Amino Acid Transport System y+LAmino Acid Transport System y+Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acids, DiaminoLeucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates leucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 220.127.116.11.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Dicarboxylic AcidsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Renal Aminoacidurias: A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ... Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen. ...
Peptide and amino acid uptake. Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. Enteropeptidase ( ... Galactose uses the same transport system. Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using ... Histology image: 11706loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Digestive System: Alimentary Canal - jejunum, ... This typically occurs through active transport.. *Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase ...
Serotonin is synthesized from an amino acid called L-tryptophan. Active transport system regulates the uptake of tryptophan ... The same motif can be found in reboxetine where it is constrained in a morpholine ring system. Some studies have been made ... 150 mg/day), it acts on serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, whereas at high doses (>300 mg/day), it also affects ... Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ...
Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, hence the name "-thionein". However, the participation of inorganic sulfide and ... Metallothioneins likely participate in the uptake, transport, and regulation of zinc in biological systems. Mammalian MT binds ... In this way the thionein-metallothionein becomes a key component of the zinc signaling system in cells. This system is ... of its constituent amino acid residues. MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding ...
The plants are slowly starved of these amino acids and eventually DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and ... They are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein ... ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis. ... Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. ...
"Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N". EMBO Journal. 20 (24): 7041-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Since Systems A are electrogenic which Systems N are not, the amino acid:cation stoichiometries may differ. Fischer, WN; Loo, ... "Low and high affinity amino acid H+-cotransporters for cellular import of neutral and charged amino acids". Plant Journal. 29 ( ... Six AAAPs in A. thaliana are well characterized and transport neutral and charged amino acids with varying specificities and ...
P. aeruginosa contain 13 RND transport systems, including one HME-RND and the remaining HAE-RNDs. Among the best identified are ... RND proteins are large and can include more than 1000 amino acid residues. They are generally composed of two homologous ... Most of the RND superfamily transport systems are made of large polypeptide chains. RND proteins exist primarily in gram- ... The RND protein dictates the substrate for the completed transport systems including: metal ions, xenobiotics or drugs. ...
In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ... Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. It is a white solid that ... This transport system, which is highly specific for cystine and glutamate, increases the concentration of cystine inside the ... The presence of cystine in urine is often indicative of amino acid reabsorption defects. Cystinuria has been reported to occur ...
Amino acid synthesis. Chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur- ... Chloroplasts can pump K+ and H+ ions in and out of themselves using a poorly understood light-driven transport system. ... Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune ... Chloroplasts synthesize all the fatty acids in a plant cell-linoleic acid, a fatty acid, is a precursor to jasmonate. ...
The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and provide electron transport system for the production of ... the genomic cooperation between bacterium and host in the synthesis of essential amino acids is heavily influenced by multiple ... complete metabolic pathways for the biosysnthesis of amino acids, lipids and nucleotides, that are absent in the bacterium. ...
... is a member of a heterodimeric Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system highly specific for cystine and ... the amino acid transport activity system xc-". Pflugers Archiv. 442 (2): 286-96. doi:10.1007/s004240100537. PMID 11417227. ... the light chain of amino acid transport system xc-". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2 (4): 665-71. doi:10.1089/ars.2000.2.4- ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11". Lutgen V, Resch J, ...
... encodes a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. The predicted amino acid sequence shows ... The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. KPNA3 ... Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA3, ... The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ...
Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ (2006). "Cortisol stimulates system A amino acid transport and SNAT2 expression in a ... "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is ... 2006). "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic ... 2006). "Characterization of the amino acid response element within the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 ( ...
... is a member of the system y+ family of transporters characterized by sodium-independent transport of cationic amino acids.[ ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A3 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3". Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, ... Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 ... Ito K, Groudine M (1997). "A new member of the cationic amino acid transporter family is preferentially expressed in adult ...
"Characterization of an N-system amino acid transporter expressed in retina and its involvement in glutamine transport". J. Biol ... Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC38A1 gene. Amino acid ... 2007). "Activation of a system A amino acid transporter, ATA1/SLC38A1, in human hepatocellular carcinoma and preneoplastic ... a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 273 (3): 1175-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
"Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder". J. ... SLC6A19 is a system B(0) transporter that mediates epithelial resorption of neutral amino acids across the apical membrane in ... Solute carrier family 6 member 19 also known as the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 or system B(0) ... Bröer S (January 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiol. Rev. 88 (1): 249-286. ...
... via the bile acid transport system, where most is stored; though some remains in the blood stream and may contaminate tissue. ... Microcystins contain several uncommon non-proteinogenic amino acids such as dehydroalanine derivatives and the uncommon β-amino ... The impact of exposure to microcystin by patients with a compromised immune system is not yet fully known, but is starting to ... Some evidence shows the toxin can be transported by irrigation into the food chain, Microcystins are chemically stable over a ...
... but often the various transport systems can handle unnatural amino acids with apolar side-chains. In the second case, a ... while the added amino acids are called non-standard amino acids (NSAAs), or unnatural amino acids (uAAs; term not used in ... or non-canonical amino acids. The first element of the system is the amino acid that is added to the genetic code of a certain ... An amino acid auxotrophic expression host is supplemented with an amino acid analog during target protein expression. This ...
Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. Other hormones, including steroid and ... Peptides composed of scores or hundreds of amino acids are referred to as proteins. Examples of protein hormones include ... Vertebrate hormones fall into three main chemical classes: Amino acid derived - Examples include melatonin and thyroxine. ...
Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and ... However, there is a possibility that two human-specific "fixed" amino acid substitutions, D71G in GRIN3A and R727H in GRIN3B, ... Weaver CD, Gundersen V, Verdoorn TA (January 1998). "A high affinity glutamate/aspartate transport system in pancreatic islets ... Meldrum B (1993). "Amino acids as dietary excitotoxins: a contribution to understanding neurodegenerative disorders". Brain Res ...
Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by ... Female endocrine system. Male endocrine system Endocrine disease Endocrinology Exocrine gland Neuroendocrinology Nervous system ... The human endocrine system consists of several systems that operate via feedback loops. Several important feedback systems are ...
The amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 15% between ParM and other actin-like ATPase. The mechanism of partition ... The net result being transport of partition complex to the cell pole. The partition system of the plasmid R388 has been found ... Amino-acid sequence identity can go down to 21% for TubZ proteins. The mechanism is similar to a treadmill mechanism: Multiple ... This system has been proposed to be the type IV partition system. It is thought to be a derivative of the type I partition ...
This transport system normally removes cysteine from the fluid destined to become urine and returns this essential amino acid ... such as glucose or amino acids. When the lipid bilayer is impermeable to the molecule needing transport, active transport is ... Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) EAAT1 EAAT2 EAAT3 EAAT4 EAAT5 Glucose transporter Monoamine transporters, including ... Unlike channel proteins which only transport substances through membranes passively, carrier proteins can transport ions and ...
The transport mechanism for tryptophan is shared with the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation on the exercise-induced change in plasma and muscle concentration of amino acids in ... Branch-chained amino acid supplementation has proven to have little to no effect on performance. There has been little success ... Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise. In ...
Kudo Y, Boyd CA (August 2002). "Changes in expression and function of syncytin and its receptor, amino acid transport system B( ... Neutral amino acid transporter B(0) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A5 gene. Glutamate transporter Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLC1A5 solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5". Tailor CS, Nouri A, Zhao Y, Takeuchi Y ... Uchiyama T, Matsuda Y, Wada M, Takahashi S, Fujita T (April 2005). "Functional regulation of Na+-dependent neutral amino acid ...
... rich in hydroxylated amino acids such as serine, threonine, and proline, and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence. They can be from 20-150 amino acids ...
Amino acid transport systems, Amino acids diamino, Mutation, Sulphydryl compounds, urine, Cystine, Carrier proteins, Cystinuria ... The genetic basis of the disorder is best characterized in humans and is caused by mutations in one of the amino acid ... which results in hyperexcretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids in the urine and subsequent precipitation of cystine due ... in French and English Bulldogs that affect nonconserved amino acid residues, arguing against functional impact on the proteins ...
Classical amino acid transport System A accounts for most of the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. ... unlike System ASC, System L does not depend on Na+. Thus, two of the three general amino acid transport systems mediate ... Amino acid transport System A resembles System N in sequence but differs in mechanism. Richard J. Reimer, Farrukh A. Chaudhry, ... Transport mediated by SA1 is also electrogenic. Amino acid transport Systems A and N thus appear closely related in function as ...
... is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a ... xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System. Fri, 09/06/2013 - 13:53 ... Home » xCT: Amino Acid Transport and Disorders of the Central Nervous System ... an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The cysteine is subsequently transported ...
What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid transport systems, neutral as a finance term. What does ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean in finance? ... Definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral financial definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral https://financial- ... redirected from Amino acid transport systems, neutral). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. neutral. ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport system xc- in human SNB19 cells assessed as [3H]L-glutamate uptake at 500 uM by liquid ...
The rBAT gene is responsible for L-cystine uptake via the b0,(+)-like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular ... like amino acid transport system in a "renal proximal tubular" cell line (OK cells). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271(18): ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ... We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger ...
Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems. U ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ... Renal transport of neutral amino acids. Tubular localization of Na+-dependent phenylalanine- and glucose-transport systems ...
The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... "The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ... The general amino acid transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the uptake of neutral, basic, and acidic amino ...
Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. In: Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 ; Vol. 110, No. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Journal of Biochemistry. 1991 Jul;110(1):9-11. ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Hiroyuki Fukui, Hiroyuki ... Adenosine induces system A amino acid transport in cultured rat hepatocytes. / Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, ...
... ... chemiosmotic coupling hypothesis has been proposed as a model for the coupling of energy metabolism with amino acid transport ... Although this model has been extensively studied in procaryotic systems, it has not been well characterized in eucaryotic ... systems. Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts ...
Jones, C. R., Srinivas, S. R., Devoe, L. D., Ganapathy, V., & Prasad, P. D. (2002). Inhibition of system A amino acid transport ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. American journal of obstetrics ... Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ethanol in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells. / Jones, Chandra R.; Srinivas, ... Jones, CR, Srinivas, SR, Devoe, LD, Ganapathy, V & Prasad, PD 2002, Inhibition of system A amino acid transport activity by ...
Amino acid transport systems, neutral explanation free. What is Amino acid transport systems, neutral? Meaning of Amino acid ... transport systems, neutral medical term. What does Amino acid transport systems, neutral mean? ... Looking for online definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral in the Medical Dictionary? ... Amino acid transport systems, neutral , definition of Amino acid transport systems, neutral by Medical dictionary https:// ...
A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content ... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L Chloé C Feral 1 , Floriane S Tissot 1 , Lionel Tosello 1 , Nicolas ... relation to genotype and amino acid transport system L Chloé C Feral et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017 May. . ... Fluorine-18 labeled amino acids for tumor PET/CT imaging. Qi Y, Liu X, Li J, Yao H, Yuan S. Qi Y, et al. Oncotarget. 2017 Aug 4 ...
Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive defect in reabsorptive transport of cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, ... Amino acid transport system. Localization in proximal converted tubule. S3. S1, S2 ... Cloning and chromosomal localization of a human kidney cDNA involved in cystine, dibasic, and neutral amino acid transport. J ... Amino acid metabolism in cystinuria. Q J Med New Series. 1974. 214:507-12. ...
series parallel diagram single cell analysis of kynurenine and system l amino acid transport in t cells nature communications. ... Piezo Controllers Drivers For Nanopositioning Systems Series Parallel Diagram Position Control Electronics Optimizes System ...
We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in ... N2 - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... AB - We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ... abstract = "We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a ...
Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. ... Cloning and functional characterization of a new subtype of the amino acid transport system N. Together they form a unique ...
... a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus. Genetic ... Furthermore, two efflux pump family proteins encoded by USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II ... encodes a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein), USA300HOU_RS03535 and USA300HOU_Tet(K), each into ... and branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein, Na/Pi cotransporter family protein in Staphylococcus aureus ...
... and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture … ... All known amino-acid permeases (AAPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a single family of homologous proteins. Genes of 15 ... Amino Acid Transport Systems * Amino Acids / metabolism* * Amino Acids / pharmacokinetics * DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics ... Radiolabelled amino-acid uptake measurements showed that Agp1p is a general permease for most uncharged amino acids (Ala, Gly, ...
... in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly ... Vesicular Transport Proteins* * gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism* Substances * Amino Acid Transport Systems ... in the vertebrate nervous system. The process by which developing neurons select between these two cell fates is poorly ... Gad1/2 and Viaat that regulate GABA synthesis and transport, and the kainate receptors Grik2/3. Third, ectopic expression of ...
AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS : THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ... AMINO ACIDS AS CENTRAL NERVOUS TRANSMITTERS: THE INFLUENCE OF IONS, AMINO ACID ANALOGUES, AND ONTOGENY ON TRANSPORT SYSTEMS for ...
Double mutants deficient in transport of both these amino acids still possess the general amino acid transport system, a third ... system which was described previously. Evidence for additional amino acid transport systems in Chlorella is discussed. ... Six amino acids are transported at high rates across the plasmalemma of Chlorella vulgaris only after the induction of two ... List of Publication » Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence ...
branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein Aromatic compound transport protein 1076 ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 4 3UKJ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein 1076 7 4EYQ 1 A Extracellular ligand-binding ... Putative branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein UNP residues 27-385 1076 ...
Amino acid transport system xc xCT antibody. *Amino acid transport system xc- ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11 ... Solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 ...
1990) The identification of neutral amino acid transport systems. Exp Physiol 75(1):3-26. ... The 2-amino-4-methyl-3-cyanato-5-thiophenecarboxylate ethyl ester was obtained from Life Chemicals. Cyanoacetic acid was ... The genetic evidence pointing to the importance of the amino acid serine in tumorigenesis is striking. The gene encoding the ... At the cellular level, serine can be imported from the extracellular space via amino acid transporters (6, 7). Alternatively, ...
ProteinsTransporterProteinSubstratesTryptophanCellsFingerprintGlutamineAnaloguesExtracellular amino acidsCationic amino acidsConcentrationsGeneral amino-acid permeaseRatsGlutamateSpecificityGlycineMetabolicHigh affinitySaccharomycesCharacterizationCell membranesPlacentaPathwaysMechanismsNeutral amino acid transportHeteromericMethylaminoTransporters playMammalian aminoEssential aminoNeuronsInsulinPlacentalNutrientMolecularStarvationBrain interstitialInduces systemMoleculesSubtypeGene expressionAffinityNucleic AcidsMechanism
- Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
- We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that belongs to a family of mammalian proteins originally defined by a neurotransmitter transporter. (pnas.org)
- All known amino-acid permeases (AAPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a single family of homologous proteins. (nih.gov)
- Under these conditions, the expression of SNAT2 gene is induced and newly synthesized SNAT2 proteins are preferentially targeted to the cell membrane, leading to a significant increase of system A transport Vmax. (biomedsearch.com)
- Peptidases in the glycocalyx cleave proteins to amino acids or small peptides. (wikipedia.org)
- The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins. (bireme.br)
- Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. (bireme.br)
- We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. (bireme.br)
- Placental amino acid ( 4 ) and GLUT activity ( 5 , 6 ) as well as the expression of fatty acid-binding proteins in the placenta ( 7 ) are increased in diabetes, suggesting that an upregulation of placental nutrient transport capacity may contribute to fetal overgrowth ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Several factors influence transport across the placenta: uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows, area available for exchange, placental metabolism, and activity/expression of specific transporter proteins in the placental barrier. (hindawi.com)
- A detailed characterization of these proteins has provided new information on transport characteristics and mechanisms for coupling to different inorganic ions. (biologists.org)
- The blooming H. akashiwo cells expressed more proteins related to external nutrient acquisition, such as bicarbonate transporter SLC4, ammonium transporter, nitrite transporter, and alkaline phosphatase, while the blooming P. donghaiense cells highly expressed proteins related to extra- and intracellular organic nutrient utilization, such as amino acid transporter, 5′-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase. (asm.org)
- Following attachment to the plant cell, the bacterial type IV secretion system (T4SS) is established by diverse Vir proteins to export the T-DNA strand into the host. (asm.org)
- Open reading frames downstream from seven of the newly identified DtxR binding sites are predicted to encode proteins associated with iron or heme transport. (asm.org)
- however, a mutation in one of the putative transport proteins, cdtP , resulted in reduced growth in iron-depleted media, which suggests that this system may have a role in iron uptake. (asm.org)
- Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. (hindawi.com)
- Many of the participating proteins have eukaryotic relatives and are successfully used as model systems for exploration of transporter structure and function. (deepdyve.com)
- The subunits are built from rRNA-molecules, constructed from nucleotides, and proteins, made from amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
- Examples of proteins are oxygen-transporting haemoglobin, hormones such as insulin and the antibodies of the immune system. (nobelprize.org)
- Proteins are built from 20 different kinds of amino acids which are linked together in long chains. (nobelprize.org)
- As a result of recent genome sequencing projects as well as detailed biochemical, molecular genetic and physiological experimentation on representative transport proteins, we have come to realize that all organisms possess an extensive but limited array of transport protein types that allow the uptake of nutrients and excretion of toxic substances. (antievolution.org)
- We have conducted bioinformatic analyses of integral membrane transport proteins belonging to dozens of families. (antievolution.org)
- These transport proteins are members of the conserved amino acid permease (AAP) gene family that includes 18 members ( 3 ). (asm.org)
- The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
- Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
- Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- We now report the isolation of a cDNA encoding System A that shows close similarity to the recently identified System N transporter (SN1). (pnas.org)
- The System A transporter (SA1) and SN1 share many functional characteristics, including a marked sensitivity to low pH, but, unlike SN1, SA1 does not mediate proton exchange. (pnas.org)
- Consistent with this sensitivity, we found that the System N transporter (SN1) mediates proton exchange as well as Na + cotransport ( 26 ). (pnas.org)
- xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. (novusbio.com)
- OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of ethanol on system A amino acid transporter in BeWo cells. (elsevier.com)
- System A activity in these cells is mediated exclusively by the system A subtype, amino acid transporter A2 (ATA2). (elsevier.com)
- L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. (abcam.com)
- The role of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 in cell volume regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
- Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
- We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
- Anti-tumor effects of an antagonistic mAb against the ASCT2 amino acid transporter on KRAS-mutated human colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
- Anti-tumor effects of mAb against L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) bound to human and monkey LAT1 with dual avidity modes. (nih.gov)
- Aromatic amino acid auxotrophs constructed by recombinant marker exchange in Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 cells expressing the aroP-encoded transporter of Escherichia coli. (bireme.br)
- The procedure begins with the Mu-driven integration of the Escherichia coli gene aroP, which encodes the common aromatic amino acid transporter, into the genome of M. methylotrophus. (bireme.br)
- Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422 , which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (asm.org)
- The selectivity of the nontransported inhibitors 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid for, respectively, PAT1 and the H + -coupled di/tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15A1) were examined. (aspetjournals.org)
- Sloan JL, Mager S. Cloning and functional expression of a human Na(+) and Cl(-)-dependent neutraland cationic amino acid transporter B(0+).J Biol Chem. (tcdb.org)
- The open reading frame encodes a 642-amino acid protein named amino acid transporter B(0+). (tcdb.org)
- Thus, hATB(0+) is the first cloned B(0+) amino acid transporter. (tcdb.org)
- Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression of porcine y+L amino acid Transporter-1. (semanticscholar.org)
- Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). (semanticscholar.org)
- So far, transporter IVIVE of hepatocyte data generally does not account for any potential differences in the transporter expression between the tissue and the actual cellular system used, which may contribute to this underprediction trend observed. (aspetjournals.org)
- "Transcriptional control of the human sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter system A gene by amino acid availability is mediated by an intronic element. (tcdb.org)
- "Immunohistochemical localization of the amino acid transporter SNAT2 in the rat brain. (tcdb.org)
- "Amino acid starvation induces the SNAT2 neutral amino acid transporter by a mechanism that involves eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation and cap-independent translation. (tcdb.org)
- "Localization of the Na(+)-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in the cerebral cortex. (tcdb.org)
- Mutations in these genes cause the nitrogen-regulated general amino acid permease gene ( GAP1 ) to be abnormally expressed and block the nonspecific induction of arginase ( CAR1 ) and the peptide transporter ( PTR2 ). (asm.org)
- Because System A also catalyzes Na + -dependent amino acid transport sensitive to low pH, we considered that the protein(s) responsible might belong to the same family as VGAT and, in particular, SN1. (pnas.org)
- To demonstrate that the rBAT protein is functionally related to this transport activity, we have transfected OK cells with human rBAT antisense and sense sequences. (uzh.ch)
- In contrast, the chronic phase is associated with an induction of ata2 gene expression as evidenced from the increase in the steady-state levels of ATA2 mRNA, restoration of the intracellular pool of ATA2 protein, and blockade of the induction by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The increase in system A activity induced by amino acid starvation is blocked specifically by system A substrates, including the non-metabolizable α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. (elsevier.com)
- RT-qPCR analysis and the in vitro overexpression experiments indicated that USA300HOU_RS00550 (an Na/Pi cotransporter family protein) and USA300HOU_RS01625 (a branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier protein) contributed to Erava heteroresistance in S. aureus . (biomedcentral.com)
- Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. (bireme.br)
- The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. (bireme.br)
- RESULTS In the absence of insulin, gAd stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, SNAT2 protein expression, and system A activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β- N -methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. (mdpi.com)
- For instance, BMAA is a small non-protein amino acid that appears to be synthesized by the entire cyanobacterial phylum [ 5 , 6 ], suggesting that BMAA is a fundamental cellular metabolite in cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
- Note: Tryptophan and Phenylalanine are amino acids commonly found in protein-rich foods such a meat, nuts, and legumes. (amazonaws.com)
- The heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a type II glycoprotein and a non‐glycosylated polytopic membrane protein. (embopress.org)
- Plasma concentrations of amino acids are frequently elevated in insulin-resistant states, and a protein-enriched diet can impair glucose metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Plasma concentrations of alanine and particularly branched-chain amino acids (AAs) are elevated in insulin-resistant states such as obesity ( 1 , 2 ), and high dietary protein intake impairs glucose metabolism mainly by changing the utilization of gluconeogenic precursors ( 3 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Identification and functional analysis of fructosyl amino acid-binding protein from Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter sp. (semanticscholar.org)
- Characterization of the binding protein-dependent cellobiose and cellotriose transport system of the cellulose degrader Streptomyces reticuli. (semanticscholar.org)
- A protein chain can consist of anything from ten to tens of thousands of amino acids. (nobelprize.org)
- Some antibiotics inhibit the monitoring mechanism of the molecular ruler (see illustration above), others hinder the formation of the connection between amino acids or block the tunnel through which the emerging protein chain leaves the ribosome. (nobelprize.org)
- Induction of AGP1 by amino acids also requires Grr1p, the F-box protein of the SCF Grr1 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex also required for transduction of the glucose signal generated by the Snf3p and Rgt2p glucose sensors. (asm.org)
- The essential role of Grr1p in this amino acid signaling pathway lends further support to the hypothesis that this protein participates in integrating nutrient availability with the cell cycle. (asm.org)
- Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 16. (whsmith.co.uk)
- "Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. (tcdb.org)
- Phylogenetic characterization of novel transport protein families revealed by genome analyses. (antievolution.org)
- Tracing pathways of transport protein evolution. (antievolution.org)
- Ssy1p is a unique member of the amino acid permease gene family, and Ptr3p is predicted to be a hydrophilic protein that lacks known functional homologs. (asm.org)
- Subcellular fractionation experiments reveal that both Ssy1p and Ptr3p are localized to the plasma membrane (PM). Ssy1p requires the endoplasmic reticulum protein Shr3p, the amino acid permease-specific packaging chaperonin, to reach the PM, whereas Ptr3p does not. (asm.org)
- As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly energized, system A substrates, such as glutamine, glycine, proline and alanine, reach high transmembrane gradients and constitute major components of the intracellular amino acid pool. (biomedsearch.com)
- For less permeable substrates the placenta possesses both passive and active transport mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
- Changes in energy availability or ion gradients can profoundly influence net transfer of substrates transported by active mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
- b o,+ AT‐reconstituted systems from HeLa or MDCK cells catalysed transport of arginine that was totally dependent on the presence of one of the b o,+ substrates inside the liposomes. (embopress.org)
- At the cellular level, availability of substrates for energy production, such as AAs and free fatty acids (FFAs), may play an important role in modulating the response to insulin ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- It also mediates an anion leak conductance that is differentially inhibited by transported substrates ( Zhang and Grewer, 2007 ). (tcdb.org)
- l-Tryptophan, which is transported exclusively by the general transport system, was used as a substrate. (umn.edu)
- In the presence of glucose as an energy source, NCAO inhibited tryptophan transport competitively (Ki=80 μM) during short time intervals (1-2 min), but adding 100 μM NCAO to a yeast cell suspension resulted in a time-dependent activation of tryptophan transport during the first 15 min of treatment. (umn.edu)
- Following the activation a time-dependent decay of tryptophan transport activity occurred. (umn.edu)
- When a yeast cell suspension was treated with NCAO in the absence of an energy source, an 80% inactivation of tryptophan transport occurred in 90 min. (umn.edu)
- Addition of a fivefold excess of L-lysine during NCAO treatment or prevented inactivation of tryptophan transport. (umn.edu)
- The amino-acids tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine seem to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. (nature.com)
- Both neurotransmitters are synthesized from aromatic amino-acids, i.e. serotonin from tryptophan, and noradrenalin from tyrosine or its precursor phenylalanine. (nature.com)
- Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
- A number of members of the medical profession have observed that high doses of the trace element selenium, and of the amino acids cysteine, tryptophan, and glutamine can together rapidly reverse the symptoms of AIDS, as predicted by Dr. Harold D. Foster's nutritional hypothesis. (newmediaexplorer.org)
- Poly(A)+ RNA from OK cells induced by system b0,(+)-like transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
- We have also examined transport of l-cystine in OK cells and found characteristics very similar to the amino acid exchanger activity induced by rBAT cRNA in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
- RESULTS: Treatment of BeWo cells with ethanol reduced the activity of system A. The effect was dose and treatment time dependent. (elsevier.com)
- Ethanol did not alter the messenger RNA levels for system A. CONCLUSION: Exposure of BeWo cells to ethanol significantly reduces the function of system A. This finding has potential implications that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. (elsevier.com)
- The other two known system A subtypes, ATA1 and ATA3, are not expressed in these cells. (elsevier.com)
- Exposure of these cells to an amino acid-free medium induces system A activity. (elsevier.com)
- Mutants for these transport systems were obtained after incubation of Chlorella cells in the presence of acridine orange or ethidium bromide, followed by a selection procedure using the toxic amino acid analogs l-canavanine (for l-arginine), and l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (for l-proline). (fau.de)
- These results demonstrate the pivotal role played by SNAT2 induction in the short-term hypertonic RVI and suggest that neutral amino acids behave as compatible osmolytes in hypertonically stressed cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- This effect appeared to be mediated by interleukin-6 release and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling because gAd failed to stimulate system A in cells in which STAT3 had been silenced using small interfering RNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Cells use several transport systems to take up folates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This is known as the most abundant amino acid that is present in a person's muscle cells. (archive.org)
- Ussing's definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular level, of the way in which ions and water are pumped into and out of living cells in order to regulate the ionic composition and water balance in cells, organs, and organisms. (britannica.com)
- Apart from its cation selectivity, it appears to be related to the amino acid transport system B previously characterized in vertebrate epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
- In the first, MSG moves through the incomplete (immature) blood-brain-barrier in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of the unborn and very young, and kills brain cells (neurons), causing permanent damage to the endocrine system that controls appetite. (truthinlabeling.org)
- The alteration of fas receptor and ligand system in hepatocellular carcinomas: How do hepatoma cells escape from the host immune surveillance in vivo ? (wiley.com)
- No system b o,+ transport was detected in liposomes derived from cells expressing rBAT alone. (embopress.org)
- In mammals, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) enters cells via Na+-dependent transporters SVCT1 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A1) and SVCT2 (solute carrier family 23 member 1, SLC23A2). (ebi.ac.uk)
- Vitamin C transport systems of mammalian cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
- These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
- More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The nitrogen-regulated permeases, the general AAP ( GAP1 [ 34 ]), and the proline-specific permease ( PUT4 [ 63 ]) are high-capacity systems that are induced by growth on low-quality nitrogen sources, their expression enables cells to use amino acids as sole nitrogen sources ( 14 , 27 , 45 ). (asm.org)
- In cells lacking SHR3 , AAPs specifically accumulate in the ER and are not transported to the plasma membrane (PM) ( 38 , 43 ). (asm.org)
- When taken in a form of capsule of tablet, L-glutamine can give protection to your muscles during rigorous workouts and can also enhance your immune system to make it more likely to increase muscle mass. (archive.org)
- Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. (biologists.org)
- Aspartic acid aminotransferase and asparagine synthase use glutamic acid and glutamine, respectively, as nitrogen donors to produce aspartic acid and asparagine. (biologists.org)
- It is the sole system that transports glutamate and glutamine, but it can also transport aspartate and asparagine ( Singh and Röhm 2008 ). (tcdb.org)
- The accumulation by synaptosomal fractions from rat central nervous system tissue of transmitter candidate amino acids and non‐candidate amino acids was studied with respect to ionic requirements, metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and ontogeny. (elsevier.com)
- No potent inhibitors of l‐glutamic acid accumulation were found among several structural analogues or derivatives. (elsevier.com)
- Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
- The resulting recombinant strain, with improved permeability to certain amino acids and their analogues, was used for mutagenesis. (bireme.br)
- System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
- Both Ssy1p and Ptr3p have previously been implicated in relaying signals regarding the presence of extracellular amino acids. (asm.org)
- These findings suggest that Ssy1p and Ptr3p function in the PM as components of a sensor of extracellular amino acids. (asm.org)
- Disease severity and SAH-related complications were not associated with amino-acid concentrations. (nature.com)
- Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. (mdpi.com)
- Hill PMM, Young M. Net placental transfer of free amino acids against varying concentrations. (springer.com)
- Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
- For example, in the central nervous system, glutamate transporters are critically important in maintaining the extracellular glutamate concentration below neurotoxic levels, and defects of the human D2 gene have been shown to account for the formation of kidney stones in patients with cystinuria. (biologists.org)
- Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. (mdpi.com)
- It was trans-stimulated by amino acids with the same specificity as rBAT-induced transport activity in oocytes. (uzh.ch)
- Genes of 15 AAPs were overexpressed in different strains, and the ability to take up one or more of the 20 common L-alpha-amino acids was studied in order to obtain a complete picture of the substrate specificity for these permeases. (nih.gov)
- Amino acids are taken up by different transport systems with overlapping substrate specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
- The inhibitory effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid were additive, demonstrating that both PAT1 and PepT1 contribute to intestinal transport of ALA. This is the first demonstration of overlap in substrate specificity between these distinct transporters for amino acids and dipeptides. (aspetjournals.org)
- We show here that SSY1 is required for transcriptional induction, in response to multiple amino acids, of the AGP1 gene encoding a low-affinity, broad-specificity amino acid permease. (asm.org)
- Developmental studies revealed GABA and l‐glutamic acid to have absolute sodium requirements for cortical synaptosomal accumulation from the 16th gestational day through adulthood, with glycine accumulation showing a decreasing sodium requirement as maturation proceeded over this period. (elsevier.com)
- Cyclic hexapeptide in its bioactive form with the integrin-binding tripeptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid: Green spheres represent carbon atoms, red oxygen atoms, blue nitrogen atoms and white hydrogen atoms. (eurekalert.org)
- A sequence of the three amino acids arginine, glycine and aspartic acid is the key to the docking at these receptors. (eurekalert.org)
- The volume further deals with the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological production of amino acids for use as pharmaceuticals and, particularly, as food and feed additives. (springer.com)
- Maternal diet and obesity impact fuels, hormones, and inflammation with powerful effects on fetal metabolic systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The acquired form of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) metabolic acidosis was first described in 1989 and its relationship to chronic acetaminophen ingestion was proposed the next year. (asnjournals.org)
- Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
- The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
- By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. (biochemj.org)
- The physiological importance of the arrangement of low-affinity and high-affinity transport systems along the kidney proximal tubule is discussed. (biochemj.org)
- The majority of other AAP family members are low-capacity, high-affinity amino acid permeases, each exhibiting characteristic narrow substrate specificities ( 31 ). (asm.org)
- Larimore, FS & Roon, RJ 1978, ' Possible Site-Specific Reagent for the General Amino Acid Transport System of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ', Biochemistry , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 431-436. (umn.edu)
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides an attractive model system for studying adhesion in yeast because of its well-characterized genetics and gene expression systems and the conservation of signal transduction pathways among the yeasts. (asm.org)
- The SSY1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a member of a large family of amino acid permeases. (asm.org)
- Amino acids are transported into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by both general and specific transport systems. (asm.org)
- Selection and characterization of chlorella mutants deficient in amino Acid transport : further evidence for three independent systems. (fau.de)
- The characterization of the control mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis has revealed insights into principles of genetic and biochemical regulation, such as transcriptional regulators and a new class of regulatory elements, the riboswitch. (springer.com)
- These heterodimers facilitate the transport of amino acids across cell membranes. (novusbio.com)
- Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
- frequently occurs by way of active transport within cell membranes, an excess of one nutrient (A) may inhibit absorption of a second nutrient (B), if they share the same absorption pathway. (britannica.com)
- Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, the placenta with its nutrient transport functions is increasingly seen as being the mediator of maternal nutrition effects on the lifelong health consequences for the child [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A wide range of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, phosphorus, and lactate) are transported across the placenta mediated by secondary active transport, utilizing energy provided by ion gradients such as sodium, chloride, and protons [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
- Animals that feed on nutritionally unbalanced resources such as phloem sap, which typically has sub-optimal amounts of essential amino acids, have evolved mechanisms for acquiring or synthesizing these amino acids. (biologists.org)
- The mechanisms that independently control or modulate Ure2p in response to ammonium and Nil2p activity in response to amino acids have not been elucidated. (asm.org)
- System-L amino acid transporters play a key role in pancreatic β-cell signalling and function. (nih.gov)
- This work has furthermore advanced our understanding of the roles these transporters play in amino acid homeostasis and in various pathologies. (biologists.org)
- Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporters play an important role in hepatic drug disposition. (aspetjournals.org)
- Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons mediate much of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, respectively, in the vertebrate nervous system. (nih.gov)
- The BBB endothelium together with the astrocytes and neurons are the fundamental elements of the neurovascular unit (NVU) system. (frontiersin.org)
- When combined with insulin, gAd did not affect system A activity or SNAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In contrast, fAd abolished insulin-stimulated AKT Thr308 and IRS-1 Tyr612 phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Ive been told by some people to add BCAA's and some insulin spiking amino acids to this shake. (exrx.net)
- We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates placental amino acid transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
- however, the primary determinant of fetal growth is nutrient supply, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Obesity in pregnancy ( 9 , 10 ) and gestational diabetes mellitus ( 11 ) are associated with low maternal circulating levels of adiponectin, but the impact of adiponectin on placental nutrient transport functions is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. (hindawi.com)
- These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
- Fetal growth is largely determined by nutrient supply, which is dependent upon placental nutrient transport. (hindawi.com)
- This suggests that changes in placental nutrient transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. (hindawi.com)
- We investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the adaptive regulation of the amino acid transport system A, a process in which amino acid starvation induces the transport activity. (elsevier.com)
- Molecular characteristics of mammalian and insect amino acid transporters: implications for amino acid homeostasis. (biologists.org)
- Using similar approaches, we are investigating the molecular characteristics of K(+)-coupled amino acid transporters in the larval lepidopteran insect midgut. (biologists.org)
- Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
- however, the molecular basis for this transport system is still unknown. (tcdb.org)
- Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen . (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. (hindawi.com)
- Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)