattern identical to that of system A". J Biol Chem. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in the kidney and intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blooming H. akashiwo cells expressed more proteins related to external nutrient acquisition, such as bicarbonate transporter SLC4, ammonium transporter, nitrite transporter, and alkaline phosphatase, while the blooming P. donghaiense cells highly expressed proteins related to extra- and intracellular organic nutrient utilization, such as amino acid transporter, 5′-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase. (asm.org)
  • Structural similarities between ALA and GABA led us to test the hypothesis that the H + -coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 (SLC36A1) will contribute to luminal ALA uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H + -coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sloan JL, Mager S. Cloning and functional expression of a human Na(+) and Cl(-)-dependent neutraland cationic amino acid transporter B(0+).J Biol Chem. (tcdb.org)
  • The open reading frame encodes a 642-amino acid protein named amino acid transporter B(0+). (tcdb.org)
  • Electrophysiology and radiolabeled amino acid uptake measurements were used to functionally characterize the transporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (tcdb.org)
  • Thus, hATB(0+) is the first cloned B(0+) amino acid transporter. (tcdb.org)
  • Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression of porcine y+L amino acid Transporter-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mutations in these genes cause the nitrogen-regulated general amino acid permease gene ( GAP1 ) to be abnormally expressed and block the nonspecific induction of arginase ( CAR1 ) and the peptide transporter ( PTR2 ). (asm.org)
  • SLC6A19 is a sodium-dependent and chloride-independent neutral amino acid transporter, expressed predominately in the kidneys and intestine. (medscape.com)
  • In an animal model of Hartnup disorder, mice lacking SLC6A19 (B 0 AT1) transporter general neutral aminoaciduria were observed, as well as the decreased body weight, demonstrating the essential role of epithelial amino acid uptake in optimal growth and bodyweight regulation. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in the SLC6A19 gene, which encodes the SLC6A19 (B 0 AT1) neutral amino acid transporter, causes a failure of the transport of neutral (ie, monoaminomonocarboxylic) amino acids in the small intestine and the renal tubules. (medscape.com)
  • Several factors influence transport across the placenta: uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows, area available for exchange, placental metabolism, and activity/expression of specific transporter proteins in the placental barrier. (hindawi.com)
  • We have shown that MDSCs recruited to localized inflammation and tumor sites upregulate cationic amino acid transporter 2 ( Cat2 ), coordinately with Arg1 and Nos2 . (jimmunol.org)
  • Among system L transporters, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is responsible for the nutrient uptake in cancer cells, whereas L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) is a transporter for non-cancer cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of L-type amino acid transporters, on the cell growth suppression in KB human oral cancer cells and to study the roles of cell cycle regulatory factors in the BCH-induced growth inhibition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because the transporters regulated by the SPS complex have relatively low capacity and are most active when amino acids are present in the growth medium, these transporters are thought to function opportunistically to transport specific amino acids for use in protein synthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • System-L amino acid transporters play a key role in pancreatic β-cell signalling and function. (nih.gov)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
  • The identification and characterization of transporters are therefore of great significance for the understanding and engineering of transport reactions. (asm.org)
  • Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the uptake of amino acids is mediated by specialized, energy-dependent and passive transporters with overlapping substrate specificities. (biologists.org)
  • This work has furthermore advanced our understanding of the roles these transporters play in amino acid homeostasis and in various pathologies. (biologists.org)
  • For example, in the central nervous system, glutamate transporters are critically important in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentration below neurotoxic levels, and defects of the human D2 gene have been shown to account for the formation of kidney stones in patients with cystinuria. (biologists.org)
  • Using similar approaches, we are investigating the molecular characteristics of K(+)-coupled amino acid transporters in the larval lepidopteran insect midgut. (biologists.org)
  • Both systems have a broad substrate range which excludes 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, an amino acid analog accepted by the mammalian Na(+)-coupled system A. In order to gain insights into the K(+)-coupling mechanism and into amino acid and K+ homeostasis in insects, current studies are designed to delineate the molecular characteristics of these insect transporters. (biologists.org)
  • Methylammonium and ammonium permeases MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 35 ) and the ammonium and methylammonium transport B (AmtB) protein of enteric bacteria ( 64 ) are members of a unique family of cytoplasmic membrane transporters that are specific for ammonium ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Large neutral amino acids are uptaken by system L amino acid transporters (LAT), whose subtype LAT1 is reported to be upregulated in most cancerous tissues at both primary and metastatic sites [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The inhibitory effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid were additive, demonstrating that both PAT1 and PepT1 contribute to intestinal transport of ALA. This is the first demonstration of overlap in substrate specificity between these distinct transporters for amino acids and dipeptides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of two polypeptides: a heavy subunit (HSHAT) and a light subunit (LSHAT) linked by a disulfide bridge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • AAPs are distantly related to plasma membrane amino acid transport systems N and A and to vesicular transporters such as VGAT from mammals. (deepdyve.com)
  • AAP3 and AAP5 are the only transporters mediating efficient transport of the basic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • ssy1 and ptr3 mutations manifest identical differential effects on the functional expression of multiple specific amino acid transporters. (asm.org)
  • The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. (hindawi.com)
  • Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • All known amino-acid permeases (AAPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a single family of homologous proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins. (bireme.br)
  • Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. (bireme.br)
  • We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. (bireme.br)
  • Placental amino acid ( 4 ) and GLUT activity ( 5 , 6 ) as well as the expression of fatty acid-binding proteins in the placenta ( 7 ) are increased in diabetes, suggesting that an upregulation of placental nutrient transport capacity may contribute to fetal overgrowth ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A detailed characterization of these proteins has provided new information on transport characteristics and mechanisms for coupling to different inorganic ions. (biologists.org)
  • Methylammonium and ammonium (MEP) permeases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a ubiquitous family of cytoplasmic membrane proteins that transport only ammonium (NH 4 + + NH 3 ). (asm.org)
  • 16 ), the activity of MEP/Amt proteins has been assessed by studying transport and accumulation of the ammonium analog methylammonium, which can be 14 C labeled. (asm.org)
  • Perhaps the most critical nutrients for fetal development are the amino acids, since they are the building blocks of the body's proteins. (scirp.org)
  • Insulin activates the systems involved in intracellular transport and utilization of amino acids, fatty acids, proteins, and enzymes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • These transport proteins are members of the conserved amino acid permease (AAP) gene family that includes 18 members ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • This includes nucleotides for genome replication and ribosomal RNA, lipids for membranes, amino acids for proteins, and other cellular building blocks. (rupress.org)
  • or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na + -dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Three principal transport systems account for much of the amino acid uptake by mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that L-type transport is the major transport route for PGB and GBP uptake in mammalian cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • while Can1p, Lyp1p and the previously uncharacterized Alp1p are specific for the cationic amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • hATB(0+) was found to transport both neutral and cationic amino acids, with the highest affinity for hydrophobic amino acids and the lowest affinity for proline. (tcdb.org)
  • Taken together, the AAPs transport neutral, acidic and cationic amino acids, including the major transport forms, i.e. glutamine, asparagine and glutamate. (deepdyve.com)
  • These findings modify the prevalent view that S. cerevisiae only contains one general amino-acid permease, Gap1p, and a number of permeases that are specific for a single or a few amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Transport activity-dependent intracellular sorting of the yeast general amino acid permease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by amino acid abundance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • System L recognizes branched chain and aromatic amino acids ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In Aromatic Amino Acids in the Brain . (springer.com)
  • Constitutive activation of protein kinase B alpha by membrane targeting promotes glucose and system A amino acid transport, protein synthesis, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in L6 muscle cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including the insulin-induced regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and glucose transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the uptake of glucose, system A amino acid transport, and cellular protein synthesis are regulated by PKBalpha in L6 skeletal muscle cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The stimulation in glucose transport was facilitated, in part, by the increased translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane and also through an increase in the cellular synthesis of GLUT3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that constitutive activation of PKBalpha in skeletal muscle stimulates the uptake of glucose, system A amino acids, and protein synthesis and promotes the inactivation of GSK-3. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. (biochemj.org)
  • Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
  • Attempts to calculate the stoichiometry of the different Na+/D-glucose transport systems by using Hill-type plots revealed that the ratio of the Na+/hexose co-transport probably is 1:1 in the case of pars convoluta and 2:1 in membrane vesicles from pars recta. (biochemj.org)
  • In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
  • He discussed this in the context of diabetes in pregnancy leading to excess fuel exposure to the fetal-placental unit, not only from glucose but also from excess lipids and amino acids (AAs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The final result is that the diabetic disease process disrupts this fine balance by either autoimmune or environmental factors, which results in an impaired endocrine system that is unable to assist the body in properly utilizing glucose. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • Insulin acts as a "shuttle system" in the transport of glucose and branch chain amino acids. (muscletalk.co.uk)
  • A Fall in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) level activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis independent of plasma glucose: evidence for brain sensing of circulating FFA Endocrinology. (usc.edu)
  • In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was trans-stimulated by amino acids with the same specificity as rBAT-induced transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • yet, no currently known amino acid transport system displays high affinity and specificity sufficiently to permit efficient uptake of tryptophan at these low concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Genes of 15 AAPs were overexpressed in different strains, and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture of the substrate specificity for these permeases. (nih.gov)
  • Saturation kinetics, substrate specificity and inhibition, and trans-stimulation were demonstrated in the presence of this SH-containing amino acid. (elsevier.com)
  • The substrate specificity and high affinity of this transport system resemble the properties of the System L neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier in the rat. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we test the hypothesis that Gap1p itself is the sensor of amino acid abundance by examining the trafficking of Gap1p mutants with altered substrate specificity and transport activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
  • Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A detailed comparison of the properties by electrophysiology after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes shows that, although capable of recognizing and transporting a wide spectrum of amino acids, individual AAPs differ with respect to specificity. (deepdyve.com)
  • The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). (uzh.ch)
  • Poly(A)+ RNA from OK cells induced by system b0,(+)-like transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger activity induced by rBAT cRNA in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
  • To demonstrate that the rBAT protein is functionally related to this transport activity, we have transfected OK cells with human rBAT antisense and sense sequences. (uzh.ch)
  • In contrast, resting human T cells expressed only the conventional system L. We speculate that the high-affinity, tryptophan-specific transport system allows MDM to take up tryptophan efficiently under conditions of low substrate concentration, such as may occur during interaction between T cells and IDO-expressing APC. (elsevier.com)
  • Mutants for these transport systems were obtained after incubation of Chlorella cells in the presence of acridine orange or ethidium bromide, followed by a selection procedure using the toxic amino acid analogs l-canavanine (for l-arginine), and l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (for l-proline). (fau.de)
  • RESULTS: Treatment of BeWo cells with ethanol reduced the activity of system A. The effect was dose and treatment time dependent. (elsevier.com)
  • Ethanol did not alter the messenger RNA levels for system A. CONCLUSION: Exposure of BeWo cells to ethanol significantly reduces the function of system A. This finding has potential implications that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. (elsevier.com)
  • Uptake of PGB was mutually exclusive with leucine, GBP and 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the substrates preferential for system L. The preloaded PGB in CHO cells was exchangeable with leucine, but at a lower exchange rate than that of leucine and GBP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The early conclusion on system L-mediated PGB transport in the rat ileum was also complicated by lack of mutual inhibition between GBP and PGB in intestine and lack of carrier-mediated uptake of GBP and PGB in Caco-2 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This effect appeared to be mediated by interleukin-6 release and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling because gAd failed to stimulate system A in cells in which STAT3 had been silenced using small interfering RNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • b o,+ AT‐reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the b o,+ substrates inside the liposomes. (embopress.org)
  • No system b o,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. (embopress.org)
  • Apart from its cation selectivity, it appears to be related to the amino acid transport system B previously characterized in vertebrate epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • The alteration of fas receptor and ligand system in hepatocellular carcinomas: How do hepatoma cells escape from the host immune surveillance in vivo ? (wiley.com)
  • Biochemical studies give evidence that protein calorie malnutrition impairs the energy metabolism in the cells by interfering with the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and enzymes involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. (scirp.org)
  • Glycine, an amino acid, allows for superior absorption inside the digestive tract because of the active transport systems employed by intestinal cells to absorb amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • The nitrogen-regulated permeases, the general AAP ( GAP1 [ 34 ]), and the proline-specific permease ( PUT4 [ 63 ]) are high-capacity systems that are induced by growth on low-quality nitrogen sources, their expression enables cells to use amino acids as sole nitrogen sources ( 14 , 27 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • In cells lacking SHR3 , AAPs specifically accumulate in the ER and are not transported to the plasma membrane (PM) ( 38 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kimelberg, H. K. / Methylmercury uptake in rat primary astrocyte cultures : the role of the neutral amino acid transport system . (elsevier.com)
  • The neutral amino acid transport system of larval midgut has been studied most extensively. (biologists.org)
  • System A and other more specialized transport systems may thus provide the concentrations of cytoplasmic amino acids necessary to drive the uptake of other amino acids by exchange through Systems ASC and L. System A also exhibits several unusual properties, including the recognition of N -methylated amino acids, tolerance of Li + substitution for Na + , and sensitivity to inhibition by low extracellular pH ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. (mdpi.com)
  • Hill PMM, Young M. Net placental transfer of free amino acids against varying concentrations. (springer.com)
  • Experimental determinations of AIB transport at AIB concentrations of 5 - 100 mg/l, measured radioactively using (1 −14 C-) AIB, were compared with a dual-active transport model. (scirp.org)
  • The ratio of the fetal to maternal perfusate concentrations in the absence of ethanol (1.44) was statistically significant (P = 0.016) from the ratio in the presence of ethanol (1.20), which may indicate that active transport in the human placenta is inhibited by the presence of ethanol. (scirp.org)
  • In agreement, a yeast mutant deficient in acidic amino acid uptake at low aspartate concentrations was complemented only by AAP6. (deepdyve.com)
  • Increasing proton concentrations strongly activate transport of amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • The activity of the broad-scope and yet leucine-selective amino acid transport system B 0, could produce such increases in intracellular amino acid concentrations. (bioone.org)
  • and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. (springer.com)
  • Seafood consumption is highly demanding due to the important source of protein it contains, as well as being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. (degruyter.com)
  • Circulating free fatty acids inhibit food intake in an oleate-specific manner in rats Physiol Behav. (usc.edu)
  • Regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by circulating free fatty acids in male Wistar rats: role of individual free fatty acids Endocrinology. (usc.edu)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • For less permeable substrates the placenta possesses both passive and active transport mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Changes in energy availability or ion gradients can profoundly influence net transfer of substrates transported by active mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • System A has also provided a paradigm for short- and long-term regulation by physiological stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, amino acid transport System A has provided a paradigm for the short- and long-term regulation of transport activity ( 1 , 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • Topics discussed are the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical regulation, transport of amino acids and genomics of producing microorganisms. (springer.com)
  • The characterization of the control mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has revealed insights into principles of genetic and biochemical regulation, such as transcriptional regulators and a new class of regulatory elements, the riboswitch. (springer.com)
  • In order to derive better insight into the biological mechanisms related to the differentially expressed genes, the lists of significant genes were subjected to pathway analysis and target prioritization indicating various processes such as calcium ion homeostasis, positive regulation of apoptotic process and cellular response to retinoic acid. (omicsonline.org)
  • Our analyses imply GlnR-mediated regulation in constraining the import of ammonia/amino-containing compounds and the production of intracellular ammonia under conditions of high nitrogen availability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both Ssy1p and Ptr3p have previously been implicated in relaying signals regarding the presence of extracellular amino acids. (asm.org)
  • These findings suggest that Ssy1p and Ptr3p function in the PM as components of a sensor of extracellular amino acids. (asm.org)
  • Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. (bireme.br)
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • For instance, BMAA is a small non-protein amino acid that appears to be synthesized by the entire cyanobacterial phylum [ 5 , 6 ], suggesting that BMAA is a fundamental cellular metabolite in cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides metabolic pathways and regulatory networks, transport systems are also pivotal for cellular metabolism and hyperproduction of biochemicals using microbial cell factories. (asm.org)
  • Low and high affinity amino acid H+‐cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged. (deepdyve.com)
  • System L is a major transport system for cellular uptake of neutral amino acids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from four basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates , nucleic acid and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). (biochemj.org)
  • Both the high-affinity and the low-affinity Na+-dependent L-phenylalanine transport system of pars recta membrane vesicles seem to operate with a 1:1 stoichiometry. (biochemj.org)
  • Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts may serve as possible experimental systems for the study of this model in yeast. (kzoo.edu)
  • Hence, endocytotic or pinocytotic mechanisms, and shuttling of MeHg via sequential sulfhydryl membrane ligand exchange do not appear to operate in the transport of MeHg into the astrocyte. (elsevier.com)
  • When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino acids are abundant Gap1p is sorted from the trans-Golgi through the multivesicular endosome (MVE) and to the vacuole. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, we have identified a catalytically inactive mutant that does not respond to complex amino acid mixtures and constitutively sorts Gap1p to the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previously we showed that amino acids govern the propensity of Gap1p to recycle from the MVE to the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Placental nutrient transport and membrane kinetics (how do nutrients such as amino acids get from the mother to the fetus and how does transport work as an integrated system). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Inaugural Meeting of the Scottish Membrane Transport Group Discovery Quay, Dundee, Friday 28th April 1995 Second Notice and Call for Abstracts The meeting will take the form of a one day symposium with a total of 4 sessions. (bio.net)
  • Studies with brush-border membrane vesicles have shown that there are several transport systems in the larval intestine with distinct amino acid and cation specificities. (biologists.org)
  • In bacteria, however, ATP-dependent conversion of methylammonium to γ- N -methylglutamine by glutamine synthetase precludes its use in assessing concentrative transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. (asm.org)
  • Thus, in fungi as in bacteria, subsequent energy-dependent utilization of methylammonium precludes its use in assessing active transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. (asm.org)
  • Based on studies with methylammonium it has been proposed that members of the MEP/Amt family transport the charged species NH 4 + across the cytoplasmic membrane and concentrate it in an energy-dependent manner ( 19 , 65 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, in fungi as in bacteria, the energy-dependent concentration of methylammonium does not provide evidence for its active transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. (asm.org)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan selectively inhibited PAT1-mediated amino acid uptake across the brush-border membrane of the human intestinal (Caco-2) epithelium whereas 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid selectively inhibited PepT1-mediated dipeptide uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • and so may be involved in ALA transport across the intestinal epithelial brush-border membrane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This entry represents the membrane component of a group of amino acid transport systems, such as histidine transport system HisM and HisQ subunits [ PMID: 9520394 , PMID: 24021237 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Membrane transport systems are used to acquire molecules such as ATP and amino acids from the host. (kenyon.edu)
  • Subcellular fractionation experiments reveal that both Ssy1p and Ptr3p are localized to the plasma membrane (PM). Ssy1p requires the endoplasmic reticulum protein Shr3p, the amino acid permease-specific packaging chaperonin, to reach the PM, whereas Ptr3p does not. (asm.org)
  • Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by impaired neutral (ie, monoaminomonocarboxylic) amino acid transport in the apical brush border membrane of the small intestine and the proximal tubule of the kidney. (medscape.com)
  • Transport by System N also depends on Na + but shows a striking sensitivity to inhibition by low external pH. (pnas.org)
  • and (3) inhibition of the Na-K‐ATPase enzyme system with ouabain reduces the velocity of uptake to 60% of control values in contrast to alanine whose synaptosomal uptake is less dependent on this enzyme system. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the mutual inhibition alone is insufficient to conclude which specific transport system is involved in PGB transport in the ileum. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we provide biochemical characterization of a novel transport system with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for tryptophan. (elsevier.com)
  • Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence for three independent systems. (fau.de)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Other essential and non-essential amino acids need not be added to the medium for mES cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Renal transport of neutral amino acids. (biochemj.org)
  • These results demonstrate that rBAT is functionally related to the L-cystine uptake via system b0,(+)-like in the apical pole of the renal OK cell line. (uzh.ch)
  • The chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport in S. cerevisiae. (kzoo.edu)
  • In total, our examination of functions in these MAGs shows a diversity of nutrient acquisition and metabolism pathways present that may benefit the host, as well as genomic signatures of host association and immune system evasion. (nature.com)
  • Because of this, chemicals such as ethanol may affect fetal nutrition by having an effect primarily on the placental metabolism [8] and secondarily on the placental transport processes [9]. (scirp.org)
  • Widespread effects of nicotinic acid on gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues: implications for unwanted effects of nicotinic acid treatment Metabolism. (usc.edu)
  • This is mainly because a standard methodology for extracting functional category information, such as individual metabolism, energy generation and transportation systems, has not yet been fully established. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ammonium levels build up linearly over time in the culture medium when media containing amino acids are incubated at 37°C. Ammonium in the culture media significantly reduces blastocyst cell number, decreases inner cell mass development, increases apoptosis, perturbs metabolism, impairs the ability of embryos to regulate intracellular pH, and alters the expression of the imprinted gene H19 . (bioone.org)
  • Recent studies cast new light on the role of serine metabolism in cancer, suggesting that active serine synthesis might be required to facilitate amino acid transport, nucleotide synthesis, folate metabolism, and redox homeostasis in a manner that impacts cancer. (rupress.org)
  • The importance of serine metabolism in multiple cancers is increasingly apparent, and how the metabolism of this amino acid influences cancer phenotypes is an area of active investigation. (rupress.org)
  • System A catalyzes the Na + -dependent net uptake of many neutral amino acids, in particular alanine, serine, and glutamine ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have recently identified another member of this family as responsible for classical amino acid transport System N. Unlike the virtually ubiquitous Systems A, ASC, and L, System N appears more tissue-specific and mediates the uptake specifically of glutamine, histidine, and asparagine ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus the actual apoplasmic concentration of amino acids and the pH will determine what is transported in vivo, i.e. major amino acids such as glutamine, asparagine, and glutamate will be mobilized preferentially. (deepdyve.com)
  • We found a conserved regulatory association of GlnR with glutamine synthetase ( glnRA operon), and the transport of ammonium ( amtB-glnK ) and glutamine/glutamate (i.e. via glnQHMP , glnPHQ , gltT , alsT ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The light subunit xCT dimerises with the heavy subunit 4F2hc and the role of the xCT-4F2hc heterodimer, also known as system Xc-, is to couple the release of one molecule of intracellular glutamate to the uptake of one molecule of extracellular cystine (2). (novusbio.com)
  • Moreover, intracellular amino acids per se are insufficient to elicit TOR signaling. (bioone.org)
  • abstract = "Adenosine caused a 2.5-fold increase in the sodium-dependent uptake of 2-aminoisobutyric acid in rat hepatocytes in primary culture following incubation for 3h. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "The fete-placental unit relies on a maternal supply of indispensable amino acids and iodothyronines for early development and normal growth. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The accumulation by synaptosomal fractions from rat central nervous system tissue of transmitter candidate amino acids and non‐candidate amino acids was studied with respect to ionic requirements, metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and ontogeny. (elsevier.com)
  • No potent inhibitors of l‐glutamic acid accumulation were found among several structural analogues or derivatives. (elsevier.com)
  • Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
  • l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
  • Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
  • When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
  • Addition of a fivefold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. (umn.edu)
  • For tryptophan to be catabolized by IDO, it must first enter the APC via transmembrane transport. (elsevier.com)
  • Note: Tryptophan and Phenylalanine are amino acids commonly found in protein-rich foods such a meat, nuts, and legumes. (amazonaws.com)
  • Taylor, Peter M. . / Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta . (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Ritchie, JWA & Taylor, PM 2001, ' Role of the System L permease LAT1 in amino acid and iodothyronine transport in placenta ', Biochemical Journal , vol. 356, no. 3, pp. 719-725. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The effect of ethanol on the transport of amino acids across the human placenta was studied in the dual perfusion apparatus using a non-metabolizable α-amino isobutyric acid (AIB). (scirp.org)
  • The primary role of the placenta is to transport nutrients to the fetus and to remove toxic wastes from the fetus. (scirp.org)
  • Ethyl alcohol or ethanol is a teratogen readily transported across the placenta. (scirp.org)
  • Although qualitative and quantitative differences probably exist between placentas at different stages of pregnancy, the term placenta (which is one of the rare human organs readily available for the in vitro study) can serve as a valid tool for the study of nutrient transport [11], as long as experiments are done carefully. (scirp.org)
  • Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the placenta with its nutrient transport functions is increasingly seen as being the mediator of maternal nutrition effects on the lifelong health consequences for the child [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • System ASC preferentially transports alanine, serine, and cysteine but also recognizes other aliphatic amino acids ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • following uptake the cystine is converted to cysteine, an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (novusbio.com)
  • The cysteine is subsequently transported in to neurons, where it supports glutathione production. (novusbio.com)
  • Uptake of [ 203 Hg]MeHg by astrocytes exhibited the kinetic criteria of a specific transport system when added to the media as the l-cysteine conjugate. (elsevier.com)
  • Cysteine-mediated uptake of MeHg was inhibited by the coadministration of l-methionine, and 2-aminobicyclo-[2,2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid. (elsevier.com)
  • 2-Methylaminoisobutyric acid was ineffective in inhibiting the uptake of the MeHg-cysteine conjugate. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate the presence in astrocytes of a neutral amino acid carrier transport System L, capable of selectively mediating cysteine-MeHg uptake. (elsevier.com)
  • The three amino acids comprising glutathione are glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. (asnjournals.org)
  • Serine is a precursor of the nonessential amino acids glycine and cysteine. (rupress.org)
  • In the larval midgut, K+ is actively secreted into the lumen through the concerted action of an apical H+ V-ATPase and an apical K+/2H+ antiporter, thereby providing the driving force for absorption of amino acids. (biologists.org)
  • Whereas minerals typically passively diffuse across the gut wall, an this active transport system increases absorption of amino acids and any substances they are bound with. (livestrong.com)
  • All four permeases are transcriptionally induced by an extracellular amino acid, but differ in expression with respect to the nitrogen source. (nih.gov)
  • Gap1p is therefore thought to function as a high capacity scavenger of amino acids for use as a source of nitrogen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Frommer, Wolf B. 2002-03-01 00:00:00 Amides and acidic amino acids represent the major long distance transport forms of organic nitrogen. (deepdyve.com)
  • The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino acids. (umn.edu)
  • Much of the change in Gap1p activity in response to amino acid abundance is due to regulated alternative trafficking patterns of Gap1p in the secretory pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mechanisms that independently control or modulate Ure2p in response to ammonium and Nil2p activity in response to amino acids have not been elucidated. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we investigated PGB transport in rats, mammalian cell lines, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sialic acid supplementation ameliorates puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Continuous 24-h nicotinic acid infusion in rats causes FFA rebound and insulin resistance by altering gene expression and basal lipolysis in adipose tissue Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (usc.edu)
  • As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • however, the primary determinant of fetal growth is nutrient supply, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Maternal diet and obesity impact fuels, hormones, and inflammation with powerful effects on fetal metabolic systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Fetal growth is largely determined by nutrient supply, which is dependent upon placental nutrient transport. (hindawi.com)
  • This suggests that changes in placental nutrient transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Transports most neutral short chain amino acids electrogenically. (tcdb.org)
  • Synthesis of syn- and anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-cyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FMACBC), potential PET ligands for tumor detection. (harvard.edu)
  • The function of system A was monitored by the transport of α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β- N -methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • The Na-dependent alanine/α-(methylamino) isobutyric acid-transporting system A, ATA3 or SNAT4. (tcdb.org)
  • Amino acids are transported into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by both general and specific transport systems. (asm.org)
  • For l‐glutamic and l‐aspartic acids in cortex and spinal cord and glycine in spinal cord a stringent sodium requirement for high affinity uptake was demonstrated. (elsevier.com)
  • Developmental studies revealed GABA and l‐glutamic acid to have absolute sodium requirements for cortical synaptosomal accumulation from the 16th gestational day through adulthood, with glycine accumulation showing a decreasing sodium requirement as maturation proceeded over this period. (elsevier.com)
  • Larimore, FS & Roon, RJ 1978, ' Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ', Biochemistry , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 431-436. (umn.edu)
  • By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
  • The physiological importance of the arrangement of low-affinity and high-affinity transport systems along the kidney proximal tubule is discussed. (biochemj.org)
  • Several studies have shown that the cRNA of human, rabbit, or rat rBAT induces in Xenopus oocytes sodium-independent, high affinity uptake of L-cystine via a system b0,(+)-like amino acid exchanger. (uzh.ch)
  • The effect on system A activity was associated with a decrease in the maximal velocity of the transport system without affecting the substrate affinity. (elsevier.com)
  • The differential affinity of PGB and GBP at L-type system leads to more concentrative accumulation of PGB than GBP, which may facilitate PGB transmembrane absorption in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This property is due to an overall higher affinity of AAP6 for neutral and acidic amino acids. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus AAP6 may serve a different role either in cooperating with the lower affinity systems to acquire amino acids in the low concentration range, as a system responsible for aspartate transport or as an uptake system from the xylem. (deepdyve.com)
  • The majority of other AAP family members are low-capacity, high-affinity amino acid permeases, each exhibiting characteristic narrow substrate specificities ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Uncharged forms of acidic and basic amino acids are cotransported with one proton. (deepdyve.com)
  • In vivo competition shows that the capability to transport basic amino acids in planta might be overruled by excess amides and acidic amino acids in the apoplasm. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, subunit b o,+ AT by itself is sufficient to catalyse transmembrane amino acid exchange. (embopress.org)
  • rBAT-b(0,+)AT heterodimer is the main apical reabsorption system for cystine in the kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These early in vivo observations suggest that these two drugs may have important differences with respect to transport. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition to K+, Na+ can also be coupled to amino acid uptake at lower pH, but the Na+/K+ ratio of the hemolymph is so low that K+ is probably the major coupling ion in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Mouse blastocyst outgrowth in vitro and probably implantation in vivo require amino acid signaling via the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway. (bioone.org)
  • Multiple hormones increase System A function acutely through changes in the driving force for transport as well as through longer-term changes in gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • The availability of both a positive selection technique and an extensive nutritional screening system has enabled the identification of fourteen spontaneous deletion mutations, recognized as extending into the prn B gene, specifying the principal L-proline permease, and into at least one other prn gene. (cambridge.org)
  • Effects of nicotinic acid on gene expression: potential mechanisms and implications for wanted and unwanted effects of the lipid-lowering drug J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (usc.edu)
  • Ssy1p is a unique member of the amino acid permease gene family, and Ptr3p is predicted to be a hydrophilic protein that lacks known functional homologs. (asm.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acid Transport System L" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • We show that trafficking of mutant Gap1p(A297V), which does not transport basic amino acids, is also not regulated by these amino acids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Six amino acid permeases (AAPs) from Arabidopsis mediating transport of a wide spectrum of amino acids were isolated. (deepdyve.com)
  • Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. (uzh.ch)
  • Transfection with rBAT antisense, but not with rBAT sense, resulted in the specific reduction of rBAT mRNA expression and b0,(+)-like transport activity. (uzh.ch)
  • Combined walking exercise and alkali therapy in patients with CKD4-5 regulates intramuscular free amino acid pools and ubiquitin E3 ligase expression. (nih.gov)
  • System A and L amino acid transport and SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4 isoform expression was measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS In the absence of insulin, gAd stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, SNAT2 protein expression, and system A activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • fAd alone had no effect on system A activity or SNAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin increased AKT and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When combined with insulin, gAd did not affect system A activity or SNAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, fAd abolished insulin-stimulated AKT Thr308 and IRS-1 Tyr612 phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • rBAT was essential for the cell surface expression of b o,+ AT, but it was not required for reconstituted b o,+ AT transport activity. (embopress.org)
  • As an amino acid, taurine can enhance absorption of magnesium due to the active transport systems that exist for these compounds. (livestrong.com)